DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

...................................104 GERUND .....................................................................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ....................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH........................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)........................................................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS ...........................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...............................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ..................................................................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)...........................................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION..106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ....................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .....................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ..........................

taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Descriptive 10. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Explanation 2. Narrative 11. The language feature. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. News Items 13. Anecdote 9. Review 7. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Spoof 5. These types of text are. Recount 6. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Analytical Exposition 8. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Procedure 12. 2. Report 4. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Hortatory Exposition 3. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. 1. why is the text made?. analyzing the used structure in composing the text.

the city is very busy. as we all know. or concentrate on your homework. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . As we all know. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. If you live in the city. Reiteratio In conclusion. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Secondly. cars are very noisy. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Additionally. and especially talk to someone. the risk is nineteen greater. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. which causes them to die. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. it is better to look at the fact. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Smoking however is not good for every body else. In one hour in smoky room. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Thirdly. lung cancer. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Argument Firstly. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. cars create pollution. cars. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking.

Furthermore. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. As the US. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. In this example of analytical exposition text. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. That wil be true if the conditions. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic.

students need book. • Abstract nouns. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. • Relating verbs. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. decide which computer or laptop they need.dsb. this method will help student to get better understanding. misalnya car. misalnya It is important. • Thinking verbs. • Action verbs. (Simplified from the jakartapos. misalnya Many people believe. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. and then complete the transaction. eraser. • Reiteration . Penguatan pernyataan. The students just need to brows that online shop. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. • Connectives. dsb. Secondly. misalnya policy. dsb. pollution. dsb. misalnya C. in this multimedia era. secondly. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. dsb. misalnya species of animals. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. misalnya She must save. dsb. First. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. dsb. • Technical verbs.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. misalnya we must preserve. leaded petrol car. we. dsb • Modal verbs. misalnya certainly. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. Additionally. dsb. • Bahasa evaluatif. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. drawing book. misalnya firstly. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. • Modal adverbs. government. students need more to reach their progressive development. ruler and such other stuff. pen.

Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. From all of that. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. That is really easy and save time and money. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Therefore. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. According to Nida. D. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. Arabic translation. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. E. Career in Translation Functionally. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. If Hindi translation is provided.delivered to the students' houses. India is likely being an English speaking country. India translation will grow better and. It seems Indonesia. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word.

Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. For instance. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Using conjunction of time. Orientation 3. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Using simple past tense 4. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. listen to this 3. go. etc 2. then. it's awful!. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. afterward 6. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 .is inserted at the end of each article. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. etc 5. 3. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. write. 2. Abstract 2. Using action verb. Crisis 4. it's wonderful!. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Incident. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Using rhetoric question. etc • Causal conjunction . do you know what? 4. Using imperative. because. Using exclamation words.

(c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . misalnya go. passport. Anna. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. America. dsb. their children to America. spitting and hissing at us. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. write. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. and turned on the tap. nine children. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. They had gotten afterwards. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. seperti then. dsb. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. enough money. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. The family dreams were dashed. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. The doctor sewed up the boy. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. there were being quarantined for long days.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. whole business. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. so we set to. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. The father was full of disappointed and anger. He shed tears of disappointment.  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. who was only three at the time. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. However few days before their departure. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. The family worked and saved. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom.

The ship.Five days latter. had shank. The father was angry with his son and God. identifying the phenomenon to be described. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. or thing. 3. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. They had dream to travel to America. qualities. It made they were being quarantined. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. You have and so do I. place. but because of the bitten son by a dog. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. It was unbelievable but it was. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . describing the phenomenon in parts. When the dream will come true. • Description. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. When the father heard the news. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. He thanked God for saving their lives. 2. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. • Using simple present tense 4. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. they were left behind. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. They had to forget their plan. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. the mighty Titanic. there is something wrong last minute before it. The Clak family should have been on that ship. or/and characteristics. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it.

in 2004. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. This year.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. The style. In three years1 time. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. She said that the products covered all genders. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. Example of Description A. She really have perfect appearance. When she are walking on that shoes. She is beautiful. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. In 1964. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. native plants and eucalypts. Today. This shoes really matches on her. She is really mad on that shoes. Sydney. yet retaining its beautiful site. She always pays much attention on her appearance. a railway station is under construction. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. bright color. a grass amphitheatre. attractive and trendy. Recently. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. all her friends. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution.

Ballet.The temple is constructed. Borobudur is well-known all over the world.she has. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Borobudur is well-known. The way to the summit extends through some 4. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Central Java. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. casual. The upper three are circular. valuable • Using simple present tense. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Indonesia. B. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Borobudur temple • Description. Cambodia. The products provide varieties of choice.Budhist temple. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.8 km of passage and starways. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.

sharp white fangs. • simple present tense. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. numbering. White. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu.  Description. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. kualitas. • berbagai macam adjectives. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. My mum is realy cool. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. dsb. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. misalnya fast. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. bersifat describing. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. misalnya. dsb. dsb. 2. perilaku umum. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. dsb. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. enough money to take Snow White. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). misalnya. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. classifying. house. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek.my cat. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. a sweet young lady. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. Misalnya: I have many pets. but my favourite one is a cat. misalnya teacher. • action verbs. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. dsb. two strong legs. sifat-sifat (characteristic). It has very thick fur. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. dsb. better or worse 3. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang.

who was called Hakim. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. The dwarfs said. The first gave her some left over food. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. There they found Snow White sleeping.” Snow White said. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. which she strikes against herself. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat.” Doc. The third sheik. She saw the dwarfs. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. said. “If you wish. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. After dinner. one of the dwarfs. “My name is Snow White. The following day. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 .Resolution 2 Meanwhile. As they were about to have dinner. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. They want to know what next will happen. They went inside. you may live here with us. Then Snow White woke up. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. The psychological conflict inside Maura. One evening. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. Hakim. “Without question. Example of Narative A. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. They were also rich and strong. “Oh could I? Thank you. “what is your name?” Snow White said. One by one she discarded them. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. who received a plate of delicious meat. had many suitors. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Maura asked them for something to eat. in what way she will decide who the best is. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story.

Although he tried hard to teach. misalnya. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. housework. Then he continued to humble. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. Masalah. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. happily ever after. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. dsb. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. Penyelesaian masalah. Resolution. misalnya then. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. long black hair. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. stepsisters. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. There was no other parrot like it. misalnya. The name of the place was Catano. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. • action verbs dalam past tense. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. Pengenalan tokoh. dsb. the man really got very angry. At the first. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. The parrot could say every word. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. “You know.dsb. He could not bear it. climbed. two red apples. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. misalnya here. a man had a wonderful parrot. Complication.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. I will cut the chicken 17 . “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. in the mountain. dsb. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). stayed. waktu. before that. the parrot would not say it. konflik dalam cerita. phrase. soon. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. dsb. except one word.

There were three death chickens on the floor. The next day. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. They had two daughters. Batara Guru could not bear it. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. That was the smartest parrot. He felt in love with that fish-woman. He could not control his mad. She attracted Batara Guru so much. To fix this problem. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. I will eat you too. He made the fish free.for my meal. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. the man attempted to teach the bird. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. Next it will be your turn. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. stupid parrot”. the man came back to the chicken house. He liked fishing. A man and his parrot took place once time. He opened the door and was very surprised. paragraph 2. 3. As soon as it was free. The fish begged him to set it free. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. rising crisis and climax of the story. C. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. The daughters were crying. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. They were married happily. It will show the crisis. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. In the parrot story. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. readers see the problem is finished. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. he caught a fish. They found their mother and talked her about it. 4 are describing the complication. In that parrot story. there was a handsome man. At the moment. After that he left the chicken house. One day.

“Why are crying. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. “Now. The earth formed a very big hole. Finally. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. The mother was shouting angrily. The two step sisters. and away went the sisters to it. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 .The mother was very annoyed. the day of the ball came. One day. Then the earth began to shake. D. Magically. she was driven to the palace. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Volcanoes started to erupt. Cinderella”. she said. one of her glass slipper was left behind. They treated Cinderella very badly. on the other hand. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered.”you’ve been such a cheerful. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. did not work about the house. Batara Guru broke his promise. They were married and live happily ever after. hardworking. “Well” said the godmother. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. At last. In the end. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. such as scrubbing the floor. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. It fitted perfectly. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. there was a young girl named Cinderella. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Cinderella?” a voice asked. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. She danced again and again with the king’s son. “You must leave before midnight”. A few days later. In her hurry. People believed that the big hole became a lake.

It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. Resolution. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. 3. farmer and his buffalo. The Smartest Animal. I can’t tell you”. Orientation. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. “Can I see your intelligence?”. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. introducing specific participants. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Every morning and every evening. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. once in Laos 2. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “you are so big and strong. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. “No. Complication. said the buffalo. Resolution: Like complication. But the man answered. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. the man is very intelligent”. After the man went home. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “it at home”. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. Then he said. “Yes” said the man. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . E. In the last paragraph. Complication: In this Cinderella story. The tiger asked. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. Generic Structure Analysis 1. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. “oh. One day. Once there was a farmer from Laos. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. He took his plough and hit the tiger.

saw. plate Method 1. Goal: showing the purpose 2. 50 g cheese. Place on a plate. one day connectives. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . the man tied the tiger. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. bowl. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. tie. Cook both sides 9. cheese grater. answered thinking verb. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. the next day past tense. after. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. hit time conjunction. fork. Add milk and whisk well 4. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. was surprised to action verb. ¼ cup milk. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. spatula. there was a farmer. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. once.

excluded • Steps. put the seeding on the soil. etc • Action verb. Don’t mix. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. Planting Chilies Eat while warm.10. Cut. dsb. finally. take the topic of benefits. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. you don't have to. menyatakan rinci waktu. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . dsb. put it in another big pot. put. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. put. cara yang akurat. not features. tempat. Firstly. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. put it. dsb. Use regular words. dry a handful seeding. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. misalnya then. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. informing on how to plant chillies. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. wait it. misalnya. Here are the steps. Well. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. the following is a guided information B. Finally. • action verbs. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. etc • Temporal conjunction. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. Langkah-langkah. write your benefit like you talk it. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. misalnya turn. It should be in open area Next. but it will help. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. dry. planting is a nice activity. misalnya for five minutes. Your customers don't care about you. firstly. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. don’t. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Read aloud what you've written. 2 centimetres from the top. mix. Here's a simple checklist to follow. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. Example of Procedure A. next. while. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. • Material. Firstly.

Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . secondly. cheese grater. spatula. writing the topic like the way it is talked. fifty gram cheese. Listen carefully. informing on how to write for business • Material. you need an egg.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles.re-read what you've done before publishing. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. First. a quarter cup of milk. three tablespoons cookin oil. reread what you have done. to make a cheese omelet. lose the weak words. frying pan. you need some tools. excluded • Steps/ method. read. such as. bowl and plate. Next. Use a nice rhythm. News Item Text What is News Item? 1.Thirdly. firstly. etc • Action verb. re-reading what have been written . Mix them up and keep things interesting. etc C. a pinch of satlt and pepper. Fourthly. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. write like you talked. fork. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. Fifthly. Some sentences are long and some are short. write. Don't describe how your company may. etc • Temporal conjunction. showing the method in writing for business. Next. choosing the advantageous topic. Edit it necesarily. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. add First.

Example of Procedure A. it’s up to them”. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. The accident. Generic Structure of News Item 1. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. Using material process 4.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. “But this just a suggestion. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. a news report said. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. time. 2. Main event 2. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . The events are considered newsworthy or important. participant. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Elaboration (background. Resource of information 3. Language Feature of News Item 1. Focusing on circumstances 2. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. place) 3.

SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . Adeebah Kamarulzaman. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. but the number is steadily rising. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Malaysian Aids Council president. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months.  Background Events. named Suwartin. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. less then 10 percent are woman. orang yang terlibat. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. pendapat para ahli. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. June 01.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. Latar belakang kejadian. komentar saksi kejadian. Kejadian inti. he said in the report. In the past the event was held behind closed door. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. tempat kejadian dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising.  Sources. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. dsb. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. even though they know they have HIV” she said. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. many women who contract HIV are housewives. (Source The Jakarta Post. Last year. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. The maid. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together.

May 6.Then the maid was arrested. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. behead. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Background 3. Resource. law of serious crimes. the Saudi Interior Minister said. carry. Background 2. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. Rape.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. (Taken from: www. Using material process. Hong Kong.bbc. execute. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. She had relationship the boy for five months. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Saudi Arabia.co. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.news. Last year. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. (Adapted from Reuters. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Background 1. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.

contrastive. believe. on the hand. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. however. must. Example of Discussion Text A. feel. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. doing homework is not a great idea. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. and causal connection. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Homework is really good because it helps with our education. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. etc • Using modalities. etc 4. similarly. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. many times. should. hope. deliberately. etc • Using additive. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. etc • Using adverbial of manner. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. hopefully. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. may. But. historic.1. 2. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. and social text. could.

so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. so it is not expansive to make. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. and produces huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. It produces small amount of waste. England in 1956. It is reliable.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.

(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. very dangerous. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. • adverbials of maner. nuclear power is very. alcohol. dsb. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. . must. misalnya smoking is harmful. People are increasingly concerned about this matter.On the other hand. dsb. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Gagasan Pokok 2. dsb. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. however. although it is reliable. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought.  Kesimpulan. perception and recommendation. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. believe. This example of discussion text present the two poles. dsb. hopefully. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. dsb. dsb. misalnya deliberately. should. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. Furthermore. memberikan informasi secara padu. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. could 29 be. misalnya uniforms. dsb. misalnya similarly. seperti perhaps. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. hope. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. Elaborasi (uraian). misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. should have been. on the hand. Elaborasi (uraian). It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. misalnya feel. In many social activities. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. Elaborasi (uraian).

Using thinking verb.bbc. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. however.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. social. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. must. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Recommendation. hunting fox. 2. Supporting point. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. (Taken from: www. Using modalities. believe. farmer. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Using connectives. Contrastive point. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 .co. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. geography and history text books. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. It is often found in science. Many farmer and even conservationists. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. B. conservationists. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. scientific and cultural phenomena.

SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . rain. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). sun. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. to begin with. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips.• • General statement. Language Feature • • • • 4. next. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Sequenced explanation. Featuring generic participant. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Example of Explanation Text A. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. etc Using chronological connection.

It takes 365 days or a year. It is called as rotation. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. complex sentences. The earth also moves around the sun. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. misalnya the large cloud. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. passive voice. simple present tense.panda. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium.org) B. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. abstract nouns. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. dunia ilmiah. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. Tsunami always bring great damage. sosialbudaya. (simplified from www. adverbial phrases. misalnya the temperature. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . But that is the case. earthquakes. misalnya word chopping. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. conjunctions of time dan cause. It causes day and night. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. action verbs. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. noun phrase. the amount of • bahasa teksni.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. This process is called revolution.

then. so. valuable. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using pasive voice. Arguments 3. certainly.ictteachers. but.co. policy. (Taken from: www. important. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Using present tense. firstly. secondly. Using action verb 4. daylight.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Using thinking verb 5. advantage.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Thesis 2. Using simple present tense 4. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. I feel that when you travel through the country. Using evaluative words. etc 7. Using chronological connection. Using modal adverb. etc 6. Using abstract noun. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. surely. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. the earth is actually closer to the sun. etc 3. Focusing on the writer 2. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using temporal connective. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. etc 8. Explanation.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Using passive voice 9. you would be forgiven. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. trustworthy. Recommendation 3. 2.

should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. and the possibility of being aggressive. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Recomendatio I feel that country people.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. and short sleep duration.every five to ten minutes. Considering some facts mentioning above. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. pornography. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. stress. However. especially violence. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Recently. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Those who want to penalise older . Meanwhile. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . consumerism and so on. of course. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol.

It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. school corridors and schoolyard. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. speech campaign. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. there papers. In the first paragraph. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. and news advertorial. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. and napkin everywhere. When we look at classroom. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . sales letter. B. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. straws. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. More dust bins should be put beside each step. mineral water cops. Both take place as argumentative essays. advertising. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. If it is a hortatory text. Basically. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much.the writer thought as stated in the text. In many social activities. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph.

Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. the available time will be more flexible for them. they will think hard about the time and cost. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. C. Where should be after High School?. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. In the other hand. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. As the alternative method of studying. it will be very hard to looking for job. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year.meters. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. when they think about straightly seeking job. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. So when students want to throw away their litters. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. So. When they think about continuing study. In the same way. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. it will be quite confusing. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. they can find the dust bins easily. As result. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 .

etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. etc which will be discussed in general 2. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Generic Structure of Report 1. misalnya We must preserve. we must save. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Millions from Property Market. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. valuable. he drives a sport car. animal.misalnya policy. Albert Smith is the proof. misalnya should be. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. dsb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. plant. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. doesn’t seem to have been . etc Using thinking verb. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya I believe . Thinking verbs. reward Using action verb.government dsb. dsb. Connectives. part per part . a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . misalnya. are you tired?. dsb. Modal adverbs. public place. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan.dsb. Modal verbs. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too.D. Argument. misalnya firstly. felt Using simple present tense. as it is. now there is a way out. Action verbs. misalnya species of animals. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. dsb. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. make. misalnya certainly. We can show the way to give up work. dsb.we. misalnya important. Recommendation. Relating verbs. there is a way out of financial problem. Technical verbs. dsb. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. give up. dsb. secondly.

Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. etc Using simple present tense 4. rivers. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. stating general classification. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. driving the fish before them. beating the water furiously with their wings. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Platypus. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. the animal of platypus. when. and woolly layer of fur. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. perhaps two dozen birds. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus' eyes and head are small. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. A group. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Platypus lives in streams. and lakes. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. Example of Report Text A. so. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. In the other hand.• • Using conditional logical connection. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed.

qualities. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. dsb. misalnya. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. dsb. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). the animal of platypus conditional. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. Platypus lives in streams. habits or behaviors. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. misalnya lizards cannot fly. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. but. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. dan klasifikasinya. apa adanya. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion .Description. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. dsb. logical connective. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. lingkungan. dsb. istilah teknis. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. in terms of parts. keterangan. benda buatan manusia. dsb. male platypus does not need any burrow. kegunaannya jika non natural. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. atau gejala-gejala sosial.

“That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. 2. ate. Twist 3. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Orientation 2. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Events 3.1. ‘ take him to the zoo’. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. etc 3. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 .’ replied the man. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Using adverb of time and place 4. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Told in chronological order 4. Using action verb. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. animals or certain things 2. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Dave found a nice office. Focusing on people. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. ran. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it.

• Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. In his office. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. B. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. Event 1: Being rich. “You want me. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. run. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. no children. Then “Remember. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. He suddenly became a 1. benda tertentu. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. Instead leaving the country. “Hey Abu Nawas. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. binatang. Event 2: He had his new office. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. terduga atau lucu). I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. He had not left the country yet. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. I want you to leave the country. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. “Yes. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . Then the man said to Dave. conversation on the phone. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. verbs. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. misalnya eat. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. “If that is what you want.

look at you. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I have been walking on this stilts. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. They did not pay any attention. And since yesterday. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I could not hear the actors. I do not step on the ground of this country”. were talking noisily. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C.I did not enjoy it. I had a very good seat. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. The king wondered and said “Abu. You walk on stilts like a child. You have not left this country”. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers.guards. I turned around again. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. young man and young woman. I could not bear it. The play was very interesting. The King continued “And now. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. The king was not able to say anything. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. They were talking very loudly. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. Your Majesty. “I remember exactly what you said. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. So you see. I turned around.In the end.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I do not step on the ground.I got very angry. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. (Adapted from S.

"What should I do?" The policeman replied. they just shook the head. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. It’s a private conversation”. “Eat the food. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. Getting Nasreddin's answer. The next day. the policeman saw the man in the same park. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. He put his coat and said. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . nobody looked at me. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. He took it to a policeman and said. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. “It’s none of your business. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. "Take it to the zoo!". Then I went home and put on my best clothes. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. So. When he arrived in the party. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. “When I came here with my old clothes. D. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. you give food to my coat instead of me”. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. The host at once got up and came to meet him. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. The man was still carrying the penguin.

Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3.did. policeman Using action verb. carry. He. saw. go. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. were. I. penguin. They were in the park Event1. first. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. Orientation: Introducing the participants. etc • Using chronological connection. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. was. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. The following day. chronological order by days.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. change. walk up Using adverb of time and place. my group. look. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. then. Even. heard. once. etc • Using linking verb. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. So. etc • Using simple past tense 4. Reorientation: It is optional. today I am taking it to the movie". Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . place and time 2. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. in the park Told in chronological order. Generic Structure of Recount 1. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. etc • Using action verb.

The flight was nearly fourteen hours. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. On the third floor. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They had variety of food. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. Instead of keys for the room. In writer's point of view. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. They had booked fourteen days tour. B. on Example of Recount text A. We stayed at David and Della’s house. The two week in London went by fast. It can be what the writer has done. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. At the end of the 14-day. They gave them food and drink.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. There was a film for their entertainment. hear. Vacation to London Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. They went to London. The officers were pleasant. They had a very pleasant flight. The room had perfect view of the park. They are Mr. read. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. the thing is an experience. and Mrs. Then. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. Richard with two sons. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. they inserted a key-card to open the door. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. Mr. This includes travel and accommodation. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They slept part of the way. It was scary. Mummy and I went shopping with Della.

adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. recount describes series of events in detail. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. misalnya yesterday.Small Notes and felt. Pengenalan. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. he was ready. what happened on Sunday. misalnya David. kejadian atau kegiatan. The next stop was Celuk. 46 slowly dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan. the monkey. sleep. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. On the day of the tour. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta.  Events. dsb. misalnya We went to the zoo. past tense. then on Monday. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. dsb. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. • • • • • . misalnya beautiful. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. funny. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. the on Tuesday. The event happened smoothly. but. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. run dsb. She was happy dsb. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. The first one was to Singaraja. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. misalnya and. On the other hand. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. then. after that. a center of stone sculpture. di mana dan kapan. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. waktu dan cara. It reveals the conflict among the participants. the second was to Ubud. It is a busy but quiet town. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. C. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. at my house. Rekaman peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi.  Reorientation. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. we dsb. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. The first stop was at Batubulan. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. misalnya go. In simple way. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example.

I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. I was on the car las week. like matchsticks. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. suddenly • Using linking verb. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. Although nothing was left. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. D. Overall. Several days before the ceremony was done. I was on the car. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. I was trapped by the rock. my car lunched on one side. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. I was on my car. When the earthquake happened. all his day was spent on the beach. was. etc. walked. When I reached my town. Events. made. earthquake happened. Re-orientation. introducing the participant. describing a series of event which happened. It took about a week. in the town. left. I thought I got flat tire. and. using first person point of view. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. The car lunched to one side. to the left. then. There were rocks everywhere. I • Using chronological connectives. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. etc E. were • Using action verb. the ceremony was quite elaborate. I did not know that it was an earthquake. stating the writer's personal note. He was quiet satisfied. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. Even I could not move my car at all. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. moved. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town.

A recount text has an orientation. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. During the day. Finally. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. and then moved the corpse to face north. there were also buffalo matches. However. The funeral was performed in two phases. chanting. They were great matches. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. you find words and phrases used to start. and end your composition. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. my uncle. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. we were feasting. connect a sentence with the next one. Then. After that. and dancing. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. Then. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . After that. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. Those words and phrases are: First. my brother. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. First. Finally. In the night. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. a series of events in chronological order. In the text. On the last day.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. Meanwhile. Questions 1. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there.

Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. quality of the product which will be known publicly. It can be product. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. As I said in my previous post. It is personal idea about the product. services which want to be sold. After clearly explanation.What is review text 1. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. Focus on specific participants 2. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. 3. Using metaphor 4. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Using adjectives 3. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. valuable. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Using long and complex clauses 4. Dominant Language features: 1. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. It states the parts. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. etc. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. uniqueness. worthy. Definition Review is one of text genres. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. useful. or just a site which want to be known publicly. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Each text type will have different form of generic structure.

The stories were bright. and this part I loved. this was not my favorite.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. and parts of it do seem long. for example . The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. especially with being a teenager and all... considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. however. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. I cried!) as sad as it was. He goes from being a warm-hearted. fast-paced. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic.housekeeping is still housekeeping. I was truly moved by the last page. magical or no. In some (Interpretati instances this works. and ultimately satisfying. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. with some editing it would have been great. intriguing. I actually liked the ending (and yes. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. A few other changes in this book . I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. Still a really good book.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. depressing feel. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary.

aluminum and rimless frame are available. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. woman and man are available choice. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. does and will do daily. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. If we visit the site. the daily activities are worthily documented. Titanium. For Rosemarie. The site is quite simple but very informative. Eyeglasses for children. if he works with Farsi translation. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. Again. In certain case. The translation experts. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. it will be quite difficult to make translation. lexical. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. It straightly goes to the end user. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect .the trend. Similarly. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. The site is her effort to record of what she did. It is real. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. However. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. easy and not complicated design. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. The experts who have grammatical.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

What make different. animal and scientific object. Mostly. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. For example how to make a cup of tea. etc. physical strengh. Explanation is such a scientific written material. lengh. it belongs to report text. phenomena. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. report is written after getting careful observation. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. etc is the best example of the procedure text. first boil water. and so on. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. wheel style. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. product case or problem. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. How a tornado form. colour. Procedure. how to make a good kite. However if they are analyzed carefully. its parts. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. eg: bicycle. goods. secondly prepare the cup. between report and descriptive text.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. In the other hand. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. descriptive text will convey more focus. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. is the scope of the written object. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It is such word. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Explanation. It will talk about bicycle in general. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. They give the detail description on something. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. If we talk about. In short. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing.

It can be what the writer has done. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. the thing is an experience. Explanation is such a scientific written material. etc is the best example of the procedure text. read. In writer's point of view. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. the on Tuesday. and felt. It reveals the conflict among the participants. secondly prepare the cup. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. product case or problem. In simple way. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Explanation. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. How a tornado form. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. On the other hand. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. For example how to make a cup of tea. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. hear. goods. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. They give the detail description on something. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. how to make a good kite. Procedure.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. and so on. recount describes series of events in detail. It is such word. The event happened smoothly. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. first boil water. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. then on Monday. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. phenomena. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. what happened on Sunday. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used.

Using thinking verbs 4. discussion. Coda. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 19. Using adverbs 5. Using action verbs 3. Abstract 2. Using adjective 6. Dominant Language Features: 1. anecdote. Thesis 2.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Reaction 5. 18. 20. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . and news item. report. They are narrative. explanation. 14. hortatory exposition. 23. Using modals 2. 16. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. 15. 17. Using exclamations. Using technical terms 7. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. recount. Crisis 4. 24. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using material process 3. 25. These variations are known as GENRES. 26. 22. analytical exposition. descriptive. Using general and abstract noun 8. texts are divided into several types. review. spoof. procedure. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Orientation 3. Arguments 3.

Newsworthy event(s) 2. Arguments for and against 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Resolution 5. Materials/Equipments 3. Using adverbs : time. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using noun phrase 5. Using saying verbs 4. Using passive voice 4. Short. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using adverb 4. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Using action verb 3. Orientation 2. place and manner. Background event(s) 3. Using action verbs 3.1. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Issue 2. General statement 2. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Complication 4. Explanation 3. Evaluation 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using technical terms 7. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1.

Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. General classification 2. Using modals 3. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using adverb 4. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using action verb 3. Using general and abstract noun 5. Thesis 2. Using technical terms 8. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. place or thing in detail. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using thinking verbs 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. as it is. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using thinking verb 4. Using modality 7.1. Using adverbs 6. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using adjective 7. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Identification 2. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. In simple word. Arguments 3. Generic Structure 1. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Description Language Features: 1.

Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Interpretative Recount 4. Event(s) 3. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. fable.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. folklore. In the contrary. Using action verb 3. Evaluation 3. Orientation 2. Using adverb 4. whether Simple Past Tense. or Past Perfect Tense. myth. social conflict or psychological conflict. Using adjectives 3. Using metaphor 60 . Orientation 2. Focus on specific participants 2. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Using Past Tense 2. etc while recount text is found in biography. Evaluation 5. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Orientation 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Event(s) 3. Using Past Tense 2. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using action verb 3. Using long and complex clauses 4. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text.

sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. 4. tahun. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. 11. biasanya tentang nama. tanggal. tabel. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. 7. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. diagram dsb. 8. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. penjelasan. Continuous text misalnya narrative. dsb. label. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. tempat. map. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 9. 6. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 5. 3. descriptive. 10. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. grafik. 2. 1. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 .Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text.exposition. spoof dsb.

b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. fluffy. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. it is small.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Menentukan makna kata. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. And cute. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.

When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. So when students want to throw away their litters. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. they can find the dust bins easily. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. there are paper mineral water cups. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . outside of the classrooms.. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. According to the writer..EXERCISES. in every ten meters. They put their litters on the proper places. more dust bins…. When we look at classrooms. What is the writer’s intention? To …. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. straws. Besides. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. 1. readers to do something good. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. and napkins here and there. school corridors and school yard. a number of dust bins should be increased. and some more also the corridors. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere.

The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. religion. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. 5. which is just what many learners look for sample text. learning vocabulary. Furthermore. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. translating songs. with a lot of repetition. practicing selective listening comprehension. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. Last but not least. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. place or time reference. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. Although usually simple. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. songs are relaxing. Secondly. What is the text about …. spelling and culture. patriotism and yeas. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. shopping malls. lexically and poetically.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. The generic structures of the text are …. Firstly. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. From the elaboration above. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. even revolution. In addition. songs in general also use simple conversational language. They provide variety and fun. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.

9. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Finally.” The underlined word refers to ….Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . It must not be allowed because it is rude. smoking in restaurants is impolite. 11..Since we can find a thesis. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14.“They provide variety and fun. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. Based on the text. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. The word reasons mean…. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. so we can conclude that this text belongs to….. not just in restaurants.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. Therefore. Firstly.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
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Mr. Harris. Bob. father. Mary Jones. friend. Jack. 2... Very nice to meet you. It's a pleasure to meet you. Nice to meet you too. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Likewise. Mrs. • I want to introduce you to …. co-worker. I'm. Carrie. Mr. Ritter. sister. my my my my my my my my my brother. Harris. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Pleased to meet you. This is my friend. Watson. Nice to meet you.. mother. Hi Jack. Introducing someone else my name is. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. student. And you. Cindy. boss. Penny Pitcher. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Ms.. teacher. I don't believe we've met before. I'm Linda 1.

Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. we still have half an hour before the class starts. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. are you a new student. e. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. They meet at the students’ orientation course. hotel. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Adib. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . My name is Adib. Retno. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. I am.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. Adib : Hi. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. and Retno are new students. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Hi. too? Adib : I’m a new student too.g. I’m Arnys. Situation: Adib. By the way. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. this is Retno. a restaurant. Shall we go to the canteen?.g. Arnys. Adib : Anyway.

. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. thank you. shake hands with other Virga :… women. thanks. . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . Bye. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Not so bad. . Do you wanna . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. • Good bye. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . (informal) Would you like to . . thanks. Very well. before leaving. • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. See you soon /later /tomorrow. . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. thanks. . .

Yes.I’d be happy/glad to accept .? Would you like . let’s not...I’d love to . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.... Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.Some responds of inviting. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.a chocolate bar? .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . .I’d like very much . Receiving .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks... I’d be delighted to.

complimented you on your necktie. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Thanks. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. Happy new year. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about….a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. helped carry your grocery bags. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Thank you. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. I need it. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Happy birthday to you. returned your lost wallet. you very much.

Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A.. How kind of you to say so. What’s pity c. and congratulations Special Days . Expressing of sympathy on minor a. What’s shame b. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . That’s pity f.• • • Oh. That’s a nuisance d.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . holidays and other special occasions. not really. That’s too bad e.. It’s nice of you to say so.

. k. I’m sorry to hear that b. d.B. h. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. g. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. Send my deepest condolence! f. How terrible! c. It was terrifi c. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. e. I’m so happy …. c. I’m delighted. b. f. I feel …. How dreadful! C. I’m really sad to … c. Expression Displeasure a. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. l. Goodness! b. I feel disappointed. …. How Awful! d. i. d. I’m really sorry for them d. j. I enjoyed it I love it. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. feel unpleased with …. I feel … b. m. I’m sorry about that c.

Satisfaction. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.

? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. you should buy the florescent light bulbs.  I think the other one’s better..  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. In my opinion…. say • Absolutely. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. • Yes. … If you ask me.  In my opinion. I agree • I know what you mean. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. • I am with you • Definitely. As I see.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain..

kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . Fear. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. that's not a good idea. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I don't think that's what happened. No.

. • Thank God for . it’s very painful! • Oh.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • I feel sick. • Ugh. • I’m sick..../I feel ill. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .. it’s killing me! 2. • I’m glad it was done.

Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. It means that you do not like something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. BUT "I don't really like it. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger." This is not very strong. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. but it is not a very strong dislike. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.

SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you….please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. That’s a real embarrassment. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. I will. I was so ashamed. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes.. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I’m extremely unhappy about this.

.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. Complaint.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.. Blame (keluhan.. There may have been a misunderstanding about.  Right away. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright..  Of course.  Certainly.. I think you might have forgotten to. It's your fault for (doing something). It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.. but I think we should. Don't get me wrong. Excuse me if I'm out of line. but.. but.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.. Sure. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but..Palupi : OK. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Maybe you forgot to. I'm sorry to bother you....

I'm so sorry. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. I didn't mean to lose your book.. Pete. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Examples I'm really sorry.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. Sorry for. I'd like to apologise for.. I'll clear up later.simply starters! Regret.. to express regret an exclamation a word.. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. Sorry for taking your DVD... I …. to ask for forgiveness. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. Apology (penyesalan..

.  There is a good chance that …. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . • Is it possible to …? • Yes..  It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. distress.. yet.  There is a little chance that ….this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness... there is a possibility . NOTE : 1. Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability...

WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it.she.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 .you. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2.you.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.they.  Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.she.they..she. It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he. doing something are: 4. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.? it. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.

pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.it Were utk S= you.he. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.they.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .she. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.

Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .

is.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was.masa lampau.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. will be practising c.does/am. practised d. a. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 .waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. “Srimpi”. have been practising b. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. are Was. was parctising e. Fred : Juda. the telephone rang twelve times. is. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing.

had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. a. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. My family ____ when the postman arrived. will have lived b. would have started d. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. will start b. have been having lunch c. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. was living e. will have started e. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. a. a. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous.2. have been living c. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Iwan : Yes. works d. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. were cleaning b. they are succesful. am living d. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. worked e. starts c. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. have been cleaning c. will have had lunch b. clean d. have lunch d. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. a. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. a. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. will have lunch e. cleaned e. If we don”t hurry. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . will have worked c. has been working b. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably.

was e. sir. has stopped looking for a job b. have caused c. carry d. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. will cause 5. would forget 8. forgot c. have carried c. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. a. has got a new job d. will have been c. would be b. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. has forgotten d.2. had been 7. has worked for six months e. was d. am carrying b. I forget to bring your book. a. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. a. causes e. carried e. He ____ there for three weeks. is d. When airport are located in the center of citied. have been 6. started to work 6 months a go c. had forgotten e. had been 9. a. He ____ ill for a week. My father is still in Bali. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . Is it right? Student : Yes. will be b. has been b. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. were causing b. but I ____ there many times. caused d. will have been c. Learn all these. have been c. is still looking for a job 4. has been e. forgets b. a. was carrying 3. was e. a. This sentence means that Ann ___. am d. a.

have learnt e. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. why. struktur kalimat. Reni goes to her university every morning. keterangan waktu. will have learnt c. will be attending d. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . a. dan tempat. pronoun (kata ganti orang).INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). would be attended DIRECT . You can’t meet her at her house at 10. sir.Student : All right. a. will be learning b. where. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. has attended b. She studies business. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. has been attending e. attended c. am learning 10. how. I ____ them by then. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. who. learn d. She ___ the lectures.00 tomorrow. when.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

Herman : Okay. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. he goes to his country c. He said ____ the previous day. why Mary had been absent c. not to be so noisy e.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. I wasn’t so noisy d. to open my mouth b. Herman. a. to be not so noisy c. I am very noisy b. if I opened my mouth e. he has gone to his country e. if Mary was absent d. a. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. that Mary had been absent b. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. had gone to his country d. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. that I open his mouth d. he went to his country b. why Mary was absent e. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. The baby is sleeping. mom. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past.

b. Mira closed the window. He asked me ____ a. he headn’t cleaned b. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Anto : I am sorry Lina. has forgotten d. e. I got a headache. Does Mira close the window. forgot c. “What are you doing now?”. he asked me ____”. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. he hasn’t cleaned 2. b. what were you doing now. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. e. It is windy outside. a. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. he asked. what I am doing now. “ ___________” a. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. c. 4. Ari : What did he say. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. had forgotten e. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. what are you were doing now d. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Mother said. It is windy outside. It was windy outside. I hadn’t cleaned d. a. forgets b. would forget 3. Mira. 94 5. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. It was windy outside. he does not clean e.c. Closed the window. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. what I was doing then. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. c. Mira closed the window. d. he would not clean c. SMA Students’ Modul of English . I forgot to bring your book.

not to spend e. finished your work e. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. 10. to finish my work c. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. If he could go with us d. not spend c. Father said. e. when is my appointment b. how was my appointment e. a. My friend said to me. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. children”. he went with us 6. whether I had appointment 7. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. Slamet.a. e. b. 8. d. that I had an appointment c. “Can I find you a hotel?”. She told the children not to make noise. not spending b. She said the children didn’t make noise c. wether he goes with us c. Mean____ a. she said. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. “don’t make noise. finish your work d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . can he go with us e. going with us b. do not spend d. did I have an appointment d. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She told the children don’t make noise b. a. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. a. c. to finish your work b. She didn’t say the children should noise d.

Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri.

a. were being unloaded e. was it to abolish b. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. The announcement ____ twice. did it abolish e. will be unloaded b. has been postponed c. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. are unloaded c. a. is sold d. was kicked c. was kicking b. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. to be abolished c.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. kicked e. she ____ a. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. was being postponed e.? a. are sold e. have been unloaded d. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. kicks d. A : Look! The girl is crying. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . Y : Really. a. were sold b. was postponed d. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. has to be postponed b. when…. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. was it abolishing d. had been sold c.

was born e. would be born b. is being rewarded b. the baby is being looked after well e.1. demolishing d. a. a. a. is being destroyed c. was rewarded e. has been rewarded c. is being cleaned e. will be rewarded 8. the baby will be well looked after d. will clean b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. will build d. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . will be destroyed b. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. a. was destroyed 6. had destroyed e. She looks after the baby well. would be built 4. cleaned c. The passive form is ____ a. the baby would be well looked after 7. will be built e. is being built c. rewarded d. R. a. the baby was looked after well c. is born d. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. was being cleaned d. has been built b. the baby is well looked after b. a. has arranged c. had been demilishing b.A. has been born c. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. destroyed d. is arranged d. will be born 2. A big dam ___ in this area next year. has been cleaned 5. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. is demolishing c. is being demolished e. have been arranged 3. a. have arranged b. was arranged e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company.

was being promised c. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative.9. has promised d. yaitu: 1. will be promised e. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. will be taken d. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. will be promised 10. he ____ to the nearest hospital. was taken b. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. a. took c. a.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. has been promising b. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. is being taken e. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k.

may. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. was/were. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i.c. -le. dll. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. can. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. -ow. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. had. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: large larger largest 4. did. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. have/has. dll. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . will. -er. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. shall.

saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. I would have written you a letter. itulah yang diharapkan. (jika saya punya uang.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . I will buy a new car. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. I would go to the beach with you. Contoh: If I have much money. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Contoh : (+) If I had time. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. 3. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Apa yang diucapkan. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang.).• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi.

) 2.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. I met him last week. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. which. Contoh: We saw the people. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. They are printed in English. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. her. (him = the man. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. our. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. its. his. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. of which. whose. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. their. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. whom. your. I bought it last year. Their car has been stolen.

jabatan sebagai objek) 6. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Its surface is not smooth. Where 8. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. sebuah benda. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. (its surface/permukaannya meja. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang.

(saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. 2. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). I got the mechanic to repair my car. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). The manager gets the letter typed. I had mechanic repair my car. Jogging makes us fresh. The manager has the letter typed. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu.

our.V . Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.Dona prefers dancing to singing. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . to be worth. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. he said nothing. get used to. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .V ketimbang main video game) 4. 5. can’t help/can’t bear. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: .Juned prefers combro to deblo.I like T.3. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.her.Amir’s.to be used to. than plays a video game. to be busy.Dita would rather watch T. 3.V.their.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. 6. Before leaving. Setelah possessive adjective (my. his. before dll. 4. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .your.V better than radio. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. on. . Contoh : My hobby is cycling.

(saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . although/though. d. he come on time. after. but. Menunjukan waktu: before.Contoh: . (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . a. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . we cut the vegetables into small pieces. I can’t treat you. While he was reading her novel. Finally.You can read this book if you like. Since I have no money.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . After that. Next. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. d. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. yaitu: 1. c. we put some sauce and salt. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. that. 3. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. a. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. if. when. for.He is both wise and good. as soon as. next. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. a. or. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. 1. b.Although it was raining. b. we must prepare the ingredients. b. e. then. dll.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. Contoh: . somebody knocked on the door. while. after that.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . c. we put them into frying pan. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. We went home after the rain stopped. c. since. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. 2. first. finally.Amir and I go to school everyday. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3.

Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.He is not only active but also clever. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .

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