DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

.............107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .....................................................................................................................................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) .............................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung).............104 GERUND ..................................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..............................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)...............106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .........................................................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ...............................................................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.....................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ....................................................99 QUESTION TAGS .........................................................

Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Hortatory Exposition 3. Descriptive 10. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Explanation 2. Spoof 5. Analytical Exposition 8. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. The language feature. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. News Items 13. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. These types of text are. Anecdote 9. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. why is the text made?. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Recount 6.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Narrative 11. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . 1. 2. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Procedure 12. Review 7. Report 4. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text.

Secondly. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. you may find it hard to sleep at night. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. or concentrate on your homework. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Reiteratio In conclusion. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. As we all know. Example of Analytical Exposition A. the city is very busy.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Additionally. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. In one hour in smoky room. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. cars create pollution. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Argument Firstly. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Smoking however is not good for every body else. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. cars are very noisy. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. and especially talk to someone. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. it is better to look at the fact. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. the risk is nineteen greater. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. which causes them to die. as we all know. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. cars. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Thirdly. If you live in the city. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. lung cancer. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 .

legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. In this example of analytical exposition text.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. That wil be true if the conditions. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Furthermore. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. As the US. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. financial crisis has now spread to Europe.

dsb. students need more to reach their progressive development. misalnya C. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. misalnya It is important. misalnya She must save. • Technical verbs. decide which computer or laptop they need. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. eraser. (Simplified from the jakartapos.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. we. dsb • Modal verbs. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. misalnya firstly. in this multimedia era. and then complete the transaction. dsb. pen. ruler and such other stuff. • Action verbs. dsb. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. drawing book. • Modal adverbs. misalnya Many people believe. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. misalnya certainly. dsb. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. dsb. • Bahasa evaluatif. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. • Connectives. misalnya we must preserve. • Abstract nouns. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. Secondly.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. First. misalnya species of animals. misalnya policy.dsb. leaded petrol car. pollution. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. Penguatan pernyataan. • Relating verbs. students need book. The students just need to brows that online shop. • Thinking verbs. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . this method will help student to get better understanding. misalnya car. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. secondly. • Reiteration . dsb. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. government. Additionally. dsb. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was.

Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. E. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Therefore. Career in Translation Functionally. It seems Indonesia. If Hindi translation is provided. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures.delivered to the students' houses. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. D. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. According to Nida. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. India translation will grow better and. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. India is likely being an English speaking country. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Arabic translation. From all of that. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. That is really easy and save time and money. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries.

Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. then. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. 2. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online.is inserted at the end of each article. Incident. Using action verb. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. it's wonderful!. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. etc 5. it's awful!. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Using simple past tense 4. etc 2. Using rhetoric question. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Orientation 3. write. do you know what? 4. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. For instance. etc • Causal conjunction . Using imperative. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. listen to this 3. Crisis 4. go. 3. Using conjunction of time. because. Abstract 2. Using exclamation words. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. afterward 6.

write. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. dsb. The doctor sewed up the boy. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. enough money. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. America. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 .  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. seperti then. dsb. Anna. so we set to. misalnya go. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. The family worked and saved. their children to America. passport. who was only three at the time. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. He shed tears of disappointment. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. there were being quarantined for long days. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. nine children. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. whole business. However few days before their departure. They had gotten afterwards. The father was full of disappointed and anger. and turned on the tap. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. spitting and hissing at us. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom.

It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. the mighty Titanic. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. He thanked God for saving their lives. there is something wrong last minute before it. The father was angry with his son and God. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. You have and so do I. The ship. 3. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . • Using simple present tense 4. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. When the dream will come true. They had dream to travel to America. describing the phenomenon in parts. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. or thing. qualities. they were left behind. 2. but because of the bitten son by a dog. • Description. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing.Five days latter. or/and characteristics. identifying the phenomenon to be described. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. had shank. They had to forget their plan. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. The Clak family should have been on that ship. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. place. It was unbelievable but it was. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. It made they were being quarantined. When the father heard the news. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process.

a railway station is under construction. She always pays much attention on her appearance. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. This shoes really matches on her. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. native plants and eucalypts. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. yet retaining its beautiful site. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. a grass amphitheatre. all her friends. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. She is beautiful. In 1964. Sydney. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. bright color. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. in 2004. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. Recently. This year. Example of Description A. Today. attractive and trendy. In three years1 time. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She is really mad on that shoes. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. She really have perfect appearance. She said that the products covered all genders. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. The style. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. When she are walking on that shoes.

Borobudur temple • Description. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way.The temple is constructed. B. Cambodia. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The products provide varieties of choice. casual. Borobudur is well-known. The upper three are circular. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Ballet. Central Java.she has. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The way to the summit extends through some 4. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu .8 km of passage and starways. valuable • Using simple present tense. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Indonesia. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Borobudur is located in Magelang. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general.Budhist temple.

She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. enough money to take Snow White. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. dsb. misalnya. dsb. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. • berbagai macam adjectives. misalnya. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. but my favourite one is a cat. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. 2. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. White. house. two strong legs.  Description. sharp white fangs. classifying. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. numbering. dsb. dsb.my cat. It has very thick fur. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). My mum is realy cool. • action verbs. sifat-sifat (characteristic). Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. perilaku umum. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. misalnya teacher. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. better or worse 3. Misalnya: I have many pets. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. dsb. kualitas.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. misalnya fast. a sweet young lady. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. bersifat describing. • simple present tense. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants.

Maura asked them for something to eat. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. “what is your name?” Snow White said. As they were about to have dinner. in what way she will decide who the best is. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. There they found Snow White sleeping. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. One evening. She saw the dwarfs. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. One by one she discarded them. “If you wish. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. They were also rich and strong. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. The dwarfs said. The first gave her some left over food. had many suitors. said. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. The third sheik.” Doc. They went inside. who was called Hakim. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Hakim. who received a plate of delicious meat. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. you may live here with us. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. The following day. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . Example of Narative A. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. The psychological conflict inside Maura. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia.” Snow White said. which she strikes against herself. Then Snow White woke up. After dinner. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. “My name is Snow White. They want to know what next will happen. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. “Oh could I? Thank you. one of the dwarfs. “Without question.

dsb. stepsisters. The name of the place was Catano. He could not bear it. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano.dsb. Then he continued to humble. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. dsb. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. stayed. climbed. The parrot could say every word. I will cut the chicken 17 . dsb. Resolution. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. two red apples. happily ever after. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. “You know. before that. housework. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Pengenalan tokoh. misalnya. the parrot would not say it.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. except one word. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. Penyelesaian masalah. dsb. in the mountain. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. • action verbs dalam past tense. misalnya here. Complication. Masalah. Although he tried hard to teach. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). misalnya. There was no other parrot like it. konflik dalam cerita. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. soon. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. a man had a wonderful parrot. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. phrase. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. long black hair. waktu. misalnya then. the man really got very angry. At the first.

He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. 3. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. They found their mother and talked her about it. To fix this problem. rising crisis and climax of the story. there was a handsome man. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. C. He made the fish free. He felt in love with that fish-woman. paragraph 2. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. There were three death chickens on the floor. The next day. After that he left the chicken house. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. They had two daughters. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . It will show the crisis. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. As soon as it was free. One day. readers see the problem is finished. They were married happily. he caught a fish. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. The daughters were crying. He could not control his mad. A man and his parrot took place once time. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. The fish begged him to set it free. the man came back to the chicken house. the man attempted to teach the bird. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. She attracted Batara Guru so much. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Batara Guru could not bear it. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. Next it will be your turn. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. I will eat you too. In that parrot story. stupid parrot”. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. He opened the door and was very surprised. In the parrot story. 4 are describing the complication.for my meal. That was the smartest parrot. At the moment. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. He liked fishing.

cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. she said. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. and away went the sisters to it. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. The earth formed a very big hole. They treated Cinderella very badly. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. One day. The mother was shouting angrily. “Why are crying. Magically.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Then the earth began to shake. there was a young girl named Cinderella. A few days later. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. In her hurry. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. “Now. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. she was driven to the palace. did not work about the house. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Cinderella?” a voice asked. hardworking. Batara Guru broke his promise. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. In the end. “Well” said the godmother. on the other hand. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. “You must leave before midnight”.The mother was very annoyed. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. the day of the ball came. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. such as scrubbing the floor. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. The two step sisters. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. At last. Finally. Volcanoes started to erupt. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. She danced again and again with the king’s son. It fitted perfectly. They were married and live happily ever after. D. Cinderella”.

he ploughed his field with his buffalo. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. introducing specific participants. Then he said. “oh. “No. Resolution. said the buffalo. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. In the last paragraph. The Smartest Animal.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. Generic Structure Analysis 1. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. After the man went home. Once there was a farmer from Laos. 3. But the man answered. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. Every morning and every evening. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. One day. “Can I see your intelligence?”. The tiger asked. farmer and his buffalo. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Orientation. Complication. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “Yes” said the man. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. Complication: In this Cinderella story. I can’t tell you”. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. “you are so big and strong. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. E. once in Laos 2. “it at home”. Resolution: Like complication. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. the man is very intelligent”.

answered thinking verb.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. the next day past tense. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. one day connectives. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. cheese grater. the man tied the tiger. tie. after. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Cook both sides 9. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. fork. bowl. once. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Add milk and whisk well 4. saw. plate Method 1. ¼ cup milk. 50 g cheese. was surprised to action verb. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. there was a farmer. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . hit time conjunction. spatula. Place on a plate.

Planting Chilies Eat while warm. don’t. Firstly. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. mix. finally. Langkah-langkah. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. while. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. write your benefit like you talk it. planting is a nice activity. firstly. dsb. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. Well. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. put. misalnya turn. informing on how to plant chillies. put it in another big pot. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. take the topic of benefits. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. next. Read aloud what you've written. dsb. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Firstly. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. dsb. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. excluded • Steps. put the seeding on the soil. misalnya for five minutes. Here's a simple checklist to follow. Cut. 2 centimetres from the top. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. you don't have to. cara yang akurat. etc • Temporal conjunction. Don’t mix. etc • Action verb. It should be in open area Next. wait it.10. but it will help. misalnya. Here are the steps. Use regular words. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. menyatakan rinci waktu. • action verbs. put. tempat. misalnya then. Example of Procedure A. • Material. Finally. dry. not features. dry a handful seeding. the following is a guided information B. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Your customers don't care about you. put it.

Thirdly. a quarter cup of milk. three tablespoons cookin oil. excluded • Steps/ method. writing the topic like the way it is talked. write like you talked. fifty gram cheese. read. informing on how to write for business • Material. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. Next. choosing the advantageous topic. Use a nice rhythm. frying pan. Mix them up and keep things interesting. secondly. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Fourthly. Don't describe how your company may. reread what you have done. Next. add First. Listen carefully. spatula. Some sentences are long and some are short. cheese grater.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . First. showing the method in writing for business. Fifthly. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well.re-read what you've done before publishing. to make a cheese omelet. firstly. fork. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. etc • Action verb. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. etc • Temporal conjunction. write. you need some tools. etc C. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. such as. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. re-reading what have been written . a pinch of satlt and pepper. Edit it necesarily. bowl and plate. you need an egg. lose the weak words.

Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . participant. Elaboration (background. place) 3. Main event 2. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. 2. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. The accident. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. a news report said. Generic Structure of News Item 1. Example of Procedure A. Language Feature of News Item 1. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Using material process 4. time. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Focusing on circumstances 2. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. “But this just a suggestion. Resource of information 3. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. it’s up to them”.

were infected unknowingly by their husbands.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. pendapat para ahli. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. June 01. he said in the report. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. dsb. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. Latar belakang kejadian. (Source The Jakarta Post. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. Last year. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . Malaysian Aids Council president. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. named Suwartin. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. many women who contract HIV are housewives. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events.  Background Events. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan.  Sources. komentar saksi kejadian. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. but the number is steadily rising. orang yang terlibat. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. In the past the event was held behind closed door. tempat kejadian dsb. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. The maid. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Kejadian inti. even though they know they have HIV” she said. less then 10 percent are woman.

Resource.bbc. Background 1.co. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. execute. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. May 6. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Last year. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. (Adapted from Reuters. Rape. She had relationship the boy for five months. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. law of serious crimes.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Using material process. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. (Taken from: www.Then the maid was arrested. Background 2. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Hong Kong. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Background 3.news. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. behead. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. carry. Saudi Arabia. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer.

etc • Using additive. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. historic. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. etc • Using adverbial of manner. may. etc • Using modalities. feel. however. and causal connection. similarly. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. should. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. contrastive. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. But. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. hope. believe. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. deliberately. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. many times. doing homework is not a great idea. could. on the hand.1. etc 4. 2. hopefully. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. and social text. Example of Discussion Text A. must.

It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. England in 1956.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It is reliable. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It produces small amount of waste. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. so it is not expansive to make. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. and produces huge amounts of energy. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed.

Furthermore. believe. could 29 be.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. very dangerous. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. memberikan informasi secara padu. . should have been. alcohol. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. must. although it is reliable. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. misalnya uniforms.On the other hand. Elaborasi (uraian). In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. hope. dsb. seperti perhaps. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. misalnya feel. misalnya similarly. Gagasan Pokok 2. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. misalnya deliberately. on the hand.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. Elaborasi (uraian). Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. dsb. dsb. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb. nuclear power is very. dsb. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. dsb. should. misalnya smoking is harmful. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. Elaborasi (uraian). In many social activities. • adverbials of maner. hopefully. however.  Kesimpulan. This example of discussion text present the two poles. perception and recommendation. dsb.

Using thinking verb. Using connectives. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel.bbc. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. social. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. B. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . conservationists. Contrastive point. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Supporting point. geography and history text books. must.co. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. (Taken from: www. Using modalities. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. farmer. Many farmer and even conservationists. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Recommendation. 2. believe. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. It is often found in science. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. however. scientific and cultural phenomena. hunting fox.

• • General statement. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. sun. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. to begin with. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Example of Explanation Text A. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. Language Feature • • • • 4. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Featuring generic participant. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. etc Using chronological connection. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Sequenced explanation. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). rain. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. next. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees.

But that is the case. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. It causes day and night. the amount of • bahasa teksni. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. (simplified from www. This process is called revolution. passive voice. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. Tsunami always bring great damage. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. misalnya the temperature. misalnya word chopping. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. It is called as rotation. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. The earth also moves around the sun. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. adverbial phrases. It takes 365 days or a year. earthquakes. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. dunia ilmiah. action verbs. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. noun phrase.org) B. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. complex sentences. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. misalnya the large cloud. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. sosialbudaya. abstract nouns. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. simple present tense. conjunctions of time dan cause. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 .panda. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter.

Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1.ictteachers. (Taken from: www. Using evaluative words. advantage. important. then. etc 6. Using pasive voice. Using chronological connection. firstly. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Focusing on the writer 2. certainly. Using action verb 4. Recommendation 3. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. trustworthy. Using simple present tense 4. etc 3.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. etc 7. daylight. policy. Using thinking verb 5. Thesis 2. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using abstract noun. you would be forgiven. secondly. Using temporal connective. surely. Arguments 3. valuable. but. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. etc 8. Using modal adverb. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. I feel that when you travel through the country. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Using present tense. Using passive voice 9. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Explanation. the earth is actually closer to the sun. so.co. 2.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere).

and short sleep duration. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Those who want to penalise older .every five to ten minutes. Considering some facts mentioning above. especially violence. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. consumerism and so on. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. and the possibility of being aggressive. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Meanwhile. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. However. Recomendatio I feel that country people. of course.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Recently. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. pornography. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . stress.

outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. In many social activities. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. school corridors and schoolyard. If it is a hortatory text. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. straws. there papers. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. advertising. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. In the first paragraph. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain.the writer thought as stated in the text. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. Basically. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. sales letter. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. When we look at classroom. and news advertorial. speech campaign. and napkin everywhere. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . mineral water cops. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. B. More dust bins should be put beside each step. Both take place as argumentative essays. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show.

where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. it will be very hard to looking for job. In the same way. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. it will be quite confusing. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. when they think about straightly seeking job. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. the available time will be more flexible for them. As the alternative method of studying. As result. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. they can find the dust bins easily.meters. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. In the other hand. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. Where should be after High School?. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. C. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. they will think hard about the time and cost. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. So when students want to throw away their litters. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. When they think about continuing study. So. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 .

It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. etc Using thinking verb. dsb. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian .D. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. give up. Technical verbs. Generic Structure of Report 1. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan.government dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. misalnya. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Millions from Property Market. dsb. Argument.dsb. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. misalnya I believe . dsb. Modal verbs. dsb. Modal adverbs. dsb.we. public place. We can show the way to give up work. misalnya certainly. dsb. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. there is a way out of financial problem. plant. doesn’t seem to have been . dsb. are you tired?. Recommendation. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. as it is. make. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Relating verbs. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. misalnya important. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Albert Smith is the proof. felt Using simple present tense. Action verbs. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya We must preserve. we must save. he drives a sport car. misalnya should be. secondly. misalnya species of animals. Thinking verbs. valuable.misalnya policy. reward Using action verb. misalnya firstly. now there is a way out. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. animal. Connectives. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. etc which will be discussed in general 2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. part per part . dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns.

Platypus lives in streams. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. In the other hand. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. rivers. Platypus. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. stating general classification. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. A group. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. so. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. and lakes. etc Using simple present tense 4. beating the water furiously with their wings. Platypus' eyes and head are small. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. when. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. Example of Report Text A. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. driving the fish before them. the animal of platypus.• • Using conditional logical connection. As the bird lifts its head. and woolly layer of fur. perhaps two dozen birds. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay.

lingkungan. dsb. dan klasifikasinya. qualities. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. logical connective. kegunaannya jika non natural. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). in terms of parts. habits or behaviors. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. the animal of platypus conditional.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . dsb. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. misalnya lizards cannot fly. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu.Description. Platypus lives in streams. istilah teknis. apa adanya. dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. benda buatan manusia. keterangan. misalnya. dsb. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . dsb. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. atau gejala-gejala sosial. but. male platypus does not need any burrow.

etc 3. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Twist 3. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. animals or certain things 2. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Language Feature of Spoof 1. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Using adverb of time and place 4. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Orientation 2. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Told in chronological order 4. Dave found a nice office. ate. Using action verb. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A.1. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. 2. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Events 3. Focusing on people. ran.’ replied the man. He bought some new furniture and moved in.

Then the man said to Dave. verbs. Event 1: Being rich. Event 2: He had his new office. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. In his office. benda tertentu. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). He suddenly became a 1. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. B. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. I want you to leave the country. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. “If that is what you want. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. Then “Remember. no children. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. Instead leaving the country. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. “Hey Abu Nawas. binatang. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. run. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. “You want me. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. terduga atau lucu). “Yes. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. He had not left the country yet. conversation on the phone. misalnya eat. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly.

I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. And since yesterday. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. They did not pay any attention.guards. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. young man and young woman. I turned around. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I do not step on the ground of this country”. I have been walking on this stilts. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I had a very good seat. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. I could not bear it. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers.I did not enjoy it. I could not hear the actors. So you see. The king was not able to say anything. You walk on stilts like a child. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. The king wondered and said “Abu. were talking noisily. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. The King continued “And now.I got very angry. They were talking very loudly. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I do not step on the ground. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. “I remember exactly what you said. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . look at you. (Adapted from S. Your Majesty. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. The play was very interesting. I turned around again.In the end. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. You have not left this country”.

"I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . The man was still carrying the penguin. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. they just shook the head. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. So. "What should I do?" The policeman replied.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. When he arrived in the party. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. He put his coat and said. He took it to a policeman and said. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. The host at once got up and came to meet him. The next day. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. "Take it to the zoo!". D. you give food to my coat instead of me”. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. “When I came here with my old clothes. nobody looked at me. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. “It’s none of your business. It’s a private conversation”. “Eat the food. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. the policeman saw the man in the same park.

The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. go. Even. change. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. my group. He. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Generic Structure of Recount 1. first. today I am taking it to the movie". carry. They were in the park Event1. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. etc • Using linking verb. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. etc • Using simple past tense 4. were. Orientation: Introducing the participants. etc • Using chronological connection. penguin. then. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. So. I. The following day. policeman Using action verb. chronological order by days. place and time 2. heard. walk up Using adverb of time and place. once. saw.did. Reorientation: It is optional. in the park Told in chronological order. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. look. was. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . etc • Using action verb.

They slept part of the way. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. There was a film for their entertainment. and Mrs. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. B. It was scary. hear. This includes travel and accommodation.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. In writer's point of view. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. The room had perfect view of the park. Vacation to London Mr. At the end of the 14-day. Instead of keys for the room. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. Then. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. On the third floor. read. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Mr. The two week in London went by fast. We stayed at David and Della’s house. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They are Mr. They went to London. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Richard’s family was on vacation. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They had booked fourteen days tour. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They had a very pleasant flight. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. they inserted a key-card to open the door. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They gave them food and drink. We saw cockatoos having a shower. It can be what the writer has done. Richard with two sons. The officers were pleasant. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. They had variety of food. on Example of Recount text A. the thing is an experience.

adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. the monkey. at my house. Rekaman peristiwa.  Events. di mana dan kapan. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. It reveals the conflict among the participants. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. C. misalnya beautiful. what happened on Sunday. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. The next stop was Celuk. misalnya We went to the zoo. The event happened smoothly. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. The first one was to Singaraja. misalnya go. the second was to Ubud. 46 slowly dsb. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. past tense. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. The first stop was at Batubulan. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. dsb. She was happy dsb. run dsb. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis.  Reorientation. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. misalnya David. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. but. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. then. a center of stone sculpture. we dsb. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. he was ready. kejadian atau kegiatan. It is a busy but quiet town. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. sleep. after that. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. In simple way. Pengenalan. misalnya and.Small Notes and felt. the on Tuesday. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. On the other hand. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. misalnya yesterday. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. waktu dan cara. On the day of the tour. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. funny. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. • • • • • . He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. then on Monday. recount describes series of events in detail.

were • Using action verb. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. D. I did not know that it was an earthquake. There were rocks everywhere. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. I was trapped by the rock. Even I could not move my car at all.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. suddenly • Using linking verb. earthquake happened. I • Using chronological connectives. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. Events. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Re-orientation. etc E. was. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. walked. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. then. When I reached my town. the ceremony was quite elaborate. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. When the earthquake happened. Although nothing was left. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. He was quiet satisfied. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. using first person point of view. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. Several days before the ceremony was done. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . to the left. Overall. all his day was spent on the beach. I thought I got flat tire. my car lunched on one side. etc. It took about a week. I was on the car las week. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. introducing the participant. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I was on my car. The car lunched to one side. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. moved. and. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. stating the writer's personal note. I was on the car. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. like matchsticks. in the town. made. describing a series of event which happened. left.

After that. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. and dancing. On the last day. chanting. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. there were also buffalo matches. Then. During the day. First. Meanwhile. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. The funeral was performed in two phases. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. and then moved the corpse to face north. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. connect a sentence with the next one. In the text. my uncle. Then. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. Questions 1. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. They were great matches.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. and end your composition. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. After that. we were feasting. A recount text has an orientation. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. Those words and phrases are: First. a series of events in chronological order. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. you find words and phrases used to start. Finally. Finally. my brother. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. However. In the night. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4.

or just a site which want to be known publicly. It can be product. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. valuable. useful. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product.What is review text 1. After clearly explanation. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Using long and complex clauses 4. Focus on specific participants 2. Using metaphor 4. It is personal idea about the product. uniqueness. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. worthy. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. It states the parts. 3. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Dominant Language features: 1. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Definition Review is one of text genres. As I said in my previous post. etc. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Using adjectives 3. services which want to be sold. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product.

I cried!) as sad as it was. and parts of it do seem long.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. this was not my favorite.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. magical or no. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. intriguing. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. In some (Interpretati instances this works. and ultimately satisfying. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. with some editing it would have been great.housekeeping is still housekeeping. Still a really good book. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. however. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. for example . like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. I was truly moved by the last page. fast-paced. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. A few other changes in this book . I actually liked the ending (and yes.. The stories were bright. especially with being a teenager and all. depressing feel.. He goes from being a warm-hearted. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. and this part I loved. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it.

It is real. The site is her effort to record of what she did. easy and not complicated design. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. However. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. Similarly. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. woman and man are available choice. It straightly goes to the end user. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. Eyeglasses for children. Titanium. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. it will be quite difficult to make translation. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. Again. if he works with Farsi translation. lexical. If we visit the site. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . The eyeglasses are designed for different users. For Rosemarie. The experts who have grammatical.the trend. the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is quite simple but very informative. In certain case. The translation experts. aluminum and rimless frame are available. does and will do daily. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. and so on. animal and scientific object. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. first boil water. lengh. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. In short. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. how to make a good kite. wheel style. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. phenomena. etc.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. Explanation is such a scientific written material. secondly prepare the cup. In the other hand. What make different. Mostly. It is such word. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. They give the detail description on something. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It will talk about bicycle in general. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. etc is the best example of the procedure text. Procedure. For example how to make a cup of tea. Explanation. However if they are analyzed carefully. eg: bicycle. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. colour. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. How a tornado form. goods. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. product case or problem. If we talk about. is the scope of the written object. it belongs to report text. physical strengh. descriptive text will convey more focus. its parts. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. between report and descriptive text. report is written after getting careful observation.

It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. what happened on Sunday. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. the on Tuesday. then on Monday. first boil water. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. How a tornado form. On the other hand. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . It reveals the conflict among the participants. In writer's point of view. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Explanation. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. They give the detail description on something. In simple way. read. For example how to make a cup of tea. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. how to make a good kite. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It can be what the writer has done. the thing is an experience. phenomena.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It is such word. product case or problem. recount describes series of events in detail. secondly prepare the cup. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. and so on. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. hear. and felt. Procedure. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. goods. The event happened smoothly. etc is the best example of the procedure text.

Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . Using thinking verbs 4. hortatory exposition. Using modals 2. 19. Using material process 3. report. 22. 16. 25. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. 26. They are narrative. spoof. Abstract 2. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. explanation. Using general and abstract noun 8. review. Crisis 4. 14. Using adverbs 5. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. 20. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 15. 17. recount. Orientation 3. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Using technical terms 7.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. These variations are known as GENRES. anecdote. Dominant Language Features: 1. Arguments 3. 18. discussion. analytical exposition. Thesis 2. and news item. Coda. Using adjective 6. 23. texts are divided into several types. descriptive. Using exclamations. procedure. Reaction 5. 24. Using action verbs 3.

Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Evaluation 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverb 4. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Orientation 2. Short. Using adverbial phrase 6. place and manner. Arguments for and against 3. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Complication 4. Issue 2. General statement 2. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Using Imperatives sentence 3. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1.1. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Resolution 5. Using noun phrase 5. Using action verbs 3. Background event(s) 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Explanation 3. Materials/Equipments 3. Using technical terms 7. Using action verb 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Using saying verbs 4. Using passive voice 4. Using adverbs : time. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1.

Generic Structure 1. General classification 2. as it is. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using technical terms 8. Using action verb 3. Using conjunction/transition 6. place or thing in detail. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using Simple Present Tense 2. Arguments 3. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Thesis 2. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using thinking verbs 5. Using adverbs 6. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using adverb 4. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. In simple word. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using conditional logical connection 3.1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using modality 7. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Identification 2. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using thinking verb 4. Description Language Features: 1. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using adjective 7. Using modals 3. Using general and abstract noun 5.

Using adverb 4. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Using action verb 3. Using Past Tense 2. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. whether Simple Past Tense. Interpretative Recount 4. Event(s) 3. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. etc while recount text is found in biography. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Orientation 2. fable.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Event(s) 3. Using metaphor 60 . Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Using action verb 3. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Focus on specific participants 2. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Using adjectives 3. Using Past Tense 2. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. myth. Using long and complex clauses 4. Evaluation 5. Evaluation 3. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Orientation 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Orientation 2. folklore. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. or Past Perfect Tense. social conflict or psychological conflict. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. In the contrary.

10. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. diagram dsb.exposition. Continuous text misalnya narrative. tabel. dsb. biasanya tentang nama. 3. 1. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. map. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 6. 7. 4. 8. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 9. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. tahun. descriptive. penjelasan. label. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. tempat. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. spoof dsb. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. 11. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. grafik.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 5. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. 2. tanggal.

Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . The purpose of the text is _____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. And cute. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. fluffy. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. it is small.

a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. and napkins here and there. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. readers to do something good. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters.EXERCISES. What is the writer’s intention? To …. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. outside of the classrooms. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. 1. more dust bins…. Besides. in every ten meters. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. there are paper mineral water cups. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4.. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. school corridors and school yard. So when students want to throw away their litters. They put their litters on the proper places. a number of dust bins should be increased. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. they can find the dust bins easily. and some more also the corridors. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. When we look at classrooms. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more.. According to the writer. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . straws. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment.

shopping malls. translating songs. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. songs in general also use simple conversational language. The generic structures of the text are …. What is the text about …. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. place or time reference. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. Furthermore. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. even revolution. religion. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. songs are relaxing. learning vocabulary. practicing selective listening comprehension. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. Secondly. From the elaboration above. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. 5. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. They provide variety and fun. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. In addition. lexically and poetically.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. Firstly. patriotism and yeas. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. which is just what many learners look for sample text. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. Although usually simple. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . spelling and culture. with a lot of repetition. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Last but not least.

. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. Finally.” The underlined word refers to …. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. Therefore..“They provide variety and fun. Firstly. 11. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. so we can conclude that this text belongs to….We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . The word reasons mean…. smoking in restaurants is impolite.9. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. not just in restaurants. Based on the text.Since we can find a thesis. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. It must not be allowed because it is rude.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

boss. Introducing someone else my name is.. I don't believe we've met before. Watson. Carrie. friend.. Bob. Very nice to meet you. Harris. father. It's a pleasure to meet you. Nice to meet you. Penny Pitcher. my my my my my my my my my brother. • I want to introduce you to …. I'm.. Ms.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. sister. Cindy. Pleased to meet you. teacher. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. mother. student. Harris.. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Mr. co-worker. I'm Linda 1. Likewise. Mary Jones. This is my friend. And you. Ritter. Nice to meet you too. 2. Mrs. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Hi Jack. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Mr. Jack.

travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Arnys. My name is Adib. Adib : Anyway. a restaurant. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . I’m Arnys.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. this is Retno. e. They meet at the students’ orientation course. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Adib : Hi. By the way. Adib.g. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. Shall we go to the canteen?. Hi. Situation: Adib. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e.g. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. are you a new student. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Retno. Arnys? Retno : Okay. hotel. I am. and Retno are new students.

Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . Very well. before leaving. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. . (informal) Would you like to . . thanks. . See you soon /later /tomorrow. shake hands with other Virga :… women. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Do you wanna . thanks. . (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . • Good bye. Bye. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. . thanks. Not so bad. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . thank you. .

Receiving . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 ... Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.I’d love to .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.a chocolate bar? .Some responds of inviting. let’s not. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.. .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .I’d like very much .? Would you like ... I’d be delighted to.I’d be happy/glad to accept .Yes...

Thanks. I need it.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. returned your lost wallet. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. complimented you on your necktie. Happy new year. Happy birthday to you. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. you very much. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. helped carry your grocery bags. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Thank you.

it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .. What’s shame b. How kind of you to say so. not really. That’s a nuisance d. That’s too bad e. Expressing of sympathy on minor a..use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. holidays and other special occasions. It’s nice of you to say so.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age .• • • Oh. What’s pity c. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . That’s pity f.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. and congratulations Special Days .

I’m delighted. g. I’m so happy …. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . d. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m sorry to hear that b. How terrible! c. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. j. i. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. Goodness! b. It was terrifi c. feel unpleased with …. c. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. I’m sorry about that c. f. I feel …. k. I feel … b. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. b. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. How dreadful! C. How Awful! d. d. I’m really sorry for them d. I’m really sad to … c. e. Expression Displeasure a.. I enjoyed it I love it. …. m. Please accept my deepest sympathy e.B. h. l. I feel disappointed.

Satisfaction. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan.

• That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . Disagreement/disapproval (setuju.  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So.  In my opinion. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. • Yes.. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. • I am with you • Definitely. say • Absolutely. As I see. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. In my opinion…..? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. I agree • I know what you mean. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. you should buy the florescent light bulbs.  I think the other one’s better. … If you ask me. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes.

I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. that's not a good idea.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. I don't think that's what happened. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. No. Fear.

• I’m glad it was done.. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1../I feel ill.. it’s very painful! • Oh. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .. • Thank God for . it’s killing me! 2. • Ugh. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • I feel sick. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . • I’m sick...

This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . but it is not a very strong dislike. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. BUT "I don't really like it.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. It means that you do not like something. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something." This is not very strong. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.

I was so ashamed. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. That’s a real embarrassment.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I’m extremely unhappy about this. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. I will. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…..I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance..

.Palupi : OK.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. I think you might have forgotten to. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. Blame (keluhan. It's your fault for (doing something).. Maybe you forgot to. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English...  Right away.. Don't get me wrong. Sure. There may have been a misunderstanding about... I'm sorry to bother you.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. but I think we should.  Of course. but. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but.... Excuse me if I'm out of line.  Certainly. but.. Complaint.

Examples I'm really sorry.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. Pete. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.simply starters! Regret. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry... I'll clear up later.. Apology (penyesalan. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .. to express regret an exclamation a word. Sorry for.. to ask for forgiveness. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. I didn't mean to lose your book. I'm so sorry. I'd like to apologise for. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess.. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday... Sorry for taking your DVD. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. I ….

. distress.  There is a good chance that ….this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. NOTE : 1. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.. there is a possibility ..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . yet.. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .... worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.  There is a little chance that ….  It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game.. Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.

it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.you.she. It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 .  Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.they.? it. Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.they. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….you. doing something are: 4. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.she..we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.she.

pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.he.they.it Were utk S= you. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .she.

Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.

was parctising e.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am.does/am. will be practising c. the telephone rang twelve times. are Was.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. is.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. Fred : Juda.is. “Srimpi”. practised d.masa lampau. have been practising b. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. a. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 .

clean d. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. they are succesful. has been working b. was living e. a. am living d. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. have been cleaning c. have been living c. will start b. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. Iwan : Yes. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. works d. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. will have had lunch b. were cleaning b. have lunch d. would have started d. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . will have worked c. cleaned e. a. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. a. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. will have lunch e. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. If we don”t hurry. will have lived b. will have started e. a. have been having lunch c. My family ____ when the postman arrived.2. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. worked e. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. a. starts c.

Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. a. have carried c. My father is still in Bali. but I ____ there many times. would be b. causes e. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. forgot c. would forget 8. has been b. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. was e. Is it right? Student : Yes. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. is still looking for a job 4. has stopped looking for a job b. will cause 5. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. have caused c. has worked for six months e. sir. has forgotten d. started to work 6 months a go c. caused d. I forget to bring your book. have been c. a. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. was d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . were causing b. carried e. carry d. This sentence means that Ann ___. forgets b. a. will have been c. has been e.2. am carrying b. He ____ ill for a week. had been 7. When airport are located in the center of citied. had forgotten e. a. has got a new job d. was e. a. a. a. had been 9. will have been c. have been 6. is d. will be b. am d. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. Learn all these. was carrying 3. He ____ there for three weeks.

will be learning b. dan tempat. how. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). She studies business. when. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. She ___ the lectures. who. pronoun (kata ganti orang). a. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. will have learnt c. learn d. I ____ them by then. has attended b.00 tomorrow. why.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. keterangan waktu. would be attended DIRECT . struktur kalimat. a. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. attended c. have learnt e. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. where. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. am learning 10.Student : All right. sir. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . will be attending d. Reni goes to her university every morning. has been attending e.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. he goes to his country c. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. he has gone to his country e. he went to his country b. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. Herman. that Mary had been absent b. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. if Mary was absent d. The baby is sleeping. why Mary had been absent c. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. a. that I open his mouth d. He said ____ the previous day. I am very noisy b. mom. not to be so noisy e. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. I wasn’t so noisy d. why Mary was absent e. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. a. if I opened my mouth e. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . to open my mouth b. had gone to his country d. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. to be not so noisy c. Herman : Okay.

To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. c. what I was doing then. forgot c. He asked me ____ a. Mother said. Mira. Ari : What did he say. forgets b. It is windy outside. he asked me ____”. Anto : I am sorry Lina. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Mira closed the window. b. e. c. he headn’t cleaned b. he hasn’t cleaned 2. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. SMA Students’ Modul of English . a. e. d. b. 4. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. what were you doing now. I got a headache. It is windy outside. he asked. what are you were doing now d. would forget 3. It was windy outside. “ ___________” a. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5.c. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. a. Closed the window. Does Mira close the window. Mira closed the window. I hadn’t cleaned d. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. I forgot to bring your book. It was windy outside. “What are you doing now?”. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. has forgotten d. he would not clean c. 94 5. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. what I am doing now. he does not clean e. had forgotten e.

“Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. going with us b. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. She told the children don’t make noise b. Slamet. whether I had appointment 7. Mean____ a. e.a. wether he goes with us c. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. She didn’t say the children should noise d. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. how was my appointment e. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. to finish your work b. If he could go with us d. 8. She said the children didn’t make noise c. when is my appointment b. do not spend d. to finish my work c. Father said. a. 10. a. “Can I find you a hotel?”. c. did I have an appointment d. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . She told the children not to make noise. finish your work d. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. d. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. “don’t make noise. she said. b. a. not spend c. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. can he go with us e. he went with us 6. My friend said to me. not spending b. e. children”. not to spend e. finished your work e. that I had an appointment c.

Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.

a. Y : Really. kicked e. has been postponed c. was it abolishing d. she ____ a. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. will be unloaded b. was postponed d.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. was kicked c. when…. has to be postponed b. was it to abolish b. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. a. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. kicks d. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. was kicking b. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. have been unloaded d. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. The announcement ____ twice. were being unloaded e. was being postponed e. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. to be abolished c. A : Look! The girl is crying. had been sold c.? a. are sold e. were sold b. did it abolish e. is sold d. a. are unloaded c.

will be destroyed b. R. would be built 4. will be born 2. is demolishing c. is being demolished e. the baby is well looked after b. will clean b. has been born c. has arranged c. a. the baby will be well looked after d. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. rewarded d. a. is born d. had destroyed e. had been demilishing b. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company.A. would be born b. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order.1. have been arranged 3. has been built b. is being rewarded b. a. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. the baby would be well looked after 7. a. The passive form is ____ a. a. will be built e. will build d. She looks after the baby well. a. the baby was looked after well c. is being destroyed c. is being built c. the baby is being looked after well e. demolishing d. cleaned c. A big dam ___ in this area next year. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . has been cleaned 5. was rewarded e. will be rewarded 8. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. a. is arranged d. was arranged e. was being cleaned d. is being cleaned e. was born e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. destroyed d. was destroyed 6. have arranged b. has been rewarded c.

Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3.9. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. a. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. has been promising b. is being taken e. a. was taken b. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. will be promised e. took c. will be taken d. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. will be promised 10. has promised d. yaitu: 1. was being promised c. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 .sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2.

Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. dll. -ow. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. shall. did. dll. was/were. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. have/has. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. will. can. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. had. -le. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. -er. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.c. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. may. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2.

saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Contoh: If I have much money. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. 3.). Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. I would go to the beach with you.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Apa yang diucapkan. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. (jika saya punya uang. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. I would have written you a letter. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. I will buy a new car. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). itulah yang diharapkan. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang.

its. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. Contoh: We saw the people. our. her. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. your. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who.) 2. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. their. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. Their car has been stolen. his. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. which. whom. I met him last week. I bought it last year. of which. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. whose. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. They are printed in English. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. (him = the man. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek.

Its surface is not smooth. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . sebuah benda. Where 8. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.

2. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. The manager has the letter typed. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Jogging makes us fresh. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). I got the mechanic to repair my car. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. I had mechanic repair my car. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). The manager gets the letter typed. Gerund digunakan bila: 1.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek.

Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. . Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. 5. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. to be worth. Before leaving. get used to. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .V ketimbang main video game) 4.our.V . than plays a video game.I like T.their. on. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. 6. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . can’t help/can’t bear. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. Setelah possessive adjective (my.Dona prefers dancing to singing. to be busy. his. he said nothing.Dita would rather watch T.V.to be used to.3. before dll.Juned prefers combro to deblo.Amir’s. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . 3. 4.your.V better than radio.Kokom likes reading better than watching T.her.

I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. a. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. but. for. he come on time. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. e. Next. b. 1. Since I have no money. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. after.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . finally. a.Amir and I go to school everyday. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.He is both wise and good. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . first. or. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. I can’t treat you. While he was reading her novel. as soon as.Contoh: . SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . c. 3. Finally. dll.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS.You can read this book if you like. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. somebody knocked on the door. b. d. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. We went home after the rain stopped. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. After that. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. d. if. we must prepare the ingredients. when. then.Although it was raining. b. we put some sauce and salt. c. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . while. that. next. Menunjukan waktu: before. we put them into frying pan. c. although/though.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. since. after that. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. yaitu: 1. Contoh: . a.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . 2.

Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .He is not only active but also clever.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.

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