DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

.....................................................................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ..............................................................................................................................104 GERUND ...............................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ...........................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ....................................................................................................................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .......103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ................99 QUESTION TAGS .........................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)..............................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).......106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ...................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH..............................

Explanation 2. 1. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Anecdote 9.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Spoof 5. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. why is the text made?. Descriptive 10. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . The language feature. Narrative 11. These types of text are. Procedure 12. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Analytical Exposition 8. Review 7. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. 2. Recount 6. News Items 13. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Hortatory Exposition 3. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Report 4. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1.

Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. as we all know. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. and especially talk to someone. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Secondly. As we all know. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. it is better to look at the fact. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. In one hour in smoky room. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Additionally. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Reiteratio In conclusion. lung cancer. or concentrate on your homework. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Smoking however is not good for every body else. If you live in the city. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Argument Firstly. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. cars are very noisy. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. the city is very busy. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Thirdly. cars create pollution. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. you may find it hard to sleep at night. cars. which causes them to die.

It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Furthermore. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. As the US. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. That wil be true if the conditions. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. In this example of analytical exposition text. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership.

It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. students need book.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. dsb • Modal verbs. and then complete the transaction. drawing book. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. misalnya firstly. misalnya policy. decide which computer or laptop they need. dsb. secondly. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. misalnya we must preserve. ruler and such other stuff. dsb. dsb. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. government. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. • Abstract nouns. dsb. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. this method will help student to get better understanding. • Action verbs. misalnya She must save. misalnya car. First. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. we. students need more to reach their progressive development. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. dsb. Secondly. • Bahasa evaluatif. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. misalnya It is important. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The students just need to brows that online shop. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. misalnya species of animals.dsb. Additionally. • Modal adverbs. dsb. • Thinking verbs. misalnya C. eraser. (Simplified from the jakartapos. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. leaded petrol car. misalnya Many people believe. • Technical verbs. pen. in this multimedia era. • Relating verbs. • Reiteration . (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. • Connectives. dsb.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. misalnya certainly. Penguatan pernyataan. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. pollution.

These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. That is really easy and save time and money. D. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Career in Translation Functionally. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer.delivered to the students' houses. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. According to Nida. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. India is likely being an English speaking country. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. E. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Students just need to decide which type they really need. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. From all of that. Arabic translation. It seems Indonesia. India translation will grow better and. If Hindi translation is provided. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Therefore.

Abstract 2. 3. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Using conjunction of time. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. write. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Using imperative. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. etc 2. because. Incident. etc • Causal conjunction . etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Using action verb. For instance. it's awful!. Orientation 3. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Using simple past tense 4. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Using exclamation words.is inserted at the end of each article. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . do you know what? 4. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Crisis 4. then. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Using rhetoric question. 2. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. listen to this 3. afterward 6. it's wonderful!. etc 5. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. go. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products.

They had gotten afterwards. He shed tears of disappointment. The family worked and saved. America. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. dsb. The doctor sewed up the boy. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. spitting and hissing at us. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. The family dreams were dashed. nine children. misalnya go. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole.  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. write. whole business. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . enough money. passport. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. seperti then. The father was full of disappointed and anger. However few days before their departure. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. Anna. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. and turned on the tap. so we set to. there were being quarantined for long days. their children to America. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. dsb. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. who was only three at the time. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America.

2. When the dream will come true. • Description. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like.Five days latter. He thanked God for saving their lives. When the father heard the news. or thing. 3. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. qualities. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. The father was angry with his son and God. • Using simple present tense 4. describing the phenomenon in parts. they were left behind. place. had shank. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. They had dream to travel to America. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. The Clak family should have been on that ship. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. but because of the bitten son by a dog. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. It was unbelievable but it was. or/and characteristics. It made they were being quarantined. You have and so do I. there is something wrong last minute before it. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. identifying the phenomenon to be described. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. They had to forget their plan. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. the mighty Titanic. It was a blessing behind a tragedy.

Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. in 2004. Recently. This year. She said that the products covered all genders. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. She is beautiful. Example of Description A. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. a railway station is under construction. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. She is really mad on that shoes. a grass amphitheatre. She really have perfect appearance. In three years1 time. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. This shoes really matches on her.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. all her friends. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. Today. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. native plants and eucalypts. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. Sydney. She always pays much attention on her appearance. In 1964. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. bright color. When she are walking on that shoes. yet retaining its beautiful site. The style. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. attractive and trendy. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 .

The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor.8 km of passage and starways. Borobudur is well-known. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Borobudur temple • Description.she has. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India.Budhist temple. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4. valuable • Using simple present tense. Ballet. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. B. casual. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Borobudur is located in Magelang. The products provide varieties of choice. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The upper three are circular. describing the Borobudur temple in parts.The temple is constructed. Cambodia. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. Central Java. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Indonesia. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa.

misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. kualitas. bersifat describing. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. two strong legs. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. numbering. 2. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. a sweet young lady. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan.my cat. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. enough money to take Snow White. My mum is realy cool. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. White. dsb. dsb. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. better or worse 3. dsb. sifat-sifat (characteristic).Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. dsb. dsb. house. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. dsb.  Description. but my favourite one is a cat. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. misalnya teacher. misalnya. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. It has very thick fur. misalnya. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. • simple present tense. misalnya fast. sharp white fangs. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. • berbagai macam adjectives. Misalnya: I have many pets. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. classifying. perilaku umum. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. • action verbs.

Maura asked them for something to eat. As they were about to have dinner. They want to know what next will happen. She saw the dwarfs. “My name is Snow White. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. “what is your name?” Snow White said. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. “Oh could I? Thank you. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. “If you wish. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. in what way she will decide who the best is.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. Then Snow White woke up.” Doc. The third sheik. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. The first gave her some left over food. They went inside. After dinner. There they found Snow White sleeping. said. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. “Without question. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. Example of Narative A. which she strikes against herself. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. one of the dwarfs.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. who received a plate of delicious meat. They were also rich and strong.” Snow White said. who was called Hakim. had many suitors. One evening. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . you may live here with us. The psychological conflict inside Maura. The dwarfs said. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. One by one she discarded them. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. Hakim. The following day. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication.

in the mountain. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. “You know. misalnya. misalnya then. climbed. stayed. Pengenalan tokoh. a man had a wonderful parrot. dsb. Resolution. long black hair. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. The name of the place was Catano. dsb.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. soon. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. before that. I will cut the chicken 17 . “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. He could not bear it. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. the parrot would not say it. Then he continued to humble. There was no other parrot like it. stepsisters. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. the man really got very angry.dsb. happily ever after. housework. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Complication. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. dsb. At the first. konflik dalam cerita. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. • action verbs dalam past tense. Although he tried hard to teach. Masalah. The parrot could say every word. misalnya here. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). Penyelesaian masalah. dsb. misalnya. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. waktu. two red apples. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. except one word. phrase. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house.

They found their mother and talked her about it. It will show the crisis. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. The next day. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. That was the smartest parrot. 4 are describing the complication. A man and his parrot took place once time. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. He liked fishing. the man attempted to teach the bird. I will eat you too. rising crisis and climax of the story. The fish begged him to set it free. C. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. He made the fish free. stupid parrot”. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. Next it will be your turn. He felt in love with that fish-woman. paragraph 2. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. She attracted Batara Guru so much. To fix this problem. As soon as it was free. he caught a fish. He opened the door and was very surprised. Batara Guru could not bear it. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. They had two daughters. the man came back to the chicken house. At the moment. The daughters were crying. After that he left the chicken house. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. One day. There were three death chickens on the floor. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. In the parrot story. In that parrot story. readers see the problem is finished. They were married happily. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. He could not control his mad. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. there was a handsome man.for my meal. 3. His name was Batara Guru Sahala.

“because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. They treated Cinderella very badly.The mother was very annoyed. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. on the other hand. At last. one of her glass slipper was left behind. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. hardworking. she was driven to the palace. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. “You must leave before midnight”. “Why are crying. Cinderella”. She danced again and again with the king’s son. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Volcanoes started to erupt. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. did not work about the house.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. One day. Batara Guru broke his promise. A few days later. Finally. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. Cinderella?” a voice asked. The earth formed a very big hole. the day of the ball came. and away went the sisters to it. The mother was shouting angrily. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. Magically. People believed that the big hole became a lake. she said. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. “Well” said the godmother. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. In her hurry. there was a young girl named Cinderella. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. such as scrubbing the floor. D. They were married and live happily ever after. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. In the end. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. The two step sisters. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. “Now. Then the earth began to shake. It fitted perfectly.

Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. Once there was a farmer from Laos. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. E. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. introducing specific participants. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. After the man went home. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. “Yes” said the man. “you are so big and strong. The tiger asked. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. Every morning and every evening. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. One day. “No. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. Complication: In this Cinderella story. “Can I see your intelligence?”. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “oh. He took his plough and hit the tiger. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Complication. Orientation. 3. Resolution. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. “it at home”. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. once in Laos 2. Generic Structure Analysis 1. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. In the last paragraph. Resolution: Like complication. The Smartest Animal. the man is very intelligent”. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. But the man answered. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Then he said. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. said the buffalo. farmer and his buffalo. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. I can’t tell you”.

Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Place on a plate. the next day past tense. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. the man tied the tiger. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. plate Method 1. 50 g cheese. once. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . bowl. there was a farmer. saw. one day connectives. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. was surprised to action verb. spatula. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. answered thinking verb.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. fork. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. cheese grater. tie. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Add milk and whisk well 4. hit time conjunction. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Cook both sides 9. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. ¼ cup milk. after. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7.

Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. misalnya then. It should be in open area Next. wait it. misalnya turn. Read aloud what you've written. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Example of Procedure A. Your customers don't care about you. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . write your benefit like you talk it. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. Finally. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. put it in another big pot. don’t. • action verbs. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. excluded • Steps. etc • Action verb. Use regular words. firstly. dsb. Here's a simple checklist to follow. dry a handful seeding. Firstly. Well. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. Langkah-langkah. Don’t mix. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Firstly. etc • Temporal conjunction. informing on how to plant chillies. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. put it. 2 centimetres from the top. put. • Material. dsb. take the topic of benefits. put. while. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger.10. the following is a guided information B. put the seeding on the soil. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. Here are the steps. tempat. finally. Cut. next. misalnya. misalnya for five minutes. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. but it will help. cara yang akurat. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. dsb. dry. you don't have to. not features. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. mix. menyatakan rinci waktu. planting is a nice activity. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot.

cheese grater. Some sentences are long and some are short. Fifthly. bowl and plate. lose the weak words. secondly. Next. writing the topic like the way it is talked. etc • Temporal conjunction. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. read. fork. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. reread what you have done. a pinch of satlt and pepper. choosing the advantageous topic. write. you need an egg. three tablespoons cookin oil. First. add First. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . Don't describe how your company may. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. informing on how to write for business • Material. firstly. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. Use a nice rhythm.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal.re-read what you've done before publishing. to make a cheese omelet. Fourthly. excluded • Steps/ method. etc • Action verb. re-reading what have been written . such as. Listen carefully. showing the method in writing for business. write like you talked. Edit it necesarily. Next. fifty gram cheese. you need some tools. etc C. spatula. Mix them up and keep things interesting. frying pan. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will.Thirdly. a quarter cup of milk.

Focusing on circumstances 2. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Generic Structure of News Item 1.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. 2. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. time. Language Feature of News Item 1. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . The events are considered newsworthy or important. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. participant. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. it’s up to them”. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. “But this just a suggestion. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Main event 2. Example of Procedure A. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Resource of information 3. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Using material process 4. a news report said. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. place) 3. The accident. Elaboration (background.

were infected unknowingly by their husbands. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. less then 10 percent are woman. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events. Malaysian Aids Council president. dsb. Last year. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. tempat kejadian dsb. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. The maid. In the past the event was held behind closed door. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. had worked with the boy family for 11 years.  Sources. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. komentar saksi kejadian. June 01. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution.  Background Events. (Source The Jakarta Post. many women who contract HIV are housewives. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. named Suwartin. but the number is steadily rising. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. even though they know they have HIV” she said. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. Latar belakang kejadian. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Kejadian inti. orang yang terlibat. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. he said in the report. pendapat para ahli.

Background 1. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. carry. Background 3. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. May 6. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. law of serious crimes.news. Using material process. (Taken from: www. Last year. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Resource.bbc. behead. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. execute. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Background 2. Hong Kong. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. Rape. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. She had relationship the boy for five months. (Adapted from Reuters.Then the maid was arrested. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Saudi Arabia.co. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said.

Example of Discussion Text A. deliberately. similarly. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. believe. doing homework is not a great idea. many times. etc 4. must.1. feel. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. and causal connection. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. etc • Using adverbial of manner. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. could. historic. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . and social text. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. however. hopefully. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. contrastive. But. etc • Using additive. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. may. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. 2. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. should. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. on the hand. etc • Using modalities. hope.

Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. so it is not expansive to make. and produces huge amounts of energy. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. England in 1956. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . It produces small amount of waste. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It is reliable.

misalnya deliberately. nuclear power is very. misalnya uniforms. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian).(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. seperti perhaps. hopefully. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. • adverbials of maner. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. although it is reliable. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. dsb. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. believe. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. dsb. however. dsb. This example of discussion text present the two poles. . must. Furthermore. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. In many social activities. very dangerous. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. memberikan informasi secara padu. Gagasan Pokok 2. hope. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences.  Kesimpulan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. perception and recommendation.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. should have been. dsb. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. alcohol.On the other hand. misalnya similarly. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). should. misalnya smoking is harmful. misalnya feel. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. could 29 be. dsb. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. on the hand.

always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. 2. believe. Using modalities. farmer. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. conservationists.co. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Using thinking verb. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy.bbc. social. Supporting point.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. B. geography and history text books. Recommendation. Many farmer and even conservationists. scientific and cultural phenomena. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Contrastive point.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. however. It is often found in science. (Taken from: www. Using connectives. hunting fox. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. must.

etc Using chronological connection. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Language Feature • • • • 4. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. rain. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. sun. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Featuring generic participant. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Example of Explanation Text A. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Sequenced explanation. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. next. to begin with. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami").• • General statement.

Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan.org) B. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. The earth also moves around the sun. conjunctions of time dan cause. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. misalnya word chopping. It is called as rotation. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. It takes 365 days or a year. the amount of • bahasa teksni.panda. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. It causes day and night. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. sosialbudaya. But that is the case. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. misalnya the large cloud. complex sentences. misalnya the temperature. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. abstract nouns. This process is called revolution. adverbial phrases. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. (simplified from www. noun phrase. dunia ilmiah. action verbs. earthquakes. Tsunami always bring great damage. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. simple present tense. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. passive voice.

it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. (Taken from: www. then. you would be forgiven.co. Using modal adverb. etc 7. Explanation. advantage. etc 8.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Recommendation 3. Focusing on the writer 2. policy. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Arguments 3. firstly. valuable. certainly. Using pasive voice. Using evaluative words. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using action verb 4. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1.ictteachers. important. etc 6. Using chronological connection. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. so. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Using simple present tense 4. but.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. secondly. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Using abstract noun. Thesis 2. surely. trustworthy. 2. I feel that when you travel through the country. Using thinking verb 5.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Using passive voice 9. Using temporal connective. daylight. Using present tense. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. etc 3.

Those who want to penalise older . stress. of course. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Recently. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . However. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. Recomendatio I feel that country people. especially violence. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. pornography. Meanwhile. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. and short sleep duration. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption.every five to ten minutes. Considering some facts mentioning above. and the possibility of being aggressive. consumerism and so on. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.

They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . there should be an increasing number of dust bins. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. When we look at classroom. If it is a hortatory text. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Both take place as argumentative essays. B. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. straws. speech campaign. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. Basically. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. More dust bins should be put beside each step. advertising. and napkin everywhere. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. In many social activities. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. school corridors and schoolyard. and news advertorial. there papers. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. In the first paragraph. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. sales letter. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV.the writer thought as stated in the text. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. mineral water cops.

Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. it will be very hard to looking for job.meters. In the same way. they will think hard about the time and cost. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. C. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. As the alternative method of studying. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. they can find the dust bins easily. When they think about continuing study. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. when they think about straightly seeking job. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. In the other hand. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. the available time will be more flexible for them. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. it will be quite confusing. So. So when students want to throw away their litters. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Where should be after High School?. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. As result.

animal. part per part . are you tired?. as it is. Relating verbs. misalnya certainly. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Argument. Modal verbs. misalnya firstly. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Albert Smith is the proof. dsb. misalnya I believe . Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Technical verbs. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. valuable. We can show the way to give up work. he drives a sport car. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. etc Using thinking verb. Thinking verbs. etc which will be discussed in general 2.dsb. Action verbs. plant. misalnya should be. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Connectives. misalnya We must preserve. Recommendation.misalnya policy. dsb. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . public place.D. now there is a way out. we must save. dsb. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. dsb.government dsb. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. make. secondly. there is a way out of financial problem. felt Using simple present tense. dsb. give up. misalnya species of animals. misalnya important. Modal adverbs. doesn’t seem to have been . dsb. Generic Structure of Report 1. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis.we. misalnya. reward Using action verb. Millions from Property Market. dsb.

when. perhaps two dozen birds. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. and lakes. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. As the bird lifts its head. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Example of Report Text A.• • Using conditional logical connection. driving the fish before them. rivers. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. stating general classification. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. In the other hand. the animal of platypus. beating the water furiously with their wings. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Platypus. and woolly layer of fur. Platypus lives in streams. etc Using simple present tense 4. so. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. A group. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Platypus' eyes and head are small.

habits or behaviors. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). the animal of platypus conditional. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. dan klasifikasinya. misalnya. keterangan. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. lingkungan. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Platypus lives in streams. dsb. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . misalnya lizards cannot fly. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. dsb. dsb. istilah teknis. benda buatan manusia. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. atau gejala-gejala sosial. dsb. logical connective. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum.Description. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. dsb. but. apa adanya. male platypus does not need any burrow. in terms of parts. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . qualities. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. kegunaannya jika non natural.

Language Feature of Spoof 1. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. 2.1. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 .’ replied the man. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Told in chronological order 4. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Orientation 2. Using adverb of time and place 4. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Twist 3. ran. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Dave found a nice office. etc 3. Using action verb. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. ‘ take him to the zoo’. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Events 3. ate. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. animals or certain things 2. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Focusing on people.

Event 2: He had his new office. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. “Yes. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. terduga atau lucu). benda tertentu. Event 1: Being rich. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. “Hey Abu Nawas. Then the man said to Dave. misalnya eat. verbs. Instead leaving the country. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. In his office. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. I want you to leave the country. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. He suddenly became a 1. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. Then “Remember. binatang. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. conversation on the phone. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. no children. run. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. “You want me. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. “If that is what you want. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). B. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. He had not left the country yet. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace.

I did not enjoy it. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. “I remember exactly what you said. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. The king was not able to say anything. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. You have not left this country”. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. I had a very good seat. I could not hear the actors. The play was very interesting. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . They did not pay any attention. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. Your Majesty. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. I turned around again.In the end. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. look at you. The king wondered and said “Abu. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. were talking noisily. young man and young woman. And since yesterday.guards. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. They were talking very loudly. You walk on stilts like a child. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I do not step on the ground of this country”. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. The King continued “And now. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I do not step on the ground. So you see. (Adapted from S. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts.I got very angry. I turned around. I have been walking on this stilts.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I could not bear it.

He went to the party by wearing old clothes. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. you give food to my coat instead of me”. It’s a private conversation”. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. So. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . He put his coat and said. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. they just shook the head. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. “Eat the food. “When I came here with my old clothes. The host at once got up and came to meet him. The next day. "Take it to the zoo!". Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. the policeman saw the man in the same park. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. “It’s none of your business. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Getting Nasreddin's answer. He took it to a policeman and said. D. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. nobody looked at me. When he arrived in the party. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. The man was still carrying the penguin. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin.

Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. place and time 2. I. saw. policeman Using action verb. Reorientation: It is optional. etc • Using chronological connection. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. They were in the park Event1. walk up Using adverb of time and place. heard. So. Generic Structure of Recount 1. change. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. look. He.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. chronological order by days. once. then. etc • Using linking verb. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . Orientation: Introducing the participants. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. carry. Even.did. The following day. etc • Using action verb. in the park Told in chronological order. penguin. my group. today I am taking it to the movie". the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. first. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. go. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. were. etc • Using simple past tense 4. was.

We saw cockatoos having a shower. The room had perfect view of the park. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. They went to London. They had a very pleasant flight. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. they inserted a key-card to open the door. At the end of the 14-day. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. This includes travel and accommodation. The two week in London went by fast. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . Vacation to London Mr. B.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. The officers were pleasant. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. There was a film for their entertainment. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. They had variety of food. hear. In writer's point of view. We stayed at David and Della’s house. the thing is an experience. It was scary. read. and Mrs. on Example of Recount text A. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. They had booked fourteen days tour. They are Mr. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. They gave them food and drink. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Richard with two sons. Richard’s family was on vacation. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. On the third floor. Then. Mr. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. Instead of keys for the room. They slept part of the way. It can be what the writer has done. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway.

what happened on Sunday. the monkey. She was happy dsb. Rekaman peristiwa. the on Tuesday. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. past tense. then on Monday. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. dsb. at my house. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. It is a busy but quiet town. recount describes series of events in detail. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. he was ready. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. In simple way. On the other hand. Pengenalan. The first one was to Singaraja. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. a center of stone sculpture. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. misalnya go. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. but. the second was to Ubud. di mana dan kapan. C. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. misalnya and.  Reorientation. kejadian atau kegiatan. misalnya beautiful. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. then. misalnya David. after that. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. The first stop was at Batubulan. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. misalnya yesterday. misalnya We went to the zoo. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. The next stop was Celuk. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. 46 slowly dsb. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. It reveals the conflict among the participants. The event happened smoothly. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. we dsb.  Events. funny. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. On the day of the tour. kejadian atau kegiatan.Small Notes and felt. sleep. • • • • • . dsb. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. run dsb. waktu dan cara. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more.

I thought I got flat tire. I • Using chronological connectives. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. When the earthquake happened. I was on the car las week. and. left. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. describing a series of event which happened. the ceremony was quite elaborate. etc. made. D. using first person point of view. to the left. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. introducing the participant. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. He was quiet satisfied. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . I was on my car. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. When I reached my town. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. walked.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. etc E. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. then. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. stating the writer's personal note. I was on the car. was. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. like matchsticks. Re-orientation. in the town. I was trapped by the rock. all his day was spent on the beach. Overall. were • Using action verb. Events. The car lunched to one side. It took about a week. Several days before the ceremony was done. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. suddenly • Using linking verb. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. There were rocks everywhere. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. Although nothing was left. moved. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. Even I could not move my car at all. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. earthquake happened. my car lunched on one side. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. I did not know that it was an earthquake.

my uncle. The funeral was performed in two phases. Those words and phrases are: First. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. In the night. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. a series of events in chronological order. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. Meanwhile. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. you find words and phrases used to start. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. In the text. After that. and dancing.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. Then. First. we were feasting. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. They were great matches. and then moved the corpse to face north. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. Questions 1. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. However. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . During the day. and end your composition. Then. A recount text has an orientation. Finally. Finally. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. there were also buffalo matches. After that. connect a sentence with the next one. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. chanting. On the last day. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. my brother.

or just a site which want to be known publicly. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. valuable. Dominant Language features: 1. It states the parts. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. 3.What is review text 1. After clearly explanation. Definition Review is one of text genres. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. uniqueness. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Using long and complex clauses 4. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Using metaphor 4. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. It can be product. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. worthy. useful. It is personal idea about the product. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. etc. As I said in my previous post. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. services which want to be sold. Using adjectives 3. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. Focus on specific participants 2. quality of the product which will be known publicly. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product.

Other times the book just has a slightly dreary.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. depressing feel. He goes from being a warm-hearted. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. magical or no. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. I cried!) as sad as it was. I actually liked the ending (and yes.housekeeping is still housekeeping.. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. for example . I was truly moved by the last page. fast-paced. however. especially with being a teenager and all.. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. and ultimately satisfying. this was not my favorite. with some editing it would have been great. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. intriguing. In some (Interpretati instances this works. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. A few other changes in this book . Example of Review text Zenni Optical. Still a really good book. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. and this part I loved. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. and parts of it do seem long. The stories were bright.

Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. The site is quite simple but very informative. The site is her effort to record of what she did. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. lexical. Similarly.the trend. does and will do daily. Again. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . if he works with Farsi translation. In certain case. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. the daily activities are worthily documented. If we visit the site. It is real. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. woman and man are available choice. The experts who have grammatical. The translation experts. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. For Rosemarie. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. Eyeglasses for children. it will be quite difficult to make translation. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. However. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. Titanium. aluminum and rimless frame are available. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. easy and not complicated design. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. It straightly goes to the end user.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

physical strengh. Explanation. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Explanation is such a scientific written material. However if they are analyzed carefully. secondly prepare the cup. In the other hand. Mostly. and so on. is the scope of the written object. product case or problem. What make different. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. colour. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. If we talk about. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. Procedure. how to make a good kite. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. lengh. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. between report and descriptive text. In short. etc is the best example of the procedure text. For example how to make a cup of tea. phenomena. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. etc. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. eg: bicycle. its parts. It will talk about bicycle in general. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. first boil water. How a tornado form. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. They give the detail description on something. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. animal and scientific object. report is written after getting careful observation. wheel style. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. goods. descriptive text will convey more focus. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. it belongs to report text. It is such word.

it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. How a tornado form. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. how to make a good kite. In writer's point of view. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. and felt. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. In simple way. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . Procedure. then on Monday. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. The event happened smoothly. It can be what the writer has done. recount describes series of events in detail. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. the on Tuesday. product case or problem. secondly prepare the cup. read. and so on. They give the detail description on something. Explanation. It is such word. what happened on Sunday. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. hear. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. On the other hand. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. etc is the best example of the procedure text. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It reveals the conflict among the participants.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. the thing is an experience. goods. first boil water. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. phenomena. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. For example how to make a cup of tea. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. this text type is commonly called as instruction text.

explanation. texts are divided into several types. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Dominant Language Features: 1. procedure. They are narrative. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. 15. 25. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . Using technical terms 7. Thesis 2. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. 26. recount. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. Using exclamations. Abstract 2. Using material process 3. report. spoof. Crisis 4. 23. 22. review. anecdote. discussion. Using thinking verbs 4.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Reaction 5. 19. 20. Using modals 2. 18. Orientation 3. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 14. 24. Using adjective 6. hortatory exposition. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using adverbs 5. These variations are known as GENRES. analytical exposition. 16. 17. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. descriptive. Arguments 3. and news item. Coda.

Using Simple Present Tense 2. Resolution 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using saying verbs 4. Using passive voice 4. Using adverbs : time. Complication 4. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. place and manner. Background event(s) 3. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Short. General statement 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Arguments for and against 3. Using Past Tense 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 .1. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Issue 2. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Evaluation 3. Using action verb 3. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Using adverb 4. Materials/Equipments 3. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using noun phrase 5. Using action verbs 3. Explanation 3. Newsworthy event(s) 2. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using technical terms 7.

Thesis 2. Generic Structure 1. Identification 2. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 5. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverbs 6. Using thinking verbs 5. Using technical terms 8. Using thinking verb 4. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using conditional logical connection 3. In simple word. Using adverb 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using action verb 3. Using modals 3. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. place or thing in detail. Arguments 3. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using conjunction/transition 6. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1.1. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using adjective 7. as it is. Description Language Features: 1. General classification 2. Using modality 7. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person.

Evaluation 5. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Using adjectives 3. Orientation 2. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using long and complex clauses 4. Using action verb 3. Interpretative Recount 4. Commonly narrative text is found in story book.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 2. social conflict or psychological conflict. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Focus on specific participants 2. Evaluation 3. In the contrary. etc while recount text is found in biography. Using Past Tense 2. folklore. Using metaphor 60 . fable. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. or Past Perfect Tense. whether Simple Past Tense. Using action verb 3. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Using adverb 4. Event(s) 3. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Using Past Tense 2. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Event(s) 3. myth. Orientation 2. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1.

TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. 7. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. 3. descriptive. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. 2. 6. tabel. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. label. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 9. Continuous text misalnya narrative. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. map. 5. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. spoof dsb. 11. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. biasanya tentang nama. dsb. grafik.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 8. penjelasan. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. tempat. diagram dsb. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. tanggal.exposition. 10. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 4. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. tahun. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. 1. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul.

” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to ….b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. The purpose of the text is _____. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menentukan makna kata. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. fluffy. And cute. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. it is small. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog.

Litters thrown carelessly cause disease.. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. they can find the dust bins easily. school corridors and school yard. readers to do something good.EXERCISES. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. 1. there are paper mineral water cups. in every ten meters. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. So when students want to throw away their litters. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. outside of the classrooms. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. straws. Besides. and napkins here and there. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. What is the writer’s intention? To …. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. When we look at classrooms. According to the writer. and some more also the corridors.. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. more dust bins…. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. a number of dust bins should be increased. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. They put their litters on the proper places.

etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. lexically and poetically. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. spelling and culture. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. Furthermore. They provide variety and fun. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. with a lot of repetition. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. learning vocabulary. patriotism and yeas. Secondly. songs in general also use simple conversational language. What is the text about …. translating songs. songs are relaxing. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. The generic structures of the text are …. Last but not least. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. In addition. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. 5. which is just what many learners look for sample text. From the elaboration above. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. place or time reference. religion. shopping malls.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. Although usually simple. even revolution. Firstly. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. practicing selective listening comprehension.

Finally. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. smoking in restaurants is impolite..9. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants..We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. Based on the text. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Firstly.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.” The underlined word refers to …. The word reasons mean…. Therefore. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. not just in restaurants. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. 11. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. It must not be allowed because it is rude.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12.“They provide variety and fun. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere.Since we can find a thesis. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

. • I want to introduce you to …. Mary Jones. student. Penny Pitcher. And you. Pleased to meet you. Hi Jack.. mother. I don't believe we've met before. Mrs. Nice to meet you. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Carrie. father. Ms. my my my my my my my my my brother. Likewise. friend.. boss. Nice to meet you too. 2. teacher. Cindy. Harris. Harris. Mr.. I'm. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Introducing someone else my name is. sister.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. I'm Linda 1. It's a pleasure to meet you. co-worker. Ritter. Watson. Mr. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Very nice to meet you. Bob. This is my friend. Jack.

Hi. Arnys? Retno : Okay. too? Adib : I’m a new student too.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. this is Retno. I am. e. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Situation: Adib. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Shall we go to the canteen?. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Adib : Hi. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well.g. are you a new student. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. Adib : Anyway. a restaurant. My name is Adib. Retno. hotel. By the way. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School.g. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Adib. I’m Arnys. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Arnys. and Retno are new students. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time.

. thank you. . thanks. Do you wanna . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . • Good bye. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Bye. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. before leaving. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . shake hands with other Virga :… women. . (informal) Would you like to . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. See you soon /later /tomorrow. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . Very well. Not so bad. thanks. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. . .Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. thanks.

..a chocolate bar? .? Would you like .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? ..I’d like very much . let’s not..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.I’d be happy/glad to accept . I’d be delighted to.I’d love to . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 ..Yes. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.Some responds of inviting.. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it. Receiving ... . Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.

Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Thank you. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. Happy birthday to you. helped carry your grocery bags. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Thanks. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. I need it. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. you very much. Happy new year. returned your lost wallet. complimented you on your necktie. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you.

. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. What’s pity c. That’s pity f. That’s too bad e.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. It’s nice of you to say so.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. How kind of you to say so. and congratulations Special Days . When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . What’s shame b.. not really. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .• • • Oh. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. holidays and other special occasions. That’s a nuisance d.

How Awful! d. h. Send my deepest condolence! f. m. b. f. e. I’m sorry to hear that b. c. Please accept my deepest sympathy e.. i. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . g. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. I feel disappointed. Expression Displeasure a.B. I’m really sad to … c. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I’m sorry about that c. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. k. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. It was terrifi c. l. How terrible! c. How dreadful! C. j. I’m really sorry for them d. d. Goodness! b. I feel … b. I’m so happy …. I feel …. I enjoyed it I love it. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. I’m delighted. d. feel unpleased with …. ….

ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . but your work is not satisfactory • Oh.Satisfaction. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.

• I am on your side • I couldn't agree more.  I think the other one’s better. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. In my opinion….  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 ..? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. … If you ask me. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. • I am with you • Definitely.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. • Yes. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju.  In my opinion. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.. As I see. I agree • I know what you mean. say • Absolutely.

kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. that's not a good idea.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. Fear. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. I don't think that's what happened. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. No. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan.

. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. it’s killing me! 2.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • Thank God for . • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . • I’m glad it was done. • I’m sick./I feel ill.. • I feel sick... • Ugh.. it’s very painful! • Oh.

This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger." This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . BUT "I don't really like it.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. but it is not a very strong dislike. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something.

Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I will. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.. I’m extremely unhappy about this. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 .I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. I was so ashamed. That’s a real embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No.

Excuse me if I'm out of line. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Blame (keluhan. Sure. It's your fault for (doing something).. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. I'm sorry to bother you. but I think we should... I will and OK are expressions to grant a request..  Right away. but.. Complaint.  Of course... Maybe you forgot to. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.  Certainly.. There may have been a misunderstanding about.. I think you might have forgotten to. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. Don't get me wrong..Palupi : OK. but.. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but... Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .

often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . Sorry for taking your DVD. I'd like to apologise for. I …. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. I didn't mean to lose your book. Examples I'm really sorry.. Apology (penyesalan.. to ask for forgiveness. Pete.. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. Sorry for.. I'll clear up later.simply starters! Regret. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry... I'm so sorry.... To say why you're sorry Sorry about. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. to express regret an exclamation a word. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry..

... distress.  There is a little chance that …..... there is a possibility .. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .  There is a good chance that …. NOTE : 1.this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.  It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. yet.

Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it.they..?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….she.  Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 . doing something are: 4.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.you.? it.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2.they.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.you.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.she.she.

we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .he.she. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.it Were utk S= you. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.they.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.

Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.

masa lampau.does/am.is.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. will be practising c. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . is. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. “Srimpi”. the telephone rang twelve times. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. Fred : Juda.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. was parctising e. have been practising b.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. practised d. a. are Was.

have been having lunch c. will have lunch e. have been living c. works d. will have lived b. worked e. a. a. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. was living e. My family ____ when the postman arrived. has been working b. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. will have worked c. clean d. would have started d. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. have lunch d. starts c. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. a. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. will have had lunch b. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. a. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. they are succesful. a. If we don”t hurry. Iwan : Yes. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. cleaned e. will start b. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous.2. am living d. have been cleaning c. were cleaning b. will have started e.

will have been c. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. have carried c. had forgotten e. had been 7. have been c. is d. a. has been b. has worked for six months e. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. has stopped looking for a job b. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. will be b. a. This sentence means that Ann ___. He ____ there for three weeks. He ____ ill for a week. but I ____ there many times. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. were causing b. Learn all these. is still looking for a job 4. started to work 6 months a go c. am d. carry d. will have been c. am carrying b. had been 9. was e. a. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. has been e. will cause 5. forgot c. Is it right? Student : Yes. When airport are located in the center of citied. carried e. would forget 8. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. have been 6. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. has forgotten d. sir. was carrying 3. a. has got a new job d. would be b. causes e. a. was d. was e. a. I forget to bring your book. caused d. My father is still in Bali. a.2. have caused c. forgets b.

Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. attended c. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. Reni goes to her university every morning.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . keterangan waktu.Student : All right.00 tomorrow. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. sir. will be learning b. would be attended DIRECT . Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. dan tempat. where. has been attending e. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. will have learnt c. am learning 10. learn d. has attended b. have learnt e. pronoun (kata ganti orang). will be attending d. who. a. struktur kalimat. when. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. She studies business. She ___ the lectures. a. I ____ them by then. why. how.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. a. The baby is sleeping. why Mary had been absent c. I am very noisy b. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. I wasn’t so noisy d. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. he has gone to his country e. mom. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. to open my mouth b. if Mary was absent d. he went to his country b. that I open his mouth d. had gone to his country d. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. that Mary had been absent b. not to be so noisy e. he goes to his country c. Herman : Okay. He said ____ the previous day. a. Herman. why Mary was absent e. if I opened my mouth e. to be not so noisy c. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1.

Mira. he does not clean e. b. Ari : What did he say. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. what I am doing now. he asked me ____”. he asked. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. he headn’t cleaned b. I forgot to bring your book. a. It is windy outside. c. “What are you doing now?”. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. Does Mira close the window. forgets b. what were you doing now. Mother said. Mira closed the window. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. he hasn’t cleaned 2. He asked me ____ a. “ ___________” a. Closed the window. It is windy outside. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. what I was doing then. 94 5. I hadn’t cleaned d. I got a headache. It was windy outside.c. b. had forgotten e. a. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. c. Anto : I am sorry Lina. 4. has forgotten d. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. what are you were doing now d. e. SMA Students’ Modul of English . that I want meatball or fried chicken e. would forget 3. It was windy outside. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. Mira closed the window. forgot c. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. d. e. he would not clean c.

finish your work d. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. do not spend d. “don’t make noise. e. a. to finish my work c. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. My friend said to me. that I had an appointment c. b. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. when is my appointment b. a.a. 8. a. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. whether I had appointment 7. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. e. going with us b. 10. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. Father said. Mean____ a. She didn’t say the children should noise d. finished your work e. not spend c. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. She told the children don’t make noise b. “Can I find you a hotel?”. he went with us 6. wether he goes with us c. She said the children didn’t make noise c. She told the children not to make noise. did I have an appointment d. she said. Slamet. If he could go with us d. can he go with us e. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. not spending b. children”. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. d. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. how was my appointment e. not to spend e. c. to finish your work b.

• Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.

A : Look! The girl is crying. to be abolished c. was kicking b. was postponed d. is sold d. are unloaded c. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. Y : Really. kicked e. has to be postponed b. had been sold c. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. a. a. were being unloaded e. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . when…. did it abolish e. was being postponed e. were sold b. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. are sold e. was it abolishing d. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. The announcement ____ twice. will be unloaded b. kicks d.? a. has been postponed c.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. have been unloaded d. was it to abolish b. she ____ a. was kicked c. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. a. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet.

has been cleaned 5. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . A big dam ___ in this area next year. a. The passive form is ____ a. is being built c. have arranged b. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. was being cleaned d. is born d. the baby is being looked after well e. was born e. has been built b. is being cleaned e. R. destroyed d. has been born c. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. was destroyed 6.1. the baby was looked after well c. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. rewarded d. cleaned c. will clean b.A. has arranged c. demolishing d. was rewarded e. the baby will be well looked after d. the baby is well looked after b. will be rewarded 8. has been rewarded c. the baby would be well looked after 7. was arranged e. will be built e. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. had been demilishing b. a. will build d. have been arranged 3. will be destroyed b. a. a. She looks after the baby well. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. had destroyed e. will be born 2. is demolishing c. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. a. a. a. is being rewarded b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. would be built 4. is being destroyed c. would be born b. is arranged d. is being demolished e.

a. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. is being taken e. yaitu: 1. will be promised 10. was taken b. will be promised e. has promised d. a. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. took c. will be taken d. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. has been promising b. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3.9. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. was being promised c.

Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. have/has. Contoh: large larger largest 4. -le. was/were. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. shall. -er. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. dll. did. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. -ow. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. may. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . dll. can.c. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. had. will. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku.

ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Contoh : (+) If I had time. itulah yang diharapkan.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. I will buy a new car. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. I would have written you a letter. Kalau kalimatnya (+). I would go to the beach with you. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. 3. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. (jika saya punya uang. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1.). Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Contoh: If I have much money. Apa yang diucapkan. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau.

Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). which. I met him last week. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. his. our. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. your. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . of which.) 2. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. They are printed in English. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. her. whom. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. whose. (him = the man. its. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. I bought it last year. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. their. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. Contoh: We saw the people. Their car has been stolen. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my.

O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. (its surface/permukaannya meja. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. sebuah benda. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . Its surface is not smooth. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Where 8. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store.

Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). The manager has the letter typed. I got the mechanic to repair my car. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . Contoh: Swimming is a good sport.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. The manager gets the letter typed. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. 2. I had mechanic repair my car. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. Jogging makes us fresh.

Setelah possessive adjective (my. his. 4. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.V . he said nothing.3. than plays a video game. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: .V. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.her. to be busy. .our.Juned prefers combro to deblo.Dona prefers dancing to singing. 3. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.their. on.I like T.Amir’s. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . to be worth. 5. 6. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .V better than radio.V ketimbang main video game) 4. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. get used to.your.Dita would rather watch T.to be used to.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. Before leaving. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . before dll. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. can’t help/can’t bear.

After that. yaitu: 1.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. although/though. b.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. then. finally. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. when. or. d. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. Since I have no money. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . c. since. 1. 3. if. c. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. after. b. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. Finally. dll. for. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. but. I can’t treat you. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.Contoh: . we must prepare the ingredients.He is both wise and good. We went home after the rain stopped. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. c. while. that. b. Menunjukan waktu: before.I went to your house but you weren’t at home.Although it was raining. e. 2. first. a. somebody knocked on the door. While he was reading her novel. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. d. a.Amir and I go to school everyday. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . we put them into frying pan. we put some sauce and salt. as soon as. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. a. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . he come on time. Contoh: . after that. next.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3.You can read this book if you like. Next.

He is not only active but also clever.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .

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