DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

1

DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

..............................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ...................................99 QUESTION TAGS ...100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ......................................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH......................................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ...106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION..........................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung).........................................................................................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .................................................................................104 GERUND ...................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ..................................................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ...........................................

in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Analytical Exposition 8. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Procedure 12. 2. Anecdote 9. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. News Items 13. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Spoof 5.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. why is the text made?. Recount 6. The language feature. These types of text are. Descriptive 10. Narrative 11. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Hortatory Exposition 3. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Report 4. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. 1. Explanation 2. Review 7.

and ‘triggers’ off asthma. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. If you live in the city. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. and especially talk to someone. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. cars are very noisy. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . the risk is nineteen greater. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Thirdly. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. lung cancer. Argument Firstly. it is better to look at the fact. cars. As we all know. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Additionally. cars create pollution. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. In one hour in smoky room. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Secondly. or concentrate on your homework. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. as we all know. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. the city is very busy. Reiteratio In conclusion. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Smoking however is not good for every body else. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. which causes them to die. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis.

Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. In this example of analytical exposition text. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Furthermore. That wil be true if the conditions. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. As the US. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers.

Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. pollution. • Abstract nouns. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. dsb. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. • Reiteration . dsb • Modal verbs. Additionally.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. dsb. misalnya certainly. this method will help student to get better understanding.dsb. Secondly. secondly. misalnya Many people believe. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. dsb. and then complete the transaction. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. • Technical verbs. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. drawing book. students need more to reach their progressive development. students need book. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. Penguatan pernyataan. misalnya car.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. misalnya C. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. decide which computer or laptop they need. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. in this multimedia era. • Bahasa evaluatif. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. • Thinking verbs. misalnya policy. misalnya She must save. dsb. misalnya species of animals. leaded petrol car. ruler and such other stuff. The students just need to brows that online shop. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. government. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. First. • Action verbs. we. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . eraser. misalnya we must preserve. • Connectives. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya It is important. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. dsb. dsb. pen. • Relating verbs. dsb. • Modal adverbs. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. misalnya firstly.

Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Career in Translation Functionally. If Hindi translation is provided. D. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. From all of that. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. India translation will grow better and. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. E. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. It seems Indonesia. That is really easy and save time and money. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . India is likely being an English speaking country. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money.delivered to the students' houses. Therefore. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Arabic translation. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. According to Nida. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types.

For instance. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. 3. Using action verb. write. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Incident. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. etc • Causal conjunction . Language Feature of Anecdote 1. listen to this 3. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using exclamation words. Orientation 3. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. it's wonderful!. then. afterward 6. Abstract 2. Using conjunction of time. do you know what? 4. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products.is inserted at the end of each article. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. etc 2. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. go. Using imperative. Crisis 4. because. etc 5. Using simple past tense 4. it's awful!. Using rhetoric question. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. 2.

They had gotten afterwards. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. The family worked and saved. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. He shed tears of disappointment. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. there were being quarantined for long days. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. so we set to. who was only three at the time. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. dsb. dsb. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. enough money. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. The family dreams were dashed. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . nine children. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. America. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. The father was full of disappointed and anger. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. However few days before their departure. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. their children to America. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. spitting and hissing at us. whole business. Anna. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. and turned on the tap. passport. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. The doctor sewed up the boy. write. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. seperti then. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. misalnya go.

Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. describing the phenomenon in parts. When the father heard the news. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. 3. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. • Using simple present tense 4. there is something wrong last minute before it. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. The ship. or thing. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. qualities. place. the mighty Titanic. When the dream will come true. identifying the phenomenon to be described. They had to forget their plan. 2. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. They had dream to travel to America.Five days latter. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. but because of the bitten son by a dog. It was unbelievable but it was. The Clak family should have been on that ship. had shank. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The father was angry with his son and God. they were left behind. You have and so do I. It made they were being quarantined. • Description. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. or/and characteristics. He thanked God for saving their lives. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland.

and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. The style. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. yet retaining its beautiful site. She really have perfect appearance. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Recently. She said that the products covered all genders. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. a railway station is under construction. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. She is really mad on that shoes. In 1964. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. Sydney. attractive and trendy. a grass amphitheatre. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. native plants and eucalypts. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. When she are walking on that shoes. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. She is beautiful. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. all her friends. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. This year. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. This shoes really matches on her. Today. in 2004. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. In three years1 time. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. Example of Description A. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. bright color.

Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa.The temple is constructed. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . valuable • Using simple present tense. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle.8 km of passage and starways. casual. Borobudur temple • Description. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.Budhist temple. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Indonesia. Ballet.she has. Borobudur is well-known. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. B. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Cambodia. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The products provide varieties of choice. The way to the summit extends through some 4. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Central Java. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. The upper three are circular.

• detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. dsb. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. a sweet young lady. dsb. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. • simple present tense. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. two strong legs.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. misalnya fast. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. 2. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. perilaku umum. house. dsb. but my favourite one is a cat. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. better or worse 3. Misalnya: I have many pets. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). White. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. • berbagai macam adjectives. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away.  Description. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4.my cat. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. misalnya teacher. • action verbs. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. classifying. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. misalnya. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. misalnya. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. dsb. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. dsb. dsb. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . kualitas. sifat-sifat (characteristic). bersifat describing. sharp white fangs. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. numbering. enough money to take Snow White. It has very thick fur. My mum is realy cool. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers.

Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. The following day. “My name is Snow White. had many suitors. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. Hakim. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. “Without question.” Snow White said. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. which she strikes against herself. The psychological conflict inside Maura.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Example of Narative A. After dinner. The first gave her some left over food. One by one she discarded them. who received a plate of delicious meat. Then Snow White woke up. They went inside. “Oh could I? Thank you. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. in what way she will decide who the best is. one of the dwarfs. The third sheik. you may live here with us. “If you wish. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. The dwarfs said. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. As they were about to have dinner. There they found Snow White sleeping. She saw the dwarfs. One evening. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. “what is your name?” Snow White said. They were also rich and strong.” Doc. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. who was called Hakim. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. Maura asked them for something to eat. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. They want to know what next will happen. said.

in the mountain. climbed. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. Then he continued to humble. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Although he tried hard to teach. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. Complication. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. before that. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. waktu. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. • action verbs dalam past tense. Penyelesaian masalah. dsb. The parrot could say every word. dsb. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. the man really got very angry. I will cut the chicken 17 . The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. except one word. He could not bear it. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. Resolution. stepsisters. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. Pengenalan tokoh. two red apples. Masalah. the parrot would not say it. “You know. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif.dsb. phrase. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. There was no other parrot like it. misalnya then. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. soon. happily ever after. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. long black hair. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). misalnya here. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. misalnya. stayed. misalnya. dsb. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. housework. At the first. konflik dalam cerita. a man had a wonderful parrot. dsb. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. The name of the place was Catano.

SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . Next it will be your turn. She attracted Batara Guru so much. At the moment. He opened the door and was very surprised. To fix this problem. stupid parrot”. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. He could not control his mad. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. the man attempted to teach the bird. 4 are describing the complication. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. there was a handsome man. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. The fish begged him to set it free. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. One day. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. He made the fish free. 3. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. the man came back to the chicken house. It will show the crisis. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. The next day. As soon as it was free. After that he left the chicken house. The daughters were crying. In the parrot story. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. I will eat you too. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. There were three death chickens on the floor. They were married happily. He felt in love with that fish-woman. he caught a fish. paragraph 2. Batara Guru could not bear it. He liked fishing. A man and his parrot took place once time. rising crisis and climax of the story. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. In that parrot story. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. They had two daughters. That was the smartest parrot. C. readers see the problem is finished.for my meal. They found their mother and talked her about it. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters.

At last. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. Then the earth began to shake. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. In the end. the day of the ball came. she was driven to the palace. They were married and live happily ever after. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. “Well” said the godmother.”you’ve been such a cheerful. She danced again and again with the king’s son. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. and away went the sisters to it. such as scrubbing the floor. Magically. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. In her hurry. The mother was shouting angrily. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. hardworking. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. Cinderella?” a voice asked. It fitted perfectly. “Why are crying. They treated Cinderella very badly. Finally. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. did not work about the house. “Now. one of her glass slipper was left behind. on the other hand. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. A few days later. she said. One day. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Cinderella”. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. and it became a beautiful ball gown. there was a young girl named Cinderella. “You must leave before midnight”.The mother was very annoyed. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. Volcanoes started to erupt. Batara Guru broke his promise. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. D. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. The two step sisters. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. The earth formed a very big hole.

“it at home”. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. The Smartest Animal. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. Orientation. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. The tiger asked. “Can I see your intelligence?”. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Complication: In this Cinderella story. Generic Structure Analysis 1. He took his plough and hit the tiger. farmer and his buffalo. Complication. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. In the last paragraph. “oh. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Every morning and every evening. “Yes” said the man. Resolution: Like complication. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Once there was a farmer from Laos. “you are so big and strong. introducing specific participants. 3. once in Laos 2. said the buffalo. “No. E. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. I can’t tell you”.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. the man is very intelligent”. After the man went home. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. One day. Then he said. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. Resolution. But the man answered.

Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. the next day past tense. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. answered thinking verb. tie.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. Place on a plate. one day connectives. after. 50 g cheese. once. bowl. cheese grater. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. the man tied the tiger. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. hit time conjunction. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . saw. plate Method 1. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Add milk and whisk well 4. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. spatula. Cook both sides 9. fork. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. was surprised to action verb. there was a farmer. ¼ cup milk.

Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. excluded • Steps. cara yang akurat. dsb. don’t. menyatakan rinci waktu. Cut. firstly. Read aloud what you've written. finally. put. tempat. Your customers don't care about you. misalnya for five minutes. Use regular words. next. Example of Procedure A. write your benefit like you talk it. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. wait it. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. Firstly.10. 2 centimetres from the top. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. planting is a nice activity. Finally. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. while. Here are the steps. etc • Action verb. not features. put. It should be in open area Next. dsb. Don’t mix. the following is a guided information B. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. • action verbs. dsb. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. dry a handful seeding. • Material. Here's a simple checklist to follow. misalnya turn. informing on how to plant chillies. etc • Temporal conjunction. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. Well. Langkah-langkah. mix. misalnya then. you don't have to. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . Firstly. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. put it in another big pot. misalnya. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. put the seeding on the soil. dry. but it will help. put it. take the topic of benefits. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating.

News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Listen carefully. read. add First. bowl and plate. fifty gram cheese. Next. to make a cheese omelet. informing on how to write for business • Material. Use a nice rhythm. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. Don't describe how your company may. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. secondly. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. Some sentences are long and some are short. excluded • Steps/ method. reread what you have done. firstly. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles.Thirdly. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. write like you talked. three tablespoons cookin oil. you need an egg. a quarter cup of milk. choosing the advantageous topic. etc • Temporal conjunction. etc • Action verb. showing the method in writing for business. Mix them up and keep things interesting. spatula. cheese grater. Fourthly. such as. a pinch of satlt and pepper. you need some tools. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 .com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Fifthly. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. fork. writing the topic like the way it is talked. Edit it necesarily.re-read what you've done before publishing. lose the weak words. re-reading what have been written . First. Next. write. frying pan. etc C.

Focusing on circumstances 2. Language Feature of News Item 1. Elaboration (background. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Generic Structure of News Item 1. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Resource of information 3. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. Using material process 4.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The accident. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. a news report said. Example of Procedure A. Main event 2. place) 3. “But this just a suggestion. it’s up to them”. time. participant. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . 2. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

named Suwartin. was quoted as saying besides sex workers.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. pendapat para ahli. orang yang terlibat. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. he said in the report. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. In the past the event was held behind closed door. Kejadian inti. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. dsb.  Background Events.  Sources. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Last year. Malaysian Aids Council president. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. many women who contract HIV are housewives. komentar saksi kejadian. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. (Source The Jakarta Post. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. tempat kejadian dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events. Latar belakang kejadian. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. June 01. less then 10 percent are woman. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. even though they know they have HIV” she said. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The maid. but the number is steadily rising. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan.

carry. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 .bbc. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. Saudi Arabia. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. (Taken from: www. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. (Adapted from Reuters.co.Then the maid was arrested. Background 2. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. execute. Background 1. Background 3. Using material process. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Rape. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. She had relationship the boy for five months. Last year. law of serious crimes. behead. Hong Kong. Resource. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. May 6. the Saudi Interior Minister said. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.news. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee.

should. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. however. hopefully. deliberately. may. etc • Using adverbial of manner. believe. feel. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. historic. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. Example of Discussion Text A. and social text. contrastive.1. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. etc • Using additive. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. could. hope. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. many times. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. But. 2. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. must. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. and causal connection. similarly. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. on the hand. etc 4. doing homework is not a great idea. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. etc • Using modalities.

It produces small amount of waste. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It is reliable. and produces huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. so it is not expansive to make. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. England in 1956. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed.

it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. however. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. misalnya deliberately. should have been. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. This example of discussion text present the two poles. should. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. dsb. misalnya feel. on the hand. dsb. could 29 be.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. In many social activities. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. believe. nuclear power is very. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. dsb. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. perception and recommendation. Gagasan Pokok 2. misalnya uniforms. must. Furthermore. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. • adverbials of maner. dsb. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. dsb.  Kesimpulan. alcohol. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. hopefully. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. Elaborasi (uraian). although it is reliable. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. very dangerous. . dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). misalnya smoking is harmful. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong.On the other hand. memberikan informasi secara padu. misalnya similarly. Elaborasi (uraian). hope. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. seperti perhaps.

bbc. farmer. Using connectives. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. must. social. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. B. geography and history text books. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. however. Recommendation. hunting fox. scientific and cultural phenomena.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Using modalities. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. It is often found in science. 2. (Taken from: www. conservationists. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Using thinking verb. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Many farmer and even conservationists. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings.co. believe. Contrastive point. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Supporting point.

Sequenced explanation.• • General statement. next. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Example of Explanation Text A. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. to begin with. etc Using chronological connection. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. rain. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Featuring generic participant. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. sun. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Language Feature • • • • 4. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3.

adverbial phrases. noun phrase. (simplified from www. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. earthquakes. passive voice. But that is the case.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. misalnya the large cloud. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. sosialbudaya. the amount of • bahasa teksni. conjunctions of time dan cause. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. complex sentences. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. It causes day and night. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . simple present tense. misalnya word chopping. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. This process is called revolution. action verbs. abstract nouns. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan.panda. It takes 365 days or a year. dunia ilmiah. Tsunami always bring great damage. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease.org) B. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. It is called as rotation. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. The earth also moves around the sun. misalnya the temperature. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns.

that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. so. certainly. Using simple present tense 4. I feel that when you travel through the country. Recommendation 3. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using evaluative words.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Thesis 2. policy. important. Focusing on the writer 2. Using pasive voice. daylight. (Taken from: www. etc 7. Using present tense. 2. Explanation. Using modal adverb.co. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Using temporal connective. Using chronological connection. etc 3. firstly. Using passive voice 9. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). advantage. you would be forgiven. Using abstract noun. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Arguments 3.ictteachers.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Using thinking verb 5. then. etc 8. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. but. surely. etc 6. Using action verb 4. secondly. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. the earth is actually closer to the sun. trustworthy. valuable. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter.

Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. pornography. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . Recomendatio I feel that country people. especially violence. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. However.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. consumerism and so on. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. Recently. Those who want to penalise older . leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. and short sleep duration. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. of course. Meanwhile. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses.every five to ten minutes. Considering some facts mentioning above. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. stress. and the possibility of being aggressive.

and news advertorial. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Both take place as argumentative essays. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. speech campaign. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. there papers.the writer thought as stated in the text. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. When we look at classroom. mineral water cops. More dust bins should be put beside each step. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. If it is a hortatory text. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. school corridors and schoolyard. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. and napkin everywhere. sales letter. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. In many social activities. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. B. straws. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. In the first paragraph. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. Basically. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. advertising. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment.

doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. When they think about continuing study.meters. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. the available time will be more flexible for them. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. So when students want to throw away their litters. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. C. Where should be after High School?. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. they will think hard about the time and cost. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. it will be very hard to looking for job. So. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. As result. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. when they think about straightly seeking job. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. it will be quite confusing. As the alternative method of studying. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. In the same way. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . they can find the dust bins easily. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. In the other hand. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning.

a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . dsb. as it is. secondly. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . We can show the way to give up work. Modal verbs. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. dsb.D. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. dsb. make. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. misalnya certainly. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. felt Using simple present tense. valuable. dsb. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. Albert Smith is the proof. Generic Structure of Report 1.dsb. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet.government dsb. he drives a sport car. now there is a way out. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Millions from Property Market. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. Recommendation. public place. misalnya species of animals.misalnya policy. plant. animal. we must save.we. misalnya important. Technical verbs. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. misalnya. doesn’t seem to have been . (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. etc which will be discussed in general 2. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Action verbs. misalnya We must preserve. dsb. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. part per part . are you tired?. give up. Argument. misalnya I believe . reward Using action verb. there is a way out of financial problem. dsb. Relating verbs. misalnya firstly. misalnya should be. Thinking verbs. Connectives. Modal adverbs. etc Using thinking verb. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. dsb. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something.

SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . stating general classification. when. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. and woolly layer of fur. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. driving the fish before them. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. perhaps two dozen birds. Platypus lives in streams. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding.• • Using conditional logical connection. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. rivers. Platypus. the animal of platypus. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. Platypus' eyes and head are small. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. and lakes. so. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. In the other hand. etc Using simple present tense 4. As the bird lifts its head. A group. beating the water furiously with their wings. Example of Report Text A.

apa adanya. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. benda buatan manusia. dan klasifikasinya. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. lingkungan. dsb. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. the animal of platypus conditional. kegunaannya jika non natural. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. habits or behaviors. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. atau gejala-gejala sosial. Platypus lives in streams. qualities. male platypus does not need any burrow. dsb. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. keterangan. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . dsb.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. misalnya lizards cannot fly. misalnya. istilah teknis. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. but. dsb.Description. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. in terms of parts. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. logical connective.

’ replied the man. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. animals or certain things 2. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Orientation 2. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Focusing on people. ran. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Using action verb. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. He bought some new furniture and moved in. ate. Dave found a nice office. 2. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Using adverb of time and place 4. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Told in chronological order 4. Events 3. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A.1. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Twist 3. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. etc 3.

your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. “If that is what you want. Then the man said to Dave. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. verbs. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. no children. “Hey Abu Nawas. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. misalnya eat. binatang. Event 2: He had his new office. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. run. terduga atau lucu). The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. He had not left the country yet. “You want me. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. conversation on the phone. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. “Yes. I want you to leave the country. Event 1: Being rich. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. B. Then “Remember. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. Instead leaving the country. He suddenly became a 1. In his office. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). benda tertentu. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly.

The King continued “And now.guards. So you see. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . look at you. I had a very good seat. The guards reported what they had seen to the king.I did not enjoy it. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I turned around again. You have not left this country”. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. were talking noisily. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. The king wondered and said “Abu. They were talking very loudly.I got very angry.In the end. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. You walk on stilts like a child. And since yesterday. I turned around. I do not step on the ground of this country”. I have been walking on this stilts. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I do not step on the ground. (Adapted from S. I could not hear the actors. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. Your Majesty. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. I could not bear it. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. The king was not able to say anything. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. The play was very interesting. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. They did not pay any attention. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. young man and young woman. “I remember exactly what you said.

He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Getting Nasreddin's answer. nobody looked at me. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. “When I came here with my old clothes. they just shook the head. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. the policeman saw the man in the same park. “Eat the food. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. “It’s none of your business. "Take it to the zoo!". The next day. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. He put his coat and said. The man was still carrying the penguin. D. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. you give food to my coat instead of me”. When he arrived in the party. So. He took it to a policeman and said. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. It’s a private conversation”. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. The host at once got up and came to meet him. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. "What should I do?" The policeman replied.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy.

was. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. place and time 2. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. heard. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. I. They were in the park Event1. penguin. change. Reorientation: It is optional. chronological order by days. once. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. Even. etc • Using chronological connection.did. etc • Using simple past tense 4. carry. then. go. were. policeman Using action verb. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. today I am taking it to the movie". first. walk up Using adverb of time and place. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. The following day. He. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. So. etc • Using linking verb. Generic Structure of Recount 1. saw. look. my group. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. in the park Told in chronological order. etc • Using action verb. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 .

We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. They had booked fourteen days tour. In writer's point of view. Mr. It was scary. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. There was a film for their entertainment. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . We stayed at David and Della’s house. they inserted a key-card to open the door. read. They went to London. hear. It can be what the writer has done. The officers were pleasant. Richard with two sons. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. This includes travel and accommodation. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. Instead of keys for the room. We saw cockatoos having a shower. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Then. On the third floor. They had a very pleasant flight. and Mrs. The room had perfect view of the park. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. The two week in London went by fast. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. Richard’s family was on vacation. on Example of Recount text A.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They gave them food and drink. At the end of the 14-day. Vacation to London Mr. B. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They are Mr. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. the thing is an experience. They had variety of food. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They slept part of the way. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court.

Small Notes and felt. misalnya and. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. waktu dan cara. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. sleep. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. The first stop was at Batubulan. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. Pengenalan. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. but. In simple way. It is a busy but quiet town. the monkey. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. the on Tuesday. The first one was to Singaraja. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. recount describes series of events in detail. C. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. he was ready. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. past tense.  Reorientation. kejadian atau kegiatan. then. It reveals the conflict among the participants. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. On the other hand. run dsb. at my house. The next stop was Celuk. She was happy dsb. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. misalnya We went to the zoo. misalnya David.  Events. Rekaman peristiwa. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. misalnya beautiful. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. the second was to Ubud. what happened on Sunday. a center of stone sculpture. misalnya yesterday. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. after that. di mana dan kapan. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. then on Monday. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. dsb. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. 46 slowly dsb. The event happened smoothly. we dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. funny. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. misalnya go. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. On the day of the tour. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. • • • • • . yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis.

We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. I did not know that it was an earthquake. all his day was spent on the beach. Although nothing was left. moved. It took about a week. left. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. I was trapped by the rock. I was on my car. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. I was on the car las week. The car lunched to one side. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. Overall. the ceremony was quite elaborate. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. Events. suddenly • Using linking verb. was. I thought I got flat tire. were • Using action verb. in the town. etc E. describing a series of event which happened. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. I • Using chronological connectives. then. to the left. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. He was quiet satisfied. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. earthquake happened. and. When I reached my town. Re-orientation. using first person point of view. walked. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. made. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. Several days before the ceremony was done. introducing the participant. my car lunched on one side. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. etc. like matchsticks. stating the writer's personal note. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . I was on the car. There were rocks everywhere. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. D. Even I could not move my car at all. When the earthquake happened.

we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. you find words and phrases used to start. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Meanwhile. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. After that. On the last day. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. a series of events in chronological order. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. Then. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. and end your composition. Finally. there were also buffalo matches. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. Then. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . In the night. In the text. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. During the day. chanting. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. They were great matches.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. However. connect a sentence with the next one. After that. my brother. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. my uncle. we were feasting. First. Questions 1. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. and dancing. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. A recount text has an orientation. and then moved the corpse to face north. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. Finally. Those words and phrases are: First. The funeral was performed in two phases.

valuable. Using adjectives 3. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. or just a site which want to be known publicly. Using long and complex clauses 4. services which want to be sold. etc. After clearly explanation. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side.What is review text 1. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. It states the parts. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. 3. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. quality of the product which will be known publicly. It is personal idea about the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. uniqueness. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Dominant Language features: 1. worthy. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Using metaphor 4. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . Definition Review is one of text genres. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. It can be product. useful. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Focus on specific participants 2. As I said in my previous post. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good.

He goes from being a warm-hearted. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. In some (Interpretati instances this works. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. this was not my favorite.. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. and ultimately satisfying. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. intriguing.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. The stories were bright.. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. for example . with some editing it would have been great. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. especially with being a teenager and all. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. fast-paced. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. I was truly moved by the last page. however. magical or no. Still a really good book.housekeeping is still housekeeping.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. A few other changes in this book . depressing feel. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. and parts of it do seem long. and this part I loved. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. I actually liked the ending (and yes. I cried!) as sad as it was. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books.

If we visit the site. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. Again. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. In certain case. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. it will be quite difficult to make translation. Titanium. woman and man are available choice. the daily activities are worthily documented. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. However. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. lexical. The translation experts. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. Eyeglasses for children. The site is her effort to record of what she did. It is real. The experts who have grammatical. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. It straightly goes to the end user. aluminum and rimless frame are available. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . does and will do daily. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses.the trend. The site is quite simple but very informative. easy and not complicated design. For Rosemarie. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. Similarly. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. if he works with Farsi translation. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

descriptive text will convey more focus. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. how to make a good kite. is the scope of the written object. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. lengh. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. wheel style. It is such word. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. physical strengh. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. colour. What make different.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. etc. phenomena. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. They give the detail description on something. animal and scientific object. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. Procedure. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. How a tornado form. product case or problem. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. eg: bicycle. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. If we talk about. it belongs to report text. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. Mostly. report is written after getting careful observation. first boil water. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. secondly prepare the cup. For example how to make a cup of tea. Explanation. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. between report and descriptive text. In the other hand. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. goods. etc is the best example of the procedure text. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. In short. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . However if they are analyzed carefully. and so on. It will talk about bicycle in general. its parts.

how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. then on Monday. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. On the other hand. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. secondly prepare the cup. the on Tuesday. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. For example how to make a cup of tea. phenomena. How a tornado form. It can be what the writer has done. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. first boil water. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . read. goods. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. They give the detail description on something. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Explanation is such a scientific written material. The event happened smoothly. In simple way. Procedure. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. and felt. It is such word. hear. It reveals the conflict among the participants. In writer's point of view. how to make a good kite. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. and so on. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. what happened on Sunday. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. recount describes series of events in detail. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Explanation. the thing is an experience. product case or problem. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. etc is the best example of the procedure text.

discussion. explanation. Using technical terms 7. These variations are known as GENRES. 25. 22. Orientation 3. Crisis 4. Using action verbs 3. 16. procedure.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Using general and abstract noun 8. 24. 17. Arguments 3. hortatory exposition. Coda. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Reaction 5. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. 23. analytical exposition. spoof. 26. recount. texts are divided into several types. 18. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Using adjective 6. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. 15. report. Using exclamations. Thesis 2. Using modals 2. 14. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verbs 4. and news item. review. anecdote. Using material process 3. Dominant Language Features: 1. Abstract 2. 20. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. They are narrative. descriptive. 19. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . Using adverbs 5.

Using noun phrase 5. Issue 2. Explanation 3. Using Past Tense 2. Orientation 2. Short. Using Imperatives sentence 3. General statement 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. place and manner. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Evaluation 3. Complication 4. Using action verbs 3. Using adverb 4. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Arguments for and against 3. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. Materials/Equipments 3.1. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using technical terms 7. Background event(s) 3. Using passive voice 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverbs : time. Using action verb 3. Resolution 5.

Use of relating verb/to be 3. Identification 2. Description Language Features: 1.1. Using conjunction/transition 6. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using modality 7. as it is. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. General classification 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using thinking verb 4. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using modals 3. Thesis 2. Using action verb 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Dominant Generic Structure: 1. In simple word. Generic Structure 1. Using thinking verbs 5. Using adjective 7. Using general and abstract noun 5. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using technical terms 8. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. place or thing in detail. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using adverb 4. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Arguments 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using conditional logical connection 3. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using adverbs 6.

The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. folklore. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Event(s) 3. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Orientation 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using adverb 4. Using long and complex clauses 4.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Evaluation 3. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Event(s) 3. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Orientation 2. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. fable. Using adjectives 3. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Evaluation 5. myth. Using metaphor 60 . Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. Using Past Tense 2. In the contrary. or Past Perfect Tense. Focus on specific participants 2. etc while recount text is found in biography. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Interpretative Recount 4. whether Simple Past Tense. social conflict or psychological conflict. Using action verb 3. Using Past Tense 2. Using action verb 3.

Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 1. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. 6. spoof dsb. penjelasan. 5.exposition. diagram dsb. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. 10. tempat. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. 8. 4. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. map. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. descriptive. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. grafik. 7. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. dsb. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. 9. label. biasanya tentang nama. tahun. Continuous text misalnya narrative. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. tabel. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. 2. 11. tanggal. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 3. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 .

frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. fluffy. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. it is small. And cute. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.

readers to do something good. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3.. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. So when students want to throw away their litters. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. 1. When we look at classrooms. They put their litters on the proper places. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. they can find the dust bins easily. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. straws. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. a number of dust bins should be increased. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. According to the writer. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. more dust bins…. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. and some more also the corridors. in every ten meters..EXERCISES. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. school corridors and school yard. there are paper mineral water cups. What is the writer’s intention? To …. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. Besides. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . and napkins here and there. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. outside of the classrooms. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2.

Although usually simple. translating songs. The generic structures of the text are …. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Secondly. What is the text about …. Firstly. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. From the elaboration above. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. with a lot of repetition. shopping malls. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. Furthermore. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. 5. patriotism and yeas. which is just what many learners look for sample text. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. religion.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. songs in general also use simple conversational language. even revolution. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. spelling and culture. They provide variety and fun. songs are relaxing. place or time reference. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. lexically and poetically. Last but not least. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. practicing selective listening comprehension. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. In addition. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. learning vocabulary. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8.

“They provide variety and fun. Finally.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.” The underlined word refers to …. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. Therefore.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. It must not be allowed because it is rude. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.Since we can find a thesis. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. smoking in restaurants is impolite. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .. Firstly. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. The word reasons mean…..9. not just in restaurants. 11. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. Based on the text.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

teacher. Mr. Mrs... SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . friend. Mary Jones. This is my friend. mother. Very nice to meet you.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. I don't believe we've met before. Hi Jack. Nice to meet you too. Ritter. I'm. father.. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. co-worker. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. my my my my my my my my my brother. Watson. Carrie. sister. Harris. Penny Pitcher. Ms. Jack. And you. Nice to meet you. It's a pleasure to meet you. Cindy. boss. Bob.. Introducing someone else my name is. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Harris. • I want to introduce you to …. 2. Likewise. Mr. Pleased to meet you. student. I'm Linda 1.

3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Shall we go to the canteen?. this is Retno. Adib. Adib : Hi. My name is Adib. hotel.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. are you a new student. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Retno. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work.g. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. I’m Arnys. and Retno are new students. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 .g. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. a restaurant. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. By the way. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Adib : Anyway. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Arnys. Situation: Adib. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. e. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. I am. Hi. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box.

• • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. thanks. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . See you soon /later /tomorrow. . . Do you wanna . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . (informal) Would you like to . before leaving. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. . . • Good bye. thanks. Bye. . . . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. thank you. shake hands with other Virga :… women. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Very well. Not so bad. thanks.

if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.Some responds of inviting. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.? Would you like . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 . Receiving .. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it...to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .I’d like very much . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.I’d be happy/glad to accept .. let’s not.a chocolate bar? . Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. ..That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like... I’d be delighted to.Yes..I’d love to .

you very much. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Happy new year. I need it. Thank you. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. returned your lost wallet. Thanks.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. helped carry your grocery bags. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Happy birthday to you. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . complimented you on your necktie. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you.

That’s pity f. and congratulations Special Days .use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. It’s nice of you to say so. not really. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. That’s a nuisance d. What’s pity c. Expressing of sympathy on minor a..Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. How kind of you to say so. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. holidays and other special occasions. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 .• • • Oh. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . What’s shame b. That’s too bad e..

Goodness! b. Send my deepest condolence! f. h. I’m sorry about that c. I’m so happy ….B. I’m really sorry for them d. I’m delighted. It was terrifi c. …. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. m. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. l. b. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. How dreadful! C. e. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I feel …. I’m sorry to hear that b. I enjoyed it I love it.. g. How Awful! d. I’m really sad to … c. i. f. feel unpleased with …. d. Expression Displeasure a. c. k. d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . Please accept my deepest sympathy e. I feel disappointed. j. I feel … b. How terrible! c.

but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.Satisfaction. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.

Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. • Yes. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. In my opinion…. • I am with you • Definitely. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. I agree • I know what you mean. As I see.  I think the other one’s better. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. say • Absolutely.  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So.. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.  In my opinion.. … If you ask me.

I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. No.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. that's not a good idea. Fear. I don't think that's what happened. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about ….

• I’m glad it was done. it’s killing me! 2.. • Ugh.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . it’s very painful! • Oh... Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I feel sick.. • I’m sick.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • Thank God for .. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that ./I feel ill. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.

BUT "I don't really like it." This is not very strong. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. but it is not a very strong dislike. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. It means that you do not like something.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'.

I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure.. I was so ashamed. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I’m extremely unhappy about this. I will. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 .please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. That’s a real embarrassment.

Excuse me if I'm out of line.. It's your fault for (doing something). Sure.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.  Right away.. Don't get me wrong.. I'm sorry to bother you. Blame (keluhan. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but... Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. I think you might have forgotten to. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English..  Certainly. There may have been a misunderstanding about. Complaint.Palupi : OK. but I think we should..... I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. but... Maybe you forgot to.  Of course. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English ... but.

Sorry for.simply starters! Regret...... to ask for forgiveness. I'd like to apologise for. I'm so sorry. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. Examples I'm really sorry.. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. I …. Apology (penyesalan. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. to express regret an exclamation a word. Sorry for taking your DVD. I'll clear up later. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. I didn't mean to lose your book. Pete.

NOTE : 1... Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game..  There is a good chance that ….. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.  It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game...this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. • Is it possible to …? • Yes. yet. distress.… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible ... there is a possibility . SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .  There is a little chance that ….

she.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….you.you.they.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.? it.she. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: …. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2.she. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3. doing something are: 4..  Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.they.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 .it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I. Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it.

they.she. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.he.it Were utk S= you. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.

Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.

are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. have been practising b. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . a. Fred : Juda. are Was.does/am. the telephone rang twelve times.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. “Srimpi”.is. will be practising c.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. was parctising e. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. practised d. is.masa lampau.

The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. have been cleaning c. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. will have lived b. If we don”t hurry. has been working b. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. will have started e. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. have been living c. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . cleaned e. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. starts c. will have worked c. will have lunch e. am living d. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. were cleaning b. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. My family ____ when the postman arrived. works d. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. a. they are succesful. have lunch d. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. will have had lunch b. was living e. will start b. a. a. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. a. have been having lunch c. clean d.2. Iwan : Yes. would have started d. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. a. worked e.

am carrying b. forgot c. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. Learn all these. Is it right? Student : Yes. has forgotten d. sir. a. a. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. was carrying 3. carry d. causes e. When airport are located in the center of citied. was d. had been 7. a. was e. has stopped looking for a job b. have caused c. He ____ there for three weeks. a. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. started to work 6 months a go c. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. carried e. He ____ ill for a week. will have been c. but I ____ there many times. have been 6. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. had been 9. forgets b. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. My father is still in Bali. was e. caused d.2. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . will have been c. has worked for six months e. a. has got a new job d. am d. is d. would be b. have carried c. has been b. a. had forgotten e. have been c. would forget 8. has been e. This sentence means that Ann ___. is still looking for a job 4. were causing b. will be b. a. will cause 5. I forget to bring your book.

sir. am learning 10. when. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses.00 tomorrow. has attended b. will have learnt c. how. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). keterangan waktu. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. Reni goes to her university every morning. have learnt e. dan tempat. I ____ them by then. learn d. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. would be attended DIRECT . Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. She ___ the lectures. a. has been attending e. where. a. She studies business. pronoun (kata ganti orang). who. struktur kalimat. will be learning b. why. You can’t meet her at her house at 10.Student : All right. attended c.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. will be attending d.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

to be not so noisy c. if I opened my mouth e. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. a. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. I am very noisy b. he has gone to his country e. if Mary was absent d. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. I wasn’t so noisy d. he went to his country b. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. that Mary had been absent b. The baby is sleeping. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Herman : Okay. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. Herman. to open my mouth b. had gone to his country d. He said ____ the previous day. that I open his mouth d. a. why Mary had been absent c. not to be so noisy e. he goes to his country c.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. why Mary was absent e. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. mom.

Anto : I am sorry Lina. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. I hadn’t cleaned d. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. had forgotten e. I forgot to bring your book. what are you were doing now d. he headn’t cleaned b. b. “ ___________” a. he asked. e. Mira closed the window. he would not clean c. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. Closed the window. c. It was windy outside. forgets b. Mother said. what were you doing now. It is windy outside. what I was doing then. Mira closed the window. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. b. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. he asked me ____”. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. e. d. a. It was windy outside. forgot c. c. a. I got a headache. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. 4. He asked me ____ a.c. he hasn’t cleaned 2. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. Does Mira close the window. he does not clean e. 94 5. SMA Students’ Modul of English . that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. has forgotten d. would forget 3. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. what I am doing now. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. Ari : What did he say. Mira. It is windy outside. “What are you doing now?”. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c.

when is my appointment b. to finish your work b. b. 10. She told the children not to make noise. how was my appointment e. “Can I find you a hotel?”. going with us b. “don’t make noise. She didn’t say the children should noise d. she said. he went with us 6. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. did I have an appointment d. children”. whether I had appointment 7. do not spend d. 8. not spending b. wether he goes with us c. Mean____ a. She told the children don’t make noise b. d. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. can he go with us e. My friend said to me. not to spend e. a. Slamet. to finish my work c. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 .a. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. not spend c. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. finished your work e. a. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. finish your work d. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. If he could go with us d. She said the children didn’t make noise c. that I had an appointment c. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. Father said. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. e. a. e. c.

• Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 .Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.

will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. was kicking b. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. will be unloaded b. to be abolished c. Y : Really. was being postponed e. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. The announcement ____ twice. are sold e. were sold b. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was kicked c. she ____ a. was postponed d. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . A : Look! The girl is crying. are unloaded c. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. did it abolish e.? a. were being unloaded e. a. has been postponed c. have been unloaded d. was it abolishing d. a. a. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. has to be postponed b.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. when…. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. kicked e. had been sold c. kicks d. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. is sold d. was it to abolish b.

is demolishing c. is being built c. R. A big dam ___ in this area next year. is being destroyed c. is born d. a. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. the baby will be well looked after d. has been cleaned 5. was destroyed 6. a. a. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. will clean b. is being cleaned e. a. will be rewarded 8. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. the baby is being looked after well e. would be born b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. cleaned c. has been built b. is being rewarded b. a. a. will be destroyed b. destroyed d. has been born c. would be built 4. the baby is well looked after b. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. will build d.1.A. is being demolished e. has been rewarded c. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . the baby was looked after well c. was being cleaned d. She looks after the baby well. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. have been arranged 3. have arranged b. will be built e. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. The passive form is ____ a. will be born 2. the baby would be well looked after 7. rewarded d. was arranged e. had been demilishing b. demolishing d. a. was born e. was rewarded e. has arranged c. had destroyed e. is arranged d.

Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. a. was taken b. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. will be promised 10. is being taken e. a.9. has promised d. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. was being promised c. yaitu: 1. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 .sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. took c. will be promised e. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. will be taken d. has been promising b.

dll. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. was/were. did. -ow. Contoh: large larger largest 4. shall. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. -le. may. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . can. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. will.c. -er. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. dll. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. have/has. had. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est.

Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Contoh: If I have much money. Contoh : (+) If I had time. 3. (jika saya punya uang. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). itulah yang diharapkan. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. I will buy a new car. I would have written you a letter.).ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Apa yang diucapkan. Kalau kalimatnya (+). (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Kalau kalimatnya (+). saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. I would go to the beach with you.

(their car = mobilnya orang-orang. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. They are printed in English. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. our. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. I met him last week. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. of which. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. Their car has been stolen. (him = the man. whom. which. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. Contoh: We saw the people. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . their.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. I bought it last year. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English.) 2. your. his. her. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. whose. its.

(saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (its surface/permukaannya meja. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. sebuah benda.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Its surface is not smooth. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . Where 8. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that.

Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. Jogging makes us fresh. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). I got the mechanic to repair my car. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). I had mechanic repair my car.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). The manager has the letter typed. 2. The manager gets the letter typed. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2).

3.Dona prefers dancing to singing. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. can’t help/can’t bear. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for.Amir’s. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. 4. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.V better than radio.Juned prefers combro to deblo.our.Dita would rather watch T. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. on. than plays a video game. 5. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .V ketimbang main video game) 4. his. to be busy. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. get used to. to be worth. 6.her. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use.V . before dll.3. .Kokom likes reading better than watching T. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .V.to be used to. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. he said nothing.their. Before leaving. Setelah possessive adjective (my.I like T.your.

I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. that. or. b. 3. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. when. 2. for. c. Finally. Since I have no money. somebody knocked on the door.Although it was raining. Next. he come on time. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. first. b.Contoh: . I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . we cut the vegetables into small pieces. finally. we put them into frying pan. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . a. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. after. Contoh: . c. we must prepare the ingredients. While he was reading her novel. after that.You can read this book if you like. b. although/though. but.He is both wise and good. I can’t treat you. we put some sauce and salt. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. d. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. while. After that. c. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. a.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: .I went to your house but you weren’t at home. since. then. dll. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. a.Amir and I go to school everyday. We went home after the rain stopped. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. if. d. e. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. yaitu: 1. next. 1. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . Menunjukan waktu: before. as soon as.

The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .He is not only active but also clever. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 . (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful