This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
.......................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ...........................................................99 QUESTION TAGS ......................................................................................................................................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ...............................................................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)...107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ..........................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .........................................104 GERUND ................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ............DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)....................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION........................
what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Spoof 5. Hortatory Exposition 3. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. 1. why is the text made?. Review 7. The language feature. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Recount 6. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Report 4. These types of text are. Anecdote 9. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Analytical Exposition 8. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Explanation 2. Descriptive 10. News Items 13. 2. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Narrative 11. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Procedure 12. analyzing the used structure in composing the text.
we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. it is better to look at the fact. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Argument Firstly. Secondly. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. As we all know. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. Additionally. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Reiteratio In conclusion.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. or concentrate on your homework. If you live in the city. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. which causes them to die. lung cancer. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Example of Analytical Exposition A. cars are very noisy. as we all know. and especially talk to someone. the risk is nineteen greater. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. the city is very busy. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Smoking however is not good for every body else. cars. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Thirdly. In one hour in smoky room. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. cars create pollution.
Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. In this example of analytical exposition text. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Furthermore. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. As the US. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. That wil be true if the conditions. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis.
ruler and such other stuff. dsb. The students just need to brows that online shop. misalnya She must save. • Connectives. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. misalnya we must preserve. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. dsb. misalnya C. misalnya species of animals. misalnya car. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. • Thinking verbs. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. Penguatan pernyataan. pen. we. misalnya It is important. • Reiteration . dsb • Modal verbs.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. students need book. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. secondly. dsb. • Bahasa evaluatif. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. • Relating verbs. students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. dsb. dsb. (Simplified from the jakartapos. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. Secondly. drawing book. First. dsb. decide which computer or laptop they need. • Technical verbs. government. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. • Modal adverbs. pollution. Additionally. and then complete the transaction. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. dsb. this method will help student to get better understanding.dsb. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. misalnya policy. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. • Action verbs. misalnya certainly. leaded petrol car. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. misalnya Many people believe. eraser. • Abstract nouns. in this multimedia era. misalnya firstly.
E. It seems Indonesia. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. D. Arabic translation. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running.delivered to the students' houses. Therefore. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. India is likely being an English speaking country. That is really easy and save time and money. From all of that. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. According to Nida. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Career in Translation Functionally. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . India translation will grow better and. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. If Hindi translation is provided. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue.
3. do you know what? 4. write. because. then. it's wonderful!. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Using action verb. Using conjunction of time. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Abstract 2. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. 2. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Using imperative. Crisis 4. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. For instance. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. it's awful!. etc • Causal conjunction . credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Incident. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. afterward 6. Using simple past tense 4. etc 5.is inserted at the end of each article. Using rhetoric question. etc 2. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. listen to this 3. Using exclamation words. go. Orientation 3.
The father was full of disappointed and anger. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. and turned on the tap. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. nine children. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. who was only three at the time. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . They had gotten afterwards. Anna. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. spitting and hissing at us. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. The family dreams were dashed. enough money. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. seperti then. whole business. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. passport. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. their children to America. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. The family worked and saved. so we set to. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. The doctor sewed up the boy. dsb. dsb. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. America. misalnya go. there were being quarantined for long days. write. He shed tears of disappointment. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. However few days before their departure. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur.
he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. place. The father was angry with his son and God. It made they were being quarantined. You have and so do I. • Description. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. It was unbelievable but it was. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. or thing.Five days latter. identifying the phenomenon to be described. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. had shank. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thanked God for saving their lives. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. qualities. When the dream will come true. • Using simple present tense 4. the mighty Titanic. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. They had dream to travel to America. describing the phenomenon in parts. The ship. 3. When the father heard the news. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. but because of the bitten son by a dog. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. or/and characteristics. 2. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. they were left behind. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . It was a blessing behind a tragedy. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. They had to forget their plan. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. there is something wrong last minute before it. The Clak family should have been on that ship.
My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. Sydney. She is beautiful. Recently. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. When she are walking on that shoes. attractive and trendy. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. This shoes really matches on her. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. all her friends. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . She said that the products covered all genders. In 1964. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. in 2004. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. a grass amphitheatre. In three years1 time. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. This year. Today. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. a railway station is under construction. bright color.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. yet retaining its beautiful site. Example of Description A. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. native plants and eucalypts. She really have perfect appearance. She is really mad on that shoes. The style.
The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. casual. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Borobudur temple • Description. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Indonesia.8 km of passage and starways. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Cambodia. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Borobudur is well-known. The way to the summit extends through some 4. valuable • Using simple present tense.Budhist temple.The temple is constructed. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The products provide varieties of choice. Ballet. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Central Java. B. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India.she has. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The upper three are circular.
White.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. two strong legs. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. My mum is realy cool. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. • simple present tense. enough money to take Snow White. • action verbs. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. sharp white fangs. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. kualitas. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . dsb. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. numbering. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. It has very thick fur. classifying. Description. dsb. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. a sweet young lady.my cat. misalnya fast. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. sifat-sifat (characteristic). Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. but my favourite one is a cat. Misalnya: I have many pets. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. dsb. dsb. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. 2. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. house. misalnya. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. dsb. perilaku umum. misalnya teacher. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. better or worse 3. bersifat describing. dsb. misalnya. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. • berbagai macam adjectives.
the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. The third sheik. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. There they found Snow White sleeping. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. “Oh could I? Thank you.” Doc. She saw the dwarfs. They were also rich and strong. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. said. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. The first gave her some left over food. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. had many suitors. “If you wish. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story.” Snow White said. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. They want to know what next will happen. which she strikes against herself. The dwarfs said. who received a plate of delicious meat. They went inside. One by one she discarded them. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. Hakim. Then Snow White woke up. who was called Hakim. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. “Without question. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. you may live here with us. The following day. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Example of Narative A. “what is your name?” Snow White said. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. After dinner. one of the dwarfs. Maura asked them for something to eat. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. “My name is Snow White. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. The psychological conflict inside Maura. in what way she will decide who the best is. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. One evening. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. As they were about to have dinner.
Pengenalan tokoh. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. misalnya here. konflik dalam cerita. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. stayed. misalnya then. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. misalnya. waktu. the man really got very angry. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. a man had a wonderful parrot. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. Although he tried hard to teach. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). soon. stepsisters. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. two red apples. Penyelesaian masalah. Masalah. except one word. Complication. the parrot would not say it. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. climbed. He could not bear it. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. • action verbs dalam past tense. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. in the mountain. dsb.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. I will cut the chicken 17 . housework. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. phrase.dsb. Resolution. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The name of the place was Catano. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. long black hair. dsb. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The parrot could say every word. dsb. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. misalnya. Then he continued to humble. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. “You know. before that. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. There was no other parrot like it. dsb. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. happily ever after. At the first. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis.
He liked fishing. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Next it will be your turn. They found their mother and talked her about it. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. 3. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. The fish begged him to set it free. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. C. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. They were married happily. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. rising crisis and climax of the story. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. It will show the crisis. He felt in love with that fish-woman. Batara Guru could not bear it. A man and his parrot took place once time. He made the fish free. One day. In that parrot story. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. paragraph 2. the man attempted to teach the bird. At the moment. He could not control his mad. he caught a fish. As soon as it was free. He opened the door and was very surprised. The next day. In the parrot story. I will eat you too. There were three death chickens on the floor. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. That was the smartest parrot. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. To fix this problem. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. stupid parrot”. The daughters were crying. She attracted Batara Guru so much. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. 4 are describing the complication. there was a handsome man. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. They had two daughters. readers see the problem is finished. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. After that he left the chicken house. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. the man came back to the chicken house.for my meal.
the day of the ball came. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach.”you’ve been such a cheerful. The mother was shouting angrily. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. “Well” said the godmother. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. They treated Cinderella very badly. “Now. The earth formed a very big hole. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. D. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. The two step sisters. A few days later. It fitted perfectly. People believed that the big hole became a lake. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. “Why are crying. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. In the end. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. hardworking. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Cinderella”. Volcanoes started to erupt. Then the earth began to shake. “You must leave before midnight”. Cinderella?” a voice asked. In her hurry. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . there was a young girl named Cinderella. on the other hand. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Magically. Finally. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. Batara Guru broke his promise. she said. One day. such as scrubbing the floor. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear.The mother was very annoyed. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. At last. They were married and live happily ever after. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. She danced again and again with the king’s son. she was driven to the palace. did not work about the house. and away went the sisters to it. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left.
“but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. introducing specific participants. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. The Smartest Animal. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. “it at home”. “you are so big and strong. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. Every morning and every evening. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. Once there was a farmer from Laos. Complication. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Then he said. “No. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. Orientation. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. After the man went home. “Can I see your intelligence?”. Complication: In this Cinderella story. “Yes” said the man. farmer and his buffalo. In the last paragraph. E. Resolution: Like complication. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. said the buffalo. He took his plough and hit the tiger. “oh. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. The tiger asked. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. Generic Structure Analysis 1. Resolution. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. One day. the man is very intelligent”. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . once in Laos 2.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. 3. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. But the man answered. I can’t tell you”. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered.
Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. there was a farmer. Place on a plate. the man tied the tiger. hit time conjunction. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. once. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. cheese grater. ¼ cup milk. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. answered thinking verb. was surprised to action verb. Cook both sides 9. after. bowl. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Add milk and whisk well 4. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. spatula. one day connectives. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Goal: showing the purpose 2. 50 g cheese. fork. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. plate Method 1. saw. tie. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. the next day past tense.
put. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. while. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. but it will help. misalnya turn. finally. Example of Procedure A. put the seeding on the soil. Don’t mix. Firstly. put. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. dsb. • Material. planting is a nice activity. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. firstly. Well. the following is a guided information B. It should be in open area Next. Here are the steps. write your benefit like you talk it. next. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. dry a handful seeding. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. Your customers don't care about you. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. put it. Firstly. menyatakan rinci waktu. dsb. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. cara yang akurat. Cut. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. Finally. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. misalnya for five minutes. not features.10. etc • Temporal conjunction. Read aloud what you've written. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Here's a simple checklist to follow. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. put it in another big pot. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. don’t. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. tempat. wait it. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. informing on how to plant chillies. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . misalnya then. take the topic of benefits. excluded • Steps. misalnya. mix. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. you don't have to. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. etc • Action verb. Langkah-langkah. dry. Use regular words. 2 centimetres from the top. • action verbs.
write like you talked. a pinch of satlt and pepper. re-reading what have been written . excluded • Steps/ method. secondly. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . etc • Temporal conjunction. Use a nice rhythm. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. writing the topic like the way it is talked.re-read what you've done before publishing. such as. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. Don't describe how your company may.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. choosing the advantageous topic. three tablespoons cookin oil. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. fork. frying pan. informing on how to write for business • Material. you need an egg. Fifthly. lose the weak words. Fourthly. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. etc C. you need some tools. to make a cheese omelet. fifty gram cheese. Edit it necesarily. showing the method in writing for business. Listen carefully. First. a quarter cup of milk. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. add First. Next. spatula. Next. etc • Action verb. reread what you have done. firstly. read. bowl and plate. Some sentences are long and some are short. cheese grater. Mix them up and keep things interesting. write. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles.Thirdly.
The accident.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Using material process 4. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. participant. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. time. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. it’s up to them”. Language Feature of News Item 1. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. Focusing on circumstances 2. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. Generic Structure of News Item 1. 2. Resource of information 3. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Main event 2. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. “But this just a suggestion. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Elaboration (background. place) 3. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . Example of Procedure A. a news report said.
“It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. Background Events. but the number is steadily rising. Malaysian Aids Council president. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. pendapat para ahli. dsb. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. even though they know they have HIV” she said. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. Kejadian inti. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. June 01. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. In the past the event was held behind closed door. tempat kejadian dsb. Sources. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. (Source The Jakarta Post. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . orang yang terlibat. The maid. named Suwartin. Latar belakang kejadian. komentar saksi kejadian. many women who contract HIV are housewives. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. less then 10 percent are woman. he said in the report. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. Last year. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. Adeebah Kamarulzaman.
news. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. the Saudi Interior Minister said. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. (Taken from: www. Background 3.bbc. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. the Saudi Interior Minister statement.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. execute. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. Using material process. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . May 6. Background 1. Resource. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. behead. Rape. Background 2. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Last year. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. carry. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. law of serious crimes. Hong Kong. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. (Adapted from Reuters.Then the maid was arrested. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life.co. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. She had relationship the boy for five months. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. Saudi Arabia.
Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . may. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. and social text. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. hopefully. many times. etc • Using additive. But. contrastive. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. doing homework is not a great idea. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. 2. etc 4. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. similarly. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. should. etc • Using adverbial of manner. deliberately. feel. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. could. believe. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. historic.1. however. must. etc • Using modalities. and causal connection. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. hope. on the hand. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. Example of Discussion Text A.
and produces huge amounts of energy. It produces small amount of waste. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. so it is not expansive to make.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It is reliable. England in 1956. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine.
misalnya deliberately. must. This example of discussion text present the two poles. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. should have been. hopefully. dsb.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. could 29 be. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. misalnya uniforms. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. dsb. Gagasan Pokok 2. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. perception and recommendation. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. misalnya feel. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. seperti perhaps. however. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. dsb. hope. dsb. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. Elaborasi (uraian). • thinking verbs untuk • additives. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. dsb. very dangerous. alcohol. although it is reliable. In many social activities. misalnya similarly. memberikan informasi secara padu.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. dsb. nuclear power is very. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. . a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. believe. on the hand. • adverbials of maner. should.On the other hand. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. Kesimpulan. Elaborasi (uraian). Furthermore. misalnya smoking is harmful.
nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. 2. It is often found in science. however. scientific and cultural phenomena. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. believe. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . geography and history text books.bbc. Using modalities. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. (Taken from: www. Contrastive point. hunting fox. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Recommendation. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Supporting point. Using thinking verb. B. Many farmer and even conservationists. farmer. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Using connectives. social.co. conservationists. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. must.
etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. Language Feature • • • • 4. Example of Explanation Text A.• • General statement. rain. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). etc Using chronological connection. next. sun. to begin with. Featuring generic participant. Sequenced explanation.
org) B. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. earthquakes. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. dunia ilmiah. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . noun phrase. sosialbudaya. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. conjunctions of time dan cause. the amount of • bahasa teksni. It causes day and night. simple present tense. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. abstract nouns. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. misalnya word chopping. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. misalnya the temperature. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. It is called as rotation. misalnya the large cloud. But that is the case. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. complex sentences. passive voice.panda. This process is called revolution. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. The earth also moves around the sun. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. action verbs. It takes 365 days or a year.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. (simplified from www. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. adverbial phrases. Tsunami always bring great damage.
Using temporal connective. Using passive voice 9. secondly.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. daylight. Focusing on the writer 2.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Using evaluative words. Recommendation 3. policy.ictteachers. Arguments 3.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. important. so. the earth is actually closer to the sun. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Using simple present tense 4. firstly. Using pasive voice. surely. Using modal adverb. but. Using thinking verb 5. Using chronological connection. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. then. Using action verb 4. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). 2. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. trustworthy. certainly. advantage. Using abstract noun. etc 3. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. you would be forgiven.co. Explanation. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Thesis 2. etc 7. (Taken from: www. etc 6. I feel that when you travel through the country. valuable. Using present tense. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. etc 8.
a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. pornography. of course. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. However. and short sleep duration. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Those who want to penalise older . consumerism and so on. especially violence. Recomendatio I feel that country people. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Meanwhile. Recently. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. stress. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 .the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. and the possibility of being aggressive. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. Considering some facts mentioning above.every five to ten minutes. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol.
example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. and napkin everywhere. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. advertising. More dust bins should be put beside each step. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. straws. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. In the first paragraph. and news advertorial. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. school corridors and schoolyard. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. If it is a hortatory text. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . Both take place as argumentative essays. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. B. speech campaign. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. mineral water cops.the writer thought as stated in the text. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. When we look at classroom. Basically. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. there papers. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. In many social activities. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. sales letter.
For those who succeed soon will think to decide. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. they can find the dust bins easily. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. the available time will be more flexible for them. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. C. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. In the other hand. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. Where should be after High School?. When they think about continuing study. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. In the same way. it will be quite confusing. they will think hard about the time and cost. it will be very hard to looking for job. As result. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. As the alternative method of studying. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. So. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them.meters. when they think about straightly seeking job. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. So when students want to throw away their litters. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school.
animal. dsb. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. dsb.misalnya policy. Connectives. Generic Structure of Report 1. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Relating verbs. Argument. we must save. public place. Action verbs. misalnya We must preserve. make. misalnya should be. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. give up. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Technical verbs. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. doesn’t seem to have been . as it is. part per part . Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. We can show the way to give up work. felt Using simple present tense. dsb. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Albert Smith is the proof. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. misalnya certainly. Millions from Property Market. Recommendation. are you tired?. misalnya I believe . valuable. there is a way out of financial problem. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. dsb. etc Using thinking verb. Thinking verbs.D. Modal adverbs. misalnya species of animals. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . misalnya important. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Modal verbs. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. secondly.dsb. dsb. now there is a way out.government dsb. reward Using action verb. etc which will be discussed in general 2. dsb. he drives a sport car.we. misalnya firstly. dsb. misalnya. plant.
• • Using conditional logical connection. Platypus lives in streams. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Example of Report Text A. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus. and woolly layer of fur. driving the fish before them. the animal of platypus. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. and lakes. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. perhaps two dozen birds. when. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. so. etc Using simple present tense 4. stating general classification. rivers. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. A group. Platypus' eyes and head are small. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. In the other hand. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. beating the water furiously with their wings. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 .
dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. habits or behaviors. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. misalnya lizards cannot fly. atau gejala-gejala sosial. but. lingkungan. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. apa adanya. misalnya. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. istilah teknis. benda buatan manusia. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. in terms of parts. Platypus lives in streams. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. dsb. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. dsb. keterangan. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. logical connective. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. male platypus does not need any burrow. qualities. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. dsb. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. dan klasifikasinya. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion .Description. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. the animal of platypus conditional. kegunaannya jika non natural.
Using action verb. 2. Events 3. Language Feature of Spoof 1. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office.’ replied the man. animals or certain things 2.1. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Told in chronological order 4. He bought some new furniture and moved in. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Dave found a nice office. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. ‘ take him to the zoo’. etc 3. Orientation 2. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. ran. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Using adverb of time and place 4. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Focusing on people. ate. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Twist 3. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it.
“Hey Abu Nawas. Event 1: Being rich. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. B. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. binatang. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. In his office. benda tertentu. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. He suddenly became a 1. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. conversation on the phone. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. “You want me. “Yes. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . run. verbs. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. I want you to leave the country. Event 2: He had his new office. misalnya eat. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. Instead leaving the country. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Then “Remember. “If that is what you want. no children. Then the man said to Dave. He had not left the country yet. terduga atau lucu).
I had a very good seat. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. So you see. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . The king wondered and said “Abu.I did not enjoy it. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. I have been walking on this stilts. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. (Adapted from S. “I remember exactly what you said. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. young man and young woman. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. I could not hear the actors.In the end. look at you. I do not step on the ground. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. You walk on stilts like a child. They were talking very loudly. You have not left this country”. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. I turned around again.I got very angry. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. I could not bear it. were talking noisily. The king was not able to say anything. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. They did not pay any attention. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. The play was very interesting. I do not step on the ground of this country”.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. The King continued “And now. I turned around.guards. Your Majesty. And since yesterday.
"Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. So. they just shook the head. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. “Eat the food. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. He put his coat and said. the policeman saw the man in the same park. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. When he arrived in the party. D. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. The man was still carrying the penguin. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. The next day. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. nobody looked at me. "Take it to the zoo!". Getting Nasreddin's answer. It’s a private conversation”. He took it to a policeman and said. The host at once got up and came to meet him. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. “It’s none of your business. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . “When I came here with my old clothes. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. you give food to my coat instead of me”.
Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. place and time 2. etc • Using linking verb. policeman Using action verb. etc • Using simple past tense 4. today I am taking it to the movie". first. heard. go. was. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. They were in the park Event1. penguin. chronological order by days. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event.did. Generic Structure of Recount 1. saw. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. look. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. I. Reorientation: It is optional. The following day. once. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. were. my group. change. then. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. carry. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Even. walk up Using adverb of time and place. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. etc • Using chronological connection. Orientation: Introducing the participants. etc • Using action verb. So. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . He. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. in the park Told in chronological order.
The two week in London went by fast. Instead of keys for the room.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. the thing is an experience. In writer's point of view. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . This includes travel and accommodation. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. they inserted a key-card to open the door. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. It was scary. Richard with two sons. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They had booked fourteen days tour. We stayed at David and Della’s house. They are Mr. They went to London. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. They gave them food and drink. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. and Mrs. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. They slept part of the way. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. The officers were pleasant. It can be what the writer has done. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. Vacation to London Mr. At the end of the 14-day. On the third floor. Mr. There was a film for their entertainment. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. read. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. They had variety of food. Richard’s family was on vacation. Then. on Example of Recount text A. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. B. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. They had a very pleasant flight. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. hear. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. The room had perfect view of the park. We saw cockatoos having a shower. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court.
kejadian atau kegiatan. Events. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. the on Tuesday. Pengenalan. after that. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. On the day of the tour. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. misalnya beautiful. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. misalnya David. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. She was happy dsb. misalnya We went to the zoo. then. he was ready. but. The event happened smoothly. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. It is a busy but quiet town. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. past tense. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. misalnya and. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. then on Monday. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. On the other hand. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. The first stop was at Batubulan. C. dsb. The next stop was Celuk. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. misalnya go. the monkey. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. 46 slowly dsb. we dsb. • • • • • . Reorientation. sleep. dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. Rekaman peristiwa. funny. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. at my house. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. In simple way.Small Notes and felt. recount describes series of events in detail. waktu dan cara. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. what happened on Sunday. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. kejadian atau kegiatan. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. misalnya yesterday. The first one was to Singaraja. the second was to Ubud. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. a center of stone sculpture. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. di mana dan kapan. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. run dsb.
walked. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. I thought I got flat tire. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. earthquake happened. using first person point of view. When I reached my town. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. in the town. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . introducing the participant. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. D. stating the writer's personal note. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. Several days before the ceremony was done. Even I could not move my car at all. then. Re-orientation. The car lunched to one side. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. was. were • Using action verb. all his day was spent on the beach. describing a series of event which happened. the ceremony was quite elaborate. I • Using chronological connectives. suddenly • Using linking verb. moved. He was quiet satisfied. to the left. my car lunched on one side. Overall. I was on my car. When the earthquake happened. etc. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. I was trapped by the rock. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. I was on the car las week. left. There were rocks everywhere. made. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. like matchsticks. I was on the car. etc E. Although nothing was left. It took about a week. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. Events. I did not know that it was an earthquake.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. and. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony.
you find words and phrases used to start. However. and dancing. my uncle. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. On the last day. During the day. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . my brother. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. After that. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Finally. Then.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. Those words and phrases are: First. In the night. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. The funeral was performed in two phases. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. After that. First. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. and end your composition. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. a series of events in chronological order. They were great matches. In the text. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. Meanwhile. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. chanting. Then. Finally. and then moved the corpse to face north. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. Questions 1. we were feasting. there were also buffalo matches. A recount text has an orientation. connect a sentence with the next one.
services which want to be sold. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. After clearly explanation. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. valuable. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. It can be product. etc. It states the parts. Using long and complex clauses 4. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. Using adjectives 3. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. or just a site which want to be known publicly. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Using metaphor 4. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . quality of the product which will be known publicly. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. It is personal idea about the product. Dominant Language features: 1. 3. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Definition Review is one of text genres. uniqueness. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. worthy. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Focus on specific participants 2. As I said in my previous post. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. useful. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product.What is review text 1.
considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. In some (Interpretati instances this works. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. however. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. A few other changes in this book . depressing feel. and ultimately satisfying. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. with some editing it would have been great. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. especially with being a teenager and all. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. The stories were bright. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. fast-paced.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. He goes from being a warm-hearted. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. I was truly moved by the last page. Still a really good book. and parts of it do seem long. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book.. intriguing. this was not my favorite.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. and this part I loved.housekeeping is still housekeeping. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. for example . I cried!) as sad as it was.. I actually liked the ending (and yes. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . magical or no.
The eyeglasses are designed for different users. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . he should understand well the language and aspect of India. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. For Rosemarie. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. lexical. woman and man are available choice. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. it will be quite difficult to make translation. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. the daily activities are worthily documented. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. aluminum and rimless frame are available. Eyeglasses for children. The site is quite simple but very informative. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. easy and not complicated design. Again. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. The site is her effort to record of what she did.the trend. does and will do daily. If we visit the site. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. Similarly. if he works with Farsi translation. The translation experts. It is real. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . In certain case. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. It straightly goes to the end user. The experts who have grammatical. Titanium. However. translation providers can bridge that difficulty.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52
He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53
Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Mostly. lengh. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. its parts. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. and so on. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. For example how to make a cup of tea. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. first boil water. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. eg: bicycle. report is written after getting careful observation. how to make a good kite. In the other hand. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. colour. descriptive text will convey more focus. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. Explanation is such a scientific written material. They give the detail description on something. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. phenomena. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. secondly prepare the cup. wheel style. If we talk about. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. etc is the best example of the procedure text. In short. How a tornado form. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. etc. It will talk about bicycle in general. It is such word. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. is the scope of the written object. However if they are analyzed carefully. Explanation. goods. What make different. product case or problem. it belongs to report text. physical strengh. Procedure. animal and scientific object. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . between report and descriptive text.
Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Explanation is such a scientific written material. and so on. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Explanation. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. They give the detail description on something. the on Tuesday. phenomena. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. recount describes series of events in detail. then on Monday. what happened on Sunday. For example how to make a cup of tea. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It can be what the writer has done. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Procedure. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. etc is the best example of the procedure text. product case or problem. How a tornado form. In writer's point of view. secondly prepare the cup. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. how to make a good kite. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . and felt. The event happened smoothly. In simple way. hear. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. first boil water. On the other hand. read. goods. It is such word. the thing is an experience. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example.
review. hortatory exposition. spoof. report. explanation. 20. 14. Thesis 2. procedure. Using technical terms 7. These variations are known as GENRES. Using action verbs 3. Using exclamations. 22. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using modals 2. 25. Crisis 4. analytical exposition. Using material process 3. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Abstract 2. Orientation 3. 18. Reaction 5. discussion. 17. 23. 15. 24.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using adjective 6. 26. Arguments 3. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . 19. Using thinking verbs 4. and news item. recount. They are narrative. Using adverbs 5. anecdote. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. descriptive. texts are divided into several types. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. 16. Coda. Dominant Language Features: 1.
Complication 4. Using action verb 3. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using action verbs 3. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using noun phrase 5. Newsworthy event(s) 2. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using passive voice 4. Using adverbs : time. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using technical terms 7. Arguments for and against 3. Using adverb 4. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Resolution 5. Using saying verbs 4. Issue 2. General statement 2. Explanation 3. place and manner. Evaluation 3. Short. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Background event(s) 3. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 .1. Materials/Equipments 3. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1.
Description Dominant Language Feature 1. place or thing in detail. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Arguments 3. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using action verb 3. Thesis 2. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Generic Structure 1. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using modality 7. In simple word. Description Language Features: 1. Using adjective 7. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using thinking verbs 5. Using general and abstract noun 9. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using modals 3. General classification 2. Using adverbs 6. Using adverb 4. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1.1. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using technical terms 8. Identification 2. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . as it is. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using thinking verb 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2.
Evaluation 5. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Focus on specific participants 2. In the contrary. Event(s) 3. Using metaphor 60 . Using long and complex clauses 4. fable. Using action verb 3. Interpretative Recount 4. Evaluation 3. myth. whether Simple Past Tense. Using adjectives 3. folklore. Orientation 2. Using action verb 3. Using Past Tense 2. or Past Perfect Tense. Using Past Tense 2. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Event(s) 3. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Orientation 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. etc while recount text is found in biography. Commonly narrative text is found in story book.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Orientation 2. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Using adverb 4. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. social conflict or psychological conflict.
spoof dsb. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. 5. diagram dsb. 6. Continuous text misalnya narrative. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. 7. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text.exposition. 4. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. tahun. 8. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. tabel. dsb. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 10. biasanya tentang nama. 2. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. grafik. 1. map. descriptive. 11. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. 3. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. label. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. tanggal. penjelasan. 9. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. tempat.
Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. And cute.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. The purpose of the text is _____. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. it is small. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . fluffy. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menentukan makna kata.
When we look at classrooms. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. in every ten meters. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. a number of dust bins should be increased. straws. more dust bins…. school corridors and school yard.. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. 1. Besides. there are paper mineral water cups. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. outside of the classrooms. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3.. So when students want to throw away their litters. they can find the dust bins easily. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. and some more also the corridors. readers to do something good. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. They put their litters on the proper places.EXERCISES. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. What is the writer’s intention? To …. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . According to the writer. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. and napkins here and there.
5. spelling and culture. practicing selective listening comprehension. songs in general also use simple conversational language. Secondly. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. learning vocabulary. Firstly. religion. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. What is the text about …. In addition. From the elaboration above. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. with a lot of repetition. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. lexically and poetically. songs are relaxing. patriotism and yeas. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. Furthermore. shopping malls. place or time reference. translating songs. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. which is just what many learners look for sample text. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . learning English can be enjoyable and fun. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. The generic structures of the text are …. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Last but not least. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. even revolution. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. Although usually simple. They provide variety and fun. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving.
smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. Based on the text. Finally. It must not be allowed because it is rude. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group.” The underlined word refers to …. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.“They provide variety and fun. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Firstly. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.9. 11. not just in restaurants.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. smoking in restaurants is impolite. Therefore. The word reasons mean…. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers..What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .Since we can find a thesis.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
2. Ritter. teacher. Penny Pitcher.. father. This is my friend. student. Cindy. I'm Linda 1. mother. Carrie. Hi Jack..Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. It's a pleasure to meet you. Pleased to meet you. Jack. Mr. And you. Harris. I don't believe we've met before. boss. I'm. Very nice to meet you. co-worker.. Watson. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. • I want to introduce you to …. Mr. Introducing someone else my name is. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. friend. Mrs. Mary Jones. sister. Likewise. Ms. my my my my my my my my my brother. Bob. Nice to meet you too. Nice to meet you. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 .. Harris.
when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Adib. we still have half an hour before the class starts. e. Hi. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well.g.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. and Retno are new students. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . are you a new student. I am. Adib : Hi.g. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. Shall we go to the canteen?. I’m Arnys. Adib : Anyway. Arnys. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. this is Retno. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Retno. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. hotel. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. My name is Adib. Arnys? Retno : Okay. By the way. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. a restaurant. Situation: Adib.
Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Not so bad. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. before leaving. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. . Do you wanna . . thanks. . shake hands with other Virga :… women. . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. See you soon /later /tomorrow. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Very well. • Good bye. Bye. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . thank you. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. . thanks. thanks. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. (informal) Would you like to . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . .
.I’d like very much .Yes.. I’d be delighted to. ..a chocolate bar? .. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it..I’d be happy/glad to accept ..to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome..Some responds of inviting. let’s not. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.I’d love to . Receiving .? Would you like . Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks..
I need it. Thanks. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Happy birthday to you. Happy new year. returned your lost wallet. you very much. Thank you. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. helped carry your grocery bags. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. complimented you on your necktie. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English .a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday.
That’s too bad e. What’s shame b.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. That’s a nuisance d. and congratulations Special Days . How kind of you to say so. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . holidays and other special occasions. What’s pity c. It’s nice of you to say so. not really.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc..• • • Oh. That’s pity f.
It was terrifi c. I feel … b. I’m sorry to hear that b. …. I’m delighted. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. Goodness! b. c. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. I enjoyed it I love it. feel unpleased with …. Expression Displeasure a. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. d. How terrible! c. I’m really sorry for them d. i. e. How dreadful! C. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. How Awful! d. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m so happy …. m. k. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . d.. I feel disappointed. l. b. I feel ….B. I’m really sad to … c. j. I’m sorry about that c. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. g. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. f. h.
but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang.Satisfaction. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan.
you should buy the florescent light bulbs.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)….. In my opinion. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I agree • I know what you mean. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. I think the other one’s better. As I see. say • Absolutely. • I am with you • Definitely. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more.. In my opinion…. … If you ask me. • Yes. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 .
I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. that's not a good idea. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. Fear. No. I don't think that's what happened. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about ….
it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. • Thank God for . Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I’m sick. it’s killing me! 2. • Ugh./I feel ill.. it’s very painful! • Oh. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that ..... • I feel sick..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . • I’m glad it was done.
BUT "I don't really like it. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. but it is not a very strong dislike. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence." This is not very strong. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. It means that you do not like something. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger.
.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I’m extremely unhappy about this. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. That’s a real embarrassment. I will. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No.. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . I was so ashamed.
I'm sorry to bother you. Excuse me if I'm out of line. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but... but. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. There may have been a misunderstanding about. Certainly. Right away. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright. Sure.. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. but. but I think we should. Maybe you forgot to. Of course... I think you might have forgotten to. Blame (keluhan. Don't get me wrong..Palupi : OK..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it..... It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Complaint.. It's your fault for (doing something).
. to ask for forgiveness. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I'd like to apologise for. Apology (penyesalan. Examples I'm really sorry. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. to express regret an exclamation a word. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. Sorry for taking your DVD. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. I didn't mean to lose your book. I'll clear up later.. I …. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. Sorry for.. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. I'm so sorry....simply starters! Regret.. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry.. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. Pete.. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game. yet. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability..... There is a little chance that …. There is a good chance that ….. distress. there is a possibility .… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . NOTE : 1.this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness... • Is it possible to …? • Yes.. It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game.
she.? it. It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home 3. Expressions capability are : to show I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.they.she.she. doing something are: 4.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.you. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: …. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.they.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 ..it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.you.
pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 . aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.she.they.it Were utk S= you.he.
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .
sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. are Was. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. “Srimpi”.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . was parctising e. will be practising c. a. Fred : Juda. is.masa lampau.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do.is. practised d. have been practising b.does/am. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. the telephone rang twelve times.
have been living c. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. a. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. a. a. cleaned e. a. would have started d. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. has been working b. will have lunch e. If we don”t hurry. Iwan : Yes. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. were cleaning b. have been cleaning c. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. a. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. starts c. worked e. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. will start b. will have started e. was living e. am living d. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . have lunch d. clean d. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. will have had lunch b. will have worked c. will have lived b. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. they are succesful. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. have been having lunch c. works d. My family ____ when the postman arrived. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably.2. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry.
had been 9. has worked for six months e. a. I forget to bring your book. forgets b. but I ____ there many times. Learn all these. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. is still looking for a job 4. had forgotten e. will cause 5. Anto : I’m sorry Ary.2. would forget 8. will have been c. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . This sentence means that Ann ___. a. will have been c. carry d. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. am carrying b. has stopped looking for a job b. My father is still in Bali. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. was d. have caused c. has been e. was e. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. a. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. is d. a. was carrying 3. started to work 6 months a go c. was e. a. had been 7. causes e. has got a new job d. He ____ there for three weeks. caused d. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. were causing b. have been c. a. have carried c. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. carried e. a. forgot c. has been b. Is it right? Student : Yes. has forgotten d. He ____ ill for a week. will be b. sir. am d. have been 6. When airport are located in the center of citied. would be b.
why.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. keterangan waktu. where.00 tomorrow. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. will be learning b. a. when. attended c. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. would be attended DIRECT . I ____ them by then. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. dan tempat. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. pronoun (kata ganti orang). She studies business. has been attending e. how. who. Reni goes to her university every morning. She ___ the lectures. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. has attended b. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. struktur kalimat. learn d. will be attending d. a. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. sir. am learning 10. will have learnt c.Student : All right. have learnt e.
Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .
why Mary was absent e. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. to be not so noisy c. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. Herman : Okay. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. if Mary was absent d. The baby is sleeping. that Mary had been absent b. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. a. mom. had gone to his country d. he goes to his country c. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . he went to his country b. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. he has gone to his country e. not to be so noisy e. that I open his mouth d.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. why Mary had been absent c. Herman. I wasn’t so noisy d. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. a. to open my mouth b. He said ____ the previous day. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. I am very noisy b. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. if I opened my mouth e.
forgets b. It was windy outside. d. Ari : What did he say. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside.c. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. b. e. “What are you doing now?”. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. It is windy outside. e. he would not clean c. Does Mira close the window. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. b. would forget 3. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. c. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. a. SMA Students’ Modul of English . “ ___________” a. Mira closed the window. Mira. a. what are you were doing now d. he asked me ____”. It is windy outside. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. he does not clean e. Mira closed the window. I hadn’t cleaned d. what were you doing now. what I was doing then. Anto : I am sorry Lina. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. he headn’t cleaned b. Mother said. Closed the window. what I am doing now. forgot c. It was windy outside. I forgot to bring your book. had forgotten e. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. I got a headache. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. he asked. 4. He asked me ____ a. has forgotten d. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. he hasn’t cleaned 2. c. 94 5.
My friend said to me. 8. going with us b. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. did I have an appointment d. not to spend e. a. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. how was my appointment e. not spend c. “don’t make noise. whether I had appointment 7. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. a. e. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. that I had an appointment c. to finish my work c. finish your work d. to finish your work b. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. d. Father said.a. She said the children didn’t make noise c. She didn’t say the children should noise d. Mean____ a. can he go with us e. children”. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. not spending b. She told the children don’t make noise b. a. If he could go with us d. She told the children not to make noise. wether he goes with us c. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. 10. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. finished your work e. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. e. “Can I find you a hotel?”. she said. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. do not spend d. c. b. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. Slamet. he went with us 6. when is my appointment b.
Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.
X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. is sold d. when…. had been sold c. were being unloaded e. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. did it abolish e. was kicked c. are unloaded c. has been postponed c. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. are sold e. was it to abolish b. was kicking b. was being postponed e. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. The announcement ____ twice. kicked e. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. Y : Really. to be abolished c. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. were sold b.? a. a.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. was postponed d. she ____ a. kicks d. a. have been unloaded d. will be unloaded b. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. was it abolishing d. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . a. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. has to be postponed b. A : Look! The girl is crying.
demolishing d. the baby is being looked after well e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. had been demilishing b. the baby is well looked after b. rewarded d. would be built 4. has been built b. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. has arranged c. is being cleaned e. a. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. The passive form is ____ a. A big dam ___ in this area next year.1. a. is being built c. have arranged b. will be destroyed b. is demolishing c. the baby was looked after well c. the baby would be well looked after 7.A. will be built e. a. a. the baby will be well looked after d. will be rewarded 8. would be born b. was being cleaned d. was destroyed 6. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. a. will be born 2. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. She looks after the baby well. have been arranged 3. is being rewarded b. a. was rewarded e. a. was arranged e. R. has been born c. has been cleaned 5. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. is arranged d. is being destroyed c. is being demolished e. had destroyed e. was born e. will build d. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . is born d. destroyed d. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. will clean b. has been rewarded c. cleaned c.
Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. has been promising b. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. will be promised e. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. has promised d. will be taken d.9. took c. was being promised c. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. will be promised 10. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. a. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. is being taken e. a. was taken b. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . yaitu: 1.
had. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. can. did. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. have/has. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. was/were. will. may. -le. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.c. dll. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. dll. Contoh: large larger largest 4. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. -er. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. -ow. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. shall.
( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Kalau kalimatnya (+). itulah yang diharapkan. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1.). saya sudah mengirim surat padamu.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Apa yang diucapkan. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Contoh: If I have much money. I would go to the beach with you. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. I will buy a new car. 3. (jika saya punya uang. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . I would have written you a letter. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya.
whom. I bought it last year. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. his. (him = the man.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). your. whose. which. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. their. her.) 2. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. They are printed in English. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. its. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. I met him last week. our. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Their car has been stolen. of which. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. Contoh: We saw the people.
(mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (its surface/permukaannya meja. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. sebuah benda. Its surface is not smooth. Where 8. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 .
SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . The manager gets the letter typed. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Jogging makes us fresh. The manager has the letter typed. I got the mechanic to repair my car. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. I had mechanic repair my car. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. 2. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing).CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Gerund digunakan bila: 1.
he said nothing. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .V . .Dona prefers dancing to singing.Dita would rather watch T. 3.her. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . on. 6. to be busy. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.your.their. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. 5. before dll.V.I like T. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. Setelah possessive adjective (my.V ketimbang main video game) 4. get used to.to be used to. to be worth. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. 4. Before leaving. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.3.Amir’s.our. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. can’t help/can’t bear. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .V better than radio. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . his. than plays a video game.Juned prefers combro to deblo.
He is both wise and good. 2.Amir and I go to school everyday. b. first. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . b. Next. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . then.You can read this book if you like. somebody knocked on the door. b. a. after that. for. After that. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga….Contoh: . Menunjukan waktu: before. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. We went home after the rain stopped. a. While he was reading her novel. d. 1. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. when. Since I have no money. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and.Although it was raining. 3. Finally. c. since. a. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. or. d.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . Contoh: . but. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. if. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. we put some sauce and salt. we must prepare the ingredients. e. although/though. after. while. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. I can’t treat you. next.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. yaitu: 1. as soon as. c. c.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) .Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. that. he come on time. dll. we put them into frying pan. finally. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of.
The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .He is not only active but also clever. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.