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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
...............DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).................................99 QUESTION TAGS ...........104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .............................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ......................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH.........104 GERUND .....................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ...................................................................................................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ......................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ....................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)...............................................................................................................................................................
Anecdote 9. analyzing the used structure in composing the text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. 2. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Hortatory Exposition 3. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Analytical Exposition 8. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Descriptive 10. 1. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. The language feature. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Review 7. why is the text made?. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Recount 6. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. These types of text are. Report 4. Explanation 2. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Procedure 12. Narrative 11. News Items 13. Spoof 5.
About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. Thirdly. In one hour in smoky room. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. the risk is nineteen greater. Argument Firstly. If you live in the city. and especially talk to someone. As we all know.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. or concentrate on your homework. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. cars create pollution. you may find it hard to sleep at night. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. it is better to look at the fact. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. cars are very noisy. the city is very busy. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Secondly. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. lung cancer. as we all know. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Reiteratio In conclusion. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Smoking however is not good for every body else. cars. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. which causes them to die. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Additionally. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.
paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. That wil be true if the conditions. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Furthermore.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. As the US. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. In this example of analytical exposition text. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments.
The students just need to brows that online shop. misalnya car. Penguatan pernyataan. • Thinking verbs. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. we. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. government. pollution. students need more to reach their progressive development. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. dsb • Modal verbs. misalnya firstly. • Abstract nouns. misalnya It is important. dsb. • Action verbs.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. drawing book. dsb. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. dsb. decide which computer or laptop they need. pen. in this multimedia era. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. misalnya certainly. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. misalnya Many people believe. and then complete the transaction. eraser. • Bahasa evaluatif. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion.dsb. dsb. dsb. students need book. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya we must preserve. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Secondly. • Technical verbs. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. dsb. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. misalnya species of animals. leaded petrol car. ruler and such other stuff. secondly. • Reiteration . Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. misalnya policy. First. • Modal adverbs. dsb. Additionally. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. misalnya She must save. this method will help student to get better understanding. misalnya C. • Relating verbs. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. • Connectives.
delivered to the students' houses. India is likely being an English speaking country. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. India translation will grow better and. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. According to Nida. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Arabic translation. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Career in Translation Functionally. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. From all of that. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. E. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. D. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. If Hindi translation is provided. It seems Indonesia. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. That is really easy and save time and money. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. Therefore.
Using action verb. 2. afterward 6. Using simple past tense 4. Incident. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. etc 2. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. go. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. For instance. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Crisis 4. because. write. then. listen to this 3. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Using conjunction of time. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Using exclamation words. Abstract 2. 3. Orientation 3. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. do you know what? 4. it's wonderful!. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Using imperative. Using rhetoric question. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . etc 5. it's awful!. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. etc • Causal conjunction .is inserted at the end of each article. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2.
wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. spitting and hissing at us. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. They had gotten afterwards. dsb. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. However few days before their departure. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. The doctor sewed up the boy. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. who was only three at the time.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. so we set to. there were being quarantined for long days. The family dreams were dashed. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. nine children. The family worked and saved. misalnya go. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. passport. Anna. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. America. seperti then. write. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. their children to America. enough money. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. whole business. and turned on the tap. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. dsb. He shed tears of disappointment.
• Description.Five days latter. 2. describing the phenomenon in parts. • Using simple present tense 4. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. or/and characteristics. there is something wrong last minute before it. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. had shank. the mighty Titanic. You have and so do I. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . The father was angry with his son and God. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. they were left behind. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. place. but because of the bitten son by a dog. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. or thing. identifying the phenomenon to be described. The Clak family should have been on that ship. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. When the father heard the news. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan. When the dream will come true. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. qualities. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. 3. The ship. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. He thanked God for saving their lives. They had dream to travel to America. It was a blessing behind a tragedy.
Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. She really have perfect appearance. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . a railway station is under construction. Example of Description A. in 2004. This year. Recently. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. Sydney. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. bright color. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She is beautiful. In three years1 time. When she are walking on that shoes. Today. In 1964. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. She is really mad on that shoes. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. She said that the products covered all genders. native plants and eucalypts.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. a grass amphitheatre. The style. This shoes really matches on her. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. She always pays much attention on her appearance. attractive and trendy. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. all her friends. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. yet retaining its beautiful site.
Central Java. The upper three are circular. Borobudur is well-known. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. valuable • Using simple present tense. B. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 .Budhist temple. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa.8 km of passage and starways. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Ballet. Borobudur temple • Description.The temple is constructed. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Indonesia. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Cambodia. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.she has. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Borobudur is located in Magelang. The products provide varieties of choice. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . casual.
sifat-sifat (characteristic). two strong legs. better or worse 3. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. 2. bersifat describing. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. • simple present tense. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. kualitas. classifying. My mum is realy cool. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. misalnya fast. numbering. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. • action verbs. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. misalnya. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed.my cat. dsb. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . dsb. dsb. dsb. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. dsb. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. sharp white fangs. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. Misalnya: I have many pets. White.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. Description. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. • berbagai macam adjectives. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. perilaku umum. It has very thick fur. but my favourite one is a cat. misalnya. misalnya teacher. dsb. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. a sweet young lady. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. house. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. enough money to take Snow White.
They were also rich and strong. There they found Snow White sleeping. One by one she discarded them. you may live here with us. “If you wish. one of the dwarfs. in what way she will decide who the best is. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. The dwarfs said. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . which she strikes against herself. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. The following day. They want to know what next will happen. The third sheik. had many suitors.” Snow White said. They went inside. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. Maura asked them for something to eat. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. “Without question. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. “Oh could I? Thank you. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. After dinner. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. said. Then Snow White woke up. Example of Narative A. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. She saw the dwarfs. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. One evening. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. “what is your name?” Snow White said. The first gave her some left over food. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. The psychological conflict inside Maura. “My name is Snow White.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. As they were about to have dinner. who received a plate of delicious meat.” Doc. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. who was called Hakim. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. Hakim. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail.
misalnya. I will cut the chicken 17 . Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. long black hair. two red apples. happily ever after.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. waktu. There was no other parrot like it. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. Penyelesaian masalah. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). the man really got very angry. before that. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. The parrot could say every word. Although he tried hard to teach. konflik dalam cerita. misalnya then.dsb. Pengenalan tokoh. He could not bear it. Masalah. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. The name of the place was Catano. the parrot would not say it. “You know. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. misalnya. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. Then he continued to humble. misalnya here. dsb. stayed. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. in the mountain. a man had a wonderful parrot. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. • action verbs dalam past tense. At the first. climbed. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. phrase. soon. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. housework. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. dsb. except one word. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Complication. stepsisters. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. dsb. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. Resolution. dsb.
In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. the man came back to the chicken house. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. They found their mother and talked her about it. there was a handsome man. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. To fix this problem. He felt in love with that fish-woman. There were three death chickens on the floor. It will show the crisis. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. After that he left the chicken house. C. rising crisis and climax of the story. 4 are describing the complication. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. At the moment. I will eat you too. the man attempted to teach the bird. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. He made the fish free. In that parrot story. They had two daughters. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. One day. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. he caught a fish. That was the smartest parrot.for my meal. As soon as it was free. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. The fish begged him to set it free. Next it will be your turn. stupid parrot”. paragraph 2. He liked fishing. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. A man and his parrot took place once time. They were married happily. readers see the problem is finished. The next day. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not control his mad. The daughters were crying. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. Batara Guru could not bear it. She attracted Batara Guru so much. In the parrot story. 3. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it.
She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. The two step sisters. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. “You must leave before midnight”. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. and it became a beautiful ball gown. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. such as scrubbing the floor. “Now. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. the day of the ball came. In the end. she was driven to the palace. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. on the other hand. In her hurry. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Cinderella?” a voice asked. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Then the earth began to shake. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. It fitted perfectly. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. The earth formed a very big hole. They were married and live happily ever after. A few days later. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. hardworking. and away went the sisters to it. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. People believed that the big hole became a lake. did not work about the house. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. one of her glass slipper was left behind. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Finally. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. One day. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. They treated Cinderella very badly. she said. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Magically. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. At last. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. “Well” said the godmother. “Why are crying. Volcanoes started to erupt. Batara Guru broke his promise. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. She danced again and again with the king’s son.The mother was very annoyed. D. The mother was shouting angrily. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. Cinderella”.
3. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. Resolution: Like complication. Complication: In this Cinderella story. In the last paragraph. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. “it at home”. Resolution. “Yes” said the man. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. Once there was a farmer from Laos. After the man went home. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. But the man answered. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. E. I can’t tell you”. once in Laos 2. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Every morning and every evening. Then he said. said the buffalo. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. The tiger asked. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. “oh. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Generic Structure Analysis 1. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. farmer and his buffalo. The Smartest Animal. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. “Can I see your intelligence?”. the man is very intelligent”. introducing specific participants. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Complication. One day. “No. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. Orientation. “you are so big and strong.
answered thinking verb. plate Method 1. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. there was a farmer. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. after. fork. saw. was surprised to action verb. once. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Goal: showing the purpose 2. one day connectives. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. 50 g cheese. spatula. ¼ cup milk.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. the next day past tense. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Cook both sides 9. bowl. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Add milk and whisk well 4. the man tied the tiger. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. hit time conjunction. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Place on a plate. cheese grater. tie. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English .
misalnya. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. put it. It should be in open area Next. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . put it in another big pot. excluded • Steps. Use regular words. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. dsb. Don’t mix. Firstly. firstly. dry. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. dsb. not features. put. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. etc • Temporal conjunction. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. dry a handful seeding. planting is a nice activity. Well. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. • action verbs. dsb. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. finally. Langkah-langkah. the following is a guided information B. cara yang akurat. but it will help. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. put the seeding on the soil. don’t. wait it. tempat. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Your customers don't care about you. Here's a simple checklist to follow. write your benefit like you talk it. informing on how to plant chillies. next. menyatakan rinci waktu. Example of Procedure A. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google.10. put. you don't have to. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. • Material. 2 centimetres from the top. Here are the steps. misalnya for five minutes. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. take the topic of benefits. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. Firstly. while. etc • Action verb. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Cut. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. misalnya turn. mix. misalnya then. Finally. Read aloud what you've written.
etc C. to make a cheese omelet. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. you need some tools. a pinch of satlt and pepper. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. Some sentences are long and some are short. Use a nice rhythm. informing on how to write for business • Material. firstly. read. you need an egg. Edit it necesarily. fifty gram cheese. Mix them up and keep things interesting. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through.re-read what you've done before publishing. secondly. bowl and plate. etc • Action verb. write like you talked. Fourthly. re-reading what have been written . Listen carefully.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. write. cheese grater. Fifthly. spatula. writing the topic like the way it is talked.Thirdly. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. such as. frying pan. First. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . choosing the advantageous topic. Next. etc • Temporal conjunction. lose the weak words. Next. add First. reread what you have done. showing the method in writing for business. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. fork. three tablespoons cookin oil. a quarter cup of milk. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Don't describe how your company may. excluded • Steps/ method.
a news report said. Main event 2. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. place) 3. Generic Structure of News Item 1. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. time. The accident. Using material process 4. Elaboration (background.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Resource of information 3. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. it’s up to them”. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. 2. “But this just a suggestion. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Example of Procedure A. Language Feature of News Item 1. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Focusing on circumstances 2. The events are considered newsworthy or important. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. participant. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 .
SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . even though they know they have HIV” she said. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. orang yang terlibat.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. komentar saksi kejadian. (Source The Jakarta Post. June 01. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. Background Events. but the number is steadily rising. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. Last year. The maid. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. many women who contract HIV are housewives. pendapat para ahli. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. In the past the event was held behind closed door. he said in the report. named Suwartin. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. tempat kejadian dsb. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. dsb. less then 10 percent are woman. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. Kejadian inti. Latar belakang kejadian. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Malaysian Aids Council president. Sources.
Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. She will be sentenced in two week’s time.Then the maid was arrested. Using material process.co. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. law of serious crimes. Background 2. Last year. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. carry. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. (Taken from: www. behead. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Rape. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. (Adapted from Reuters. Saudi Arabia. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. Hong Kong.bbc. Resource. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. May 6. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. She had relationship the boy for five months.news. the Saudi Interior Minister said. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Background 3. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. execute. Background 1.
This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. however. must. Example of Discussion Text A. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Sometimes homework is boring and not important.1. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. on the hand. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. hope. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. and social text. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. etc • Using adverbial of manner. contrastive. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. deliberately. historic. etc 4. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. doing homework is not a great idea. should. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . many times. may. etc • Using modalities. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. believe. But. etc • Using additive. 2. could. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. and causal connection. similarly. feel. hopefully.
so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. so it is not expansive to make. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. It is reliable. England in 1956. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . and produces huge amounts of energy. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It produces small amount of waste. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed.
In many social activities. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. believe. perception and recommendation. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. dsb. dsb. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. Gagasan Pokok 2. must. • adverbials of maner. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. Elaborasi (uraian). Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. Elaborasi (uraian). misalnya feel. on the hand. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen.On the other hand. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. should. although it is reliable. memberikan informasi secara padu. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. seperti perhaps. Furthermore. hope. misalnya deliberately. hopefully. Elaborasi (uraian). misalnya smoking is harmful. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. nuclear power is very. dsb. could 29 be. should have been. misalnya uniforms. This example of discussion text present the two poles. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. alcohol. dsb. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. misalnya similarly. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. very dangerous. dsb. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. . dsb. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. however. Kesimpulan. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. dsb.
Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. believe.bbc. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. 2. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Supporting point. Many farmer and even conservationists. Using connectives. B. Using modalities. must. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. conservationists. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Recommendation. hunting fox. Using thinking verb. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. scientific and cultural phenomena. social. geography and history text books. farmer. (Taken from: www. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Contrastive point. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. It is often found in science.co. however.
sun. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). next. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Example of Explanation Text A. Language Feature • • • • 4. Sequenced explanation. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. rain. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Featuring generic participant. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. etc Using chronological connection. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat.• • General statement. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. to begin with. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
passive voice. misalnya the large cloud. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . the amount of • bahasa teksni. misalnya word chopping. dunia ilmiah. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. simple present tense. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. adverbial phrases. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. (simplified from www. sosialbudaya. abstract nouns. Tsunami always bring great damage. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. noun phrase. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. earthquakes. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. The earth also moves around the sun. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. It causes day and night. But that is the case.panda. action verbs. This process is called revolution. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. Penjelasan proses • Penutup.org) B.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. complex sentences. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. conjunctions of time dan cause. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. It is called as rotation. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. It takes 365 days or a year. misalnya the temperature. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns.
Using thinking verb 5. important. Arguments 3. Recommendation 3. advantage. trustworthy.co. I feel that when you travel through the country.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. firstly. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. etc 3. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. etc 7. daylight. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Using evaluative words. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. secondly. Using action verb 4. you would be forgiven. so. Using chronological connection.ictteachers. Focusing on the writer 2. then. surely. (Taken from: www. but. certainly. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). policy. etc 8. etc 6. Using simple present tense 4. Using pasive voice. Thesis 2. Using present tense. Using abstract noun. Explanation. valuable. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Using temporal connective.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. 2. Using passive voice 9. Using modal adverb.
Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Those who want to penalise older . leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Considering some facts mentioning above.every five to ten minutes. Recomendatio I feel that country people. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. consumerism and so on. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Meanwhile. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. stress. pornography. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. especially violence. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. and short sleep duration. Recently. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. of course. and the possibility of being aggressive.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. However.
and napkin everywhere. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. speech campaign. In the first paragraph. and news advertorial. mineral water cops. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. Basically. B. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. More dust bins should be put beside each step. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. advertising. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much.the writer thought as stated in the text. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. Both take place as argumentative essays. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. In many social activities. school corridors and schoolyard. there papers. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . More Dust Bins is Cleaner. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. When we look at classroom. If it is a hortatory text. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. sales letter. straws. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known.
where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. So. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. the available time will be more flexible for them. As result. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. when they think about straightly seeking job. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. As the alternative method of studying. they will think hard about the time and cost. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. they can find the dust bins easily. So when students want to throw away their litters. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. it will be very hard to looking for job. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. When they think about continuing study. it will be quite confusing.meters. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Where should be after High School?. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. In the same way. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. In the other hand. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. C.
he drives a sport car. Action verbs. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Albert Smith is the proof. public place. reward Using action verb. Modal verbs. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. we must save. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. felt Using simple present tense. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too.dsb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. dsb. We can show the way to give up work. dsb. Generic Structure of Report 1. dsb. part per part . misalnya important. misalnya. make. dsb. dsb. misalnya We must preserve. as it is. misalnya certainly. Argument. etc Using thinking verb. now there is a way out. misalnya I believe . Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. dsb. Connectives. Recommendation. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well.D. misalnya species of animals. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. etc which will be discussed in general 2. doesn’t seem to have been .misalnya policy. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. dsb. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market.government dsb. plant. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. misalnya should be. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. secondly.we. Modal adverbs. Millions from Property Market. misalnya firstly. are you tired?. animal. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. valuable. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Thinking verbs. Relating verbs. there is a way out of financial problem. give up. Technical verbs. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif.
Platypus' eyes and head are small. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. As the bird lifts its head. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Example of Report Text A. and lakes. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. rivers. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. and woolly layer of fur. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Platypus lives in streams. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. the animal of platypus. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. A group. stating general classification. so. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Platypus. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. etc Using simple present tense 4. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . when. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore.• • Using conditional logical connection. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. In the other hand. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. perhaps two dozen birds. driving the fish before them. beating the water furiously with their wings.
dsb. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. kegunaannya jika non natural. male platypus does not need any burrow. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. the animal of platypus conditional. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. lingkungan. dsb. qualities. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). keterangan. dan klasifikasinya.Description. dsb. habits or behaviors. Platypus lives in streams. benda buatan manusia. dsb. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. dsb. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. atau gejala-gejala sosial. istilah teknis. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. misalnya. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. apa adanya. logical connective. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. in terms of parts. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . but. misalnya lizards cannot fly.
Generic Structure of Spoof 1.’ replied the man. Events 3. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Told in chronological order 4. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Dave found a nice office. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Orientation 2. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. animals or certain things 2. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. He bought some new furniture and moved in. 2. etc 3. ate. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Focusing on people. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. ‘ take him to the zoo’.1. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Using adverb of time and place 4. Using action verb. ran. Twist 3.
verbs. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Event 2: He had his new office. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. He had not left the country yet. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. I want you to leave the country. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. “Yes. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. no children. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. In his office. binatang. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. Then the man said to Dave. terduga atau lucu). B. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. He suddenly became a 1. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. Event 1: Being rich. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. Instead leaving the country. misalnya eat. benda tertentu. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. conversation on the phone. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. run. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). “Hey Abu Nawas. “If that is what you want. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. “You want me. Then “Remember. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian.
The play was very interesting. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers.In the end. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. look at you. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. young man and young woman. I have been walking on this stilts. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. I turned around again. The king was not able to say anything. They were talking very loudly. (Adapted from S.guards.I got very angry. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. So you see. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. You have not left this country”. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. And since yesterday. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. The king wondered and said “Abu. Your Majesty. You walk on stilts like a child. I could not hear the actors. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No.I did not enjoy it. The King continued “And now. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. They did not pay any attention. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. I do not step on the ground. I do not step on the ground of this country”. I could not bear it. I turned around. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. “I remember exactly what you said. I had a very good seat. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. were talking noisily. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace.
I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. He put his coat and said. “It’s none of your business. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. “Eat the food. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. The man was still carrying the penguin. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. they just shook the head. Getting Nasreddin's answer. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . The host at once got up and came to meet him. "Take it to the zoo!". you give food to my coat instead of me”. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. nobody looked at me. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. He took it to a policeman and said. “When I came here with my old clothes. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. It’s a private conversation”. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. D. So. the policeman saw the man in the same park. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. The next day. When he arrived in the party. He went to the party by wearing old clothes.
place and time 2. penguin. was. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. etc • Using simple past tense 4. were.did. Even. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. I. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. Generic Structure of Recount 1. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. He. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. heard. change. today I am taking it to the movie". Reorientation: It is optional. go. etc • Using chronological connection. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. The following day. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. walk up Using adverb of time and place. carry. chronological order by days. So. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. etc • Using action verb. policeman Using action verb. saw. look.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. etc • Using linking verb. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. then. my group. They were in the park Event1. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. in the park Told in chronological order. first. once. Orientation: Introducing the participants.
Mummy and I went shopping with Della. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. Richard with two sons. They had a very pleasant flight. The room had perfect view of the park. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. The two week in London went by fast. On the third floor. In writer's point of view. At the end of the 14-day. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. on Example of Recount text A. Richard’s family was on vacation. B. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. They are Mr. They went to London. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. There was a film for their entertainment. They slept part of the way. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. They had variety of food. hear. The room had its own bathroom and toilet.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. read. Instead of keys for the room. We stayed at David and Della’s house. the thing is an experience. they inserted a key-card to open the door. Then. The officers were pleasant. They had booked fourteen days tour. It can be what the writer has done. It was scary. Mr. They gave them food and drink. and Mrs. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. Vacation to London Mr. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. This includes travel and accommodation. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight.
misalnya David. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. On the day of the tour. we dsb. The event happened smoothly. It reveals the conflict among the participants. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. the on Tuesday. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. but. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. kejadian atau kegiatan. then on Monday. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. past tense. he was ready. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. what happened on Sunday. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. misalnya beautiful. the second was to Ubud. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. • • • • • . (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Rekaman peristiwa. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. On the other hand. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. di mana dan kapan. kejadian atau kegiatan. misalnya yesterday. misalnya We went to the zoo. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. The first one was to Singaraja. C. It is a busy but quiet town. dsb. The next stop was Celuk. funny. Reorientation. waktu dan cara. dsb. the monkey. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. misalnya and. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience.Small Notes and felt. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. 46 slowly dsb. then. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. sleep. misalnya go. The first stop was at Batubulan. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. In simple way. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. Events. a center of stone sculpture. at my house. after that. run dsb. Pengenalan. She was happy dsb. recount describes series of events in detail.
and. When I reached my town. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. using first person point of view. I • Using chronological connectives. There were rocks everywhere. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. Overall. Even I could not move my car at all. like matchsticks. introducing the participant. then. was. my car lunched on one side. The car lunched to one side. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. I did not know that it was an earthquake. left. stating the writer's personal note. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. suddenly • Using linking verb. Although nothing was left.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. I was on the car. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. the ceremony was quite elaborate. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. moved. describing a series of event which happened. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. etc. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. in the town. made. earthquake happened. Events. to the left. I thought I got flat tire. all his day was spent on the beach. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. It took about a week. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. I was on my car. He was quiet satisfied. walked. D. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Re-orientation. Several days before the ceremony was done. I was trapped by the rock. were • Using action verb. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. When the earthquake happened. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. etc E. I was on the car las week.
and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. In the text. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . Questions 1. chanting.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. On the last day. Then. and then moved the corpse to face north. However. During the day. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. In the night. a series of events in chronological order. Those words and phrases are: First. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. They were great matches. we were feasting. connect a sentence with the next one. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Finally. there were also buffalo matches. Then. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. my uncle. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. and dancing. you find words and phrases used to start. my brother. First. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. Finally. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. Meanwhile. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. After that. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. After that. The funeral was performed in two phases. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. A recount text has an orientation. and end your composition.
This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. useful. After clearly explanation. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Using long and complex clauses 4. Using adjectives 3. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. 3. services which want to be sold. valuable. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. uniqueness. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Focus on specific participants 2. It states the parts.What is review text 1. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Using metaphor 4. worthy. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. As I said in my previous post. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . or just a site which want to be known publicly. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. etc. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. It can be product. Dominant Language features: 1. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Definition Review is one of text genres. It is personal idea about the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product.
Other times the book just has a slightly dreary.. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. with some editing it would have been great.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. and ultimately satisfying. fast-paced. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. Still a really good book.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . magical or no. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. intriguing.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. and this part I loved. I actually liked the ending (and yes. depressing feel. this was not my favorite. for example . I cried!) as sad as it was. however. and parts of it do seem long.housekeeping is still housekeeping. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing.. He goes from being a warm-hearted. In some (Interpretati instances this works. I was truly moved by the last page. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. The stories were bright. especially with being a teenager and all. A few other changes in this book .
Similarly. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. The translation experts. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. The experts who have grammatical. aluminum and rimless frame are available. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. the daily activities are worthily documented. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. For Rosemarie. However.the trend. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . It straightly goes to the end user. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. The site is quite simple but very informative. It is real. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. In certain case. The site is her effort to record of what she did. lexical. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . if he works with Farsi translation. woman and man are available choice. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. Eyeglasses for children. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. Again. does and will do daily. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. If we visit the site. easy and not complicated design. it will be quite difficult to make translation. Titanium. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
between report and descriptive text. and so on. physical strengh. animal and scientific object. Procedure. eg: bicycle. how to make a good kite. etc. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. secondly prepare the cup. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. Explanation is such a scientific written material. goods. phenomena. is the scope of the written object. Mostly. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. wheel style. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. How a tornado form. In short. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. colour. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. product case or problem. etc is the best example of the procedure text. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. It will talk about bicycle in general. Explanation. In the other hand. report is written after getting careful observation. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. However if they are analyzed carefully. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. What make different. first boil water. For example how to make a cup of tea. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. its parts. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. it belongs to report text. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . They give the detail description on something. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. lengh. It is such word. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. If we talk about. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. descriptive text will convey more focus. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic.Some text types are quite difficult to differ.
the thing is an experience. They give the detail description on something. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. For example how to make a cup of tea. It is such word. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. first boil water. goods. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. In simple way. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. product case or problem. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. In writer's point of view. then on Monday. the on Tuesday. recount describes series of events in detail. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. It reveals the conflict among the participants. what happened on Sunday. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. etc is the best example of the procedure text. phenomena. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Explanation is such a scientific written material.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. How a tornado form. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . read. and so on. It can be what the writer has done. secondly prepare the cup. The event happened smoothly. how to make a good kite. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Explanation. and felt. hear. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Procedure. On the other hand. To see the differences between explanation and procedure.
19. 23. 24. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. 14. texts are divided into several types. 22. Using thinking verbs 4. These variations are known as GENRES. 16. Using material process 3. and news item. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. spoof. recount. Using adjective 6. Dominant Language Features: 1. Using exclamations. explanation. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. hortatory exposition. Using technical terms 7. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using adverbs 5. Abstract 2. 17. Coda. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . Reaction 5. 26. 15. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Orientation 3. Thesis 2. review. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Crisis 4.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. They are narrative. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 20. anecdote. report. descriptive. analytical exposition. 25. discussion. 18. Arguments 3. Using modals 2. procedure.
Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Using action verb 3.1. Using action verbs 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Background event(s) 3. Using noun phrase 5. Materials/Equipments 3. Issue 2. Arguments for and against 3. Using Imperatives sentence 3. General statement 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using passive voice 4. Short. Using adverb 4. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using technical terms 7. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Complication 4. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Using action verbs 3. place and manner. Orientation 2. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Resolution 5. Using general and abstract noun 8. Evaluation 3. Using adverbs : time. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Explanation 3. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1.
Using thinking verbs 5. In simple word. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using adjective 7. Using action verb 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 5. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Identification 2. place or thing in detail. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using conjunction/transition 6. Generic Structure 1. Using adverbs 6. Using technical terms 8. Thesis 2. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Arguments 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. as it is. Using thinking verb 4. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. General classification 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using modality 7. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Description Language Features: 1. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using modals 3.1. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using adverb 4. Using general and abstract noun 9. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something.
whether Simple Past Tense. Event(s) 3. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. In the contrary. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. fable. Orientation 2. Using action verb 3. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. social conflict or psychological conflict. Evaluation 3. myth. Interpretative Recount 4. Using long and complex clauses 4.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using adjectives 3. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Using Past Tense 2. or Past Perfect Tense. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. folklore. Using action verb 3. Using adverb 4. Orientation 2. Orientation 2. Using metaphor 60 . Event(s) 3. Focus on specific participants 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. etc while recount text is found in biography. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Evaluation 5.
diagram dsb. tabel. 11. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 2. penjelasan. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. label. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. 3. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 6. descriptive. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. tanggal. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. spoof dsb. tahun. Continuous text misalnya narrative. grafik. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 7. tempat. biasanya tentang nama. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. 8. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan.exposition. 1. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. dsb. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. 4. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. map. 5. 9. 10. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap.
fluffy. And cute. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. The purpose of the text is _____.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. it is small.
What is the writer’s intention? To …. According to the writer. and napkins here and there. outside of the classrooms. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. straws. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3.. school corridors and school yard. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins.. they can find the dust bins easily. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. Besides. more dust bins…. a number of dust bins should be increased. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. They put their litters on the proper places. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. and some more also the corridors. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. 1. When we look at classrooms. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . especially empty plastic cup or glasses. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease.EXERCISES. there are paper mineral water cups. So when students want to throw away their litters. in every ten meters. readers to do something good. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school.
From the elaboration above. which is just what many learners look for sample text. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. learning vocabulary. Although usually simple. Last but not least. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Firstly. spelling and culture. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. songs are relaxing. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. place or time reference. 5. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. religion. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. even revolution. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. translating songs. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. with a lot of repetition. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. Furthermore. practicing selective listening comprehension.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. In addition. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . What is the text about …. songs in general also use simple conversational language. lexically and poetically. patriotism and yeas. Secondly. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. shopping malls. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. They provide variety and fun. The generic structures of the text are ….
Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. Therefore. Firstly. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.Since we can find a thesis.. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. It must not be allowed because it is rude.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. smoking in restaurants is impolite. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14.” The underlined word refers to …. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Finally.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. so we can conclude that this text belongs to….The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. not just in restaurants. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Based on the text. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .“They provide variety and fun. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. 11. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.9.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.. The word reasons mean…. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
student. Cindy. • I want to introduce you to …. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Likewise. Very nice to meet you. father. Nice to meet you too. Mr. my my my my my my my my my brother. Carrie. Mary Jones. friend. Hi Jack. Harris.. boss. Pleased to meet you. Ms. Mr.. I don't believe we've met before. Introducing someone else my name is. Ritter. Nice to meet you. teacher. Watson. I'm.. Bob. co-worker. 2. And you.. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 .Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Jack. Penny Pitcher. It's a pleasure to meet you. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Mrs. sister. mother. This is my friend. I'm Linda 1. Harris.
g. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . Hi.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Adib : Anyway. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. and Retno are new students. Arnys? Retno : Okay. By the way. are you a new student. I am. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Retno. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. this is Retno. My name is Adib. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. we still have half an hour before the class starts.g. Situation: Adib. Shall we go to the canteen?. I’m Arnys. Adib : Hi. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. hotel. Adib. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Arnys. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. a restaurant. e.
• • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . Not so bad. See you soon /later /tomorrow. . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. . Very well. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Do you wanna . . thanks. thank you. shake hands with other Virga :… women. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. (informal) Would you like to . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. Bye. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . thanks.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. . before leaving. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . thanks. . • Good bye. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well.
Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No..That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like..I’d be happy/glad to accept . I’d be delighted to.... Receiving .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. let’s not. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.. . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.I’d love to .Some responds of inviting.I’d like very much . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 ..Yes.if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.a chocolate bar? .? Would you like ..
Happy new year. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. helped carry your grocery bags. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. you very much. returned your lost wallet. Thanks. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Thank you. Happy birthday to you. complimented you on your necktie.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. I need it. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done.
it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . What’s shame b. That’s a nuisance d.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A.. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. It’s nice of you to say so. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. and congratulations Special Days .. holidays and other special occasions. That’s pity f. That’s too bad e. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . What’s pity c. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. not really. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. How kind of you to say so.• • • Oh.
I’m delighted. Expression Displeasure a. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . I’m sorry about that c. g. How dreadful! C. It was terrifi c. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. l. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. How terrible! c. k. Send my deepest condolence! f. I enjoyed it I love it. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. i. …. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I’m so happy …. b. I’m really sad to … c. I feel ….B. c. I feel … b. m. f. feel unpleased with …. d. j. e.. How Awful! d. I’m sorry to hear that b. I feel disappointed. I’m really sorry for them d. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. h. Goodness! b. d.
no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 .Satisfaction. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.
. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . I agree • I know what you mean. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. As I see. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. I think the other one’s better. • I am with you • Definitely.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. • Yes. In my opinion…. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. What do you think of this refrigerator? So.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. In my opinion. … If you ask me. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. say • Absolutely.
Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. No. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. Fear. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. that's not a good idea. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . I don't think that's what happened.
• I’m glad it was done./I feel ill. it’s killing me! 2. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . • Thank God for ..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • Ugh. • I’m sick. it’s very painful! • Oh. • I feel sick... Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse....
This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger." This is not very strong. but it is not a very strong dislike. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 .Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. BUT "I don't really like it. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. It means that you do not like something. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.
I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. Informal Situations … really makes me mad.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No.. I’m extremely unhappy about this. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . That’s a real embarrassment..I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I was so ashamed. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. I will. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .
. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. Maybe you forgot to. but I think we should. It's your fault for (doing something)... Of course. Right away. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.. Blame (keluhan. There may have been a misunderstanding about.. but. I think you might have forgotten to.. Complaint. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Don't get me wrong. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. I'm sorry to bother you... Excuse me if I'm out of line. Sure..... but.Palupi : OK.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Certainly.
I'd like to apologise for. to express regret an exclamation a word.. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. I'll clear up later. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. I …. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. to ask for forgiveness. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I'm so sorry. Sorry for. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly..simply starters! Regret.. Examples I'm really sorry. To say why you're sorry Sorry about.. Sorry for taking your DVD... Apology (penyesalan. I didn't mean to lose your book.. Pete.
yet. there is a possibility ... Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness.. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.. NOTE : 1. distress.… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible ... There is a good chance that …. It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. There is a little chance that …. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 ..
Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.she.? it. doing something are: 4.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 .we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.you.? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home 3.she..they.she.you.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. Expressions capability are : to show I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.they. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.
they.it Were utk S= you.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.he.she. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.
waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.
will be practising c. the telephone rang twelve times.is. have been practising b. is. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. “Srimpi”. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. practised d. was parctising e.masa lampau.does/am. a. Fred : Juda. are Was.
have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. will start b. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. worked e. will have lived b. a. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. have lunch d. starts c. My family ____ when the postman arrived. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. will have started e. a. will have lunch e. have been living c. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . works d. have been having lunch c. will have had lunch b. the meeting ___ by the time we get there.2. clean d. a. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. will have worked c. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. has been working b. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. have been cleaning c. would have started d. a. was living e. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. they are succesful. a. If we don”t hurry. am living d. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. were cleaning b. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. Iwan : Yes. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. cleaned e.
will have been c. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. was carrying 3. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . a. has been e. is still looking for a job 4. has worked for six months e. carried e. am d. has got a new job d. This sentence means that Ann ___. carry d. I forget to bring your book. will have been c. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. a. has forgotten d. but I ____ there many times. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. have caused c. My father is still in Bali. was e. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill.2. started to work 6 months a go c. will be b. would be b. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. When airport are located in the center of citied. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. causes e. had been 9. caused d. had forgotten e. Learn all these. He ____ there for three weeks. is d. have been c. has stopped looking for a job b. would forget 8. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. have carried c. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. He ____ ill for a week. forgets b. was e. forgot c. has been b. a. a. have been 6. had been 7. a. am carrying b. Is it right? Student : Yes. was d. a. sir. will cause 5. a. were causing b.
Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. sir. will have learnt c. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. am learning 10. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . will be attending d. have learnt e. She ___ the lectures.00 tomorrow.Student : All right. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. dan tempat. where. pronoun (kata ganti orang). Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. Reni goes to her university every morning. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. struktur kalimat. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. attended c. when. keterangan waktu. why. who. has attended b. She studies business. would be attended DIRECT . how. will be learning b. learn d.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. a. has been attending e. a. I ____ them by then. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan).
Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .
The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. he has gone to his country e. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. not to be so noisy e. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. I am very noisy b. a. had gone to his country d. that Mary had been absent b. He said ____ the previous day. to be not so noisy c. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. if Mary was absent d. why Mary was absent e. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . I wasn’t so noisy d. to open my mouth b. that I open his mouth d. Herman. The baby is sleeping. he goes to his country c. Herman : Okay. a. he went to his country b. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. mom. if I opened my mouth e. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. why Mary had been absent c.
4. what are you were doing now d. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. SMA Students’ Modul of English . Mother said. what I was doing then. he asked. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. a. It was windy outside. what I am doing now. would forget 3. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. he headn’t cleaned b. Mira closed the window. Anto : I am sorry Lina. 94 5. d. forgot c. Ari : What did he say. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. It is windy outside. I hadn’t cleaned d. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Closed the window. Does Mira close the window. I got a headache. he does not clean e. He asked me ____ a. “What are you doing now?”. c. he would not clean c. forgets b. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. he asked me ____”. Mira closed the window. It is windy outside. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. It was windy outside. I forgot to bring your book. e. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. c. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. what were you doing now. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Mira. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. b. b.c. has forgotten d. had forgotten e. a. he hasn’t cleaned 2. “ ___________” a. e.
a. not spending b. “don’t make noise. did I have an appointment d. Slamet. d. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. e. “Can I find you a hotel?”. e. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. b. c. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. finish your work d. to finish my work c. to finish your work b. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. a. when is my appointment b. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. She said the children didn’t make noise c. My friend said to me. If he could go with us d. how was my appointment e. She didn’t say the children should noise d. She told the children not to make noise. not to spend e. 8. a. Father said. children”. she said. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. going with us b. do not spend d. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. whether I had appointment 7. wether he goes with us c. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. can he go with us e. Mean____ a. She told the children don’t make noise b. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. finished your work e. not spend c. he went with us 6. that I had an appointment c. a. 10.
• Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat.
was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5.? a. was being postponed e. will be unloaded b. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. was kicking b.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. were sold b. have been unloaded d. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. was it abolishing d. has to be postponed b. kicks d. A : Look! The girl is crying. are unloaded c. to be abolished c. were being unloaded e. a. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. had been sold c. The announcement ____ twice. a. Y : Really. she ____ a. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. was kicked c. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . when…. is sold d. has been postponed c. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. was postponed d. did it abolish e. was it to abolish b. a. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. are sold e. kicked e.
is being built c. will be born 2. a. has been built b. is being demolished e. has been rewarded c. will be rewarded 8. R.1. had been demilishing b.A. would be built 4. is arranged d. was arranged e. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. is being destroyed c. have been arranged 3. rewarded d. has arranged c. destroyed d. a. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . would be born b. will be destroyed b. was born e. was rewarded e. will build d. the baby would be well looked after 7. is born d. will clean b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. demolishing d. A big dam ___ in this area next year. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. is being rewarded b. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. have arranged b. was being cleaned d. is demolishing c. a. will be built e. a. a. She looks after the baby well. a. has been cleaned 5. the baby is well looked after b. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. had destroyed e. has been born c. was destroyed 6. cleaned c. a. The passive form is ____ a. the baby is being looked after well e. the baby will be well looked after d. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. the baby was looked after well c. is being cleaned e. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot.
will be taken d. was taken b. he ____ to the nearest hospital.9. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. has promised d. is being taken e. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. a.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. yaitu: 1. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. a. was being promised c. will be promised 10. will be promised e. took c. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. has been promising b.
Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . will. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman.c. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. was/were. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. have/has. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. -le. had. dll. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. dll. can. may. -ow. shall. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. did. Contoh: large larger largest 4. -er. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some.
I would have written you a letter. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Contoh : (+) If I had time. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang.). Apa yang diucapkan. 3.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Contoh: If I have much money. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. (jika saya punya uang. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. itulah yang diharapkan. I would go to the beach with you. I will buy a new car.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya.
S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. their. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. his. They are printed in English. I met him last week. your. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. whom. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people.) 2. (him = the man. her. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. of which. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. whose. which. its. Their car has been stolen. I bought it last year. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. our. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Contoh: We saw the people.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence).
sebuah benda. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Where 8. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Its surface is not smooth. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (its surface/permukaannya meja. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7.
The manager gets the letter typed. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2).CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. 2. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). The manager has the letter typed. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. I got the mechanic to repair my car. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Jogging makes us fresh. I had mechanic repair my car. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2).
Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.Amir’s. get used to. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .your. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . 5. he said nothing.their.our. his. to be worth. Setelah possessive adjective (my. 3. on. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. . before dll.to be used to. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .her. Before leaving. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.Dona prefers dancing to singing. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . 4. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.V . 6.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me.V.I like T. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for.V better than radio.V ketimbang main video game) 4.Juned prefers combro to deblo. to be busy. than plays a video game.Dita would rather watch T.3. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. can’t help/can’t bear. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .
After that. that. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . since.You can read this book if you like. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. Contoh: . Menunjukan waktu: before.He is both wise and good. 1. a.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. when. I can’t treat you. c. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. Since I have no money.Although it was raining. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. but. then.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (….maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . b. while. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. although/though. a. Finally. b. dll. we must prepare the ingredients. as soon as. d. after that. for. While he was reading her novel. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie.Contoh: . d. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. he come on time. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . e. or. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . c. after. yaitu: 1. we put some sauce and salt. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. finally. first. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. if. somebody knocked on the door. 2. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . we put them into frying pan. next.Amir and I go to school everyday. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. b. c. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. 3. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. Next. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. We went home after the rain stopped. a.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .He is not only active but also clever. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .
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