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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
.................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION...........................................................................................................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...............................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ..............104 GERUND ......................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ...............106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .................................................................................................................................................................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .............................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)..........................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ...99 QUESTION TAGS ..............................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)..100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...............................................................................
These types of text are. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. 2. Descriptive 10. Narrative 11. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. The language feature. Analytical Exposition 8. Report 4. Procedure 12. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Recount 6. Review 7. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. News Items 13. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Hortatory Exposition 3. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Spoof 5. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. why is the text made?. Anecdote 9. 1. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Explanation 2.
which causes them to die. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Additionally. If you live in the city.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. it is better to look at the fact. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. cars. or concentrate on your homework. as we all know. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. In one hour in smoky room. the city is very busy. the risk is nineteen greater. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Argument Firstly. Secondly. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. and especially talk to someone. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. cars are very noisy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Thirdly. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Reiteratio In conclusion. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. cars create pollution. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. lung cancer. As we all know. Example of Analytical Exposition A. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.
The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. Furthermore. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. That wil be true if the conditions. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. As the US. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. In this example of analytical exposition text.
in this multimedia era. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. drawing book. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. leaded petrol car. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. • Bahasa evaluatif. The students just need to brows that online shop. First. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. • Reiteration . Secondly. • Technical verbs. misalnya C. we. secondly. students need book. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. • Relating verbs. (Simplified from the jakartapos. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. dsb. Additionally. • Action verbs. • Abstract nouns. dsb • Modal verbs. • Thinking verbs. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument.dsb. decide which computer or laptop they need. misalnya Many people believe. ruler and such other stuff. dsb. dsb. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. • Modal adverbs. dsb. pollution. government. misalnya firstly. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. • Connectives. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. this method will help student to get better understanding. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. pen. misalnya She must save. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . and then complete the transaction. dsb.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. Penguatan pernyataan. dsb. eraser. dsb. misalnya certainly. misalnya car. misalnya It is important. misalnya we must preserve. students need more to reach their progressive development. misalnya policy.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. misalnya species of animals.
It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Arabic translation. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. That is really easy and save time and money. Career in Translation Functionally. It seems Indonesia. From all of that. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. India translation will grow better and. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. India is likely being an English speaking country. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. D. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Students just need to decide which type they really need. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Therefore.delivered to the students' houses. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. If Hindi translation is provided. E. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. According to Nida. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study.
write. Using exclamation words. go. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Using conjunction of time. For instance. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. 2. because. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Using simple past tense 4. Incident. etc • Causal conjunction . you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Using action verb. Orientation 3. Using imperative. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. etc 2. listen to this 3. Using rhetoric question. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Abstract 2. it's awful!. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. afterward 6. Crisis 4. 3. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1.is inserted at the end of each article. do you know what? 4. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. then. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. etc 5. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. it's wonderful!.
The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. misalnya go. He shed tears of disappointment. nine children. and turned on the tap. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. dsb. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. The family worked and saved. spitting and hissing at us. their children to America. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. The father was full of disappointed and anger. They had gotten afterwards. The doctor sewed up the boy. seperti then. who was only three at the time. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. so we set to. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. whole business.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. write. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. enough money. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. America. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. passport. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. Anna. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. The family dreams were dashed. However few days before their departure. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. there were being quarantined for long days. dsb. They were in quarantine when the departure time came.
It made they were being quarantined. 3.Five days latter. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. but because of the bitten son by a dog. 2. or/and characteristics. qualities. identifying the phenomenon to be described. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. You have and so do I. there is something wrong last minute before it. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. The ship. they were left behind. place. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . • Description. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. • Using simple present tense 4. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had to forget their plan. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. It was unbelievable but it was. When the dream will come true. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. When the father heard the news. They had dream to travel to America. The Clak family should have been on that ship. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. had shank. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. He thanked God for saving their lives. the mighty Titanic. The father was angry with his son and God. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. or thing. describing the phenomenon in parts. his youngest son was bitten by a dog.
Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. a grass amphitheatre. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. in 2004. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. She really have perfect appearance. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. bright color. This shoes really matches on her. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. attractive and trendy. In three years1 time.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. When she are walking on that shoes. She said that the products covered all genders. Today. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . native plants and eucalypts. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. She is really mad on that shoes. Example of Description A. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Recently. In 1964. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Sydney. The style. yet retaining its beautiful site. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. This year. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She is beautiful. all her friends. a railway station is under construction. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful.
The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. valuable • Using simple present tense. Borobudur is well-known all over the world.The temple is constructed. Borobudur temple • Description.8 km of passage and starways. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. B. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.she has. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Borobudur is well-known. The upper three are circular. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The way to the summit extends through some 4.Budhist temple. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. Cambodia. Indonesia. Ballet. The products provide varieties of choice. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. casual. Central Java. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.
• detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. • berbagai macam adjectives. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. It has very thick fur. sharp white fangs. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. perilaku umum. • simple present tense. better or worse 3. misalnya. Misalnya: I have many pets. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. a sweet young lady. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. but my favourite one is a cat. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). White. two strong legs. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. dsb. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. misalnya teacher. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. house. • action verbs.my cat. sifat-sifat (characteristic). misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. classifying. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. kualitas. dsb. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . My mum is realy cool. misalnya fast. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. 2. Description. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. dsb. dsb. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. enough money to take Snow White. bersifat describing. misalnya. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. dsb. numbering. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. dsb. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast.
“If you wish.” Snow White said. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. There they found Snow White sleeping. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. in what way she will decide who the best is. had many suitors.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. They were also rich and strong. They went inside. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. The psychological conflict inside Maura. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. which she strikes against herself.” Doc. The following day. They want to know what next will happen. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. She saw the dwarfs. One by one she discarded them. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. Maura asked them for something to eat. After dinner. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. As they were about to have dinner. who was called Hakim. The third sheik. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. you may live here with us. who received a plate of delicious meat. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. Then Snow White woke up. One evening. “what is your name?” Snow White said. Hakim. The first gave her some left over food. “My name is Snow White. one of the dwarfs. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. “Without question. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. said. The dwarfs said. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. “Oh could I? Thank you. Example of Narative A. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace.
He could not bear it. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. dsb. waktu. Complication. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. happily ever after. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. misalnya then. Masalah. phrase. misalnya. in the mountain. The name of the place was Catano. the parrot would not say it. Penyelesaian masalah. Resolution. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. Then he continued to humble. two red apples. The parrot could say every word. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. except one word. dsb. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. housework. There was no other parrot like it. stepsisters. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. soon. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”.dsb. konflik dalam cerita. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. • action verbs dalam past tense. before that. dsb. At the first. climbed. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. dsb. I will cut the chicken 17 . misalnya. Pengenalan tokoh. “You know. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. long black hair. Although he tried hard to teach. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. the man really got very angry. a man had a wonderful parrot. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. stayed. misalnya here. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian.
One day. the man attempted to teach the bird. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. 3. There were three death chickens on the floor. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. 4 are describing the complication. In that parrot story. They found their mother and talked her about it. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. It will show the crisis. I will eat you too. The daughters were crying. The next day. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. Next it will be your turn. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. paragraph 2. As soon as it was free. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. stupid parrot”. That was the smartest parrot. The fish begged him to set it free. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. He made the fish free. He could not control his mad. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. He opened the door and was very surprised. She attracted Batara Guru so much. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. Batara Guru could not bear it. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. In the parrot story. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. They had two daughters. At the moment. he caught a fish. He liked fishing. A man and his parrot took place once time. rising crisis and climax of the story. readers see the problem is finished. To fix this problem. the man came back to the chicken house. C. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. After that he left the chicken house. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. They were married happily.for my meal. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . there was a handsome man. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano.
The two step sisters. The mother was shouting angrily. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered.”you’ve been such a cheerful. such as scrubbing the floor. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. Volcanoes started to erupt. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. did not work about the house. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. the day of the ball came. One day. People believed that the big hole became a lake. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. She danced again and again with the king’s son. In her hurry. In the end. They were married and live happily ever after. and away went the sisters to it. there was a young girl named Cinderella. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. Then the earth began to shake. A few days later. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. “You must leave before midnight”. one of her glass slipper was left behind. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. “Why are crying. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. hardworking. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. “Now. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. she was driven to the palace. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Magically. They treated Cinderella very badly. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. It fitted perfectly. on the other hand. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. she said. “Well” said the godmother. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella.The mother was very annoyed. At last. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. The earth formed a very big hole. Cinderella”. Finally. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. D. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Cinderella?” a voice asked. Batara Guru broke his promise. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. and it became a beautiful ball gown. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house.
The Smartest Animal. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. E. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. After the man went home. said the buffalo. Complication: In this Cinderella story. He took his plough and hit the tiger. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. “oh. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. In the last paragraph. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. “No. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. the man is very intelligent”. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. farmer and his buffalo. “you are so big and strong. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. But the man answered. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. One day.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. “it at home”. 3. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. I can’t tell you”. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. “Can I see your intelligence?”. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. once in Laos 2. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Every morning and every evening. “Yes” said the man. introducing specific participants. Then he said. Generic Structure Analysis 1. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Once there was a farmer from Laos. Complication. The tiger asked. Orientation. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. Resolution: Like complication. Resolution.
Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Add milk and whisk well 4. ¼ cup milk. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. was surprised to action verb. one day connectives. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. 50 g cheese. saw. after. Place on a plate. the man tied the tiger. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. answered thinking verb. bowl.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. once. spatula. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. the next day past tense. tie. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . there was a farmer. Cook both sides 9. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. hit time conjunction. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. fork. cheese grater. plate Method 1.
There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. etc • Temporal conjunction. dsb. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Firstly. Here are the steps. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. dsb. • Material. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. misalnya. 2 centimetres from the top. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. etc • Action verb. Don’t mix.10. put. firstly. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Firstly. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. dsb. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. • action verbs. write your benefit like you talk it. dry. mix. menyatakan rinci waktu. cara yang akurat. misalnya for five minutes. Cut. put it. Finally. while. the following is a guided information B. informing on how to plant chillies. Use regular words. Langkah-langkah. planting is a nice activity. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. finally. It should be in open area Next. Here's a simple checklist to follow. misalnya then. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. take the topic of benefits. Well. but it will help. wait it. not features. put it in another big pot. don’t. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. misalnya turn. Your customers don't care about you. tempat. put. put the seeding on the soil. excluded • Steps. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. next. Read aloud what you've written. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. you don't have to. Example of Procedure A. dry a handful seeding. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly.
choosing the advantageous topic.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Some sentences are long and some are short. etc • Action verb. to make a cheese omelet. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. cheese grater. Next. spatula. informing on how to write for business • Material. write like you talked. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. firstly. fork. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . a pinch of satlt and pepper. read. etc • Temporal conjunction. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. showing the method in writing for business.re-read what you've done before publishing. lose the weak words. bowl and plate. Listen carefully. excluded • Steps/ method. add First. you need some tools. Don't describe how your company may. Use a nice rhythm. re-reading what have been written . etc C. Edit it necesarily. Fourthly. secondly. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. frying pan. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. Mix them up and keep things interesting. reread what you have done.Thirdly. Next. you need an egg. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. writing the topic like the way it is talked. fifty gram cheese. Fifthly. three tablespoons cookin oil. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. write. such as. a quarter cup of milk. First.
time. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. 2. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Language Feature of News Item 1. a news report said. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Elaboration (background. participant. Using material process 4. The accident. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Example of Procedure A. Focusing on circumstances 2. place) 3. “But this just a suggestion. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 .News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Generic Structure of News Item 1. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Main event 2. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. it’s up to them”. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. Resource of information 3. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster.
named Suwartin. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. In the past the event was held behind closed door. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. Kejadian inti. (Source The Jakarta Post. even though they know they have HIV” she said. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. tempat kejadian dsb. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Background Events. komentar saksi kejadian. less then 10 percent are woman. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . June 01. he said in the report. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Last year. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. had worked with the boy family for 11 years.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. orang yang terlibat. many women who contract HIV are housewives. dsb. Malaysian Aids Council president. pendapat para ahli. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. Latar belakang kejadian. but the number is steadily rising. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The maid. Sources.
May 6. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Background 1. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Resource. Using material process. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Background 2. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. Hong Kong. Last year. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. (Adapted from Reuters. law of serious crimes. (Taken from: www. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. execute. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee.Then the maid was arrested. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. carry. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Background 3. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos.co. Islamic law executed more than 130 people.news. She had relationship the boy for five months. behead. Saudi Arabia. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. Rape.bbc.
on the hand. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. and social text. etc • Using adverbial of manner. etc • Using modalities. similarly. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. hope. must. doing homework is not a great idea. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. etc 4. may. feel. But. should. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. hopefully. contrastive. believe.1. however. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. and causal connection. deliberately. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. 2. could. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. many times. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Example of Discussion Text A. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. historic. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. etc • Using additive. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies.
so it is not expansive to make. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It is reliable. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. England in 1956. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. and produces huge amounts of energy. It produces small amount of waste.
alcohol. Furthermore. seperti perhaps. should have been. dsb. dsb. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. Kesimpulan. believe. • adverbials of maner. dsb. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. Elaborasi (uraian). misalnya uniforms. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. although it is reliable. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. misalnya deliberately. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. . nuclear power is very. Elaborasi (uraian). connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. memberikan informasi secara padu. perception and recommendation. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. misalnya smoking is harmful. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. Gagasan Pokok 2. on the hand.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori.On the other hand. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. however. hope. very dangerous. misalnya similarly. dsb.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. dsb. must. dsb. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. dsb. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. In many social activities. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. This example of discussion text present the two poles. hopefully. could 29 be. Elaborasi (uraian). should. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. misalnya feel. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph.
farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Recommendation. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Many farmer and even conservationists. Using thinking verb. believe.bbc. must. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.co. hunting fox. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Using modalities. however. 2. Using connectives. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. conservationists. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. farmer. It is often found in science. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. geography and history text books. social. Supporting point. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. (Taken from: www. Contrastive point. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. B. scientific and cultural phenomena.
A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . Sequenced explanation. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). etc Using chronological connection. sun. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. next. to begin with. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Language Feature • • • • 4. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Example of Explanation Text A.• • General statement. Featuring generic participant. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. rain.
dunia ilmiah. simple present tense. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. It causes day and night. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. conjunctions of time dan cause.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. The earth also moves around the sun. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. abstract nouns. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium.org) B. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. sosialbudaya. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. action verbs. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. (simplified from www. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. passive voice. This process is called revolution. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. misalnya the large cloud. Tsunami always bring great damage. noun phrase. It takes 365 days or a year. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. misalnya word chopping. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. earthquakes. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. It is called as rotation.panda. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. the amount of • bahasa teksni. misalnya the temperature. adverbial phrases. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. complex sentences. But that is the case. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front.
Using thinking verb 5. but. Focusing on the writer 2. 2.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . surely. so. Explanation.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. certainly. Using evaluative words. valuable. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). secondly.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon.co. Using chronological connection. I feel that when you travel through the country. etc 8. then. Thesis 2. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. Using present tense. etc 6. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1.ictteachers. you would be forgiven. etc 3. Recommendation 3. Using modal adverb. trustworthy. Using simple present tense 4. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. policy. daylight. Using pasive voice. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using abstract noun. important. Using temporal connective. firstly. Arguments 3. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using action verb 4. advantage. etc 7. Using passive voice 9. (Taken from: www.
who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. pornography. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Recomendatio I feel that country people. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. of course. Recently. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Considering some facts mentioning above. Meanwhile. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. and the possibility of being aggressive. and short sleep duration.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. However.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . Those who want to penalise older . stress. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood.every five to ten minutes. consumerism and so on. especially violence. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly.
More Dust Bins is Cleaner. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . When we look at classroom. advertising. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. sales letter. In many social activities. school corridors and schoolyard. there papers. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. speech campaign. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. If it is a hortatory text. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. and napkin everywhere. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. Both take place as argumentative essays. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. straws. mineral water cops. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. Basically. More dust bins should be put beside each step. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis.the writer thought as stated in the text. and news advertorial. B. In the first paragraph. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition.
it will be very hard to looking for job. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. So. they will think hard about the time and cost. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. In the other hand. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. When they think about continuing study. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. As the alternative method of studying. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. As result. the available time will be more flexible for them.meters. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. when they think about straightly seeking job. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. it will be quite confusing. Where should be after High School?. So when students want to throw away their litters. C. In the same way. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. they can find the dust bins easily.
Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Action verbs. Modal adverbs. dsb. dsb. animal. now there is a way out. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. dsb. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian .government dsb. Albert Smith is the proof. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Millions from Property Market. Thinking verbs. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. valuable. plant. dsb. reward Using action verb.we. doesn’t seem to have been . Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Modal verbs.misalnya policy. misalnya species of animals. secondly. misalnya firstly. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. he drives a sport car. We can show the way to give up work. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. are you tired?. part per part . there is a way out of financial problem.D. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. misalnya certainly. Technical verbs. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. we must save. Recommendation. Generic Structure of Report 1. dsb. dsb. misalnya. Argument. public place. misalnya important. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well.dsb. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. as it is. Relating verbs. misalnya I believe . misalnya We must preserve. felt Using simple present tense. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. etc which will be discussed in general 2. give up. etc Using thinking verb. misalnya should be. dsb. make. Connectives.
Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. and lakes. driving the fish before them. the animal of platypus.• • Using conditional logical connection. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. A group. perhaps two dozen birds. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. stating general classification. Platypus. and woolly layer of fur. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. so. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. etc Using simple present tense 4. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus' eyes and head are small. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. when. In the other hand. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. rivers. Example of Report Text A. Platypus lives in streams. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. beating the water furiously with their wings.
Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. in terms of parts. lingkungan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. benda buatan manusia. but. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. dsb. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. istilah teknis. logical connective. misalnya lizards cannot fly. dsb. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). keterangan. kegunaannya jika non natural. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. dsb. the animal of platypus conditional. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. habits or behaviors. male platypus does not need any burrow. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. dsb. misalnya. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. dan klasifikasinya. qualities. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. atau gejala-gejala sosial. Platypus lives in streams. apa adanya.Description.
Using adverb of time and place 4. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Language Feature of Spoof 1.’ replied the man. Using action verb. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Focusing on people. Dave found a nice office. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. ran. 2. He bought some new furniture and moved in.1. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Orientation 2. animals or certain things 2. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Events 3. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Twist 3. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. ate. Told in chronological order 4. etc 3. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency.
He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. Then “Remember. “You want me. Instead leaving the country. terduga atau lucu). He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. benda tertentu. no children. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. misalnya eat. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. He suddenly became a 1. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). verbs.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. B. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. He had not left the country yet. run. “If that is what you want. “Hey Abu Nawas. I want you to leave the country. conversation on the phone. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. Event 1: Being rich. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. “Yes. Then the man said to Dave. Event 2: He had his new office. binatang. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. In his office. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore.
Your Majesty. I had a very good seat. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers.In the end. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. I do not step on the ground of this country”. The king wondered and said “Abu.I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . I do not step on the ground. (Adapted from S. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace.I did not enjoy it. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. I turned around again. I turned around. I could not bear it. And since yesterday. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly.guards. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. The King continued “And now. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. “I remember exactly what you said. They did not pay any attention. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. You walk on stilts like a child. were talking noisily. look at you. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. The king was not able to say anything. I have been walking on this stilts. So you see. young man and young woman. You have not left this country”. They were talking very loudly. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. The play was very interesting. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely.
Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. nobody looked at me. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. “Eat the food. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. D. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “It’s none of your business. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. He took it to a policeman and said. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. The host at once got up and came to meet him.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. “When I came here with my old clothes. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. When he arrived in the party. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. they just shook the head. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. It’s a private conversation”. The next day. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. The man was still carrying the penguin. you give food to my coat instead of me”. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . the policeman saw the man in the same park. He put his coat and said. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. So. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. "Take it to the zoo!".
Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3.did. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . was. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. go. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. Generic Structure of Recount 1. today I am taking it to the movie". They were in the park Event1. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. chronological order by days. So. penguin. saw. walk up Using adverb of time and place. etc • Using action verb. heard. in the park Told in chronological order. etc • Using chronological connection. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. change. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. The following day. first.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. once. I. Even. were. Reorientation: It is optional. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. carry. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. policeman Using action verb. then. look. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. He. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. my group. etc • Using linking verb. Orientation: Introducing the participants. place and time 2. etc • Using simple past tense 4. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants.
The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. On the third floor. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. They went to London. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. It can be what the writer has done. Vacation to London Mr. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Then. they inserted a key-card to open the door. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. It was scary. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. Mr. Instead of keys for the room.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They had variety of food. read. The room had perfect view of the park. This includes travel and accommodation. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. We stayed at David and Della’s house. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. Richard’s family was on vacation. The officers were pleasant. Richard with two sons. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. In writer's point of view. the thing is an experience. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. There was a film for their entertainment. They are Mr. They had a very pleasant flight. The two week in London went by fast. B. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. At the end of the 14-day. on Example of Recount text A. They had booked fourteen days tour. They slept part of the way. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. and Mrs. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They gave them food and drink. hear. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. We saw cockatoos having a shower.
The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. She was happy dsb. The first stop was at Batubulan. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. misalnya and. The event happened smoothly. kejadian atau kegiatan. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. then. after that. funny. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. sleep. On the other hand. In simple way. misalnya beautiful. but. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. waktu dan cara. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. run dsb. Events. dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. we dsb. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis.Small Notes and felt. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. a center of stone sculpture. misalnya David. Rekaman peristiwa. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. dsb. On the day of the tour. he was ready. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. the on Tuesday. di mana dan kapan. past tense. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. The first one was to Singaraja. It is a busy but quiet town. C. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. misalnya go. the monkey. Reorientation. at my house. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. misalnya yesterday. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. The next stop was Celuk. • • • • • . recount describes series of events in detail. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Pengenalan. then on Monday. what happened on Sunday. misalnya We went to the zoo. 46 slowly dsb. the second was to Ubud. It reveals the conflict among the participants.
to the left. I was on the car las week. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. introducing the participant. Events. etc E. was. Several days before the ceremony was done. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. I was on my car. earthquake happened. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I • Using chronological connectives. made. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. suddenly • Using linking verb. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. When the earthquake happened. were • Using action verb. Even I could not move my car at all. Overall. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. the ceremony was quite elaborate. stating the writer's personal note. Although nothing was left. I was trapped by the rock. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. moved. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. etc. When I reached my town. my car lunched on one side. Re-orientation. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. walked. left. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. describing a series of event which happened. There were rocks everywhere. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. like matchsticks. I was on the car. The car lunched to one side. all his day was spent on the beach. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. I thought I got flat tire. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. using first person point of view. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. He was quiet satisfied. D.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . then. in the town. It took about a week. and.
you find words and phrases used to start. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . After that. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. First. In the text. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. However. my brother. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. my uncle. After that. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. there were also buffalo matches. They were great matches. Those words and phrases are: First. In the night. Questions 1. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. During the day. and dancing. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. The funeral was performed in two phases. and then moved the corpse to face north. Then. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. chanting. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. A recount text has an orientation. Finally. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Then. On the last day. and end your composition. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. a series of events in chronological order. Finally. connect a sentence with the next one. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. Meanwhile. we were feasting.
He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Definition Review is one of text genres. valuable. It is personal idea about the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. It can be product. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Focus on specific participants 2. Using adjectives 3. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. It states the parts. etc. 3. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Using metaphor 4. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. Using long and complex clauses 4. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. worthy. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . After clearly explanation. or just a site which want to be known publicly. As I said in my previous post. quality of the product which will be known publicly. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. uniqueness. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine.What is review text 1. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. services which want to be sold. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. useful. Dominant Language features: 1.
. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. and ultimately satisfying.housekeeping is still housekeeping. intriguing. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. Still a really good book. I actually liked the ending (and yes. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. and this part I loved. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. this was not my favorite. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. Example of Review text Zenni Optical.. I was truly moved by the last page. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. depressing feel. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . however.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. and parts of it do seem long. with some editing it would have been great. fast-paced. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. The stories were bright.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. magical or no. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. In some (Interpretati instances this works. A few other changes in this book . for example . He goes from being a warm-hearted. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. especially with being a teenager and all. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. I cried!) as sad as it was.
With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. the daily activities are worthily documented. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. It is real. easy and not complicated design. In certain case. For Rosemarie. if he works with Farsi translation. lexical. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. it will be quite difficult to make translation. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. It straightly goes to the end user. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. Again. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. woman and man are available choice. The site is quite simple but very informative. The experts who have grammatical. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. Eyeglasses for children. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. If we visit the site. aluminum and rimless frame are available. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. does and will do daily. The translation experts. However. Similarly.the trend. The site is her effort to record of what she did. Titanium.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
it belongs to report text. first boil water. eg: bicycle. animal and scientific object. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. It will talk about bicycle in general. its parts. Procedure. etc. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. If we talk about. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. colour. How a tornado form. wheel style. For example how to make a cup of tea. etc is the best example of the procedure text. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. In short. physical strengh. In the other hand. phenomena. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. is the scope of the written object. report is written after getting careful observation. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. how to make a good kite. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Explanation. Mostly. and so on. product case or problem. What make different. They give the detail description on something. between report and descriptive text. secondly prepare the cup.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. However if they are analyzed carefully. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. lengh. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It is such word. descriptive text will convey more focus. goods. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text.
It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. and felt. goods. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. what happened on Sunday. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. In writer's point of view. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. and so on. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. first boil water. then on Monday. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. They give the detail description on something. product case or problem. How a tornado form. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. how to make a good kite. It can be what the writer has done. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. the thing is an experience. phenomena. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. For example how to make a cup of tea. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. On the other hand. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. etc is the best example of the procedure text. read. secondly prepare the cup. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. The event happened smoothly. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. hear. Explanation. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It is such word.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. the on Tuesday. Procedure. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. recount describes series of events in detail. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Explanation is such a scientific written material. In simple way. this text type is commonly called as instruction text.
Abstract 2. spoof. texts are divided into several types. Thesis 2. Using adjective 6. 18. review. Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 3. procedure. 22. hortatory exposition. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. analytical exposition. Using modals 2. report. discussion. Using technical terms 7. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. descriptive. and news item. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verbs 4. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using material process 3. Using action verbs 3. These variations are known as GENRES. 16. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . 17. 20. 23. 26. Using general and abstract noun 8. They are narrative. Reaction 5. recount. Coda. 24. Using adverbs 5. 19. Arguments 3. anecdote. 14. explanation. 15. Using exclamations. 25. Crisis 4.
Short. Arguments for and against 3. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Complication 4. Using Past Tense 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. place and manner. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Evaluation 3. Using noun phrase 5. Resolution 5. Using adverbs : time. Using adverbial phrase 6. Orientation 2. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Issue 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using action verbs 3. Using passive voice 4. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using adverb 4. Explanation 3. General statement 2. Using action verb 3. Materials/Equipments 3. Background event(s) 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1.1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using saying verbs 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2.
Using Simple Present Tense 2.1. Using action verb 3. Description Language Features: 1. Using thinking verb 4. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using technical terms 8. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using modals 3. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Arguments 3. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. General classification 2. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using conjunction/transition 6. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verbs 5. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Introducing group or general aspect 2. In simple word. Using adverbs 6. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 5. Identification 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Generic Structure 1. Thesis 2. as it is. Using adjective 7. Using modality 7. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using conditional logical connection 3. place or thing in detail. Using adverb 4. Using general and abstract noun 9.
whether Simple Past Tense. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Orientation 2. folklore. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Using adverb 4. Using action verb 3. Using Past Tense 2. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using Past Tense 2. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Orientation 2. Event(s) 3. Using metaphor 60 . Using adjectives 3.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Evaluation 3. Evaluation 5. Orientation 2. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. fable. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Interpretative Recount 4. social conflict or psychological conflict. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. In the contrary. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Focus on specific participants 2. Event(s) 3. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. etc while recount text is found in biography. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. myth. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. or Past Perfect Tense. Using long and complex clauses 4. Using action verb 3.
TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku.exposition. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. 4. 1. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. tahun. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. 10. 8. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. 3. 6. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. dsb. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. tempat. tabel. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. biasanya tentang nama. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. descriptive. 5. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . map. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 7. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. penjelasan. 2. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 11. diagram dsb. tanggal. Continuous text misalnya narrative. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. grafik. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. label. spoof dsb. 9.
Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. it is small. Menentukan makna kata. The purpose of the text is _____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. fluffy. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . And cute. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.
When we look at classrooms. readers to do something good. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. outside of the classrooms.EXERCISES. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. According to the writer. school corridors and school yard. in every ten meters. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. So when students want to throw away their litters. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. more dust bins…. Besides. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain.. a number of dust bins should be increased. they can find the dust bins easily. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. and napkins here and there. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. straws. What is the writer’s intention? To …. there are paper mineral water cups. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. They put their litters on the proper places. and some more also the corridors.. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. 1. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere.
The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. shopping malls. practicing selective listening comprehension. learning vocabulary. Firstly. Although usually simple. patriotism and yeas. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. which is just what many learners look for sample text. religion. 5. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. spelling and culture. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. Last but not least. place or time reference. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. Secondly.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. translating songs. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. What is the text about …. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. The generic structures of the text are …. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. In addition. They provide variety and fun. Furthermore. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. songs are relaxing. From the elaboration above. songs in general also use simple conversational language. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. even revolution. lexically and poetically. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. with a lot of repetition.
9. Finally. The word reasons mean…. smoking in restaurants is impolite.“They provide variety and fun. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. 11.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.. not just in restaurants.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. It must not be allowed because it is rude. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke.Since we can find a thesis. Therefore. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.” The underlined word refers to ….. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. Firstly. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Based on the text.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
Penny Pitcher. sister. Bob.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. I'm. And you. Nice to meet you too. Ms. Mary Jones. Pleased to meet you. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Harris. father. Introducing someone else my name is. Mrs. co-worker. friend. Cindy. Mr. Ritter. Carrie. teacher. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Hi Jack. boss. It's a pleasure to meet you. Harris. Very nice to meet you.. my my my my my my my my my brother. student. Watson. This is my friend. I'm Linda 1.. 2. • I want to introduce you to ….. mother. Jack. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself.. I don't believe we've met before. Mr. Likewise. Nice to meet you.
Shall we go to the canteen?. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e.g. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. They meet at the students’ orientation course. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. e. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . Situation: Adib. Adib : Anyway. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. I am. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Hi. Adib : Hi. Adib.g. are you a new student. Retno. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Arnys. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. and Retno are new students. a restaurant. this is Retno. hotel. My name is Adib. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. By the way. I’m Arnys. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry.
(informal) Would you like to . Very well. . . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. thank you. before leaving. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. See you soon /later /tomorrow.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . shake hands with other Virga :… women. • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Not so bad. Bye. thanks. . let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . . . . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. • Good bye. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. thanks. . Do you wanna . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. thanks.
Yes..I’d like very much .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks... let’s not.Some responds of inviting.. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.I’d love to . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .? Would you like .I’d be happy/glad to accept .. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome. .. I’d be delighted to.a chocolate bar? . Receiving . Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No...That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.
Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. complimented you on your necktie. I need it. Happy new year. Thanks. Happy birthday to you. helped carry your grocery bags. Thank you. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. you very much. returned your lost wallet. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about….
use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. That’s too bad e.. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. What’s shame b. How kind of you to say so. That’s a nuisance d. It’s nice of you to say so. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .• • • Oh. and congratulations Special Days .use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . What’s pity c. holidays and other special occasions. That’s pity f. not really.
…. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. I’m really sorry for them d. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. I feel disappointed. c. Expression Displeasure a. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. How Awful! d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . I feel …. I’m really sad to … c.. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. b. I’m so happy …. m. I’m sorry to hear that b. It was terrifi c.B. f. I enjoyed it I love it. I feel … b. k. e. h. I’m delighted. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. d. d. How dreadful! C. I’m sorry about that c. Send my deepest condolence! f. feel unpleased with …. g. l. j. i. Goodness! b. How terrible! c.
no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 .Satisfaction. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.
tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. say • Absolutely. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. In my opinion…. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . I agree • I know what you mean.. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I think the other one’s better.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. you should buy the florescent light bulbs.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. • I am with you • Definitely. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. • Yes.. As I see. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. In my opinion. … If you ask me.
Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I don't think that's what happened. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. No. that's not a good idea. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 .• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. Fear.
it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • I’m sick. • I’m glad it was done. it’s very painful! • Oh.. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . • Ugh./I feel ill.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .... • I feel sick. it’s killing me! 2. • Thank God for .
" This is not very strong. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. It means that you do not like something. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 .Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. but it is not a very strong dislike. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. BUT "I don't really like it. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.
I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I’m extremely unhappy about this. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to ... Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. I was so ashamed. That’s a real embarrassment.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . I will. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.
but. Certainly. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.Palupi : OK... I think you might have forgotten to. I'm sorry to bother you.. Of course. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Maybe you forgot to. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive... There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright.. but.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.. Blame (keluhan. Don't get me wrong.. It's your fault for (doing something).. but I think we should. Excuse me if I'm out of line.. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Sure.. There may have been a misunderstanding about. Complaint. Right away....
.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. I'll clear up later. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.. Sorry for. to express regret an exclamation a word. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. to ask for forgiveness. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. Examples I'm really sorry. I …... I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. I'm so sorry. Sorry for taking your DVD. I didn't mean to lose your book. Pete. Apology (penyesalan..simply starters! Regret.. I'd like to apologise for.
worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. there is a possibility ..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible ... distress.. There is a good chance that …. There is a little chance that …. Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.. • Is it possible to …? • Yes..this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . yet.. NOTE : 1..
Expressions capability are : to show I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 . Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it..? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.she.she.? it.they. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he. doing something are: 4.she. It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home 3.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.you.you.they.
she.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .it Were utk S= you.they.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.he. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.
waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .
sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. the telephone rang twelve times.masa lampau. was parctising e.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. are Was. a. “Srimpi”. will be practising c. practised d.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . is.does/am.is. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. have been practising b. Fred : Juda.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do.
have been having lunch c. am living d. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. has been working b. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. have lunch d. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. will have had lunch b. were cleaning b. cleaned e. Iwan : Yes. a. would have started d. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. will have started e. was living e. will have lunch e. a.2. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. clean d. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. a. will start b. a. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. works d. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. will have worked c. have been living c. have been cleaning c. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. will have lived b. a. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. If we don”t hurry. they are succesful. starts c. worked e. My family ____ when the postman arrived.
Anto : I’m sorry Ary. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. was carrying 3. has been e. would be b. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. has stopped looking for a job b. He ____ ill for a week. Learn all these. had been 7. carry d. am carrying b. Is it right? Student : Yes. He ____ there for three weeks. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. will be b. will have been c. was e. will have been c. a. has worked for six months e. was e. had forgotten e. was d. a. This sentence means that Ann ___. would forget 8. is d. carried e. has forgotten d.2. a. My father is still in Bali. has been b. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. a. were causing b. had been 9. forgot c. caused d. When airport are located in the center of citied. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. causes e. am d. have been c. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. has got a new job d. forgets b. have been 6. but I ____ there many times. is still looking for a job 4. sir. will cause 5. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . started to work 6 months a go c. a. have carried c. have caused c. a. a. I forget to bring your book.
INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . She ___ the lectures. pronoun (kata ganti orang). Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). will have learnt c. a. have learnt e. Reni goes to her university every morning. has been attending e. am learning 10. struktur kalimat. when. why. will be attending d. will be learning b. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses.Student : All right. a. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita.00 tomorrow. dan tempat. She studies business. where. keterangan waktu. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. sir. has attended b. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. attended c. how. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. who. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. learn d. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. I ____ them by then. would be attended DIRECT .
Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .
He said ____ the previous day. to open my mouth b. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. a.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. had gone to his country d. that I open his mouth d. Herman : Okay. that Mary had been absent b. not to be so noisy e. Herman. he went to his country b. I am very noisy b. if I opened my mouth e. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. why Mary was absent e. he has gone to his country e. he goes to his country c. I wasn’t so noisy d. if Mary was absent d. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. mom. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. a. The baby is sleeping. why Mary had been absent c. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. to be not so noisy c. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2.
if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. a. 4. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. had forgotten e. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning.c. he asked. he does not clean e. he would not clean c. Ari : What did he say. Anto : I am sorry Lina. c. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. what were you doing now. Does Mira close the window. what I am doing now. d. It is windy outside. would forget 3. he hasn’t cleaned 2. SMA Students’ Modul of English . forgot c. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. “What are you doing now?”. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Mira closed the window. has forgotten d. e. He asked me ____ a. It was windy outside. e. It is windy outside. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. I hadn’t cleaned d. he headn’t cleaned b. “ ___________” a. I got a headache. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. what I was doing then. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. It was windy outside. Mira closed the window. b. c. he asked me ____”. 94 5. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. Mira. a. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. b. what are you were doing now d. forgets b. I forgot to bring your book. Closed the window. Mother said.
Mean____ a. “don’t make noise. e. she said. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . not spend c. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. that I had an appointment c. going with us b. children”. If he could go with us d. did I have an appointment d. “Can I find you a hotel?”. a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. b. She told the children not to make noise. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. a. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. not to spend e. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. when is my appointment b. e. 8. c. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. Father said. d. finished your work e. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. finish your work d. to finish your work b. My friend said to me. a. to finish my work c. he went with us 6. wether he goes with us c. not spending b. do not spend d. how was my appointment e. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. whether I had appointment 7. Slamet. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. can he go with us e.a. She said the children didn’t make noise c. She didn’t say the children should noise d. 10. She told the children don’t make noise b. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan.
• Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 .
was it to abolish b. Y : Really. was kicked c. is sold d. when…. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . a. was it abolishing d. are sold e. a. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. has to be postponed b. did it abolish e. a.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. will be unloaded b. were sold b. was being postponed e. has been postponed c. she ____ a. was kicking b. were being unloaded e. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. to be abolished c. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. have been unloaded d. are unloaded c. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. A : Look! The girl is crying. kicks d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5.? a. The announcement ____ twice. had been sold c. kicked e. was postponed d. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet.
has been built b. will clean b. will be built e. is being cleaned e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. will build d. a. has been rewarded c. A big dam ___ in this area next year. the baby was looked after well c.A. would be born b. rewarded d. a. a. is demolishing c. was arranged e. was rewarded e. is being built c. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. the baby would be well looked after 7. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. is arranged d. will be rewarded 8. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. The passive form is ____ a. would be built 4. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. had destroyed e. a. has arranged c. destroyed d. will be born 2. is being destroyed c. a. was being cleaned d. is born d. is being demolished e. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. has been cleaned 5. had been demilishing b. demolishing d. is being rewarded b. the baby is being looked after well e. the baby is well looked after b. has been born c. the baby will be well looked after d. She looks after the baby well. cleaned c. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . will be destroyed b. was born e. have been arranged 3. R. have arranged b. a. was destroyed 6. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company.1. a.
Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . has promised d. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. will be promised 10. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. a. took c. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. was taken b. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. yaitu: 1. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. was being promised c. has been promising b.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. will be taken d. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. is being taken e.9. a. will be promised e.
shall. dll. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. did. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . -ow. -le. had. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. can. will. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. dll. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. -er.c. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Contoh: large larger largest 4. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. was/were. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. have/has. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. may. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada.
Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Apa yang diucapkan. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. (jika saya punya uang. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Contoh: If I have much money. Kalau kalimatnya (+). I would have written you a letter. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. I would go to the beach with you. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”.).ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . I will buy a new car. Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. 3. itulah yang diharapkan.
whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. I met him last week. They are printed in English. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. I bought it last year. (him = the man. of which. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . their.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. which.) 2. our. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. your. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. Contoh: We saw the people. whom. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. its. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. whose. his. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. her. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. Their car has been stolen. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who.
Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. (its surface/permukaannya meja.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Its surface is not smooth. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. Where 8. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. sebuah benda.
2. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). I had mechanic repair my car. The manager has the letter typed. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). The manager gets the letter typed. Jogging makes us fresh. I got the mechanic to repair my car. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1).CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek.
Setelah possessive adjective (my. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: .to be used to. to be busy.Juned prefers combro to deblo. he said nothing. to be worth.Amir’s.her. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.V ketimbang main video game) 4. can’t help/can’t bear.V .our.I like T. 3.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. .Dona prefers dancing to singing. before dll.their.V better than radio. Before leaving. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. 4. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.your. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . Contoh : My hobby is cycling. than plays a video game. his.Dita would rather watch T. on. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . 6. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. get used to. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .3.V. 5. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use.
d. c. c. when. but. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. While he was reading her novel. we must prepare the ingredients. after. After that. somebody knocked on the door. b. e. since. he come on time. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . b. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. 3. dll. while. Menunjukan waktu: before.Amir and I go to school everyday. We went home after the rain stopped. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. 1. c. d.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: .You can read this book if you like.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. 2. finally. Contoh: . CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. after that. Next. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. we cut the vegetables into small pieces.Contoh: . (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. a. first. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) .I went to your house but you weren’t at home. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . b. for. although/though. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. then. as soon as. next. Finally. a. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. we put some sauce and salt. or. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. that. if. I can’t treat you.Although it was raining.He is both wise and good. a. Since I have no money. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . yaitu: 1. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. we put them into frying pan.
Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.He is not only active but also clever. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .
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