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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
............103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .....................................................................................................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ..............................................................................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ...........104 GERUND .......99 QUESTION TAGS ..............106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION........................................................................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)............................................................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...............................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .........100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) .......................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ..........105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)............................................................................................................................................
The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Spoof 5. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. The language feature. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . 2. Report 4. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Review 7. Explanation 2. 1. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Descriptive 10. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. News Items 13. Recount 6. Procedure 12. Hortatory Exposition 3. why is the text made?. Narrative 11. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. These types of text are. Analytical Exposition 8. Anecdote 9. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3.
non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. it is better to look at the fact. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. and especially talk to someone. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Example of Analytical Exposition A. or concentrate on your homework. cars create pollution. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Argument Firstly. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Secondly. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. the city is very busy. Additionally. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. the risk is nineteen greater. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. In one hour in smoky room. cars are very noisy. as we all know. Thirdly. which causes them to die. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Reiteratio In conclusion. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. As we all know. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. lung cancer.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. cars. If you live in the city. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 .
The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. In this example of analytical exposition text. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. As the US. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. That wil be true if the conditions. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Furthermore. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments.
decide which computer or laptop they need. eraser. misalnya She must save. • Technical verbs. pollution. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. leaded petrol car. Additionally. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. drawing book. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. misalnya firstly. misalnya It is important. dsb. government. dsb. The students just need to brows that online shop. • Modal adverbs.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. dsb. misalnya we must preserve. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. and then complete the transaction. students need book. • Connectives. secondly. • Reiteration .dsb. we. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. misalnya certainly. (Simplified from the jakartapos. • Thinking verbs. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. misalnya policy. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. in this multimedia era. dsb. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. students need more to reach their progressive development. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. ruler and such other stuff. dsb. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. dsb • Modal verbs. First. misalnya C. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . pen. misalnya Many people believe. misalnya species of animals. • Action verbs.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. • Bahasa evaluatif. Penguatan pernyataan. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. this method will help student to get better understanding. misalnya car. dsb. • Relating verbs. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. • Abstract nouns. Secondly. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns.
From all of that. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Arabic translation. D. Career in Translation Functionally. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. If Hindi translation is provided. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. That is really easy and save time and money. According to Nida. Therefore. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. E. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. Students just need to decide which type they really need. India translation will grow better and. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study.delivered to the students' houses. India is likely being an English speaking country. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. It seems Indonesia. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running.
Using conjunction of time. it's awful!. Using exclamation words. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . go. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. do you know what? 4. Crisis 4. Incident. 2. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. listen to this 3. Using rhetoric question. etc 5. Using simple past tense 4. afterward 6.is inserted at the end of each article. 3. Orientation 3. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Using imperative. Abstract 2. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. because. it's wonderful!. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. etc 2. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. write. etc • Causal conjunction . etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. For instance. then. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Using action verb. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online.
write. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . dsb. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. The father was full of disappointed and anger. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. spitting and hissing at us. Anna. misalnya go. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. However few days before their departure. The family dreams were dashed. He shed tears of disappointment. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. enough money. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family worked and saved. whole business. there were being quarantined for long days. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. The doctor sewed up the boy. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. America. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. their children to America. and turned on the tap. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. They had gotten afterwards. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. so we set to. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. dsb. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. who was only three at the time. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. seperti then. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. nine children. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. passport.
He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. identifying the phenomenon to be described. 3. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. there is something wrong last minute before it. or thing. place. 2. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. the mighty Titanic. qualities. describing the phenomenon in parts. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. • Using simple present tense 4. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. or/and characteristics. He thanked God for saving their lives. They had dream to travel to America. had shank. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. but because of the bitten son by a dog. You have and so do I. When the dream will come true. • Description. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. they were left behind. The father was angry with his son and God. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan. The ship. It was unbelievable but it was. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. The Clak family should have been on that ship. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. When the father heard the news.Five days latter. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America.
She always pays much attention on her appearance. native plants and eucalypts. all her friends. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. a grass amphitheatre. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. In three years1 time. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She said that the products covered all genders. Recently. attractive and trendy. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. In 1964. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. yet retaining its beautiful site. Sydney. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. She is really mad on that shoes. The style. This shoes really matches on her. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. a railway station is under construction. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Today. She is beautiful. She really have perfect appearance. Example of Description A. bright color. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. in 2004. When she are walking on that shoes. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. This year.
The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Cambodia. casual. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Borobudur temple • Description. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Central Java. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Borobudur is well-known. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Indonesia. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa.The temple is constructed. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. valuable • Using simple present tense.8 km of passage and starways.she has. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. B. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The products provide varieties of choice. The upper three are circular. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Ballet. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general.Budhist temple. Borobudur is located in Magelang.
sifat-sifat (characteristic). • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. misalnya fast. • action verbs. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. two strong legs. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. better or worse 3. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. • berbagai macam adjectives. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. My mum is realy cool. a sweet young lady. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. dsb. numbering. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan.my cat. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. misalnya. dsb. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. misalnya teacher. misalnya. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. house. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. classifying. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance).Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. It has very thick fur. bersifat describing. enough money to take Snow White. perilaku umum. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. dsb. dsb. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. dsb. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. Misalnya: I have many pets. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. sharp white fangs. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. Description. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. White. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • simple present tense. dsb. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. but my favourite one is a cat. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. 2. kualitas.
Example of Narative A. you may live here with us. had many suitors. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. “Oh could I? Thank you. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. who was called Hakim. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. which she strikes against herself. They were also rich and strong. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. One evening. “My name is Snow White. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story.” Snow White said. who received a plate of delicious meat. Maura asked them for something to eat.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. There they found Snow White sleeping. They went inside. One by one she discarded them. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. “Without question. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. said.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. “what is your name?” Snow White said. Then Snow White woke up. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. one of the dwarfs. As they were about to have dinner. in what way she will decide who the best is. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. The psychological conflict inside Maura. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. The dwarfs said. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. Hakim. She saw the dwarfs. The following day. The third sheik. They want to know what next will happen. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. “If you wish.” Doc. After dinner. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The first gave her some left over food. who will be chosen by Queen Maura.
khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. a man had a wonderful parrot. dsb. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. stepsisters. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. the parrot would not say it. Pengenalan tokoh.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. two red apples. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. stayed. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. dsb. waktu. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. There was no other parrot like it. misalnya. Resolution. At the first. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. Masalah. I will cut the chicken 17 . in the mountain. The name of the place was Catano. except one word. misalnya. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. housework. climbed. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. Complication. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. before that. Although he tried hard to teach. long black hair. the man really got very angry. soon. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. • action verbs dalam past tense. “You know. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. misalnya then. Then he continued to humble. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Penyelesaian masalah. dsb. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. konflik dalam cerita. dsb.dsb. happily ever after. misalnya here. He could not bear it. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. phrase. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The parrot could say every word. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita.
there was a handsome man. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. That was the smartest parrot. They had two daughters. Batara Guru could not bear it. 4 are describing the complication. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The next day. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. They found their mother and talked her about it. the man came back to the chicken house. He could not control his mad. The fish begged him to set it free. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. After that he left the chicken house. It will show the crisis. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. There were three death chickens on the floor. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. Next it will be your turn. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. I will eat you too. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. One day. stupid parrot”. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. She attracted Batara Guru so much. C. He made the fish free. the man attempted to teach the bird. As soon as it was free. rising crisis and climax of the story. They were married happily. he caught a fish. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . 3. To fix this problem.for my meal. readers see the problem is finished. A man and his parrot took place once time. In the parrot story. paragraph 2. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. He opened the door and was very surprised. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. At the moment. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. In that parrot story. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The daughters were crying. He liked fishing.
“Why are crying. In the end. she said. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. People believed that the big hole became a lake. “You must leave before midnight”. Volcanoes started to erupt. “Well” said the godmother. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . At last.”you’ve been such a cheerful. It fitted perfectly. Magically. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. and away went the sisters to it. They treated Cinderella very badly. “Now. the day of the ball came. Finally. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. The earth formed a very big hole. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. The mother was shouting angrily. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time.The mother was very annoyed. In her hurry. she was driven to the palace. hardworking. A few days later. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. there was a young girl named Cinderella. did not work about the house. Cinderella?” a voice asked. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Cinderella”. on the other hand. The two step sisters. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. D. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Then the earth began to shake. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. They were married and live happily ever after. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. such as scrubbing the floor. Batara Guru broke his promise. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. She danced again and again with the king’s son. one of her glass slipper was left behind. One day. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve.
It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. “oh. “No. Resolution. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Generic Structure Analysis 1. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Orientation. “Yes” said the man. He took his plough and hit the tiger. the man is very intelligent”. The Smartest Animal. Resolution: Like complication. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. “it at home”. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. Complication. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. said the buffalo. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. E. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. Every morning and every evening. 3. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . Once there was a farmer from Laos. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. But the man answered. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. “you are so big and strong. The tiger asked. once in Laos 2. In the last paragraph. I can’t tell you”. introducing specific participants. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. After the man went home. “Can I see your intelligence?”. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. One day. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Then he said. Complication: In this Cinderella story. farmer and his buffalo.
Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. cheese grater. 50 g cheese. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. once. Place on a plate. was surprised to action verb. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . hit time conjunction. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. answered thinking verb. Cook both sides 9. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. the next day past tense. saw. there was a farmer. plate Method 1. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. after. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Goal: showing the purpose 2. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. bowl. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. spatula. the man tied the tiger. one day connectives. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. fork. tie. ¼ cup milk. Add milk and whisk well 4.
Finally. write your benefit like you talk it. put the seeding on the soil. menyatakan rinci waktu. wait it. Firstly. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. you don't have to. mix. misalnya turn. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. but it will help. etc • Temporal conjunction. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. put it in another big pot. misalnya for five minutes. excluded • Steps. cara yang akurat. put. 2 centimetres from the top. dry. It should be in open area Next. Example of Procedure A. put. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. Here are the steps. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. Langkah-langkah. don’t. the following is a guided information B. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. tempat. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. dsb. while. etc • Action verb. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. firstly. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Here's a simple checklist to follow. • action verbs. Well. Your customers don't care about you. finally. next. informing on how to plant chillies. not features. dsb. misalnya. Don’t mix. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. misalnya then. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Use regular words. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal.10. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. take the topic of benefits. put it. Firstly. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. Read aloud what you've written. • Material. planting is a nice activity. dry a handful seeding. dsb. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . Cut.
three tablespoons cookin oil. fork. lose the weak words. informing on how to write for business • Material. secondly. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Edit it necesarily. Mix them up and keep things interesting. such as. read. Don't describe how your company may. fifty gram cheese. showing the method in writing for business. re-reading what have been written . etc • Temporal conjunction. you need some tools. a pinch of satlt and pepper. add First. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. Use a nice rhythm. Next. you need an egg.Thirdly. writing the topic like the way it is talked. Next. bowl and plate. etc • Action verb. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. to make a cheese omelet. firstly. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . excluded • Steps/ method. write. etc C. choosing the advantageous topic. Fifthly. Fourthly. write like you talked. Some sentences are long and some are short. a quarter cup of milk. frying pan. Listen carefully. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through.re-read what you've done before publishing. First. cheese grater. spatula.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. reread what you have done.
Language Feature of News Item 1. Example of Procedure A. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . The events are considered newsworthy or important. 2. Resource of information 3. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Focusing on circumstances 2. participant. it’s up to them”. time. Using material process 4. The accident. place) 3. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Elaboration (background. “But this just a suggestion. Main event 2. Generic Structure of News Item 1. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. a news report said. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. “This is not to debate them but to protect them.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. Background Events. many women who contract HIV are housewives. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Malaysian Aids Council president. named Suwartin. In the past the event was held behind closed door. but the number is steadily rising. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. The maid. Kejadian inti. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. June 01. (Source The Jakarta Post. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. less then 10 percent are woman. tempat kejadian dsb. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. orang yang terlibat. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. dsb. pendapat para ahli. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. Latar belakang kejadian. he said in the report. even though they know they have HIV” she said. komentar saksi kejadian. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. Last year. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. Sources.
She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. Hong Kong. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.bbc. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. She had relationship the boy for five months. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. Rape. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. behead. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Last year.news. Resource. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. (Taken from: www. Background 3. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances.Then the maid was arrested. May 6. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. carry. (Adapted from Reuters. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. Saudi Arabia. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Background 2. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. execute. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.co. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . Using material process. law of serious crimes. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Background 1.
etc • Using adverbial of manner. may. feel. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. doing homework is not a great idea. Example of Discussion Text A. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. deliberately. must.1. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. many times. however. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. hopefully. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. hope. believe. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. etc 4. historic. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. etc • Using modalities. and causal connection. etc • Using additive. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. should. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. But. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. on the hand. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. and social text. contrastive. 2. similarly. could.
It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. It is reliable. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. England in 1956. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It produces small amount of waste. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. so it is not expansive to make. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . and produces huge amounts of energy. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide.
dsb. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok.On the other hand. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. misalnya deliberately. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. Gagasan Pokok 2. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. misalnya uniforms. misalnya similarly. dsb. misalnya feel. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. could 29 be. dsb. In many social activities. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. however. • adverbials of maner. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. must. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. although it is reliable. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. should have been. believe. nuclear power is very. seperti perhaps. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. . This example of discussion text present the two poles. dsb. Kesimpulan. memberikan informasi secara padu. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. on the hand. dsb. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. dsb. perception and recommendation. Elaborasi (uraian). very dangerous.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. alcohol. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. Elaborasi (uraian). hopefully. Furthermore. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. hope. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. misalnya smoking is harmful. Elaborasi (uraian). should. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas.
It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Using thinking verb. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. hunting fox. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way.bbc. social. Recommendation. conservationists. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. It is often found in science. however. geography and history text books. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Supporting point. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. believe.co. B.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . 2. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. scientific and cultural phenomena. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Using modalities. Contrastive point. farmer. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. (Taken from: www. Using connectives. Many farmer and even conservationists. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. must.
Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Sequenced explanation. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries.• • General statement. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). next. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. rain. to begin with. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Featuring generic participant. Language Feature • • • • 4. etc Using chronological connection. sun. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Example of Explanation Text A.
crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. It is called as rotation. earthquakes. complex sentences. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. (simplified from www. passive voice. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . the amount of • bahasa teksni. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. Tsunami always bring great damage.panda. misalnya word chopping. dunia ilmiah. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. simple present tense. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. noun phrase. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. adverbial phrases. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. But that is the case. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. sosialbudaya. misalnya the temperature. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. This process is called revolution. It causes day and night. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan.org) B. The earth also moves around the sun. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. misalnya the large cloud. action verbs. abstract nouns. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. It takes 365 days or a year. conjunctions of time dan cause.
Using simple present tense 4. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. etc 6. etc 8.co. but. surely. I feel that when you travel through the country. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. daylight. advantage. so. Recommendation 3. valuable. firstly. Using thinking verb 5. 2. Using present tense. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Thesis 2.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . trustworthy. Using action verb 4. etc 3. Using modal adverb. (Taken from: www. Using chronological connection. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter.ictteachers.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Using temporal connective. the earth is actually closer to the sun. etc 7. then. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. you would be forgiven. policy. Using passive voice 9. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Focusing on the writer 2. Explanation. important. secondly. Using evaluative words. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. certainly.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Using abstract noun. Arguments 3. Using pasive voice.
who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. pornography. of course. Recently. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. However. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. and short sleep duration. Meanwhile. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. stress. especially violence. Considering some facts mentioning above. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. consumerism and so on.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. and the possibility of being aggressive. Recomendatio I feel that country people. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Those who want to penalise older .every five to ten minutes.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 .
One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. advertising. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. sales letter. Basically. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. straws. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. When we look at classroom. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. there papers.the writer thought as stated in the text. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. school corridors and schoolyard. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. and napkin everywhere. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . In the first paragraph. and news advertorial. B. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. If it is a hortatory text. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. mineral water cops. More dust bins should be put beside each step. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. Both take place as argumentative essays. speech campaign. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. In many social activities. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition.
C. In the same way. it will be very hard to looking for job. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. they will think hard about the time and cost. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. When they think about continuing study. Where should be after High School?. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. In the other hand. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. they can find the dust bins easily. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . students do not have problem of discomfort any more. As the alternative method of studying. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. it will be quite confusing. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. So when students want to throw away their litters. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. So.meters. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. As result. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. the available time will be more flexible for them. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. when they think about straightly seeking job.
now there is a way out. as it is. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. misalnya important. misalnya I believe . Modal adverbs. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. doesn’t seem to have been . Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. dsb. Recommendation. he drives a sport car.misalnya policy. misalnya firstly. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. give up. Albert Smith is the proof. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Connectives. etc Using thinking verb. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. dsb. etc which will be discussed in general 2.government dsb. misalnya. secondly. dsb. Relating verbs. misalnya We must preserve. misalnya certainly. animal. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. Generic Structure of Report 1. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. misalnya should be. reward Using action verb. misalnya species of animals. Millions from Property Market. we must save. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. plant. dsb.dsb. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well.we. make. dsb. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Technical verbs. public place. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. are you tired?. Thinking verbs. We can show the way to give up work. dsb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. there is a way out of financial problem. Argument. Action verbs. valuable. dsb. Modal verbs. felt Using simple present tense.D. part per part .
driving the fish before them. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Example of Report Text A. A group. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. etc Using simple present tense 4. In the other hand. As the bird lifts its head. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. the animal of platypus. stating general classification.• • Using conditional logical connection. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. when. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. rivers. perhaps two dozen birds. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. and woolly layer of fur. and lakes. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. beating the water furiously with their wings. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Platypus' eyes and head are small. Platypus. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. so. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus lives in streams.
dsb. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Platypus lives in streams. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. qualities. male platypus does not need any burrow. atau gejala-gejala sosial. dsb. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . kegunaannya jika non natural. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. in terms of parts. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. dan klasifikasinya. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. lingkungan. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. benda buatan manusia. misalnya lizards cannot fly. misalnya. apa adanya. istilah teknis. dsb. dsb. logical connective. the animal of platypus conditional. habits or behaviors. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). but.Description. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. dsb. keterangan. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg.
so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. Events 3. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. ate. etc 3. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. ran. Twist 3. Focusing on people. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money.’ replied the man. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Using adverb of time and place 4. 2. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Using action verb. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Dave found a nice office. animals or certain things 2. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. ‘ take him to the zoo’. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Told in chronological order 4. Orientation 2. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin.1.
verbs. terduga atau lucu). Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. In his office. B. Then “Remember. I want you to leave the country. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. Event 2: He had his new office. conversation on the phone. He suddenly became a 1. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. Instead leaving the country. He had not left the country yet. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. “If that is what you want. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. Then the man said to Dave. “You want me. benda tertentu. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. misalnya eat. Event 1: Being rich. “Yes. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. binatang. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. no children. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. run. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. “Hey Abu Nawas.
You have not left this country”. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. Your Majesty. I turned around again. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. I do not step on the ground of this country”. You walk on stilts like a child. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly.I did not enjoy it. “I remember exactly what you said. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. The king wondered and said “Abu.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. The play was very interesting.In the end.I got very angry. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. (Adapted from S. I do not step on the ground. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . I have been walking on this stilts. The king was not able to say anything. And since yesterday. young man and young woman. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. were talking noisily. I turned around. I had a very good seat. They did not pay any attention. The King continued “And now. I could not bear it. They were talking very loudly. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. I could not hear the actors. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. look at you. So you see.guards. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. The guards reported what they had seen to the king.
“What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. It’s a private conversation”. nobody looked at me. He put his coat and said. The man was still carrying the penguin. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. "Take it to the zoo!". Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . "What should I do?" The policeman replied. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. D. So. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. He took it to a policeman and said. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. they just shook the head.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. “When I came here with my old clothes. you give food to my coat instead of me”. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “Eat the food. When he arrived in the party. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. the policeman saw the man in the same park. The next day. The host at once got up and came to meet him. “It’s none of your business. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”.
introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. were. They were in the park Event1. etc • Using chronological connection. I. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . He. my group. today I am taking it to the movie". The following day. in the park Told in chronological order. walk up Using adverb of time and place. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. etc • Using action verb. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. etc • Using simple past tense 4. place and time 2. penguin. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. policeman Using action verb. once. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. chronological order by days. then. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. Reorientation: It is optional. saw. was. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. go. Generic Structure of Recount 1. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. look. heard. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. So. first.did. carry. etc • Using linking verb. change. Even. Orientation: Introducing the participants.
They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Vacation to London Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. We saw cockatoos having a shower. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. hear. They are Mr. In writer's point of view.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. Instead of keys for the room. There was a film for their entertainment. Mr. and Mrs. It can be what the writer has done. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. This includes travel and accommodation. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They gave them food and drink. On the third floor. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. They had booked fourteen days tour. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They went to London. B. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. read. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. the thing is an experience. The two week in London went by fast. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They had variety of food. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. It was scary. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . on Example of Recount text A. They had a very pleasant flight. The room had perfect view of the park. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Richard with two sons. We stayed at David and Della’s house. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. At the end of the 14-day. Then. they inserted a key-card to open the door. The officers were pleasant. They slept part of the way.
In simple way. di mana dan kapan. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. then on Monday. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. • • • • • . After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. then. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. Pengenalan. The next stop was Celuk. Reorientation. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. The first one was to Singaraja. On the other hand. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. the second was to Ubud. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. dsb. the monkey. recount describes series of events in detail. after that. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. It reveals the conflict among the participants. misalnya and. kejadian atau kegiatan. at my house. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. C. 46 slowly dsb. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Rekaman peristiwa. we dsb. he was ready. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. waktu dan cara. the on Tuesday. The first stop was at Batubulan. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. The event happened smoothly. but. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. misalnya beautiful. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. misalnya yesterday. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. funny. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns.Small Notes and felt. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. a center of stone sculpture. On the day of the tour. Events. kejadian atau kegiatan. misalnya We went to the zoo. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. misalnya go. dsb. misalnya David. It is a busy but quiet town. what happened on Sunday. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. run dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. She was happy dsb. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. past tense. sleep.
I did not know that it was an earthquake. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. the ceremony was quite elaborate. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. Although nothing was left. Several days before the ceremony was done. When the earthquake happened. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. describing a series of event which happened. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. etc. earthquake happened. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. I was on my car.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. Even I could not move my car at all. stating the writer's personal note. The car lunched to one side. and. in the town. to the left. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. my car lunched on one side. introducing the participant. I was on the car las week. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. D. There were rocks everywhere. moved. etc E. left. were • Using action verb. walked. Events. He was quiet satisfied. I was trapped by the rock. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. I thought I got flat tire. was. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. When I reached my town. Overall. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. then. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. It took about a week. I • Using chronological connectives. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . suddenly • Using linking verb. all his day was spent on the beach. made. using first person point of view. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. I was on the car. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. like matchsticks. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. Re-orientation.
It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Those words and phrases are: First. They were great matches. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. and dancing. The funeral was performed in two phases. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Finally. After that. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. A recount text has an orientation. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. Meanwhile. Finally. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. we were feasting. Questions 1. a series of events in chronological order. and then moved the corpse to face north. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. you find words and phrases used to start. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. my uncle. Then. connect a sentence with the next one. After that. In the night. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. there were also buffalo matches. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. In the text. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . chanting. Then. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. my brother. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. On the last day. and end your composition. First. However. During the day.
This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Focus on specific participants 2. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. uniqueness. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. useful. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. It states the parts. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Using adjectives 3. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . quality of the product which will be known publicly. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. It is personal idea about the product. After clearly explanation. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product.What is review text 1. valuable. worthy. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. etc. Using metaphor 4. It can be product. services which want to be sold. or just a site which want to be known publicly. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Using long and complex clauses 4. Definition Review is one of text genres. As I said in my previous post. Dominant Language features: 1. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. 3. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product.
with some editing it would have been great.. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. depressing feel. and parts of it do seem long. and this part I loved. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. intriguing. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. I actually liked the ending (and yes. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. I cried!) as sad as it was.. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 .housekeeping is still housekeeping. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. and ultimately satisfying. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. A few other changes in this book . however. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. fast-paced.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. for example . It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. The stories were bright. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. magical or no. In some (Interpretati instances this works. I was truly moved by the last page. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. this was not my favorite. especially with being a teenager and all. He goes from being a warm-hearted. Still a really good book.
aluminum and rimless frame are available. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. Titanium. easy and not complicated design. woman and man are available choice. However. The experts who have grammatical.the trend. Eyeglasses for children. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. For Rosemarie. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. The site is quite simple but very informative. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. Again. Similarly. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. if he works with Farsi translation. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. the daily activities are worthily documented. lexical. It is real. does and will do daily. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. It straightly goes to the end user. If we visit the site. The translation experts. The site is her effort to record of what she did. In certain case. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. it will be quite difficult to make translation. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52
He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
product case or problem. phenomena. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. secondly prepare the cup. How a tornado form. If we talk about. physical strengh. is the scope of the written object. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. animal and scientific object. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. For example how to make a cup of tea. lengh. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. first boil water. What make different. it belongs to report text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. between report and descriptive text. etc. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. Mostly. It is such word. etc is the best example of the procedure text. how to make a good kite. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. and so on. wheel style. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . They give the detail description on something. It will talk about bicycle in general. its parts. eg: bicycle. Explanation. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. descriptive text will convey more focus. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. Procedure. However if they are analyzed carefully. report is written after getting careful observation. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. colour. goods. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. In short. In the other hand. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used.
both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. etc is the best example of the procedure text. They give the detail description on something. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. the on Tuesday. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. what happened on Sunday. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. read. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. product case or problem. Procedure. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. It is such word. how to make a good kite. It can be what the writer has done. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. and so on. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. How a tornado form. phenomena. In writer's point of view. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. On the other hand. then on Monday.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. goods. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Explanation is such a scientific written material. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Explanation. The event happened smoothly. For example how to make a cup of tea. first boil water. In simple way. It reveals the conflict among the participants. the thing is an experience. secondly prepare the cup. recount describes series of events in detail. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. hear. and felt. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. To see the differences between explanation and procedure.
Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. 17. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using action verbs 3. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 24. 25. 26. discussion. Abstract 2. These variations are known as GENRES. spoof. Using adverbs 5. Arguments 3. descriptive. Using material process 3. analytical exposition. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. report. Using technical terms 7. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 .Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 3. Coda. They are narrative. 14. 20. Using modals 2. hortatory exposition. Using adjective 6. Using thinking verbs 4. and news item. recount. review. procedure. Reaction 5. Using general and abstract noun 8. Thesis 2. Using exclamations. anecdote. 22. 19. Dominant Language Features: 1. 23. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. 18. 16. Crisis 4. texts are divided into several types. explanation. 15.
Using action verbs 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Evaluation 3. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using technical terms 7. Explanation 3. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 2. Using passive voice 4. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect.1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Issue 2. Using action verbs 3. Using adverbial phrase 6. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverb 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using action verb 3. Using noun phrase 5. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. place and manner. Background event(s) 3. Using saying verbs 4. Short. Materials/Equipments 3. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Arguments for and against 3. Resolution 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. General statement 2. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverbs : time. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Complication 4.
Using technical terms 8. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using adjective 7. Thesis 2. Generic Structure 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Arguments 3. Using adverbs 6. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using adverb 4. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. General classification 2. Using thinking verb 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using action verb 3. In simple word. Description Language Features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 9.1. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Identification 2. place or thing in detail. Using conditional logical connection 3. as it is. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using modals 3. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using modality 7. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using thinking verbs 5. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4.
Using adverb 4. Orientation 2. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Evaluation 5. etc while recount text is found in biography. Orientation 2. Using metaphor 60 . Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using long and complex clauses 4. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. or Past Perfect Tense. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Evaluation 3. Event(s) 3. Focus on specific participants 2. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Using action verb 3. Interpretative Recount 4. whether Simple Past Tense. folklore. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. fable. In the contrary. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. myth. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Using adjectives 3. Event(s) 3. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Orientation 2. social conflict or psychological conflict. Using action verb 3.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using Past Tense 2.
artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. biasanya tentang nama. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. label. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. tanggal. tempat. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. 3. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. tahun. descriptive. 9. diagram dsb. 10. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. spoof dsb. penjelasan. 5.exposition. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 4. grafik. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. map. 6. tabel. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 2. Continuous text misalnya narrative. 11. dsb. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. 7. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. 8. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. 1. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan.
Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. And cute. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Menentukan makna kata. fluffy.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. it is small. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.
these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. readers to do something good. there are paper mineral water cups. and napkins here and there. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. According to the writer. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. What is the writer’s intention? To …. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. 1. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. and some more also the corridors. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. they can find the dust bins easily. school corridors and school yard. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. a number of dust bins should be increased. in every ten meters. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. So when students want to throw away their litters. Besides. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. outside of the classrooms. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. more dust bins…. They put their litters on the proper places.. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 .EXERCISES. straws. When we look at classrooms..
In addition. songs in general also use simple conversational language. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. shopping malls. practicing selective listening comprehension. songs are relaxing. They provide variety and fun. 5. Furthermore. with a lot of repetition. even revolution. which is just what many learners look for sample text. learning vocabulary. What is the text about …. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. Secondly.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. Last but not least. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. place or time reference. spelling and culture. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. religion. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . learning English can be enjoyable and fun. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Firstly. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. The generic structures of the text are …. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. Although usually simple. lexically and poetically. patriotism and yeas. From the elaboration above. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. translating songs. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people.
We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Based on the text. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. Therefore.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.Since we can find a thesis. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.9. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. 11. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Finally. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants..” The underlined word refers to ….“They provide variety and fun.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. not just in restaurants.. The word reasons mean…. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. Firstly. smoking in restaurants is impolite.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
I'm. Mrs. sister. Jack. Mr. Nice to meet you too. It's a pleasure to meet you. co-worker. Mary Jones. teacher. Penny Pitcher. Ms. Harris. I don't believe we've met before. This is my friend. student. Introducing someone else my name is. Hi Jack. Watson. father.. boss. mother. Mr. 2.. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. I'm Linda 1. Bob. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Nice to meet you. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . • I want to introduce you to …. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself.. Likewise.. Harris. my my my my my my my my my brother. Pleased to meet you.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Cindy. And you. Very nice to meet you. Ritter. Carrie. friend.
Arnys? Retno : Okay. I am. Arnys. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. Adib. e. Adib : Hi. Adib : Anyway.g. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. They meet at the students’ orientation course. we still have half an hour before the class starts. and Retno are new students. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Retno.g. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. are you a new student. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. this is Retno. Hi. By the way. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. hotel. Shall we go to the canteen?. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. My name is Adib.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . a restaurant. Situation: Adib. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. I’m Arnys.
. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. before leaving. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. .Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Bye. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . Do you wanna . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. (informal) Would you like to . . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. See you soon /later /tomorrow. thank you. . thanks. . Very well. shake hands with other Virga :… women. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. thanks. thanks. • Good bye. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Not so bad.
Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it..I’d like very much . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .. . I’d be delighted to.. let’s not.I’d love to ..Some responds of inviting.That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like..? Would you like . Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks..to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .Yes.a chocolate bar? .I’d be happy/glad to accept .. Receiving .
Thanks. Happy birthday to you. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. returned your lost wallet. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. I need it. complimented you on your necktie. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. Happy new year. helped carry your grocery bags.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Thank you. you very much.
use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. and congratulations Special Days . What’s shame b. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . That’s too bad e.. holidays and other special occasions.• • • Oh. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . That’s pity f. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. not really. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. How kind of you to say so. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . That’s a nuisance d. What’s pity c.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. It’s nice of you to say so..
I’m sorry to hear that b. h. c. How dreadful! C. Goodness! b. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. Expression Displeasure a. f. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. k. m. I’m really sad to … c. I’m really sorry for them d. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I feel …. g. Send my deepest condolence! f. …. b. e.. It was terrifi c.B. feel unpleased with …. I’m delighted. d. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. i. l. I enjoyed it I love it. j. How terrible! c. I’m sorry about that c. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . How Awful! d. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I feel … b. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. d. I’m so happy …. I feel disappointed.
kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 .Satisfaction. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.
I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. What do you think of this refrigerator? So.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. In my opinion. • Yes.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. As I see.. … If you ask me. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. say • Absolutely. • I am with you • Definitely. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more.. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. In my opinion…. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. I think the other one’s better. I agree • I know what you mean.
kita bisa mengatakan: Well. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. Fear.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. No. I don't think that's what happened. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. that's not a good idea.
.. • Thank God for . • Ugh.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • I’m glad it was done. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 .. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. • I’m sick. it’s killing me! 2..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • I feel sick. it’s very painful! • Oh./I feel ill.. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.
This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. It means that you do not like something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 ." This is not very strong. BUT "I don't really like it. but it is not a very strong dislike. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'.
I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. That’s a real embarrassment. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I was so ashamed. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. I will.. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . I’m extremely unhappy about this.
. Excuse me if I'm out of line.. Maybe you forgot to. but I think we should. but.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Complaint. It's your fault for (doing something).. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Sure. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.. There may have been a misunderstanding about. but.Palupi : OK.. Don't get me wrong. Certainly.. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.. I think you might have forgotten to. Blame (keluhan. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. I'm sorry to bother you... Right away. Of course... Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.
. I …. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly.. Sorry for taking your DVD. to express regret an exclamation a word. Examples I'm really sorry. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. I'm so sorry. I'll clear up later. Sorry for. to ask for forgiveness.. Apology (penyesalan. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess.simply starters! Regret.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.. To say why you're sorry Sorry about... I'd like to apologise for. Pete. I didn't mean to lose your book.
this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. there is a possibility . yet... Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game. It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.... There is a good chance that ….. distress.. • Is it possible to …? • Yes. NOTE : 1. There is a little chance that …. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .
they.she.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it..? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. Expressions capability are : to show I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.you.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 . It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home 3. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.she.? it.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he. doing something are: 4. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.she.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.you. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.they. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.
they.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.it Were utk S= you.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.she.he.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.
does/am. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.masa lampau. is. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. are Was. “Srimpi”. Fred : Juda. the telephone rang twelve times.is. was parctising e. practised d. a.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. will be practising c.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. have been practising b. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 .
will have had lunch b. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. worked e. a. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . am living d. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. have lunch d. will have lunch e. If we don”t hurry. clean d. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. Iwan : Yes. will have lived b. will start b. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. works d. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. will have worked c. would have started d. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. was living e. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. will have started e. were cleaning b. have been living c. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. a. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. My family ____ when the postman arrived. have been cleaning c. has been working b. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year.2. a. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. cleaned e. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. a. they are succesful. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. starts c. a. have been having lunch c.
caused d. had been 9. have been c. is d. causes e. has forgotten d. was carrying 3. but I ____ there many times. has been e. When airport are located in the center of citied. will be b. had forgotten e. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book.2. have been 6. has been b. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. He ____ ill for a week. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . a. sir. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. had been 7. a. have carried c. have caused c. has worked for six months e. forgets b. a. is still looking for a job 4. would be b. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. a. was d. I forget to bring your book. were causing b. started to work 6 months a go c. carry d. This sentence means that Ann ___. will cause 5. a. carried e. was e. forgot c. Is it right? Student : Yes. has got a new job d. will have been c. will have been c. was e. am carrying b. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. am d. Learn all these. My father is still in Bali. has stopped looking for a job b. He ____ there for three weeks. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. would forget 8. a. a. Ann has been looking for a job for six month.
She studies business. learn d. has been attending e. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. when. a. how. keterangan waktu. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. sir. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung.00 tomorrow. has attended b. where. will have learnt c. pronoun (kata ganti orang).INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. attended c. She ___ the lectures. who. dan tempat. I ____ them by then. will be attending d. why. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . You can’t meet her at her house at 10. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. would be attended DIRECT . will be learning b. struktur kalimat. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. am learning 10.Student : All right. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. a. Reni goes to her university every morning. have learnt e.
Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .
had gone to his country d. why Mary had been absent c. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. a. The baby is sleeping. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. mom. Herman. to open my mouth b. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. why Mary was absent e. he has gone to his country e. he went to his country b. a. I wasn’t so noisy d. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. if I opened my mouth e. if Mary was absent d. to be not so noisy c. that I open his mouth d. He said ____ the previous day. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. that Mary had been absent b. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. I am very noisy b. he goes to his country c. not to be so noisy e. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Herman : Okay.
had forgotten e. Mira closed the window. 94 5. Mira. He asked me ____ a. what are you were doing now d. It was windy outside. Anto : I am sorry Lina. he does not clean e. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. It is windy outside. has forgotten d. he would not clean c. Does Mira close the window. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. e. “ ___________” a. Ari : What did he say. It was windy outside. he headn’t cleaned b. e. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. a. Closed the window. c. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. I got a headache. b. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. It is windy outside. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Mira closed the window. he hasn’t cleaned 2. would forget 3. a. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. I hadn’t cleaned d. 4. c. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. forgets b. “What are you doing now?”. what were you doing now. SMA Students’ Modul of English . what I am doing now. he asked me ____”. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry.c. b. Mother said. d. what I was doing then. he asked. forgot c. I forgot to bring your book.
“don’t make noise. 10. when is my appointment b. c. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. e. If he could go with us d. d. My friend said to me. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. Mean____ a. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. b. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. finished your work e. how was my appointment e. She said the children didn’t make noise c. finish your work d. whether I had appointment 7. she said. he went with us 6. wether he goes with us c. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. not to spend e. Slamet. a. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. She didn’t say the children should noise d. a. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. not spend c. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9.a. 8. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . children”. did I have an appointment d. not spending b. that I had an appointment c. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. e. a. going with us b. do not spend d. can he go with us e. to finish your work b. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. Father said. “Can I find you a hotel?”. She told the children don’t make noise b. to finish my work c. She told the children not to make noise.
S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 .Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.
was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. are unloaded c. she ____ a. has to be postponed b. was kicking b. has been postponed c. was postponed d. was being postponed e. did it abolish e. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. are sold e. were sold b.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. kicked e. have been unloaded d. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. was it to abolish b. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. is sold d. A : Look! The girl is crying. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . a. a. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. The announcement ____ twice. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. were being unloaded e. to be abolished c. was kicked c. kicks d. will be unloaded b.? a. a. Y : Really. was it abolishing d. had been sold c. when….
was being cleaned d. The passive form is ____ a. was born e. She looks after the baby well. R. has been cleaned 5. will be destroyed b. A big dam ___ in this area next year. a. cleaned c. a. has been rewarded c. will be built e. the baby was looked after well c. will be born 2. would be born b. have been arranged 3. has been built b. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. was arranged e. a. had been demilishing b. is demolishing c. will be rewarded 8. the baby will be well looked after d. a. has arranged c.A. have arranged b. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. a. destroyed d. had destroyed e. was destroyed 6. is being cleaned e. a. is arranged d. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. will build d. the baby would be well looked after 7. has been born c. is born d. is being rewarded b. demolishing d. a. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___.1. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . is being demolished e. rewarded d. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. will clean b. the baby is being looked after well e. is being built c. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. the baby is well looked after b. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. would be built 4. was rewarded e. is being destroyed c.
Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. has promised d. he ____ to the nearest hospital. was being promised c.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. yaitu: 1. was taken b. has been promising b. took c. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. will be promised 10. will be promised e. will be taken d. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a.9. a. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. is being taken e. a. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative.
Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. was/were. have/has. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. -le. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. may. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. dll. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . will. had. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. shall.c. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. -ow. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. can. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. dll. did. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. -er. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1.
Apa yang diucapkan. I will buy a new car. itulah yang diharapkan. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kalau kalimatnya (+). (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. (jika saya punya uang. Contoh : (+) If I had time. I would go to the beach with you. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang.). I would have written you a letter. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Contoh: If I have much money. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. 3. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya.
of which. I met him last week. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. his. whom. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. (him = the man. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. your. her. our. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. Their car has been stolen.) 2. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. I bought it last year. whose. They are printed in English. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. their. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . which. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. Contoh: We saw the people. its.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence).
(saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. Its surface is not smooth. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Where 8. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. sebuah benda. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.
(Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Jogging makes us fresh. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. I got the mechanic to repair my car. The manager has the letter typed. 2. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). The manager gets the letter typed. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1).CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. I had mechanic repair my car. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1).
Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.your. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. 5.to be used to.V. to be worth. he said nothing. Setelah possessive adjective (my. 6.her. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. can’t help/can’t bear.V ketimbang main video game) 4. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.Dita would rather watch T. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use.Dona prefers dancing to singing.3. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: .their.I like T. to be busy. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. get used to.our.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. before dll.Amir’s. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.Juned prefers combro to deblo. . Before leaving. his. 3. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .V . than plays a video game. 4. on.V better than radio. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .
finally. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . c. c. a. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. d. 3. since. b. a. he come on time. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat.Although it was raining. Since I have no money. after that. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. After that. a. d. while. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. c. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. Finally. 1. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident.He is both wise and good. for. but. While he was reading her novel.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . We went home after the rain stopped. if.Amir and I go to school everyday. first. b. when. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. although/though. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . that. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. b.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. Menunjukan waktu: before. I can’t treat you. Next. we put some sauce and salt. 2. yaitu: 1. e. dll. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 .Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. Contoh: . Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of.Contoh: . we must prepare the ingredients. somebody knocked on the door. we put them into frying pan. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. then. after. next. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. as soon as.You can read this book if you like. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. or.
Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .He is not only active but also clever. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .
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