DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

.106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ...........................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ...........................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ......100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ..................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).....................................................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ...........................................................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH.............................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)...............................................................................................................................................104 GERUND ..........................99 QUESTION TAGS .....................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION..............................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ................

Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Review 7. Analytical Exposition 8. Procedure 12. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Anecdote 9. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Recount 6. Narrative 11. Descriptive 10. why is the text made?. Spoof 5. Report 4. The language feature. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. 1. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Hortatory Exposition 3. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. These types of text are. Explanation 2. 2. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. News Items 13.

contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. the risk is nineteen greater. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. Thirdly. cars are very noisy. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. As we all know. or concentrate on your homework. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Reiteratio In conclusion. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Additionally. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. as we all know. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. cars create pollution. and especially talk to someone. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Secondly. the city is very busy. Example of Analytical Exposition A. it is better to look at the fact. If you live in the city. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. which causes them to die. cars. In one hour in smoky room. Smoking however is not good for every body else. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Argument Firstly. lung cancer. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. If we smoke five cigarettes a day.

The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. As the US. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. That wil be true if the conditions. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. In this example of analytical exposition text.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Furthermore. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit.

misalnya certainly.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. misalnya Many people believe. misalnya we must preserve. Additionally.dsb. pen. students need book. ruler and such other stuff. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. government. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. secondly. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. we. misalnya species of animals. dsb. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. eraser. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. • Reiteration . finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. First. dsb.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. pollution. dsb. The students just need to brows that online shop. • Action verbs. Secondly. misalnya It is important. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. misalnya C. leaded petrol car. drawing book. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya firstly. • Abstract nouns. dsb. • Bahasa evaluatif. misalnya car. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya She must save. • Technical verbs. • Modal adverbs. • Connectives. misalnya policy. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. Penguatan pernyataan. decide which computer or laptop they need. dsb. students need more to reach their progressive development. • Relating verbs. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. and then complete the transaction. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. in this multimedia era. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. • Thinking verbs. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. dsb. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. this method will help student to get better understanding. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. dsb. dsb • Modal verbs. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk.

This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries.delivered to the students' houses. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. It seems Indonesia. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . It tries to bring the precise message in different language. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. From all of that. Therefore. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. D. If Hindi translation is provided. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Arabic translation. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Career in Translation Functionally. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. E. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. According to Nida. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. India is likely being an English speaking country. That is really easy and save time and money. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. India translation will grow better and.

writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Incident. Using simple past tense 4. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. do you know what? 4. write. Using action verb. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. For instance. Using exclamation words. Using rhetoric question. then. etc 2. afterward 6. Using imperative. Crisis 4. listen to this 3. it's awful!. it's wonderful!. etc 5. Using conjunction of time. go. 2. because. etc • Causal conjunction . you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1.is inserted at the end of each article. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Abstract 2. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Orientation 3. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. 3. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination.

He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. The father was full of disappointed and anger. nine children. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. The doctor sewed up the boy. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. there were being quarantined for long days. dsb. and turned on the tap. However few days before their departure. misalnya go. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. The family worked and saved. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. enough money. The family dreams were dashed.  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. seperti then. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. spitting and hissing at us. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. dsb. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. America. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. whole business. so we set to. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. passport. Anna. who was only three at the time. They had gotten afterwards. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. write. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. He shed tears of disappointment. their children to America. Crisis Suddenly to my horror.

or thing. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. they were left behind. They had dream to travel to America. 3. the mighty Titanic. qualities. It made they were being quarantined. 2. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. place. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. He thanked God for saving their lives. describing the phenomenon in parts. It was unbelievable but it was. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. The Clak family should have been on that ship. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. They had to forget their plan. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. The ship. but because of the bitten son by a dog. When the father heard the news. You have and so do I. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. • Using simple present tense 4. identifying the phenomenon to be described. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry with his son and God. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. • Description. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. or/and characteristics. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. When the dream will come true. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. had shank. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. It was a blessing behind a tragedy.Five days latter. there is something wrong last minute before it.

where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. When she are walking on that shoes. Sydney. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. She is really mad on that shoes. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. bright color. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. The style. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Today. a grass amphitheatre. yet retaining its beautiful site. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. Example of Description A. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. native plants and eucalypts. She always pays much attention on her appearance. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Recently. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. She is beautiful. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. all her friends. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She said that the products covered all genders. attractive and trendy. a railway station is under construction. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. This shoes really matches on her. In three years1 time. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. in 2004. This year. She really have perfect appearance. In 1964. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features.

Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Borobudur is well-known. The way to the summit extends through some 4. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. casual. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend.Budhist temple. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . describing the Borobudur temple in parts. B. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Cambodia. Central Java. Borobudur is located in Magelang. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Ballet. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 .she has. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general.8 km of passage and starways.The temple is constructed. Indonesia. valuable • Using simple present tense. The products provide varieties of choice. The upper three are circular. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Borobudur temple • Description. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle.

Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. It has very thick fur. 2. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. but my favourite one is a cat.my cat. classifying. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. misalnya fast. • berbagai macam adjectives. dsb. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. Misalnya: I have many pets. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. house. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. dsb. My mum is realy cool. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. dsb. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. sifat-sifat (characteristic). misalnya. enough money to take Snow White.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. two strong legs. a sweet young lady. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. perilaku umum. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. bersifat describing. White. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. misalnya.  Description. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). dsb. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. dsb. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. misalnya teacher. dsb. • action verbs. kualitas. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. sharp white fangs. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. • simple present tense. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. numbering. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. better or worse 3. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1.

Then Snow White woke up. in what way she will decide who the best is. “If you wish. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. There they found Snow White sleeping. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . One evening. After dinner. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. One by one she discarded them. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. The first gave her some left over food. “Without question. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. The dwarfs said. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. The third sheik. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. She saw the dwarfs. The following day. They were also rich and strong. one of the dwarfs. said. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. who was called Hakim. As they were about to have dinner. They went inside. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. who received a plate of delicious meat. which she strikes against herself. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. Hakim. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura.” Snow White said. They want to know what next will happen. “what is your name?” Snow White said. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. “My name is Snow White. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. Maura asked them for something to eat. you may live here with us. The psychological conflict inside Maura. Example of Narative A.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. had many suitors. “Oh could I? Thank you.” Doc. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks.

misalnya then. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. waktu. dsb. Resolution. the man really got very angry. He could not bear it. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. phrase. “You know. konflik dalam cerita. before that. long black hair. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. Penyelesaian masalah. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Although he tried hard to teach. stepsisters. the parrot would not say it. At the first.dsb. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. dsb. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. in the mountain. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. There was no other parrot like it. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. Pengenalan tokoh. dsb. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. two red apples. Masalah. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. stayed. climbed. misalnya here. a man had a wonderful parrot. housework. dsb. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. misalnya. except one word. Then he continued to humble. soon. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. happily ever after. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. misalnya. The parrot could say every word. The name of the place was Catano. • action verbs dalam past tense. I will cut the chicken 17 . Complication. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano.

The daughters were crying. readers see the problem is finished. They were married happily. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. He liked fishing. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. She attracted Batara Guru so much. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. It will show the crisis. The next day. He could not control his mad. One day. He opened the door and was very surprised. Next it will be your turn. stupid parrot”. They found their mother and talked her about it. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. He made the fish free. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. the man attempted to teach the bird. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. 3. rising crisis and climax of the story. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. In that parrot story. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. C. 4 are describing the complication. He felt in love with that fish-woman. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. At the moment. To fix this problem. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. There were three death chickens on the floor. paragraph 2. Batara Guru could not bear it. After that he left the chicken house. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. They had two daughters. he caught a fish. A man and his parrot took place once time. That was the smartest parrot. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. The fish begged him to set it free. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter.for my meal. I will eat you too. As soon as it was free. the man came back to the chicken house. there was a handsome man. In the parrot story. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters.

It fitted perfectly. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. In her hurry. Finally. A few days later. and away went the sisters to it. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. The two step sisters. did not work about the house. Then the earth began to shake. “Well” said the godmother. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. They treated Cinderella very badly. The earth formed a very big hole. the day of the ball came. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Magically. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. on the other hand. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. “Why are crying. Volcanoes started to erupt. D. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. hardworking. She danced again and again with the king’s son. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. such as scrubbing the floor. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. One day. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. At last.The mother was very annoyed. Cinderella?” a voice asked. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. “Now. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. she was driven to the palace. one of her glass slipper was left behind. she said. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. “You must leave before midnight”. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Batara Guru broke his promise. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. In the end. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Cinderella”. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. The mother was shouting angrily. They were married and live happily ever after. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. and it became a beautiful ball gown. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly.”you’ve been such a cheerful. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace.

She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. “Yes” said the man. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . “you are so big and strong. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. introducing specific participants. said the buffalo. “it at home”. The Smartest Animal. Every morning and every evening. the man is very intelligent”. once in Laos 2. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. “Can I see your intelligence?”. Orientation. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. Complication. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Resolution: Like complication. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. The tiger asked. But the man answered. E. Generic Structure Analysis 1. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Then he said. Resolution. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. “No. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. “oh. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. Complication: In this Cinderella story. In the last paragraph. 3. After the man went home. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. One day. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. farmer and his buffalo.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. I can’t tell you”. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Once there was a farmer from Laos. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger.

Goal: showing the purpose 2. there was a farmer. Place on a plate. plate Method 1. the next day past tense. answered thinking verb. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. ¼ cup milk. hit time conjunction. cheese grater. saw. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. was surprised to action verb. 50 g cheese. Add milk and whisk well 4. once. after. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. one day connectives. tie. spatula. fork. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. bowl. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. the man tied the tiger. Cook both sides 9.

the following is a guided information B. Example of Procedure A. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. planting is a nice activity. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. dry. next. mix. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. put. dry a handful seeding. dsb. put the seeding on the soil. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. Here are the steps. firstly. take the topic of benefits. Your customers don't care about you. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Firstly. while. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. misalnya for five minutes. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. put. • Material. Firstly. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. Here's a simple checklist to follow. put it in another big pot. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . It should be in open area Next. menyatakan rinci waktu. Cut. Langkah-langkah. informing on how to plant chillies. tempat. cara yang akurat. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. etc • Temporal conjunction. Don’t mix. you don't have to. 2 centimetres from the top. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. misalnya. but it will help. • action verbs. write your benefit like you talk it. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. misalnya then. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. finally. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Finally. Well. put it. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative.10. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Read aloud what you've written. dsb. etc • Action verb. excluded • Steps. dsb. not features. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. wait it. don’t. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. misalnya turn. Use regular words.

writing the topic like the way it is talked. firstly. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. choosing the advantageous topic. Some sentences are long and some are short. Edit it necesarily. lose the weak words. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. spatula. such as. fifty gram cheese. etc • Action verb. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. you need some tools. Fifthly. to make a cheese omelet. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. frying pan. read. etc • Temporal conjunction. Don't describe how your company may. add First. informing on how to write for business • Material. First. secondly. a quarter cup of milk. Use a nice rhythm. Mix them up and keep things interesting. Next. cheese grater. a pinch of satlt and pepper. write like you talked. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . re-reading what have been written . reread what you have done. write. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth.re-read what you've done before publishing. Next. Listen carefully. Fourthly. bowl and plate. excluded • Steps/ method.Thirdly. showing the method in writing for business. three tablespoons cookin oil. you need an egg. etc C. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. fork.

Language Feature of News Item 1. time. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Focusing on circumstances 2. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Using material process 4. place) 3. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Example of Procedure A. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. participant. Resource of information 3. a news report said. “But this just a suggestion. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Main event 2. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. 2.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The accident. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. Generic Structure of News Item 1. it’s up to them”. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . “This is not to debate them but to protect them. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Elaboration (background.

Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. komentar saksi kejadian. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. pendapat para ahli. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. he said in the report.  Background Events. named Suwartin. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. many women who contract HIV are housewives. but the number is steadily rising. tempat kejadian dsb. Malaysian Aids Council president. In the past the event was held behind closed door. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. Kejadian inti. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Latar belakang kejadian. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events. (Source The Jakarta Post. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together.  Sources. even though they know they have HIV” she said. June 01. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. dsb. Last year. orang yang terlibat. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. less then 10 percent are woman.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. The maid. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia.

Then the maid was arrested. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Islamic law executed more than 130 people.co. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. (Adapted from Reuters. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. behead. the Saudi Interior Minister said. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Last year.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. (Taken from: www.bbc. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . Background 1. May 6. Background 2. Hong Kong. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Saudi Arabia. She had relationship the boy for five months. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. law of serious crimes. Background 3. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. Resource. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. execute. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. Rape. carry. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C.news. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. Using material process.

Homework is really good because it helps with our education. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. many times. and social text. 2. etc 4. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. could. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. But. may. doing homework is not a great idea. on the hand. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. should. and causal connection.1. historic. hope. feel. contrastive. however. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. etc • Using additive. deliberately. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. etc • Using adverbial of manner. similarly. hopefully. Example of Discussion Text A. etc • Using modalities. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. must. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. believe.

It is reliable.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. England in 1956. It produces small amount of waste. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. and produces huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. so it is not expansive to make. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal.

(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. . In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points.  Kesimpulan. perception and recommendation. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. Elaborasi (uraian). Gagasan Pokok 2. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. misalnya smoking is harmful. Furthermore. This example of discussion text present the two poles. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. misalnya deliberately. dsb. misalnya feel. Elaborasi (uraian). it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. hope. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. alcohol. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. should have been. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. although it is reliable. dsb. nuclear power is very. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. however. dsb. dsb. believe. misalnya uniforms.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. very dangerous. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. should. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. dsb. seperti perhaps.On the other hand. • adverbials of maner. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. on the hand. memberikan informasi secara padu. misalnya similarly. In many social activities. hopefully. could 29 be. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. must. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away.

farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. conservationists. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. however. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Using modalities. Using connectives. B. believe. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Contrastive point. scientific and cultural phenomena. Supporting point. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Recommendation. It is often found in science. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. farmer. 2.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Many farmer and even conservationists.co. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. geography and history text books.bbc. (Taken from: www. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. must. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. social. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. hunting fox. Using thinking verb. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 .nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance.

to begin with. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . next.• • General statement. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. etc Using chronological connection. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. sun. rain. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Example of Explanation Text A. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Language Feature • • • • 4. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Sequenced explanation. Featuring generic participant. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill.

It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. adverbial phrases. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Tsunami always bring great damage. sosialbudaya. abstract nouns. This process is called revolution. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. It is called as rotation.panda. It takes 365 days or a year. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. The earth also moves around the sun. misalnya the large cloud. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. dunia ilmiah. the amount of • bahasa teksni. passive voice. It causes day and night. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . misalnya word chopping. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. misalnya the temperature. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. noun phrase. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis.org) B. simple present tense. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. conjunctions of time dan cause. action verbs. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. earthquakes. (simplified from www. complex sentences. But that is the case. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter.

Using present tense. (Taken from: www. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. important. Using modal adverb. trustworthy. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using evaluative words. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. etc 3. Explanation. Using pasive voice. advantage. daylight. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using passive voice 9. Using abstract noun. Arguments 3. 2. certainly. the earth is actually closer to the sun. so. secondly. you would be forgiven. Using simple present tense 4.co. etc 6. firstly. surely.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Thesis 2. but.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). I feel that when you travel through the country.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. policy. etc 7. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Using thinking verb 5. then. etc 8. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using temporal connective. Recommendation 3. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country.ictteachers. Using chronological connection. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Focusing on the writer 2. Using action verb 4. valuable.

we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. of course. Those who want to penalise older . many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. especially violence. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Recently. consumerism and so on. stress. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. and the possibility of being aggressive. Meanwhile. Recomendatio I feel that country people. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. and short sleep duration. However.every five to ten minutes. pornography. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Considering some facts mentioning above.

Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . and napkin everywhere. sales letter. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. Basically.the writer thought as stated in the text. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. B. Both take place as argumentative essays. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. When we look at classroom. school corridors and schoolyard. In many social activities. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. advertising. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. mineral water cops. there papers. In the first paragraph. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. If it is a hortatory text. and news advertorial. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. straws. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. speech campaign. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. More dust bins should be put beside each step.

As result. C. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. it will be quite confusing. So when students want to throw away their litters. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home.meters. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. In the same way. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. So. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. When they think about continuing study. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. they can find the dust bins easily. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. the available time will be more flexible for them. they will think hard about the time and cost. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. Where should be after High School?. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. it will be very hard to looking for job. As the alternative method of studying. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. In the other hand. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . when they think about straightly seeking job. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative.

secondly. Argument.misalnya policy. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. We can show the way to give up work. plant. misalnya. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. public place. Action verbs. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Thinking verbs. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Relating verbs. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. make. misalnya important. now there is a way out. part per part . Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. as it is. Modal adverbs. etc which will be discussed in general 2. give up. misalnya species of animals. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Modal verbs. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns.government dsb. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Recommendation. Generic Structure of Report 1. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. dsb. he drives a sport car. Connectives. animal. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. etc Using thinking verb. dsb. doesn’t seem to have been . misalnya certainly.D. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. misalnya firstly.we. dsb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. felt Using simple present tense. misalnya We must preserve. are you tired?. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. there is a way out of financial problem. dsb. Technical verbs.dsb. misalnya should be. dsb. we must save. Albert Smith is the proof. valuable. misalnya I believe . Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. reward Using action verb. dsb. Millions from Property Market. dsb.

a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. so. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. stating general classification. In the other hand. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud.• • Using conditional logical connection. etc Using simple present tense 4. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. driving the fish before them. and lakes. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus' eyes and head are small. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. A group. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. the animal of platypus. Platypus. and woolly layer of fur. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. beating the water furiously with their wings. perhaps two dozen birds. when. rivers. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Example of Report Text A. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Platypus lives in streams. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.

(c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. dsb. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Platypus lives in streams. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. habits or behaviors. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. istilah teknis. dan klasifikasinya. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. benda buatan manusia. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . the animal of platypus conditional.Description. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. qualities. lingkungan. misalnya. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. but. in terms of parts. dsb. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. apa adanya. dsb. misalnya lizards cannot fly. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. logical connective. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. keterangan. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia).  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. atau gejala-gejala sosial. dsb. male platypus does not need any burrow. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. kegunaannya jika non natural.

he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Using action verb. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Twist 3. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. ate.1. Using adverb of time and place 4. animals or certain things 2. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Focusing on people. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Orientation 2. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. ‘ take him to the zoo’. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Dave found a nice office. etc 3. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. ran. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Events 3. Told in chronological order 4.’ replied the man. 2.

very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He suddenly became a 1. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. conversation on the phone. misalnya eat. terduga atau lucu). he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. no children. Instead leaving the country. B. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Then the man said to Dave. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. run. “You want me. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. In his office. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. He had not left the country yet. “Hey Abu Nawas. Event 1: Being rich. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. “Yes. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. Then “Remember. benda tertentu. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. I want you to leave the country. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. “If that is what you want. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . Event 2: He had his new office. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. verbs. binatang.

(Adapted from S. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. You have not left this country”. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The king wondered and said “Abu. So you see. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I had a very good seat.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I have been walking on this stilts. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. And since yesterday. look at you. Your Majesty. You walk on stilts like a child. “I remember exactly what you said.I did not enjoy it. The guards reported what they had seen to the king.I got very angry. young man and young woman. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. They were talking very loudly. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. I do not step on the ground. I could not bear it. The king was not able to say anything. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. The King continued “And now.guards. I turned around again. They did not pay any attention. The play was very interesting. were talking noisily. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I do not step on the ground of this country”. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily.In the end. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. I could not hear the actors. I turned around. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly.

Getting Nasreddin's answer. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. they just shook the head. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . The man was still carrying the penguin. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. “When I came here with my old clothes.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. "Take it to the zoo!". Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. the policeman saw the man in the same park. The host at once got up and came to meet him. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. you give food to my coat instead of me”. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. The next day. He took it to a policeman and said. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. When he arrived in the party. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. nobody looked at me. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. He put his coat and said. “Eat the food. It’s a private conversation”. “It’s none of your business. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. So. D. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin.

change. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . They were in the park Event1. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. carry. He. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. saw. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. Orientation: Introducing the participants. policeman Using action verb. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. etc • Using action verb. Generic Structure of Recount 1. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. etc • Using simple past tense 4. heard. chronological order by days. was. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. look. my group. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. I. penguin. etc • Using chronological connection. today I am taking it to the movie". place and time 2. The following day. So. Even. Reorientation: It is optional. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist.did. etc • Using linking verb. walk up Using adverb of time and place.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. then. once. in the park Told in chronological order. go. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. first. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. were.

The officers were pleasant. Instead of keys for the room. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . B. They slept part of the way.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. They had variety of food. They had booked fourteen days tour. Mr. We stayed at David and Della’s house. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. We saw cockatoos having a shower. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Vacation to London Mr. Then. the thing is an experience. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. This includes travel and accommodation. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. they inserted a key-card to open the door. read. It can be what the writer has done. Richard with two sons. The room had perfect view of the park. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. on Example of Recount text A. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. Richard’s family was on vacation. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They went to London. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. They had a very pleasant flight. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. hear. At the end of the 14-day. and Mrs. On the third floor. They are Mr. There was a film for their entertainment. The two week in London went by fast. In writer's point of view. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. They gave them food and drink. It was scary. Mummy and I went shopping with Della.

46 slowly dsb. di mana dan kapan. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. In simple way. we dsb. On the other hand. sleep.Small Notes and felt. dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. • • • • • . Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. then on Monday. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa.  Events. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. but. C. The event happened smoothly. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. The next stop was Celuk. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. On the day of the tour. Pengenalan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. at my house. after that. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. It reveals the conflict among the participants. the second was to Ubud. kejadian atau kegiatan. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible.  Reorientation. The first stop was at Batubulan. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. misalnya We went to the zoo. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. a center of stone sculpture. misalnya and. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. run dsb. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. then. waktu dan cara. what happened on Sunday. She was happy dsb. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. The first one was to Singaraja. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. recount describes series of events in detail. Rekaman peristiwa. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. misalnya go. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. misalnya yesterday. It is a busy but quiet town. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. the on Tuesday. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. misalnya beautiful. kejadian atau kegiatan. the monkey. funny. past tense. he was ready. dsb. misalnya David.

When the earthquake happened. I • Using chronological connectives. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. walked. He was quiet satisfied. made. D. I did not know that it was an earthquake. my car lunched on one side. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. to the left. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. It took about a week. Events. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. stating the writer's personal note. describing a series of event which happened. moved. suddenly • Using linking verb. etc. Re-orientation. were • Using action verb. I was on the car las week. was. Several days before the ceremony was done. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. like matchsticks. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. and. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. Although nothing was left. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. left. The car lunched to one side. Overall. introducing the participant. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. I was on my car. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. I thought I got flat tire. etc E. using first person point of view. When I reached my town. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. earthquake happened. I was on the car. all his day was spent on the beach. There were rocks everywhere. I was trapped by the rock. the ceremony was quite elaborate.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. then. in the town. Even I could not move my car at all.

chanting. my brother. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . During the day. we were feasting. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. Questions 1. Meanwhile. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. After that. and end your composition.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. After that. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. The funeral was performed in two phases. First. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. In the night. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. and dancing. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. a series of events in chronological order. Then. On the last day. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. Finally. Then. and then moved the corpse to face north. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. my uncle. A recount text has an orientation. However. Finally. you find words and phrases used to start. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. there were also buffalo matches. Those words and phrases are: First. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. connect a sentence with the next one. They were great matches. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. In the text. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard.

As I said in my previous post. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Using metaphor 4. uniqueness. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. or just a site which want to be known publicly. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. It can be product. Focus on specific participants 2. etc. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Dominant Language features: 1. Definition Review is one of text genres. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. It states the parts. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Using long and complex clauses 4. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . Each text type will have different form of generic structure. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Using adjectives 3. useful. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. It is personal idea about the product. worthy. 3. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. valuable. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side.What is review text 1. services which want to be sold. After clearly explanation.

and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. magical or no. depressing feel.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. however. and this part I loved. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. intriguing. A few other changes in this book . fast-paced. He goes from being a warm-hearted. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. with some editing it would have been great.. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing.. I was truly moved by the last page. and ultimately satisfying. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. In some (Interpretati instances this works. this was not my favorite. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. I actually liked the ending (and yes. for example .Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. I cried!) as sad as it was. The stories were bright. and parts of it do seem long. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. especially with being a teenager and all. Still a really good book.housekeeping is still housekeeping. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary.

SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . It is real. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. The site is quite simple but very informative. Again. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. However. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. the daily activities are worthily documented.the trend. easy and not complicated design. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . If we visit the site. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. The site is her effort to record of what she did. if he works with Farsi translation. In certain case. The experts who have grammatical. For Rosemarie. Similarly. lexical. The translation experts. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. aluminum and rimless frame are available. Eyeglasses for children. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. woman and man are available choice. does and will do daily. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. it will be quite difficult to make translation. It straightly goes to the end user. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. Titanium.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. animal and scientific object. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. Explanation is such a scientific written material. However if they are analyzed carefully. For example how to make a cup of tea. colour. how to make a good kite. lengh. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. How a tornado form. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. its parts. Explanation. What make different. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. secondly prepare the cup. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. In the other hand. etc. They give the detail description on something. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. it belongs to report text. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. goods. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. descriptive text will convey more focus. eg: bicycle. product case or problem. wheel style. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. physical strengh. If we talk about. Procedure. Mostly. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. It is such word. It will talk about bicycle in general. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. etc is the best example of the procedure text. In short. report is written after getting careful observation. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. and so on. is the scope of the written object. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. between report and descriptive text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. phenomena. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. first boil water.

first boil water. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. On the other hand. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Procedure. hear. the thing is an experience. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. secondly prepare the cup. It reveals the conflict among the participants. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. the on Tuesday. and so on. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. product case or problem.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. The event happened smoothly. Explanation is such a scientific written material. goods. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. For example how to make a cup of tea. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. what happened on Sunday. It is such word. It can be what the writer has done. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. read. phenomena. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. then on Monday. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. recount describes series of events in detail. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. How a tornado form. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. etc is the best example of the procedure text. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. They give the detail description on something. how to make a good kite. and felt. In writer's point of view. Explanation. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. In simple way. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event.

Abstract 2. These variations are known as GENRES. texts are divided into several types. descriptive. 23. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verbs 4. 20. Crisis 4. discussion. 15. 19. and news item. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Reaction 5. 17. Using modals 2. Orientation 3. procedure. report. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 26. Using adjective 6. hortatory exposition. They are narrative. 16. analytical exposition. anecdote. explanation.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Using material process 3. 25. 14. spoof. Thesis 2. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . 22. Arguments 3. 24. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using adverbs 5. Dominant Language Features: 1. Using exclamations. recount. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using technical terms 7. 18. review. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Coda.

Using noun phrase 5. General statement 2. Explanation 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Background event(s) 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. Complication 4. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Short. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Using adverb 4. Using passive voice 4. Using action verbs 3. Using action verb 3. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1.1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Issue 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. place and manner. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using Past Tense 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Arguments for and against 3. Using action verbs 3. Materials/Equipments 3. Evaluation 3. Resolution 5. Using adverbs : time. Orientation 2. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.

Using general and abstract noun 9. Identification 2. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Thesis 2. Using modality 7. place or thing in detail. as it is. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Arguments 3. Using adjective 7. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Generic Structure 1. Description Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 8. Using action verb 3. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using general and abstract noun 5. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. General classification 2. Using thinking verb 4. Using thinking verbs 5. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using modals 3. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using adverb 4. In simple word. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverbs 6. Using conditional logical connection 3.1.

Using metaphor 60 . Using action verb 3. folklore. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Interpretative Recount 4. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using adverb 4. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using adjectives 3. social conflict or psychological conflict. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. etc while recount text is found in biography. Evaluation 3. myth. fable. Event(s) 3. Orientation 2. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. whether Simple Past Tense. Using action verb 3. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Event(s) 3. Evaluation 5. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Focus on specific participants 2. In the contrary. or Past Perfect Tense. Using long and complex clauses 4. Simple Past Continuous Tense. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Orientation 2. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Orientation 2. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1.

Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. 10. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. grafik. 6. 4. 9. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. tempat. Continuous text misalnya narrative. 8. descriptive. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. tabel. diagram dsb. biasanya tentang nama. label. 7. map. penjelasan. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 5. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. 2.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 1. dsb. spoof dsb. 11. 3. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa.exposition. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. tanggal. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. tahun. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna.

Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. And cute. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. fluffy. The purpose of the text is _____.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. it is small. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan.

a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere.. more dust bins…. in every ten meters. When we look at classrooms. a number of dust bins should be increased. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. According to the writer. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. They put their litters on the proper places. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. they can find the dust bins easily. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. and napkins here and there. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough.EXERCISES. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. and some more also the corridors. 1. straws. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out.. there are paper mineral water cups. school corridors and school yard. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. outside of the classrooms. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. Besides. readers to do something good. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. So when students want to throw away their litters. What is the writer’s intention? To ….

Firstly. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. The generic structures of the text are …. place or time reference. practicing selective listening comprehension. patriotism and yeas. lexically and poetically. Secondly.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. 5. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. learning vocabulary. songs in general also use simple conversational language. translating songs. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. with a lot of repetition. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. spelling and culture. In addition. even revolution. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. which is just what many learners look for sample text. From the elaboration above. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Although usually simple. They provide variety and fun. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. Furthermore. songs are relaxing. shopping malls. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. religion. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. Last but not least. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. What is the text about ….

there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10.“They provide variety and fun.Since we can find a thesis. Firstly.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. 11.9.. not just in restaurants. Based on the text. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. smoking in restaurants is impolite. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. The word reasons mean…. Finally. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.” The underlined word refers to ….What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. Therefore. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. It must not be allowed because it is rude. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
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And you. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . It's a pleasure to meet you. I'm. Harris. teacher. Pleased to meet you.. I don't believe we've met before. my my my my my my my my my brother. Ms. This is my friend. Mr. student. Harris.. Ritter. Bob. co-worker.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Mr. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. sister. Mary Jones. Penny Pitcher. Introducing someone else my name is. Nice to meet you too. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. boss. Likewise. Cindy. I'm Linda 1. mother. friend.. Jack. • I want to introduce you to …. Mrs. Nice to meet you.. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. father. Carrie. Watson. Hi Jack. 2. Very nice to meet you.

too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. a restaurant. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. e. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Adib. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Adib : Hi.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. I’m Arnys. My name is Adib. Adib : Anyway. we still have half an hour before the class starts. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. this is Retno. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Arnys. Arnys? Retno : Okay. hotel. are you a new student. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. I am.g. Hi.g. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . Shall we go to the canteen?. Situation: Adib. Retno. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. By the way. They meet at the students’ orientation course. and Retno are new students.

before leaving. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . Not so bad. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. thanks.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. • Good bye. . (informal) Would you like to . . Very well. . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. shake hands with other Virga :… women. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. . . . . thanks. See you soon /later /tomorrow. Bye. thank you. Do you wanna . . thanks. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English.

Yes..? Would you like .I’d like very much .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.a chocolate bar? . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome. Receiving .... Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.. let’s not.Some responds of inviting..I’d be happy/glad to accept .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . I’d be delighted to. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No... .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.I’d love to .

• Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. helped carry your grocery bags. Thanks. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Happy birthday to you. Thank you. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. you very much. returned your lost wallet. I need it. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Happy new year. complimented you on your necktie.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about….

That’s pity f. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . That’s a nuisance d. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 .. That’s too bad e. and congratulations Special Days . not really. holidays and other special occasions. What’s shame b. It’s nice of you to say so. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. What’s pity c.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. How kind of you to say so..• • • Oh.

Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. I’m really sad to … c.. g. I feel disappointed. …. I enjoyed it I love it. f. How terrible! c. i. I’m really sorry for them d. feel unpleased with …. k. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I’m so happy …. d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . h. l. How dreadful! C. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I’m sorry to hear that b. e. I’m delighted. c. How Awful! d. Expression Displeasure a. j.B. I’m sorry about that c. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. I feel … b. m. Send my deepest condolence! f. d. b. It was terrifi c. Goodness! b. I feel ….

kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh.Satisfaction.

As I see. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. I agree • I know what you mean.  I think the other one’s better. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. … If you ask me. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. say • Absolutely.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions.  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. • Yes. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . • I am with you • Definitely...  In my opinion. In my opinion…. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.

Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. that's not a good idea.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. Fear. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I don't think that's what happened. No.

• I’m glad it was done. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. • Ugh. it’s very painful! • Oh.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .... • I’m sick..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 ./I feel ill. it’s killing me! 2. • Thank God for . Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I feel sick.

This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'." This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . but it is not a very strong dislike. BUT "I don't really like it.

Informal Situations … really makes me mad. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. I will. I was so ashamed. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you….. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I’m extremely unhappy about this.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . There are some other expressions to show embarrassment.. That’s a real embarrassment. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .

.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request... There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Maybe you forgot to. but. but I think we should... I think you might have forgotten to. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but..  Of course. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright...  Right away. It's your fault for (doing something). It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. Excuse me if I'm out of line.  Certainly. Complaint. Blame (keluhan.. There may have been a misunderstanding about... but.. I'm sorry to bother you.Palupi : OK. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Sure.. Don't get me wrong.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.

Pete. Sorry for taking your DVD.. Apology (penyesalan. I …. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly... to express regret an exclamation a word... often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. Examples I'm really sorry.. I'm so sorry. I'll clear up later. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. Sorry for. to ask for forgiveness..simply starters! Regret. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I didn't mean to lose your book.. I'd like to apologise for.

• Is it possible to …? • Yes. there is a possibility .this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness.. NOTE : 1..... SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .  There is a good chance that …. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.  There is a little chance that ….  It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game.. distress.. yet.. Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.

?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2.? it. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.  Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.they. Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: …..we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.she.they.she.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.she. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.you. It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.you. doing something are: 4.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 .

it Were utk S= you.they.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.she. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.he.

waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 . Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.

Fred : Juda. will be practising c. the telephone rang twelve times. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 .is. have been practising b.masa lampau. are Was. practised d.does/am. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. “Srimpi”.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. was parctising e. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. is. a.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was.

a. have been having lunch c. clean d. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. If we don”t hurry. will have worked c. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . were cleaning b. My family ____ when the postman arrived. have been cleaning c. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year.2. was living e. a. a. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. will have had lunch b. works d. am living d. will have lived b. cleaned e. worked e. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. have been living c. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. they are succesful. has been working b. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. have lunch d. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. a. will have lunch e. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. Iwan : Yes. will start b. a. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. would have started d. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. starts c. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. will have started e.

has forgotten d. has been e. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. will cause 5. would be b. but I ____ there many times. will have been c. is still looking for a job 4. When airport are located in the center of citied. a. was e. is d. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. forgets b. have been c. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. was d. has got a new job d. will be b. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. would forget 8. carried e. am carrying b. started to work 6 months a go c. had been 9. had forgotten e. He ____ there for three weeks. were causing b. will have been c. had been 7. has stopped looking for a job b. a. has worked for six months e. caused d. He ____ ill for a week. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . My father is still in Bali. was e. a. This sentence means that Ann ___. have carried c. am d. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. Learn all these. have caused c. a. was carrying 3. Is it right? Student : Yes. a. have been 6. has been b. a. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book.2. causes e. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. forgot c. I forget to bring your book. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. sir. a. carry d.

why. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . who.Student : All right. a. has attended b. how. attended c. learn d. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. will be learning b. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. am learning 10.00 tomorrow. where. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. a. will be attending d. keterangan waktu. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. has been attending e. She ___ the lectures. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). I ____ them by then.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. would be attended DIRECT . have learnt e. will have learnt c. pronoun (kata ganti orang). dan tempat. She studies business. Reni goes to her university every morning. when. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. sir. struktur kalimat.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

a. why Mary was absent e.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. The baby is sleeping. I am very noisy b. if Mary was absent d. had gone to his country d. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. He said ____ the previous day. I wasn’t so noisy d. Herman : Okay. he has gone to his country e. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . why Mary had been absent c. to be not so noisy c. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. a. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. that Mary had been absent b. not to be so noisy e. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. he goes to his country c. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. mom. to open my mouth b. Herman. he went to his country b. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. if I opened my mouth e. that I open his mouth d.

he headn’t cleaned b. had forgotten e. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. a. what I was doing then. b. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. He asked me ____ a. Mira closed the window. It is windy outside. would forget 3. SMA Students’ Modul of English . “ ___________” a.c. d. 94 5. c. Ari : What did he say. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Does Mira close the window. forgets b. Mother said. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. 4. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. c. I hadn’t cleaned d. has forgotten d. It was windy outside. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. Anto : I am sorry Lina. he hasn’t cleaned 2. what were you doing now. Closed the window. a. I got a headache. he would not clean c. b. what are you were doing now d. he asked me ____”. e. e. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. Mira closed the window. Mira. what I am doing now. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. It was windy outside. It is windy outside. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. he asked. he does not clean e. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. “What are you doing now?”. I forgot to bring your book. forgot c.

not to spend e. Slamet. “Can I find you a hotel?”. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . do not spend d. wether he goes with us c. to finish my work c. did I have an appointment d. She told the children not to make noise. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. a. 10. whether I had appointment 7. e. how was my appointment e. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She said the children didn’t make noise c. that I had an appointment c. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him.a. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. to finish your work b. 8. Mean____ a. She didn’t say the children should noise d. children”. she said. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. finished your work e. a. can he go with us e. not spending b. e. d. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. My friend said to me. c. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. Father said. not spend c. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. She told the children don’t make noise b. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. finish your work d. a. when is my appointment b. he went with us 6. “don’t make noise. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. going with us b. b. If he could go with us d.

Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.

kicks d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. to be abolished c. A : Look! The girl is crying. was postponed d. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was it abolishing d. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. a. had been sold c. when…. have been unloaded d. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. Y : Really. she ____ a. will be unloaded b. The announcement ____ twice. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. are sold e. are unloaded c.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1.? a. has been postponed c. was kicked c. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. was being postponed e. a. has to be postponed b. were being unloaded e. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. did it abolish e. a. were sold b. was it to abolish b. is sold d. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. kicked e. was kicking b.

A. demolishing d. is born d. was rewarded e. a. cleaned c. a. is arranged d. has been built b. would be born b. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. She looks after the baby well. has been born c. a. have arranged b. rewarded d. the baby will be well looked after d. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. a. had been demilishing b. will be built e. will be destroyed b. was being cleaned d. The passive form is ____ a. the baby is being looked after well e. had destroyed e. has arranged c. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. is being built c. will be rewarded 8. has been cleaned 5. was destroyed 6. is being rewarded b. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. would be built 4. the baby would be well looked after 7. will build d. a. was born e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. have been arranged 3. is being destroyed c. is being cleaned e. destroyed d. the baby was looked after well c. will be born 2. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. will clean b. was arranged e. is being demolished e. is demolishing c. a. A big dam ___ in this area next year. the baby is well looked after b. has been rewarded c.1. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. a. R.

has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. will be promised e. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. a. a.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. is being taken e. yaitu: 1. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k.9. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. was being promised c. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. will be promised 10. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. has been promising b. has promised d. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . was taken b. will be taken d. took c.

Contoh: big bigger biggest 3.c. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. -er. may. had. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. -le. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. did. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. dll. have/has. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. -ow. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. shall. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. was/were. dll. can. will.

tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi.). Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Contoh: If I have much money. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Kalau kalimatnya (+).ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . I would go to the beach with you. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Contoh : (+) If I had time. I would have written you a letter. (jika saya punya uang. 3. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Apa yang diucapkan. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. I will buy a new car. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. itulah yang diharapkan. Kalau kalimatnya (+).• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu.

whose. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. her. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Their car has been stolen. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . its. of which. his.) 2. your. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Contoh: We saw the people. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. our. their. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). They are printed in English. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. whom. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. I met him last week. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. I bought it last year. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. (him = the man. which. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4.

(mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. Its surface is not smooth. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. Where 8.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. sebuah benda.

I got the mechanic to repair my car.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. 2. I had mechanic repair my car. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). The manager gets the letter typed. Jogging makes us fresh. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Gerund digunakan bila: 1. The manager has the letter typed. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek.

V ketimbang main video game) 4. Setelah possessive adjective (my. Contoh : My hobby is cycling.Dita would rather watch T. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. Before leaving. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. 4.I like T. on. to be busy.her.3. can’t help/can’t bear.their. before dll.V . his. to be worth.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.V better than radio. 5.Juned prefers combro to deblo. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. 3.Amir’s.to be used to.our. get used to. 6.your. he said nothing. than plays a video game.V. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . .Dona prefers dancing to singing. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.

yaitu: 1. a. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. while. that. or.Although it was raining. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. when. While he was reading her novel. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. he come on time. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2.He is both wise and good. but. c. 1. if. finally. Next. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. as soon as. somebody knocked on the door. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. c. next. d. we put them into frying pan. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. we must prepare the ingredients. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. first.Amir and I go to school everyday. Finally. dll. after that. since. Contoh: .) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. After that. after. for. I can’t treat you.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. b. d.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . 2.You can read this book if you like. although/though. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . a. Since I have no money. We went home after the rain stopped. e. then. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. b. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. 3. c. a. b. Menunjukan waktu: before. we put some sauce and salt.Contoh: .

He is not only active but also clever.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 . (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .

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