DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS
Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.....................................................................................................................104 GERUND ...........................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)....................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .....................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ..................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH......................................................................................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION......................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)..............................................................................................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .........................................99 QUESTION TAGS .......................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ..............100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...............
Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. 2. Spoof 5. Procedure 12. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Explanation 2. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Review 7. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text.Understanding Types of Text
Text can be classified into several types. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. News Items 13. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Narrative 11. Report 4. The language feature. These types of text are. Descriptive 10. Recount 6. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Analytical Exposition 8. Hortatory Exposition 3. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city
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. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. 1. why is the text made?. Anecdote 9.
and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Additionally. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. you may find it hard to sleep at night. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Smoking however is not good for every body else. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Argument Firstly. If you live in the city. cars create pollution.Thesis
Cars should be banned in the city. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Reiteratio In conclusion. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. which causes them to die.
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. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Thirdly. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. or concentrate on your homework. and especially talk to someone. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. it is better to look at the fact. Secondly. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. the risk is nineteen greater. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. cars. As we all know. as we all know. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. In one hour in smoky room. the city is very busy. Example of Analytical Exposition A. cars are very noisy. lung cancer. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking.
As the US. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. In this example of analytical exposition text. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the
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. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. That wil be true if the conditions. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Furthermore.
drawing book. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. ruler and such other stuff. dsb. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. dsb • Modal verbs. students need book. we. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. dsb. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya we must preserve. and then complete the transaction.
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. in this multimedia era. misalnya Many people believe. dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. dsb. dsb.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. misalnya
C. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. government. misalnya car. • Thinking verbs. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. • Reiteration . this method will help student to get better understanding. eraser. • Bahasa evaluatif. • Action verbs. • Connectives. leaded petrol car. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Laptop as Students' Friend
Conventionally. misalnya firstly. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. pollution. misalnya species of animals. misalnya She must save. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. students need more to reach their progressive development. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. dsb. • Technical verbs. misalnya certainly. • Modal adverbs. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. dsb. Additionally. Secondly. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. secondly. The students just need to brows that online shop.
First. misalnya policy. pen. decide which computer or laptop they need. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. • Abstract nouns. • Relating verbs. misalnya It is important.dsb. After that the laptop will be
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Penguatan pernyataan.
So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that
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. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. It seems Indonesia. Students just need to decide which type they really need.
D. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Career in Translation
Functionally. That is really easy and save time and money. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running.delivered to the students' houses. E. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. If Hindi translation is provided. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. According to Nida. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Arabic translation. Therefore. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. From all of that. India is likely being an English speaking country. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. India translation will grow better and.
Crisis 4. etc 2. because. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath
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. For instance. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. listen to this 3. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. do you know what? 4. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Using exclamation words. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. it's wonderful!.is inserted at the end of each article. Abstract 2. 3. etc
Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Using imperative. it's awful!. Orientation 3. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Using conjunction of time. write. then. afterward 6. 2. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Incident. Using simple past tense 4. etc • Causal conjunction . go. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. etc 5. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Using action verb. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Using rhetoric question.
The father was full of disappointed and anger. whole business. America. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. nine children. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. there were being quarantined for long days. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. dsb. However few days before their departure. so we set to. The doctor sewed up the boy. misalnya go. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The family dreams were dashed.Abstract
How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. enough money. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote
Menggunakan: A. He shed tears of disappointment. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. write. The family worked and saved. dsb. passport. their children to America. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. seperti then. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. spitting and hissing at us. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. who was only three at the time. Anna.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. They had gotten afterwards. and turned on the tap.
or thing. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. The ship. but because of the bitten son by a dog. It made they were being quarantined. describing the phenomenon in parts. the mighty Titanic. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. • Description. You have and so do I. place. • Using simple present tense 4. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. or/and characteristics. 2. The Clak family should have been on that ship. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. When the father heard the news. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. They had dream to travel to America. They had to forget their plan. qualities. they were left behind. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. He thanked God for saving their lives. there is something wrong last minute before it. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. had shank. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. 3. When the dream will come true.Five days latter. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. The father was angry with his son and God. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. identifying the phenomenon to be described. Examples and structures of the text
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. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.
all her friends. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. This year. In three years1 time. She is really mad on that shoes. She is beautiful. yet retaining its beautiful site. attractive and trendy. When she are walking on that shoes. Sydney. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. a grass amphitheatre. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. This shoes really matches on her. She always pays much attention on her appearance. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. In 1964. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Today. Recently. The style. bright color. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. She really have perfect appearance. Example of Description
A. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. She said that the products covered all genders. a railway station is under construction. native plants and eucalypts. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. My Friend's New Shoes
I have a close Friend. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. in 2004. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as
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. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site.
8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Cambodia. Borobudur Temple
Borobudur is Hindu . describing the Borobudur temple in parts. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Borobudur is well-known. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. etc
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The upper three are circular. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Borobudur temple • Description. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The way to the summit extends through some 4.Budhist temple. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. The products provide varieties of choice.The temple is constructed. Borobudur is located in Magelang. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Central Java. Ballet. Indonesia. casual.she has. valuable • Using simple present tense. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification.
B. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way.
when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. • simple present tense. yang
Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. dsb.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• action verbs. perilaku umum. misalnya teacher. classifying.
house. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. It has very thick fur. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. sharp white fangs. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. a sweet young lady. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification.
• detailed noun phrase untuk
memberikan informasi tentang subjek. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). 2. kualitas.Small Notes
Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• nouns tertentu. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. bersifat describing. two strong legs. Misalnya: I have many pets. better or worse 3. misalnya. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. White. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan.
• berbagai macam adjectives. misalnya fast. dsb. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. sifat-sifat (characteristic). dsb. enough money to take Snow White. dsb. dsb.
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle
Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they
untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. Examples and structures of the text Snow White
• relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. misalnya. at Complication 2
Then she saw this little cottage. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. but my favourite one is a cat. My mum is realy cool. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. dsb.my cat.
to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. misalnya Our new
informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. numbering. Description.
As they were about to have dinner. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. you may live here with us. had many suitors. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. “Without question. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. Maura asked them for something to eat. who was called Hakim. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. who received a plate of delicious meat. The first gave her some left over food. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. Then Snow White woke up. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. The dwarfs said. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. said. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication.” Snow White said. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. which she strikes against herself. She saw the dwarfs. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. One evening. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. They went inside.
Example of Narative A. The psychological conflict inside Maura. One by one she discarded them. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. “If you wish. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. in what way she will decide who the best is. “My name is Snow White. The following day. They want to know what next will happen. “Oh could I? Thank you. There they found Snow White sleeping. After dinner.Resolution 2
Meanwhile. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her.” Doc. They were also rich and strong. one of the dwarfs. The third sheik. Hakim. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. “what is your name?” Snow White said.
There was no other parrot like it.dsb.
• adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions
• adverbs dan adverbial phrases
untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. stayed. soon. misalnya. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English
Once upon time. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. At the first. Complication. a man had a wonderful parrot. climbed. the parrot would not say it. Resolution. konflik dalam cerita. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim
B. The name of the place was Catano. the man really got very angry. Pengenalan tokoh. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti
• • •
Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. Then he continued to humble. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. misalnya then. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). Although he tried hard to teach. He could not bear it. misalnya. happily ever after. misalnya here. dsb. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. Masalah. in the mountain. The Smartest Parrot
Narrative (Naratif. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. “You know. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. long black hair. I will cut the chicken
.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. phrase. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. dsb. dsb.
• action verbs dalam past tense. Penyelesaian masalah. two red apples. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. except one word. stepsisters. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The parrot could say every word. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. housework. before that. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. dsb.
He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. There were three death chickens on the floor. He could not control his mad. I will eat you too. the man attempted to teach the bird. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 18
. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. It will show the crisis. the man came back to the chicken house. 3. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. The fish begged him to set it free. 4 are describing the complication. there was a handsome man. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. stupid parrot”. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. To fix this problem. C. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. At the moment. In the parrot story.for my meal. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. rising crisis and climax of the story. Next it will be your turn. In that parrot story. The daughters were crying. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. She attracted Batara Guru so much. A man and his parrot took place once time. They had two daughters. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. readers see the problem is finished. he caught a fish. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. He made the fish free. As soon as it was free. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. Batara Guru could not bear it. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. They were married happily. The next day. He liked fishing. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. paragraph 2. After that he left the chicken house. One day. That was the smartest parrot. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. They found their mother and talked her about it.
“Now. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. They were married and live happily ever after. The two step sisters. she was driven to the palace. Finally. People believed that the big hole became a lake. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. The mother was shouting angrily. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. she said. did not work about the house. Then the earth began to shake. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. there was a young girl named Cinderella. the day of the ball came. One day. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. It fitted perfectly. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Volcanoes started to erupt. The earth formed a very big hole. A few days later. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. hardworking. Magically. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers.
D. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. At last. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. one of her glass slipper was left behind. on the other hand. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Cinderella?” a voice asked. and away went the sisters to it. and
SMA Students’ Modul of English 19
. such as scrubbing the floor. “Well” said the godmother. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. “You must leave before midnight”. Cinderella”. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. They treated Cinderella very badly. She danced again and again with the king’s son. “Why are crying. In the end. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. In her hurry. Cinderella 1
Once upon a time. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. and it became a beautiful ball gown.The mother was very annoyed. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. Batara Guru broke his promise.
“No. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. In the last paragraph. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. 3. the man is very intelligent”. But the man answered. Complication: In this Cinderella story. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. “Yes” said the man. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. He took his plough and hit the tiger. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Orientation. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. One day. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. Then he said. “you are so big and strong. Generic Structure Analysis 1. Resolution: Like complication. said the buffalo. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story.
E. once in Laos 2. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. farmer and his buffalo. After the man went home. Complication.
Once there was a farmer from Laos. The Smartest Animal. “oh. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis
SMA Students’ Modul of English 20
. introducing specific participants. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. Every morning and every evening. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “Can I see your intelligence?”. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. “it at home”.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Resolution. I can’t tell you”. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. The tiger asked.
fork. there was a farmer. once. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. plate Method 1. the man tied the tiger. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. Add milk and whisk well 4. ¼ cup milk. hit time conjunction. cheese grater. Cook both sides 9. season with salt and pepper
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. was surprised to action verb. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg.• • • • • •
Using Using Using Using Using Using
saying verb. one day connectives. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Place on a plate. bowl. 50 g cheese. answered thinking verb. tie. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. saw. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. after. the next day past tense. spatula. 3 tablespoons cooking oil.
• Material. Finally. write your benefit like you talk it. while. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. dsb. Cut. firstly. but it will help. Langkah-langkah. you don't have to. dsb. put it. Firstly. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. dsb. cara yang akurat. How does it sound?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Example of Procedure
A. don’t. the following is a guided information
B. It should be in open area Next. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. not features.
• action verbs. informing on how to plant chillies. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. etc • Action verb. dry. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. put the seeding on the soil.10. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. put. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• pola kalimat imperative. excluded • Steps. put it in another big pot. misalnya for five minutes. Don’t mix. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. menyatakan rinci waktu. Here are the steps. secondly • Simple present tense pattern.
misalnya. tempat. put. dry a handful seeding. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. etc • Temporal conjunction. planting is a nice activity. misalnya then.
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. 2 centimetres from the top. next. Planting Chilies
Eat while warm.
Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. finally. Your customers don't care about you. wait it. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. Here's a simple checklist to follow. misalnya turn. take the topic of benefits. Read aloud what you've written. Writing For Business
Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. mix. Use regular words. Well. Firstly. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk
such as. etc
C.re-read what you've done before publishing. Next.Thirdly. you need some tools. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. Fourthly. a quarter cup of milk. to make a cheese omelet. etc • Action verb. How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Well. First. Mix them up and keep things interesting. choosing the advantageous topic. showing the method in writing for business. frying pan. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. three tablespoons cookin oil. Edit it necesarily. informing on how to write for business • Material. read. lose the weak words. Don't describe how your company may. write. reread what you have done. Next. cheese grater. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. excluded • Steps/ method. spatula. Definition of News Item
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. secondly. Use a nice rhythm. Listen carefully. add First.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor
Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. re-reading what have been written .
Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. fifty gram cheese.
News Item Text What is News Item? 1. write like you talked. you need an egg. writing the topic like the way it is talked. bowl and plate. firstly. etc • Temporal conjunction. Fifthly. a pinch of satlt and pepper. fork. Some sentences are long and some are short.
Generic Structure of News Item 1. “But this just a suggestion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Elaboration (background. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.
Example of Procedure A. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Main event 2.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 24
. a news report said. time. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. Using material process 4. 2. Resource of information 3. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Language Feature of News Item 1. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. place) 3. The accident. participant. Focusing on circumstances 2.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. it’s up to them”.
pendapat para ahli. Background Events. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV
B. June 01. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan:
Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. even though they know they have HIV” she said. less then 10 percent are woman. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months.Small Notes
News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. tempat kejadian dsb. Malaysian Aids Council president. Last year. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. many women who contract HIV are housewives. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. dsb. komentar saksi kejadian. Sources. Latar belakang kejadian. Kejadian inti. but the number is steadily rising.
(Source The Jakarta Post. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. orang yang terlibat. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. In the past the event was held behind closed door. 2008)
Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The maid. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. named Suwartin. he said in the report. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex
A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together.
an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. 2008)
Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. Indonesian Maid beheaded
An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. law of serious crimes. the Saudi Interior Minister said. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Background 2. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year.id)
Generic Structure Analysis Main event.news.
(Adapted from Reuters. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. execute. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Background 3. She had relationship the boy for five months. Last year. Rape. Hong Kong. carry. Saudi Arabia. Using material process. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. May 6. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Resource.
(Taken from: www. Background 1. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness
C.Then the maid was arrested. behead. the Saudi Interior Minister statement.co. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery.bbc. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion?
SMA Students’ Modul of English 26
. Islamic law executed more than 130 people.
presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. hopefully. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. 2. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. many times. must. etc • Using modalities. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. similarly. doing homework is not a great idea. believe. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. however. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power
The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. and causal connection. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. on the hand. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. hope. feel. etc 4. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. contrastive. could. deliberately.1. historic. etc • Using adverbial of manner.
Example of Discussion Text
A. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. may. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. etc • Using additive. should. and social text. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. But.
It is reliable. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It produces small amount of waste.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. England in 1956.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:
• • • • •
It costs about the same coal. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. and produces huge amounts of energy. so it is not expansive to make.
• thinking verbs untuk
• additives. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. very dangerous.
Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. alcohol. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). it is presented the advantages of
Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. misalnya deliberately. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. dsb. Furthermore. • adverbials of maner. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. hopefully. on the hand.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• general nouns untuk menyatakan
kategori. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. dsb. nuclear power is very. believe. misalnya feel. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. must. could 29 be. Gagasan Pokok 2. This example of discussion text present the two poles. hope. memberikan informasi secara padu. should. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. dsb. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. should have been.On the other hand.
• relating verbs untuk memberi
informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. dsb. dsb. misalnya smoking is harmful.
Kesimpulan. misalnya uniforms.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. however. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph.
. dsb. In many social activities. seperti perhaps. Elaborasi (uraian). contrastives dan causal
• detailed noun groups untuk
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• modalities. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. although it is reliable. perception and recommendation. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. misalnya similarly.
farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.
(Taken from: www. always
Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Definition and purposes of Explanation
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. believe. must. Generic structure of Explanation
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.co. Contrastive point. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel.bbc. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. farmer. scientific and cultural phenomena. Using modalities. Hunting Fox
Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Using connectives. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban.
B. Supporting point. however. geography and history text books.
2. It is often found in science. Using thinking verb. conservationists. Recommendation.uk)
Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. social. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Many farmer and even conservationists. hunting fox.
Example of Explanation Text A. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. Sequenced explanation.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense
3. sun. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). etc Using chronological connection. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Featuring generic participant. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained.• •
General statement. next. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. to begin with. Language Feature
• • • •
4. rain. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.
abstract nouns. misalnya the temperature.Small Notes
Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. The earth also moves around the sun. complex sentences. conjunctions of time dan cause. passive voice. action verbs. the amount of • bahasa teksni. It causes day and night. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. noun phrase. Why Summer Daylight is Longger
than Winter Daylight In the summer. misalnya the large cloud. It is called as rotation. misalnya word chopping. simple present tense. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement.
(simplified from www. dunia ilmiah. adverbial phrases. The revolution process causes the changes of the season
C. earthquakes. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. Tsunami always bring great damage. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. This process is called revolution. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth.org)
Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. sosialbudaya.panda. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight
SMA Students’ Modul of English 32
. It takes 365 days or a year. How Day and Night Happen
• • • •
general dan abstract nouns.
The sun seems to rise in the morning. But that is the case. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan.
Explanation. valuable. etc 6. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon.
(Taken from: www. Focusing on the writer 2.uk)
Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Recommendation 3. firstly. surely. Using present tense. Using pasive voice. Using action verb 4. then. policy. Using chronological connection. Using passive voice 9. so. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using evaluative words.co.where you only see another car
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. certainly. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. important. Using thinking verb 5. 2. daylight. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. the earth is actually closer to the sun. advantage. but. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. etc 3. Using abstract noun. Using temporal connective. Arguments 3. Using simple present tense 4. secondly. trustworthy. Thesis 2. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. I feel that when you travel through the country. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. you would be forgiven. Using modal adverb. etc 7. etc 8. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1.ictteachers.
Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Recomendatio I feel that country people.every five to ten minutes. pornography. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Meanwhile. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Considering some facts mentioning above. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. and the possibility of being aggressive. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. However. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. of course. especially violence. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like
SMA Students’ Modul of English 34
. stress. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Those who want to penalise older . Recently. and short sleep duration. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city
Example of Hortatory Exposition
A. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. consumerism and so on.
More dust bins should be put beside each step. speech campaign. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment.
B. sales letter. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. school corridors and schoolyard. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show.the writer thought as stated in the text. mineral water cops. Both take place as argumentative essays. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. there papers. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. If it is a hortatory text. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. In many social activities. and napkin everywhere. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. advertising. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. In the first paragraph. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Basically. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. and news advertorial. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. straws. example of hortatory
To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten
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. When we look at classroom.
Euphoria will flood for those who get success. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. they can find the dust bins easily. In the other hand. In the same way. when they think about straightly seeking job. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. So. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Where should be after High School?. When they think about continuing study. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. a hortatory text
The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. As result. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. So when students want to throw away their litters. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. it will be quite confusing. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. As the alternative method of studying. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. the available time will be more flexible for them. it will be very hard to looking for job.meters. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. they will think hard about the time and cost. distance learning provides possibility to grow better.
Modal verbs. etc Using thinking verb. Technical verbs. give up. misalnya species of animals.misalnya policy. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Connectives. Generic Structure of Report 1. Kalimat pasif (passive voice)
exposition text Dear friend. public place. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. as it is. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. misalnya firstly. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. We can show the way to give up work. Thinking verbs. misalnya We must preserve. plant. he drives a sport car. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. dsb. dsb. dsb. Millions from Property Market. etc which will be discussed in general 2. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. dsb. dsb. felt Using simple present tense. are you tired?. Albert Smith is the proof. valuable. Action verbs. misalnya. dsb. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. now there is a way out.government dsb. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Recommendation. make. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. doesn’t seem to have been . customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. misalnya certainly. Relating verbs. part per part . dsb. secondly.dsb. Modal adverbs.D. animal. misalnya I believe . there is a way out of financial problem. a hortatory
Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum:
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. misalnya important. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. misalnya should be. we must save.we. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Argument. reward Using action verb. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect
• • • • • • • •
SMA Students’ Modul of English
rivers. a report text
Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. beating the water furiously with their wings. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick.• •
Using conditional logical connection. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. driving the fish before them. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. In the other hand.
Example of Report Text
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. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. As the bird lifts its head. the animal of platypus. stating general classification. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. one of the most
The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Platypus' eyes and head are small. so. and woolly layer of fur. Platypus. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. when. Platypus lives in streams. perhaps two dozen birds. and lakes. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. etc Using simple present tense
4. A group.
dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure
General Clasification. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. in terms of parts. but. istilah teknis. apa adanya. misalnya. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. habits or behaviors. dan klasifikasinya. the animal of platypus conditional. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. male platypus does not need any burrow. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. logical connective. dsb. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. benda buatan manusia. kegunaannya jika non natural. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. dsb. dsb. qualities. Platypus lives in streams. keterangan. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. lingkungan. misalnya lizards cannot fly. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• • • • • •
general nouns. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum.Description. etc Small Notes
Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu.
Spoof Text What is Spoof?
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. atau gejala-gejala sosial. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern.
Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. 2. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. animals or certain things 2. ran. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Using adverb of time and place 4. ‘ take him to the zoo’. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending.’ replied the man. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Twist 3. Focusing on people. etc 3.
Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Dave found a nice office. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important
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. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked.1. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Language Feature of Spoof 1. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. “That Phone is Off”
Soon after he left college. Events 3. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text
A. Told in chronological order 4. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Orientation 2. Using action verb. ate.
The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Saved by Stilts
The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. Instead leaving the country. misalnya eat.
B. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician.Small Notes
Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. “If that is what you want. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. In his office. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). no children. Then “Remember. conversation on the phone. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. didn’t he?” said the
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. Event 2: He had his new office. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. He had not left the country yet. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure
call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. “Hey Abu Nawas. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. “You want me. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone”
Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. Then the man said to Dave. run. He suddenly became a 1. terduga atau lucu). verbs. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. “Yes. Event 1: Being rich. binatang. I want you to leave the country. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. benda tertentu.
I do not step on the ground of this country”. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No.
(Adapted from S. The king was not able to say anything.I got very angry. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. I turned around. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. look at you. They were talking very loudly. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron)
Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country
C. I could not hear the actors. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. young man and young woman.guards. I could not bear it. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. And since yesterday.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. The king wondered and said “Abu. “This is a private conversation”
(From: English New Concept)
Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. The guards reported what they had seen to the king.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely.In the end. “I remember exactly what you said. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. You walk on stilts like a child. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly.I did not enjoy it. They did not pay any attention. were talking noisily. The play was very interesting. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. Private Conversation
Last week I went to the theatre. Your Majesty. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. I turned around again. I do not step on the ground. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. I have been walking on this stilts. So you see. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I had a very good seat. You have not left this country”. The King continued “And now.
"What should I do?" The policeman replied. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. “It’s none of your business.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. The host at once got up and came to meet him. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly.
D. Getting Nasreddin's answer. "Take it to the zoo!". He went to the party by wearing old clothes. you give food to my coat instead of me”. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. The next day. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. the policeman saw the man in the same park. When he arrived in the party. “When I came here with my old clothes. He put his coat and said. He took it to a policeman and said. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. he aske his coat to eat the served food
E. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “Eat the food. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. Nasreddin’s Coat
One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. It’s a private conversation”. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Penguin in the Park
Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. "I certainly
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. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. nobody looked at me. The man was still carrying the penguin. they just shook the head. So.
etc • Using simple past tense 4. first. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2.did. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. then. The following day. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. saw. place and time 2. my group. chronological order by days. penguin. look. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. Generic Structure of Recount 1. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. was. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. They were in the park Event1. in the park Told in chronological order. He. Even. etc • Using linking verb.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. I. once. walk up Using adverb of time and place. the next day
Recount Text What is Recount? 1. etc • Using chronological connection. today I am taking it to the movie". Examples and structures of the text
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. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. heard. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. Orientation: Introducing the participants. go. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. So. etc • Using action verb. were. carry. Reorientation: It is optional. change. policeman Using action verb.
In writer's point of view. The officers were pleasant.
B. They are Mr. Vacation to London
Mr. At the end of the 14-day.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. The room had perfect view of the park. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. they inserted a key-card to open the door. the thing is an experience. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. They had booked fourteen days tour. They had variety of food. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They slept part of the way. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Richard with two sons. This includes travel and accommodation. It was scary. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. It can be what the writer has done. Mr. Between Recount and Narrative
Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Instead of keys for the room. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. read. The two week in London went by fast.
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. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. There was a film for their entertainment. They went to London. and Mrs. They gave them food and drink. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. They gave them news paper and magazine to read.
Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. on Example of Recount text
A. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. On the third floor. Richard’s family was on vacation. We stayed at David and Della’s house. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They had a very pleasant flight. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. hear. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Then. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food.
misalnya and. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. at my house. Reorientation. misalnya yesterday. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. then. kejadian atau kegiatan. di mana dan kapan. sleep. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. dsb. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. after that. the second was to Ubud. Visiting Bali
Recount (Laporan peristiwa. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour.
C. what happened on Sunday. misalnya beautiful. Events. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. but. On the day of the tour. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. the on Tuesday. Pengenalan. kejadian atau kegiatan. Mass is a tourist center
SMA Students’ Modul of English
nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. past tense. funny. 46 slowly dsb. recount describes series of events in detail.
• • •
. he was ready. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. dsb. run dsb. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. In simple way. misalnya David. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. a center of stone sculpture. The first stop was at Batubulan. The first one was to Singaraja. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. misalnya We went to the zoo. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. It reveals the conflict among the participants. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. misalnya go. we dsb.Small Notes and felt. Rekaman peristiwa. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. then on Monday. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. the monkey. waktu dan cara. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. The event happened smoothly. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. On the other hand. It is a busy but quiet town. She was happy dsb. The next stop was Celuk.
When I reached my town. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. There were rocks everywhere. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I • Using chronological connectives. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. and. moved. I was on the car. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. made.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. suddenly • Using linking verb.
D. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. describing a series of event which happened. etc. my car lunched on one side. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Even I could not move my car at all. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. Although nothing was left. to the left. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. left. like matchsticks. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. I was on the car las week. My Horrible Experience
Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. When the earthquake happened. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. I was on my car. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. Re-orientation. using first person point of view. Overall. the ceremony was quite elaborate. then. were • Using action verb. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. I thought I got flat tire. all his day was spent on the beach. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. etc E. The car lunched to one side. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. He was quiet satisfied. was. Several days before the ceremony was done. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. grandpa’s body was kept
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. stating the writer's personal note. introducing the participant. Events. earthquake happened. I was trapped by the rock. in the town. It took about a week. walked.
In this ceremony we wore black clothes. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. On the last day. A recount text has an orientation. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. Those words and phrases are: First. Questions 1. In the text. a series of events in chronological order. my brother. and dancing. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. In the night. After that.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. Meanwhile. my uncle. However. chanting. The funeral was performed in two phases. First. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. we were feasting. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. Then. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. During the day. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. you find words and phrases used to start. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. After that. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. Finally. there were also buffalo matches. Review Text
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• • • •
. Then. and end your composition. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Finally. They were great matches. and then moved the corpse to face north. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. connect a sentence with the next one. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing.
Focus on specific participants 2. review text usually has generic structure as: 2.What is review text 1. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. services which want to be sold. etc. It is personal idea about the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Examples and structures of the text
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. After clearly explanation. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Dominant Language features: 1. 3. Using long and complex clauses 4. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. or just a site which want to be known publicly. valuable. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. uniqueness. It states the parts. worthy. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. As I said in my previous post. useful. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. It can be product. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. Using metaphor 4. Using adjectives 3. Definition Review is one of text genres. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product.
Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. Still a really good book. I actually liked the ending (and yes. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa.
Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. depressing feel. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding
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. I cried!) as sad as it was. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. intriguing. and this part I loved. this was not my favorite.housekeeping is still housekeeping. The stories were bright. magical or no. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. with some editing it would have been great. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. for example . and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. A few other changes in this book . The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. and ultimately satisfying.. especially with being a teenager and all.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. In some (Interpretati instances this works. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. I was truly moved by the last page. and parts of it do seem long. fast-paced.. He goes from being a warm-hearted.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. however.
There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. if he works with Farsi translation. However. Again. The translation experts. Similarly. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. The site is quite simple but very informative. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. It straightly goes to the end user. For Rosemarie. does and will do daily. the daily activities are worthily documented. easy and not complicated design. Titanium. it will be quite difficult to make translation. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. In certain case. If we visit the site. It is real. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . The experts who have grammatical. aluminum and rimless frame are available. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. such as India translation will help to fix the problem.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. The site is her effort to record of what she did. woman and man are available choice. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. Eyeglasses for children. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. lexical.the trend. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
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They give the detail description on something. Mostly. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. lengh. product case or problem. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. eg: bicycle. secondly prepare the cup. However if they are analyzed carefully. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Procedure. etc. animal and scientific object. wheel style. Explanation. etc is the best example of the procedure text. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. report is written after getting careful observation. What make different. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. between report and descriptive text. goods. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. In short. It will talk about bicycle in general. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. how to make a good kite. its parts. How a tornado form. it belongs to report text. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. colour. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. physical strengh. and so on.
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. is the scope of the written object. phenomena.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. If we talk about. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It is such word. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. In the other hand. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. descriptive text will convey more focus. first boil water. For example how to make a cup of tea.
what happened on Sunday. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. On the other hand. It reveals the conflict among the participants. hear. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. product case or problem. How a tornado form. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. the on Tuesday. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. In writer's point of view. phenomena. then on Monday. goods. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. how to make a good kite. secondly prepare the cup. etc is the best example of the procedure text. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. and felt. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. It can be what the writer has done. and so on. Explanation. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. the thing is an experience.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. In simple way. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. read. They give the detail description on something. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types
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. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. The event happened smoothly. first boil water. Procedure. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. recount describes series of events in detail. For example how to make a cup of tea. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It is such word. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used.
Using modals 2. 15. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. recount. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Abstract 2. anecdote. discussion. Using material process 3. Using adverbs 5. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Using action verbs 3. descriptive. Using thinking verbs 4. Thesis 2. report. Reaction 5. 18. spoof. 26. 23. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. 19.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. explanation. 16. Using general and abstract noun 8. 24. 22. Using adjective 6. Coda. These variations are known as GENRES. procedure. Orientation 3. Using exclamations. Generic Structure:
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. texts are divided into several types. review. Dominant Language Features: 1. hortatory exposition. 20. Using technical terms 7. They are narrative. 14. Crisis 4. 17. and news item. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Arguments 3. analytical exposition. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 25.
Materials/Equipments 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using action verbs 3. Using action verbs 3. Background event(s) 3. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. General statement 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using technical terms 7. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using noun phrase 5. Complication 4. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using passive voice 4. place and manner. Issue 2.1. Short. Arguments for and against 3. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Conclusion Dominant Language Features:
. Orientation 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverbs : time. Resolution 5. Using action verb 3. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. Evaluation 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Goal/Aim
SMA Students’ Modul of English
2. Using adverb 4. Using saying verbs 4. Explanation 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2.
Using Simple Present Tense
. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Use of relating verb/to be 3. In simple word. Using modality 7. Using Simple Present Tense 2.1. place or thing in detail. Using adjective 7. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Description Language Features: 1. Thesis 2. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Arguments 3. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using technical terms 8. Using conditional logical connection 3. Identification 2. Using adverbs 6. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using adverb 4. Using action verbs
SMA Students’ Modul of English
4. Using modals 3. as it is. General classification 2. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using action verb 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using thinking verb 4. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using thinking verbs 5. Using general and abstract noun 9. Generic Structure 1. Dominant Generic Structure: 1.
Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Orientation 2. Orientation 2. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Using Past Tense 2. Evaluation 5. Using long and complex clauses 4. Using metaphor
. Using action verb 3. Event(s) 3. social conflict or psychological conflict. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. etc while recount text is found in biography. Orientation 2. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Interpretative Recount 4.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using adjectives 3. In the contrary. Event(s) 3. myth. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. folklore. Using adverb 4. Using action verb 3. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Evaluation 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Using Past Tense 2. or Past Perfect Tense. fable. Focus on specific participants 2. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time
SMA Students’ Modul of English
or place. whether Simple Past Tense. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1.
Continuous text misalnya narrative.exposition. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 5. 7. tahun. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. 3. 2. 8. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. tanggal. tabel. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. 9. dsb. 6. biasanya tentang nama. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 1. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. spoof dsb. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage?
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. penjelasan. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 4. 11. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. grafik. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. tempat. map. diagram dsb. descriptive. label. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 10. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya.
Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is …
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. it is small. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. fluffy. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____.b) c)
∞ The text mainly tells us about____. The purpose of the text is _____. And cute. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan.
outside of the classrooms. and napkins here and there. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins.. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. there are paper mineral water cups. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required
3. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. a) Analytical exposition
To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. in every ten meters. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. readers to do something good. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. What is the writer’s intention? To ….. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. So when students want to throw away their litters. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. more dust bins…. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard
2. they can find the dust bins easily. When we look at classrooms.EXERCISES. They put their litters on the proper places. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. 1. According to the writer. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. a number of dust bins should be increased. Besides. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. school corridors and school yard. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. and some more also the corridors. straws. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study.
In addition. What is the text about …. which is just what many learners look for sample text. Secondly. learning vocabulary. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. patriotism and yeas. lexically and poetically. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Although usually simple. spelling and culture. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. place or time reference. songs in general also use simple conversational language. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. with a lot of repetition. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. religion. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning
6. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. shopping malls. 5. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. even revolution. Firstly. Last but not least. The generic structures of the text are …. practicing selective listening comprehension. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. songs are relaxing. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. From the elaboration above.Learning English
Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Furthermore. They provide variety and fun. translating songs. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.
Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Firstly. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.Since we can find a thesis. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Therefore. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English
. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. Finally.” The underlined word refers to ….. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. smoking in restaurants is impolite. 11. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition
14. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. not just in restaurants. Based on the text. The word reasons mean….“They provide variety and fun.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word
13. It must not be allowed because it is rude. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.9. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2
10.. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities
Smoking in Restaurant
Smoking in restaurants is just not on.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
Pleased to meet you. Harris. Mr. Harris. Ms.. my my my my my my my my my
brother. Cindy. Nice to meet you. Introducing someone else my name is. Mr. sister. Mrs. Carrie. It's a pleasure to meet you. And you. I don't think we've actually met formally yet.Introducing your self and other people
Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Likewise. Very nice to meet you. Watson. I'm. This is my friend. mother.. Jack.. I don't believe we've met before. father. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. friend. Mary Jones. boss.
Nice to meet you too. co-worker. Bob. I'm Linda
1. • I want to introduce you to …. Ritter. Penny Pitcher. teacher.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. student. Hi Jack.
How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself.
when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. I am. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Adib : Anyway. and Retno are new students. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Hi. hotel. e. are you a new student. hasn't it? How are things with you?
Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. a restaurant. Retno. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Adib.g. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Situation: Adib. Arnys? Retno : Okay. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Shall we go to the canteen?. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. I’m Arnys.g. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too.
Greeting (memberi salam)
Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. My name is Adib. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. By the way. Arnys.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Adib : Hi. this is Retno.
Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well.
Saying good bye
Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. .
• • • • • • • • • Do you want to . thanks. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. Bye. • Good bye.Expressions
Functions • Greeting someone
• • • • • • • • • •
Good morning/afternoon/evening. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Not so bad. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. See you soon /later /tomorrow. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . . . . shake hands with other Virga :… women. thank you. . Do you wanna . thanks. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. before leaving. (informal) Would you like to . thanks. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : …
Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. .
Asking how someone is Saying how you are
See you. . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. . Very well.
. .a chocolate bar? .? Would you like .. I’d be delighted to. Receiving ..Yes.That’s good ide
Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.I’d like very much ...to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . let’s not.Some responds of inviting. Expressing Responses
Thank you You are welcome...I’d love to . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner
Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)
Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.I’d be happy/glad to accept . Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations?
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. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.
Congratulations! Thank you for saying so.
Congratulations (ucapan selamat)
Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Responding to compliments
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Happy birthday to you. I really like it!"
b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone
has just bought dinner for you. Thanks. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • •
Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. complimented you on your necktie. I need it.
Other expression Expression • •
• • • • •
What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your …
Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Happy new year. you very much. (What do you say?)
Example: "Thank you so much. returned your lost wallet. helped carry your grocery bags.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Thank you.
Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations
You look cute with that hat.
not really. That’s too bad e. It’s nice of you to say so. That’s pity f.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . Oh dear
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. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. How kind of you to say so.. What’s pity c.Social Language
It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days.. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .• • •
Oh. Expressing of sympathy on minor
a. That’s a nuisance d.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. I'm so proud of you!
Wedding / Anniversary
Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)
A. What’s shame b. holidays and other special occasions. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.
Special Days . Here are some of the most common: Birthdays
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .
g. How dreadful!
C.B. It was terrifi c. m. I feel disappointed. …. j. b. I feel … b.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. k. I feel …. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances
a. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m sorry about that c. I enjoyed it I love it. How terrible! c. How Awful! d. I’m really sad to … c. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident
a. l.. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Please accept my condolences!
Pleasure. I’m so happy …. I’m delighted. e. I’m sorry to hear that b. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)
Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased
Other expressions Expression Pleasure
a. c. Goodness! b. h. d. f.
a. I’m really sorry for them d. feel unpleased with …. d. i.
kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with …
… … … …
Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating!
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.Satisfaction.
. In my opinion…. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. say • Absolutely. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. I think the other one’s better. • I am with you • Definitely. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. As I see. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right!
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. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat)
Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. I agree • I know what you mean. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. … If you ask me. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me …
Agreement/approval. • Yes. tidak setuju)
Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. In my opinion. I feel…
Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.
but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree
Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal)
Examples: No. I don't think that's what happened.
Fear. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing
Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool
Pain. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. No. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. that's not a good idea. kegelisahan)
Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. kelegaan)
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.• • • • • • • •
Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain.
• I feel sick. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew
Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)
Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it
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.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt
Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • I’m glad it was done. it’s killing me! 2. • Thank God for .. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .. • Ugh.. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I’m sick. it’s very painful! • Oh.. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief!
Other expressions 1./I feel ill...
It means that you do not like something. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV
About the adverb 'really'." This is not very strong. kejengkelan)
Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed
. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. BUT "I don't really like it. but it is not a very strong dislike. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really)
Verb like love
Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV
Extra a lot
Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.
I’m extremely unhappy about this. That’s a real embarrassment. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment... Informal Situations … really makes me mad.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …?
In Formal Situations In Informal Situations
Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. I won’t Not likely You must be joking
Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward
You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick
There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.
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. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I will. I was so ashamed. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .
. Of course.. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright... Excuse me if I'm out of line. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.menyalahkan)
Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. I'm sorry to bother you.... but. Certainly. Blame (keluhan. but. It's your fault for (doing something).
There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Maybe you forgot to.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner... I think you might have forgotten to.
Complaint. Right away.Palupi : OK. Don't get me wrong. There may have been a misunderstanding about. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.. but I think we should.... Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • •
I'm sorry to have to say this but. Sure.
Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the
SMA Students’ Modul of English
... I'm so sorry..
To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'!
Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. meminta maaf)
Regret Much to my regret Sadly. I'd like to apologise for. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies?
Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. Sorry for. Sorry for taking your DVD.simply
Regret. I'll clear up later. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. Examples I'm really sorry. I didn't mean to lose your book.. Pete.. to ask for forgiveness. Apology (penyesalan.. to express regret an exclamation a word. I ….. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding
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. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly..
1. It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. There is a good chance that …..
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. Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game. yet.. there is a possibility .this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness... There is a little chance that ….. • Is it possible to …? • Yes..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…?
Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude
Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan)
Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability... distress.
she.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.you. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: …..they.they. doing something are: 4.she.
Expressions capability are :
I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.? it.she.? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home
3.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Now At present At this moment To day
Lately Recently For Since
. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.you.
TENSES TENSES POLA KET. WAKTU
Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.
we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Before/when + S + V2
For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2
.he. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.we
Yesterday Last… …ago
Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.it Were utk S= you.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau)
hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.
already yet lately just
V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.she.they.
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv
SMA Students’ Modul of English
By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang)
V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing
At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow
Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu
Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past
If + past perfect
does/am. have been practising b.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. will be practising c. were Been be
Present Past Perfect Future/modal
Contoh soal 1. was parctising e.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am.waktu
Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. is. “Srimpi”. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. are Was. a. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense)
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.is. Fred : Juda. practised d.masa lampau. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. the telephone rang twelve times.
they are succesful. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. will have had lunch b. a. a. Iwan : Yes. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. have been having lunch c. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. starts c. worked e.2. cleaned e. a. clean d. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. were cleaning b. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. have been cleaning c. works d. am living d. will have worked c. My family ____ when the postman arrived. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. If we don”t hurry. have been living c. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. a. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. will have lunch e. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. will start b. will have started e. was living e. would have started d. a. has been working b. have lunch d. will be started
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. will have lived b. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1.
a. a. a. started to work 6 months a go c. forgot c. had been 7. was carrying 3. will cause 5. caused d. have been 6. but I ____ there many times. was d. had been 9. a. would forget 8. have caused c. He ____ ill for a week. has been b. has got a new job d. has been e. will have been c. This sentence means that Ann ___. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. carried e. Learn all these. has forgotten d. am d. sir. has stopped looking for a job b. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. has worked for six months e. were causing b. is d. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. a. had forgotten e. Is it right? Student : Yes. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. When airport are located in the center of citied. causes e. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. is still looking for a job 4.2. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. a. would be b. My father is still in Bali. was e. I forget to bring your book. He ____ there for three weeks. will have been c. a. have been c.
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. carry d. was e. am carrying b. will be b. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. have carried c. forgets b.
Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. pronoun (kata ganti orang). why. will be attending d. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. Reni goes to her university every morning. am learning 10. keterangan waktu.00 tomorrow. has attended b. a. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. when. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. learn d. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). will be learning b. She ___ the lectures. has been attending e. where. a. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. I ____ them by then. who. She studies business. attended c. how. would be attended DIRECT . sir. will have learnt c. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. have learnt e. dan tempat.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung.Student : All right. struktur kalimat.
Direct (kalimat langsung)
Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been
Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous …
not to be so noisy e. a. to be not so noisy c. to open my mouth b. I wasn’t so noisy d. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. why Mary was absent e. had gone to his country d. I am very noisy b. The baby is sleeping. if I opened my mouth e. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. mom. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. that Mary had been absent b. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. why Mary had been absent c. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. Herman. Herman : Okay. a. he went to his country b. if Mary was absent d. he goes to his country c. he has gone to his country e. that I open his mouth d.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. opened my mouth
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. He said ____ the previous day.
what I was doing then.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. he headn’t cleaned b. b. forgot c. “What are you doing now?”. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. e. Does Mira close the window. It was windy outside. “ ___________” a. I hadn’t cleaned d. forgets b. e. He asked me ____ a. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. what were you doing now. he does not clean e. a. It is windy outside. Mira closed the window. Mira closed the window. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. 4. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. c. a. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. he asked. b. what I am doing now. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. c. It is windy outside. he would not clean c. d. Closed the window. Ari : What did he say. I got a headache. Mother said. what are you were doing now d. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. he asked me ____”.c. Anto : I am sorry Lina. I forgot to bring your book. he hasn’t cleaned 2. It was windy outside. would forget 3. Mira.
5. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. has forgotten d. had forgotten e. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes.
wether he goes with us c. not spend c. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. b. “Can I find you a hotel?”. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9.
8. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. he went with us 6. can he go with us e. Father said. She said the children didn’t make noise c.
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. whether I had appointment
7. how was my appointment e. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. She told the children don’t make noise b. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. c. children”. a. when is my appointment b. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. e. Mean____ a. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. a. did I have an appointment d. going with us b. not to spend e. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. to finish my work c.
10. do not spend d. d. She told the children not to make noise. that I had an appointment c. “don’t make noise. She didn’t say the children should noise d. she said. finish your work d. finished your work e. If he could go with us d. e. not spending b. a.a. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. Slamet. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. to finish your work b. My friend said to me. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr.
• Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week
Tenses Simple Present Simple Past
Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3
Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu
S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3
Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past)
S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3
Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3
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X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. did it abolish e.Perfect Continuous Future/modal
been + V3 being + V3 be + V3
Contoh Soal 1. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. were being unloaded e. has to be postponed b. she ____ a. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan
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. was it to abolish b. are unloaded c. a. was kicking b. were sold b. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. had been sold c. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. are sold e. has been postponed c. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2.? a. a. will be unloaded b. Y : Really. A : Look! The girl is crying. kicks d. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was kicked c. was being postponed e. when…. to be abolished c. was it abolishing d. kicked e. The announcement ____ twice. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. was postponed d. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. a. have been unloaded d. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. is sold d.
would be built 4. was arranged e. has been cleaned 5. is being rewarded b. is being demolished e. rewarded d. a. destroyed d. have arranged b. is being built c. is born d. would be born b. the baby will be well looked after d. R. have been arranged 3. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company.A. is being cleaned e. will build d. had been demilishing b. a. demolishing d. the baby was looked after well c. will be built e. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. was born e. a. has been rewarded c. was being cleaned d. will be destroyed b. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. cleaned c. the baby is being looked after well e. She looks after the baby well. has been built b. has been born c. a. will clean b. the baby would be well looked after 7. the baby is well looked after b. a. has arranged c. is arranged d. The passive form is ____ a. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. A big dam ___ in this area next year. will be born 2. is being destroyed c. was destroyed 6. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. a. was rewarded e. was being demolishing
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. is demolishing c. had destroyed e. will be rewarded 8.1. a. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order.
Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. took c. a. will be promised 10.9. a. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. was taken b. has promised d. is being taken e. yaitu: 1.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most
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. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. he ____ to the nearest hospital. was being promised c. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. will be taken d. will be promised e. has been promising b.
Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. will. -le. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. can. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang
berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. did. have/has. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. was/were. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. dll.c. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian)
Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Contoh: large larger largest 4. dll. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. shall. had. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. may. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. -ow. -er. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does.
saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Contoh: If I have much money. (jika saya punya uang. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. itulah yang diharapkan. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Apa yang diucapkan.). Kalau kalimatnya (+). 3. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there.• •
Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence :
1. Kalau kalimatnya (+). I will buy a new car. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been
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. I would have written you a letter. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. I would go to the beach with you. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Future Conditional (type 1)
Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang.
Contoh: We saw the people. your. its. their. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. They are printed in English. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. his. I bought it last year. I met him last week. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. Their car has been stolen. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. our. which. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. (him = the man. of which. whose. whom.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4.) 2.
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Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Where 8. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. sebuah benda. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu)
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. (its surface/permukaannya meja. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Its surface is not smooth.
sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). I got the mechanic to repair my car. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. The manager gets the letter typed. Jogging makes us fresh.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. I had mechanic repair my car. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). 2. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2).
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. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). The manager has the letter typed. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu.
Kokom likes reading better than watching T.her. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. 6.V better than radio. he said nothing.3. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. 5. get used to. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1
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.I like T. before dll.Amir’s.
Contoh : My hobby is cycling. his.V . Setelah possessive adjective (my.V ketimbang main video game) 4. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. can’t help/can’t bear. 3. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .Dita would rather watch T. to be worth. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist
Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . Before leaving. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . than plays a video game. to be busy. .V.Juned prefers combro to deblo.your.Dona prefers dancing to singing.to be used to. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.our.their. 4. on.
although/though. a.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . after that. After that. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . d. somebody knocked on the door.
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. I can’t treat you. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. when. b. first. 2. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. Finally. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of.He is both wise and good. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and.You can read this book if you like. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. Next. d. that. for. c. Since I have no money. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. finally. or. b. dll. we put some sauce and salt. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. he come on time.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. b.Contoh: . I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. We went home after the rain stopped. while. a.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . we must prepare the ingredients. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. Contoh: . 3. as soon as.Although it was raining. after. since. we put them into frying pan. c. c. yaitu: 1. While he was reading her novel. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) .Amir and I go to school everyday. next. 1. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. Menunjukan waktu: before. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. then. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. a. e. but. if. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .He is not only active but also clever.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .