DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS
Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
...............................................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)...................................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS ...............................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)....................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.....................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) .........................................................................................................................................................................104 GERUND ................................................107
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.........................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ............104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ...............................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ............102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...................................................................................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ..
The language feature. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Hortatory Exposition 3. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. 1. Review 7. Explanation 2. Narrative 11. 2. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. News Items 13. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Anecdote 9.Understanding Types of Text
Text can be classified into several types. Analytical Exposition 8. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Recount 6. Descriptive 10. These types of text are. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Procedure 12. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Spoof 5. why is the text made?. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city
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. Report 4. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text.
cars. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. cars create pollution. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. and especially talk to someone.Thesis
Cars should be banned in the city. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Reiteratio In conclusion. If you live in the city. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. as we all know. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. it is better to look at the fact. Thirdly. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. As we all know. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. the city is very busy. Secondly. In one hour in smoky room. Argument Firstly. cars are very noisy. or concentrate on your homework. Example of Analytical Exposition A. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. which causes them to die. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. lung cancer. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. the risk is nineteen greater. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. Additionally. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure.
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. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. you may find it hard to sleep at night. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents.
The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the
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. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. As the US. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Furthermore. In this example of analytical exposition text. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. That wil be true if the conditions.
The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. dsb. government. Laptop as Students' Friend
Conventionally. misalnya firstly. misalnya certainly. dsb • Modal verbs. dsb. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. dsb. misalnya It is important. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion.
First. misalnya Many people believe. secondly. • Bahasa evaluatif. this method will help student to get better understanding. dsb. • Abstract nouns. and then complete the transaction. decide which computer or laptop they need. dsb. misalnya we must preserve. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. misalnya policy. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. • Technical verbs. • Action verbs. pen. drawing book. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. we. misalnya car. misalnya species of animals. in this multimedia era. • Thinking verbs. pollution. The students just need to brows that online shop. After that the laptop will be
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. students need book. Penguatan pernyataan. leaded petrol car.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. • Connectives. misalnya She must save. • Relating verbs. dsb.
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. misalnya
C. • Reiteration . eraser. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. students need more to reach their progressive development. dsb. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. • Modal adverbs. (Simplified from the jakartapos. Secondly. ruler and such other stuff.dsb. Additionally. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk.
If Hindi translation is provided. Therefore. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. According to Nida. From all of that. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. That is really easy and save time and money. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word.
D. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. India translation will grow better and. It seems Indonesia. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. India is likely being an English speaking country. E. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. Career in Translation
Functionally. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Arabic translation. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types.delivered to the students' houses. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that
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. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money.
Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath
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. Incident. 2. etc • Causal conjunction . Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. For instance. then. Abstract 2. Using conjunction of time. it's wonderful!. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Crisis 4. listen to this 3. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. afterward 6. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. it's awful!.is inserted at the end of each article. because. Using action verb. go. write. Using rhetoric question. etc 5. Using exclamation words. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. etc 2. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Orientation 3. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. etc
Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. 3. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using imperative. do you know what? 4. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Using simple past tense 4. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful.
a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. spitting and hissing at us. He shed tears of disappointment. The doctor sewed up the boy. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. The family dreams were dashed. who was only three at the time. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote
Menggunakan: A. dsb. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. enough money.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. and turned on the tap. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. there were being quarantined for long days. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. Anna. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. so we set to. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. The father was full of disappointed and anger. misalnya go.Abstract
How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. However few days before their departure. whole business. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. dsb. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. seperti then. write. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. passport. nine children. America. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. their children to America. The family worked and saved. They had gotten afterwards. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.
When the father heard the news. but because of the bitten son by a dog. had shank. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. It was unbelievable but it was. they were left behind. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. It made they were being quarantined. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank.Five days latter. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. You have and so do I. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. the mighty Titanic. or thing. The ship. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. He thanked God for saving their lives. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. describing the phenomenon in parts. They had to forget their plan. 3. 2. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. place. • Using simple present tense 4. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. When the dream will come true. The father was angry with his son and God. The Clak family should have been on that ship. • Description. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. Examples and structures of the text
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. identifying the phenomenon to be described. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. or/and characteristics. qualities. They had dream to travel to America. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. there is something wrong last minute before it.
It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. This shoes really matches on her. bright color. a grass amphitheatre. She is really mad on that shoes. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. attractive and trendy. When she are walking on that shoes. She always pays much attention on her appearance. The style. native plants and eucalypts. In three years1 time. yet retaining its beautiful site. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. Sydney. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. My Friend's New Shoes
I have a close Friend.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. all her friends. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. Example of Description
A. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. a railway station is under construction. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. She really have perfect appearance. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. In 1964. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as
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. She is beautiful. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. in 2004. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. She said that the products covered all genders. Recently. This year. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Today.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief.
B. casual. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor.The temple is constructed.8 km of passage and starways. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.she has.Budhist temple. Cambodia. Central Java. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Borobudur temple • Description. Ballet. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. Indonesia. Borobudur is well-known. Borobudur Temple
Borobudur is Hindu . Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The upper three are circular. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The way to the summit extends through some 4. The products provide varieties of choice. valuable • Using simple present tense. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification.
White. enough money to take Snow White. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. 2. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. misalnya Our new
informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. kualitas. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. dsb. two strong legs. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• nouns tertentu. dsb.
to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. sifat-sifat (characteristic).my cat. classifying. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. dsb. • simple present tense.
house. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises.
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle
Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they
untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.Small Notes
Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. better or worse 3. Examples and structures of the text Snow White
• relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. bersifat describing. numbering. misalnya. at Complication 2
Then she saw this little cottage. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Misalnya: I have many pets. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. perilaku umum.
• berbagai macam adjectives. misalnya. dsb.
• action verbs. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. misalnya fast.
• detailed noun phrase untuk
memberikan informasi tentang subjek. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. My mum is realy cool. but my favourite one is a cat. yang
Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. dsb. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. sharp white fangs. a sweet young lady. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. misalnya teacher. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). Description. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. It has very thick fur. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. dsb.
There they found Snow White sleeping. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. The first gave her some left over food. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. who was called Hakim. The following day. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that.” Snow White said. had many suitors. They went inside. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. She saw the dwarfs. One by one she discarded them. you may live here with us. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. Maura asked them for something to eat. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. who received a plate of delicious meat. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Hakim.Resolution 2
Meanwhile. “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat.
Example of Narative A. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. “My name is Snow White. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. They were also rich and strong. One evening. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. “If you wish. which she strikes against herself. Then Snow White woke up. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. “what is your name?” Snow White said. They want to know what next will happen. The psychological conflict inside Maura. The third sheik. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. After dinner. The dwarfs said.” Doc. one of the dwarfs. “Without question. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. said. in what way she will decide who the best is. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. As they were about to have dinner.
There was no other parrot like it. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. konflik dalam cerita. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. misalnya. Penyelesaian masalah. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. phrase. happily ever after.
• • •
Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. The Smartest Parrot
Narrative (Naratif. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. Pengenalan tokoh. stepsisters. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. I will cut the chicken
. Masalah. two red apples. stayed. misalnya then. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English
Once upon time. housework.
• action verbs dalam past tense. misalnya. except one word.
• adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions
• adverbs dan adverbial phrases
untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. The parrot could say every word. a man had a wonderful parrot. Although he tried hard to teach. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Then he continued to humble. before that. dsb. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim
B. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. the parrot would not say it. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. dsb. soon. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. The name of the place was Catano. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. Complication. dsb. climbed. waktu. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. misalnya here. long black hair. At the first. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”.dsb. in the mountain. dsb. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). Resolution. He could not bear it. “You know. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti
orang.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. the man really got very angry.
Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it.
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. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. paragraph 2. He liked fishing. the man attempted to teach the bird. there was a handsome man. They were married happily. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. A man and his parrot took place once time. After that he left the chicken house. That was the smartest parrot. readers see the problem is finished. They had two daughters. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. The daughters were crying. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. The next day. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. He opened the door and was very surprised. stupid parrot”. The fish begged him to set it free. At the moment. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. He felt in love with that fish-woman. 3. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. C. he caught a fish. I will eat you too. To fix this problem. In that parrot story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. He made the fish free. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. 4 are describing the complication. She attracted Batara Guru so much. There were three death chickens on the floor. It will show the crisis. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. In the parrot story. rising crisis and climax of the story. As soon as it was free. One day. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. He could not control his mad.for my meal. They found their mother and talked her about it. the man came back to the chicken house. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. Batara Guru could not bear it. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. Next it will be your turn. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story.
The two step sisters. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. Finally. one of her glass slipper was left behind. on the other hand. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. She danced again and again with the king’s son. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. A few days later. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. At last. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. she said. Cinderella 1
Once upon a time. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. and away went the sisters to it. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. “Now. and it became a beautiful ball gown. The mother was shouting angrily. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. Batara Guru broke his promise. In her hurry. Cinderella”. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. “Why are crying. It fitted perfectly.
D. such as scrubbing the floor. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. Magically. did not work about the house. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Then the earth began to shake. “Well” said the godmother. Volcanoes started to erupt. One day. and
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. “You must leave before midnight”. she was driven to the palace. The earth formed a very big hole. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. the day of the ball came. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. Cinderella?” a voice asked.The mother was very annoyed. They treated Cinderella very badly. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. hardworking. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve.”you’ve been such a cheerful. They were married and live happily ever after. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. In the end.
Complication: In this Cinderella story. “oh. I can’t tell you”. “Yes” said the man. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. once in Laos 2. One day. Resolution: Like complication. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. Then he said. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. He took his plough and hit the tiger. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. “you are so big and strong.
E. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story.
Once there was a farmer from Laos. “No. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. The Smartest Animal. 3. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. “Can I see your intelligence?”. farmer and his buffalo. introducing specific participants. Generic Structure Analysis 1. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. Every morning and every evening. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. Orientation. Complication. said the buffalo. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. the man is very intelligent”. In the last paragraph. After the man went home. The tiger asked. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. But the man answered. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. “it at home”. Resolution. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis
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.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly.
spatula. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. there was a farmer. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. tie. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5.• • • • • •
Using Using Using Using Using Using
saying verb. Add milk and whisk well 4. Goal: showing the purpose 2.
Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. was surprised to action verb. hit time conjunction. one day connectives. plate Method 1. the next day past tense. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. answered thinking verb. saw. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Cook both sides 9. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. season with salt and pepper
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. ¼ cup milk. once. Place on a plate. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. fork. bowl. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. cheese grater. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. after. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. the man tied the tiger. 50 g cheese.
• connectives untuk • adverbials untuk
mengurutkan kegiatan. How does it sound?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. put. Don’t mix. you don't have to. It should be in open area Next. don’t. excluded • Steps. Use regular words. cara yang akurat.10. put the seeding on the soil. Here's a simple checklist to follow. etc • Action verb. Planting Chilies
Eat while warm. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. put it. but it will help. Firstly. Well. planting is a nice activity. mix. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. write your benefit like you talk it.
Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. dsb. misalnya then. put it in another big pot. Langkah-langkah. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google.
misalnya. dsb. not features. dry. • Material. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. 2 centimetres from the top. Read aloud what you've written. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. dsb. tempat. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. the following is a guided information
B. put. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. Example of Procedure
A. take the topic of benefits. Writing For Business
Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. next. wait it. finally. Finally. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. misalnya for five minutes. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. etc • Temporal conjunction.
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. informing on how to plant chillies. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Firstly. firstly. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• pola kalimat imperative. menyatakan rinci waktu. Here are the steps. misalnya turn. Your customers don't care about you. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. dry a handful seeding. while.
• action verbs. Cut.
Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. Mix them up and keep things interesting. write like you talked. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. write. re-reading what have been written . a quarter cup of milk. Next. Use a nice rhythm. three tablespoons cookin oil. Some sentences are long and some are short.Thirdly. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. a pinch of satlt and pepper. etc • Temporal conjunction.
News Item Text What is News Item? 1. Next. fork. cheese grater. firstly. Listen carefully. you need an egg. read. Fifthly. Definition of News Item
SMA Students’ Modul of English 23
. add First. such as. excluded • Steps/ method. How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Well. Edit it necesarily. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. frying pan. First. informing on how to write for business • Material.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor
Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. reread what you have done. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. etc
C. secondly. bowl and plate.re-read what you've done before publishing. showing the method in writing for business. you need some tools. choosing the advantageous topic. etc • Action verb. Don't describe how your company may. fifty gram cheese. spatula. lose the weak words. writing the topic like the way it is talked. Fourthly. to make a cheese omelet.
Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. 2. time. a news report said. place) 3. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. “But this just a suggestion.
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. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Generic Structure of News Item 1. The events are considered newsworthy or important.
Example of Procedure A. Resource of information 3. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. Language Feature of News Item 1. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. Focusing on circumstances 2. The accident. Using material process 4. Elaboration (background. it’s up to them”. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. participant.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Main event 2.
A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. pendapat para ahli.Small Notes
News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. he said in the report. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. tempat kejadian dsb. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. Sources. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Last year. Adeebah Kamarulzaman.
(Source The Jakarta Post. 2008)
Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. The maid. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. komentar saksi kejadian. Latar belakang kejadian. orang yang terlibat. named Suwartin. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex
A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. Background Events. Malaysian Aids Council president. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. less then 10 percent are woman. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. but the number is steadily rising. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. June 01. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Kejadian inti. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. even though they know they have HIV” she said. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. many women who contract HIV are housewives. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. dsb. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. In the past the event was held behind closed door. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan:
Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day.
murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.co. law of serious crimes. Rape. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Using material process. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Background 1. May 6. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.
(Taken from: www. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Indonesian Maid beheaded
An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said.bbc. carry. Resource. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness
C. Islamic law executed more than 130 people.Then the maid was arrested. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. behead.
(Adapted from Reuters. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. 2008)
Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. Saudi Arabia. Hong Kong.news.id)
Generic Structure Analysis Main event. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion?
SMA Students’ Modul of English 26
. Background 3. She had relationship the boy for five months. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. execute. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Background 2. Last year.
similarly. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. feel. But. believe. may. etc • Using adverbial of manner. must. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point.1. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. etc 4. and causal connection. 2. contrastive. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. and social text. hopefully. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power
The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. etc • Using modalities. on the hand. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.
Example of Discussion Text
A. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. should. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. doing homework is not a great idea. could. hope. many times. etc • Using additive. however. deliberately. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. historic.
The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It is reliable. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. so it is not expansive to make. England in 1956. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. It produces small amount of waste. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:
• • • • •
It costs about the same coal. and produces huge amounts of energy.
It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. should. misalnya smoking is harmful. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong.
• relating verbs untuk memberi
informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. although it is reliable. hope. perception and recommendation. alcohol. People are increasingly concerned about this matter.
Kesimpulan. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. seperti perhaps.
. • adverbials of maner.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• general nouns untuk menyatakan
kategori. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. dsb. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. dsb. dsb. hopefully. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. Elaborasi (uraian). believe. This example of discussion text present the two poles. dsb. In many social activities. misalnya similarly. Gagasan Pokok 2. dsb. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. misalnya deliberately. misalnya feel. it is presented the advantages of
Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. Furthermore. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. Elaborasi (uraian). connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. misalnya uniforms.
• thinking verbs untuk
• additives. dsb. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. memberikan informasi secara padu. could 29 be. on the hand. very dangerous. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. must. nuclear power is very. dsb.On the other hand. contrastives dan causal
• detailed noun groups untuk
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• modalities. should have been. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph.
Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. Elaborasi (uraian). It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. however.
(Taken from: www.co. hunting fox. Generic structure of Explanation
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Many farmer and even conservationists. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. always
Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Recommendation. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. scientific and cultural phenomena. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. geography and history text books. farmer. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Using connectives. Using thinking verb. must. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.bbc. social. Using modalities. Contrastive point.
2. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.uk)
Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Hunting Fox
Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. It is often found in science. Supporting point. conservationists. Definition and purposes of Explanation
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural.
B. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. however. believe. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel.
A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. to begin with. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. rain. Language Feature
• • • •
4. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Sequenced explanation.• •
General statement. Featuring generic participant. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. etc Using chronological connection. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. next. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. sun.
Example of Explanation Text A. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.
Penjelasan proses • Penutup. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. adverbial phrases. conjunctions of time dan cause. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. Tsunami always bring great damage.org)
B. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. misalnya the temperature. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. the amount of • bahasa teksni. Why Summer Daylight is Longger
than Winter Daylight In the summer. The earth also moves around the sun. misalnya word chopping. It takes 365 days or a year.
Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. It is called as rotation. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. earthquakes. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. noun phrase.
(simplified from www. This process is called revolution. But that is the case. complex sentences.
The sun seems to rise in the morning. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight
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.panda. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. It causes day and night. misalnya the large cloud. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. action verbs. sosialbudaya. How Day and Night Happen
• • • •
general dan abstract nouns. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front.Small Notes
Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. simple present tense. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. abstract nouns. passive voice. The revolution process causes the changes of the season
C. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. dunia ilmiah. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium.
ictteachers. etc 3. Using action verb 4. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using pasive voice. Using abstract noun. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. Using temporal connective. so. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. daylight. Arguments 3. I feel that when you travel through the country. Focusing on the writer 2. trustworthy. etc 6.uk)
Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using present tense.
(Taken from: www. advantage. Using evaluative words. firstly. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. etc 8. the earth is actually closer to the sun. certainly. then. 2.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Using chronological connection. but. Recommendation 3. you would be forgiven. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using modal adverb. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. surely. Explanation. Using passive voice 9. Using thinking verb 5. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. secondly. policy. Thesis 2.where you only see another car
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Using simple present tense 4. valuable. etc 7. important.co.
stress. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Meanwhile. consumerism and so on. and short sleep duration. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. and the possibility of being aggressive. Recomendatio I feel that country people.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. of course. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. especially violence.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city
Example of Hortatory Exposition
A. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like
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. Recently.every five to ten minutes. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. However. pornography. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Those who want to penalise older . Considering some facts mentioning above.
Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. straws. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. advertising. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. and news advertorial. More dust bins should be put beside each step. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. speech campaign. Both take place as argumentative essays.
B. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. When we look at classroom. example of hortatory
To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. If it is a hortatory text. mineral water cops. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. there papers.the writer thought as stated in the text. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. In the first paragraph. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. and napkin everywhere. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. school corridors and schoolyard. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten
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. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. In many social activities. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. sales letter. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. Basically. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis.
a hortatory text
The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly.
C. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. it will be very hard to looking for job. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. they can find the dust bins easily. Where should be after High School?. when they think about straightly seeking job. As the alternative method of studying. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. the available time will be more flexible for them. So when students want to throw away their litters. it will be quite confusing. When they think about continuing study. As result. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. So. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. In the other hand. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study.meters. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. they will think hard about the time and cost. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. In the same way. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home.
make. public place. Millions from Property Market. misalnya I believe .government dsb. misalnya We must preserve. Albert Smith is the proof. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. secondly. a hortatory
Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum:
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian .misalnya policy. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. dsb. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. dsb. misalnya should be. dsb. misalnya species of animals. Modal verbs. Technical verbs. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Recommendation. etc Using thinking verb. etc which will be discussed in general 2. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. misalnya certainly. misalnya important. Relating verbs.D. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. reward Using action verb.we. Generic Structure of Report 1. valuable. Kalimat pasif (passive voice)
exposition text Dear friend. Connectives. are you tired?. Thinking verbs. part per part . we must save. misalnya. dsb. misalnya firstly. doesn’t seem to have been . General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. dsb. give up. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. there is a way out of financial problem. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Action verbs. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. he drives a sport car. dsb. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect
• • • • • • • •
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Argument.dsb. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Modal adverbs. felt Using simple present tense. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. We can show the way to give up work. plant. animal. dsb. now there is a way out. as it is.
etc Using simple present tense
4. rivers. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. one of the most
The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour.
Example of Report Text
A. and lakes.
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. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Platypus lives in streams. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. and woolly layer of fur.• •
Using conditional logical connection. A group. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. so. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. In the other hand. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. beating the water furiously with their wings. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus' eyes and head are small. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. stating general classification. the animal of platypus. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. driving the fish before them. a report text
Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. perhaps two dozen birds. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Platypus. when.
action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. istilah teknis. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). misalnya. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. apa adanya. dsb. dsb. qualities. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. male platypus does not need any burrow. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure
General Clasification. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis.
Spoof Text What is Spoof?
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. kegunaannya jika non natural. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. lingkungan. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. dsb. dsb. keterangan. dsb. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. benda buatan manusia. dan klasifikasinya. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. misalnya lizards cannot fly.Description. Platypus lives in streams. habits or behaviors. logical connective. in terms of parts. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• • • • • •
general nouns. the animal of platypus conditional. atau gejala-gejala sosial. but. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. etc Small Notes
Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu.
happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Focusing on people. Events 3. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important
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. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. ate. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Orientation 2.
Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. Using action verb. “That Phone is Off”
Soon after he left college. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. ran. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Dave found a nice office. Using adverb of time and place 4. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. animals or certain things 2. 2. etc 3. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text
A. Told in chronological order 4. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Twist 3. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office.1. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.’ replied the man.
The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. benda tertentu. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. didn’t he?” said the
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. “If that is what you want.
B. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. binatang. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Event 1: Being rich. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur.Small Notes
Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. conversation on the phone. He had not left the country yet. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). verbs. terduga atau lucu). Then the man said to Dave. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone”
Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. Event 2: He had his new office. run. misalnya eat. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. Instead leaving the country. I want you to leave the country. He suddenly became a 1. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure
call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. “Hey Abu Nawas. “You want me. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. Then “Remember. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. In his office. “Yes. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. Saved by Stilts
The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. no children. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house.
“This is a private conversation”
(From: English New Concept)
Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. The play was very interesting. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. I turned around again. look at you. They did not pay any attention. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. “I remember exactly what you said. I could not hear the actors.guards.
(Adapted from S. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. They were talking very loudly. young man and young woman. were talking noisily. You walk on stilts like a child. You have not left this country”. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. The king was not able to say anything. I do not step on the ground. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. The king wondered and said “Abu. I had a very good seat. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. Private Conversation
Last week I went to the theatre.
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. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I have been walking on this stilts. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas.In the end. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. I do not step on the ground of this country”. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron)
Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country
C. And since yesterday. I could not bear it.I got very angry.I did not enjoy it. The King continued “And now. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. Your Majesty. So you see. I turned around. The guards reported what they had seen to the king.
He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. So. "Take it to the zoo!". When he arrived in the party. He put his coat and said. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. he aske his coat to eat the served food
E. they just shook the head. Penguin in the Park
Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. He took it to a policeman and said. nobody looked at me. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. “It’s none of your business. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. the policeman saw the man in the same park. “Eat the food. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”.
D. The man was still carrying the penguin. Nasreddin’s Coat
One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. “When I came here with my old clothes. "I certainly
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. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. The host at once got up and came to meet him. Getting Nasreddin's answer. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. The next day. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. you give food to my coat instead of me”. It’s a private conversation”. Then I went home and put on my best clothes.
So. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. first. the next day
Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Even. was. They were in the park Event1. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. in the park Told in chronological order. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. policeman Using action verb. then. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. were. carry.did. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. I. heard. once. change. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Examples and structures of the text
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. my group. etc • Using chronological connection. The following day. place and time 2. etc • Using linking verb. Generic Structure of Recount 1. etc • Using simple past tense 4. go. saw. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. He. chronological order by days. look. penguin. Reorientation: It is optional. walk up Using adverb of time and place. etc • Using action verb. today I am taking it to the movie".
They had booked fourteen days tour. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. on Example of Recount text
A. They gave them news paper and magazine to read.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They gave them food and drink. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They had variety of food.
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. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. Richard with two sons. They are Mr. read. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. It can be what the writer has done. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. and Mrs. There was a film for their entertainment. This includes travel and accommodation. the thing is an experience. they inserted a key-card to open the door. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. The officers were pleasant. Vacation to London
Mr. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. We stayed at David and Della’s house. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. hear. It was scary.
Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. On the third floor. Mr. They slept part of the way. The two week in London went by fast.
B. Instead of keys for the room. They went to London. Between Recount and Narrative
Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. In writer's point of view. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Richard’s family was on vacation. They had a very pleasant flight. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Then. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. At the end of the 14-day. The room had perfect view of the park.
The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. It is a busy but quiet town. misalnya and. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur.
C. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. The first stop was at Batubulan. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. misalnya David. sleep. The next stop was Celuk. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. the second was to Ubud. Pengenalan. Events. we dsb. funny. misalnya beautiful. misalnya yesterday. On the other hand. Reorientation. after that. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. what happened on Sunday. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. kejadian atau kegiatan. he was ready. The event happened smoothly. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. On the day of the tour. 46 slowly dsb. a center of stone sculpture. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. waktu dan cara. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. the monkey. kejadian atau kegiatan. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. In simple way. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. past tense. dsb. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. Rekaman peristiwa. She was happy dsb. di mana dan kapan. It reveals the conflict among the participants. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. then. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. the on Tuesday. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. Visiting Bali
Recount (Laporan peristiwa. misalnya go. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. but. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. run dsb. then on Monday. The first one was to Singaraja.
• • •
. misalnya We went to the zoo. Mass is a tourist center
SMA Students’ Modul of English
nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. recount describes series of events in detail. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. dsb. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour.Small Notes and felt. at my house. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place.
Even I could not move my car at all. were • Using action verb. my car lunched on one side. to the left. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. Although nothing was left. then. Events. left. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. I did not know that it was an earthquake. in the town. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. stating the writer's personal note. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. was. like matchsticks. the ceremony was quite elaborate. There were rocks everywhere. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. The car lunched to one side. I thought I got flat tire. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. suddenly • Using linking verb. I was on the car las week. Overall. Re-orientation. I • Using chronological connectives. made. When I reached my town. all his day was spent on the beach. He was quiet satisfied. etc. I was trapped by the rock. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. and. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. introducing the participant.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. earthquake happened. using first person point of view. When the earthquake happened. etc E. My Horrible Experience
Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. describing a series of event which happened. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. Several days before the ceremony was done. moved. grandpa’s body was kept
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. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. It took about a week. walked.
D. I was on the car. I was on my car. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground.
Finally. my uncle.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. After that. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. On the last day. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. you find words and phrases used to start. Questions 1. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. there were also buffalo matches. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. we were feasting. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. During the day. a series of events in chronological order. They were great matches. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. my brother. Then. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Finally. Then. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. Review Text
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• • • •
. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. Meanwhile. and dancing. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. The funeral was performed in two phases. After that. Those words and phrases are: First. and end your composition. First. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. However. A recount text has an orientation. In the text. and then moved the corpse to face north. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. chanting. In the night. connect a sentence with the next one. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place.
Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. quality of the product which will be known publicly. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. After clearly explanation. Using long and complex clauses 4. Examples and structures of the text
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. valuable. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. services which want to be sold. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. uniqueness. Using metaphor 4. Definition Review is one of text genres. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Focus on specific participants 2. It can be product. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. It is personal idea about the product. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. etc. 3. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. Using adjectives 3. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. As I said in my previous post.What is review text 1. worthy. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. It states the parts. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Dominant Language features: 1. useful. or just a site which want to be known publicly.
Still a really good book. for example . When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding
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. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. I actually liked the ending (and yes.housekeeping is still housekeeping.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. especially with being a teenager and all. and ultimately satisfying..the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. and parts of it do seem long. magical or no. I cried!) as sad as it was. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. this was not my favorite. with some editing it would have been great. fast-paced. I was truly moved by the last page. In some (Interpretati instances this works. He goes from being a warm-hearted. and this part I loved. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. A few other changes in this book . The stories were bright.. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. however. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. depressing feel. intriguing.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end.
Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here.
does and will do daily. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. Similarly. easy and not complicated design. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. Eyeglasses for children. The experts who have grammatical. It is real. The translation experts. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. It straightly goes to the end user. Titanium. lexical. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. aluminum and rimless frame are available. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language.the trend. the daily activities are worthily documented. The site is her effort to record of what she did.
There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. if he works with Farsi translation.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. woman and man are available choice. If we visit the site. In certain case. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. it will be quite difficult to make translation. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. However. The site is quite simple but very informative. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. For Rosemarie. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . Again. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
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secondly prepare the cup. phenomena. In the other hand. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. is the scope of the written object. For example how to make a cup of tea. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. product case or problem. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. first boil water. It is such word. wheel style. how to make a good kite. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. report is written after getting careful observation. descriptive text will convey more focus. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. They give the detail description on something. between report and descriptive text. Procedure. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. How a tornado form. However if they are analyzed carefully. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It will talk about bicycle in general. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. it belongs to report text. lengh. If we talk about. etc is the best example of the procedure text. colour. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. and so on. What make different. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. animal and scientific object. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. Mostly. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. etc. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Explanation. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is.
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. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. goods. In short. its parts. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. eg: bicycle. physical strengh. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal.
read. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It reveals the conflict among the participants. How a tornado form. phenomena. goods. It can be what the writer has done. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. first boil water. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. what happened on Sunday. secondly prepare the cup. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. On the other hand. recount describes series of events in detail. the on Tuesday. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. In writer's point of view. then on Monday. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. For example how to make a cup of tea.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Explanation is such a scientific written material. and felt. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. They give the detail description on something. and so on. hear. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. product case or problem. Explanation. The event happened smoothly. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. It is such word. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types
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. how to make a good kite. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Procedure. etc is the best example of the procedure text. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. the thing is an experience. In simple way. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text.
Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 14. Thesis 2. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 25. analytical exposition. They are narrative. 24. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. These variations are known as GENRES. Using thinking verbs 4. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. 16. 15. Generic Structure:
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. 17. hortatory exposition. Using general and abstract noun 8. spoof. descriptive. texts are divided into several types. report. review. Abstract 2. recount. Coda. Using adjective 6. Using action verbs 3. 18. discussion. explanation. Using exclamations. 22. Reaction 5. Orientation 3. 23. and news item. Arguments 3. anecdote. Crisis 4. Using modals 2. 20. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. procedure. 19. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Using material process 3. 26. Using adverbs 5.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used.
g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Explanation 3. Arguments for and against 3. Using action verbs 3. General statement 2. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using noun phrase 5. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Conclusion Dominant Language Features:
.1. Orientation 2. Using passive voice 4. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Materials/Equipments 3. Using adverb 4. Using action verbs 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using adverbs : time. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Resolution 5. Short. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Evaluation 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using action verb 3. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Goal/Aim
SMA Students’ Modul of English
2. place and manner. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Complication 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Issue 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using technical terms 7. Background event(s) 3.
Using action verb 3. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using modals 3. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do.1. Using thinking verb 4. Generic Structure 1. In simple word. Using adverb 4. place or thing in detail. Using adjective 7. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using Simple Present Tense
. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Thesis 2. Description Language Features: 1. Using adverbs 6. General classification 2. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using thinking verbs 5. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using action verbs
SMA Students’ Modul of English
4. Using modality 7. Using general and abstract noun 5. Identification 2. Using technical terms 8. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using general and abstract noun 9. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. as it is. Arguments 3.
we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Orientation 2. myth. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverb 4. In the contrary. Evaluation 5. Event(s) 3. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. etc while recount text is found in biography. Using long and complex clauses 4. Focus on specific participants 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. social conflict or psychological conflict. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Using metaphor
. Evaluation 3. Interpretative Recount 4. Using Past Tense 2. folklore. whether Simple Past Tense. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time
SMA Students’ Modul of English
or place. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Orientation 2.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Orientation 2. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Using action verb 3. or Past Perfect Tense. Using action verb 3. Event(s) 3. Using adjectives 3. fable.
sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. tanggal. label. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. 4. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. spoof dsb. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 7. 3. 6. Continuous text misalnya narrative. dsb. 8. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. biasanya tentang nama. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 11. 2. 10. diagram dsb. penjelasan. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage?
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. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. 9. tempat. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. tabel.exposition. grafik. 5. descriptive. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. 1. tahun. map. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea.
Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog.b) c)
∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. fluffy. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is …
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. And cute. it is small. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menentukan makna kata.
What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard
2. readers to do something good. outside of the classrooms. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. they can find the dust bins easily. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required
3. school corridors and school yard.EXERCISES. in every ten meters. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. So when students want to throw away their litters. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. a) Analytical exposition
To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. According to the writer. They put their litters on the proper places. When we look at classrooms. more dust bins…. and napkins here and there. a number of dust bins should be increased. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. there are paper mineral water cups. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. Besides. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins.. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. 1. What is the writer’s intention? To …. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. and some more also the corridors. straws. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters..
song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. The generic structures of the text are …. religion. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Secondly. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. From the elaboration above. which is just what many learners look for sample text. In addition. even revolution. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. shopping malls. practicing selective listening comprehension. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. What is the text about …. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. translating songs. Last but not least. 5. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning
6. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Firstly. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. lexically and poetically. Although usually simple.Learning English
Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. learning vocabulary. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. They provide variety and fun. patriotism and yeas. songs in general also use simple conversational language. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. spelling and culture. place or time reference. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. songs are relaxing. Furthermore. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. with a lot of repetition.
and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group.. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition
14.” The underlined word refers to …. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. Therefore.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. smoking in restaurants is impolite. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2
10. Based on the text. not just in restaurants. It must not be allowed because it is rude. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities
Smoking in Restaurant
Smoking in restaurants is just not on.9. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English
. 11. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.“They provide variety and fun. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The word reasons mean…. Firstly.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12.Since we can find a thesis. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…..The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
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20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
It's a pleasure to meet you. boss. Very nice to meet you. This is my friend. Likewise. father. Hi Jack.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. friend. Watson. Ms. I'm Linda
2. Mary Jones. Harris. Introducing someone else my name is. Nice to meet you.
Nice to meet you too. Penny Pitcher.Introducing your self and other people
Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. And you. Mr. Harris. my my my my my my my my my
brother. mother. Bob.. I'm.
Pleased to meet you. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Carrie. • I want to introduce you to …. teacher.
How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Cindy.. Ritter. Jack. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Mr. I don't believe we've met before.. sister. Mrs. co-worker. student..
Adib. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. Adib : Hi. Hi. we still have half an hour before the class starts. this is Retno. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. hasn't it? How are things with you?
Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry.g. and Retno are new students. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. They meet at the students’ orientation course. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. I’m Arnys. e. a restaurant. are you a new student. Situation: Adib. Shall we go to the canteen?.
Greeting (memberi salam)
Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Arnys. My name is Adib. hotel. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box.g. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. By the way.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Retno. Adib : Anyway. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. I am. too? Adib : I’m a new student too.
(informal) Would you like to . .
Saying good bye
Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. thanks. before leaving. Not so bad. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. thanks.
Asking how someone is Saying how you are
See you. • Good bye. . Bye. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. See you soon /later /tomorrow. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : …
Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Very well. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne.Expressions
Functions • Greeting someone
• • • • • • • • • •
Good morning/afternoon/evening. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Do you wanna . shake hands with other Virga :… women. . thanks. . thank you. . (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71
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. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. .
• • • • • • • • • Do you want to . . .
Receiving .Yes.I’d be happy/glad to accept ..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner
Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)
Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations?
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..? Would you like . Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. I’d be delighted to. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it..I’d like very much .a chocolate bar? ..Some responds of inviting..That’s good ide
Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like..I’d love to .. Expressing Responses
Thank you You are welcome. let’s not..to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . .
complimented you on your necktie. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. helped carry your grocery bags. you very much. Thanks. Responding to compliments
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about….
Congratulations (ucapan selamat)
Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. I need it.
Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations
You look cute with that hat. Happy new year.
Other expression Expression • •
• • • • •
What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your …
Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. returned your lost wallet.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Thank you. Happy birthday to you. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • •
Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. (What do you say?)
Example: "Thank you so much. I really like it!"
b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone
has just bought dinner for you.
it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .
Special Days . That’s a nuisance d. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . That’s too bad e. It’s nice of you to say so. holidays and other special occasions. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.• • •
Oh. Expressing of sympathy on minor
It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days.. How kind of you to say so. What’s pity c. That’s pity f.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . I'm so proud of you!
Wedding / Anniversary
Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)
A. Oh dear
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. What’s shame b. not really.
I enjoyed it I love it. I’m really sorry for them d. j. I’m really sad to … c. I’m delighted. e. I’m sorry to hear that b. b. g. I feel disappointed.
a.. d. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)
Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased
Other expressions Expression Pleasure
a. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident
a. How dreadful!
C. i. d. How Awful! d. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Goodness! b.B. …. I feel … b. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances
a. f. I’m so happy …. Send my deepest condolence! f. feel unpleased with …. h. I’m sorry about that c. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. k. I feel …. Please accept my condolences!
Pleasure. c. l. How terrible! c. m. It was terrifi c.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with …
… … … …
Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating!
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.Satisfaction. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.
. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat)
Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. • Yes. say • Absolutely. I feel…
Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right!
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. In my opinion….? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me …
Agreement/approval.. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. In my opinion. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. … If you ask me. I think the other one’s better. tidak setuju)
Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I agree • I know what you mean. As I see. • I am with you • Definitely. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more.
kita bisa mengatakan: Well. kelegaan)
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. No. kegelisahan)
Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about ….
Fear. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree
Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal)
Examples: No.• • • • • • • •
Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I don't think that's what happened. that's not a good idea. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing
Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool
Pain. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry.
• I’m glad it was done.... it’s very painful! • Oh./I feel ill. it’s killing me! 2. • I’m sick. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew
Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)
Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it
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. • Ugh. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief!
Other expressions 1. • Thank God for . Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt
Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.... Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I feel sick.
" This is not very strong. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really)
Verb like love
Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV
Extra a lot
Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. kejengkelan)
Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed
. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV
About the adverb 'really'. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. BUT "I don't really like it. It means that you do not like something. but it is not a very strong dislike.
I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward
You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick
There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. I was so ashamed. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …?
In Formal Situations In Informal Situations
Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. I won’t Not likely You must be joking
Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure.
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.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. I’m extremely unhappy about this. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . That’s a real embarrassment. Informal Situations … really makes me mad.. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I will.
. Sure. There may have been a misunderstanding about.. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.. Don't get me wrong... Maybe you forgot to. but. I'm sorry to bother you.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.Palupi : OK. I think you might have forgotten to. Right away. but I think we should.
There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Certainly. It's your fault for (doing something).. Excuse me if I'm out of line.. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • •
I'm sorry to have to say this but.menyalahkan)
Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it....
Complaint. Of course. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright.. but.. Blame (keluhan..
Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.
. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Pete. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. I'll clear up later.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies?
Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. I didn't mean to lose your book.... meminta maaf)
Regret Much to my regret Sadly. to ask for forgiveness. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding
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... Apology (penyesalan.. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly... Sorry for taking your DVD. I'd like to apologise for.
To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'!
Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. I'm so sorry. I …. Sorry for. Examples I'm really sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.simply
Regret. to express regret an exclamation a word. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.
worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude
Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan)
Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability..... there is a possibility . There is a little chance that …..
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1. Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game. • Is it possible to …? • Yes. It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game.… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…?
Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible ...this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness.. distress. There is a good chance that …. yet.
It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home
3.you.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. WAKTU
Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.she.? it.you. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.she. doing something are: 4.they.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Now At present At this moment To day
Lately Recently For Since
. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….
Expressions capability are :
I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….
TENSES TENSES POLA KET. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.she.they.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he..
they. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Before/when + S + V2
For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2
.it Were utk S= you.he.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau)
hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.we
Yesterday Last… …ago
Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.she.
already yet lately just
V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.
Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past
If + past perfect
. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv
SMA Students’ Modul of English
By + ket.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang)
V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing
At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow
Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.
Fred : Juda. a. practised d. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.masa lampau. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am.is. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense)
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Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. are Was.does/am. have been practising b. is. were Been be
Present Past Perfect Future/modal
Contoh soal 1. the telephone rang twelve times. was parctising e. “Srimpi”.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. will be practising c.
Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. have been living c. was living e. cleaned e. a. have been having lunch c. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. a. worked e. Iwan : Yes. am living d.2. they are succesful. will start b. have lunch d. has been working b. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. works d. would have started d. have been cleaning c. a. will have had lunch b. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. a. If we don”t hurry. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. starts c. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. will have started e. will be started
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. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. will have worked c. a. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. My family ____ when the postman arrived. will have lived b. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. will have lunch e. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. clean d. were cleaning b.
a. a. carried e. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. is still looking for a job 4. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. have been 6. Is it right? Student : Yes. have carried c. has got a new job d. He ____ ill for a week. caused d. was carrying 3. was e. will cause 5. started to work 6 months a go c. a.2. have caused c. would be b. has stopped looking for a job b. a. When airport are located in the center of citied. has been e. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. This sentence means that Ann ___. forgot c. sir. has been b. He ____ there for three weeks.
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. I forget to bring your book. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. has forgotten d. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. a. is d. will have been c. have been c. am carrying b. a. am d. had been 9. was d. would forget 8. will be b. Learn all these. but I ____ there many times. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. will have been c. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. has worked for six months e. My father is still in Bali. forgets b. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. carry d. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. causes e. was e. had forgotten e. were causing b. a. had been 7.
Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). learn d. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. I ____ them by then. sir. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. would be attended DIRECT . am learning 10. a. have learnt e. will be attending d. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. how. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. a. has attended b. dan tempat. She studies business.Student : All right. where. will be learning b. keterangan waktu. attended c.00 tomorrow. when. Reni goes to her university every morning. struktur kalimat. She ___ the lectures. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. who. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. will have learnt c. has been attending e. why. pronoun (kata ganti orang).INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung.
Direct (kalimat langsung)
Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been
Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous …
why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. if Mary was absent d. The baby is sleeping. he goes to his country c. I am very noisy b. a. mom. opened my mouth
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. to open my mouth b. if I opened my mouth e. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. not to be so noisy e. why Mary had been absent c.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. that Mary had been absent b. he went to his country b. Herman : Okay. that I open his mouth d. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. to be not so noisy c. had gone to his country d. he has gone to his country e. Herman. I wasn’t so noisy d. a. He said ____ the previous day. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. why Mary was absent e. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4.
4. what I was doing then. c. b. he asked. would forget 3. I forgot to bring your book. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. he does not clean e. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. b. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. Mira closed the window. e. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. d. what were you doing now. Closed the window. e. a. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. c. “What are you doing now?”. he hasn’t cleaned 2. Mira. He asked me ____ a. I hadn’t cleaned d. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. he would not clean c. It was windy outside.
5. forgets b. Does Mira close the window. forgot c. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. he headn’t cleaned b. “ ___________” a. I got a headache. It was windy outside. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. It is windy outside. what are you were doing now d.c. Mother said. has forgotten d. had forgotten e. a. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. It is windy outside. what I am doing now. Mira closed the window. Anto : I am sorry Lina. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. he asked me ____”. Ari : What did he say.
If he could go with us d. Mean____ a. a. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. d.
10. can he go with us e. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. She didn’t say the children should noise d. “Can I find you a hotel?”. not to spend e. she said. My friend said to me. did I have an appointment d. c. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. She said the children didn’t make noise c. She told the children not to make noise. to finish your work b. children”. Father said. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. do not spend d. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. that I had an appointment c. not spending b. b. wether he goes with us c. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. a. how was my appointment e. Slamet. e. finish your work d.
8. he went with us 6. “don’t make noise.a. e. going with us b. whether I had appointment
7. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel.
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. not spend c. to finish my work c. She told the children don’t make noise b. when is my appointment b. finished your work e.
S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week
Tenses Simple Present Simple Past
Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3
Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu
S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3
Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past)
S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3
Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3
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.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat.
was kicking b. a.? a. will be unloaded b. were sold b. to be abolished c. has been postponed c. Y : Really. are unloaded c. The announcement ____ twice. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present.Perfect Continuous Future/modal
been + V3 being + V3 be + V3
Contoh Soal 1. has to be postponed b. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. she ____ a. were being unloaded e. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. kicks d. have been unloaded d. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan
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. was it to abolish b. had been sold c. are sold e. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. kicked e. did it abolish e. is sold d. was being postponed e. a. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. A : Look! The girl is crying. was postponed d. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. was kicked c. a. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. when…. was it abolishing d.
demolishing d. will be built e. R. the baby is well looked after b. is being destroyed c. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. is being built c. is born d. will be born 2. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. The passive form is ____ a. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. has been rewarded c.1.A. was rewarded e. had been demilishing b. destroyed d. was born e. a. is being rewarded b. the baby is being looked after well e. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. was being demolishing
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. is being demolished e. a. will clean b. a. rewarded d. was destroyed 6. will build d. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. has arranged c. had destroyed e. was being cleaned d. is being cleaned e. is arranged d. She looks after the baby well. cleaned c. the baby was looked after well c. a. a. the baby would be well looked after 7. have arranged b. would be built 4. will be destroyed b. has been cleaned 5. has been born c. is demolishing c. has been built b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. a. would be born b. A big dam ___ in this area next year. was arranged e. have been arranged 3. a. the baby will be well looked after d. will be rewarded 8.
Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b.9. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. a. has promised d. took c. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. has been promising b. is being taken e. will be taken d. was being promised c. a. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. he ____ to the nearest hospital. yaitu: 1. will be promised 10. was taken b. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most
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. will be promised e. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3.
dll. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. -ow. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang
berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. dll. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. was/were. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. may. -le. have/has. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian)
Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada.c. shall. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. did. can. had. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Contoh: large larger largest 4. -er. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. will. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman.
Kalau kalimatnya (+).). Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). (jika saya punya uang. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Contoh: If I have much money. Apa yang diucapkan. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. itulah yang diharapkan. 3. I will buy a new car. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Future Conditional (type 1)
Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence :
1. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana.• •
Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. I would have written you a letter. I would go to the beach with you.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been
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. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya.
Their car has been stolen. I met him last week. which. (him = the man. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. They are printed in English.
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. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. I bought it last year. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. your. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my.) 2. his. whose.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). their. our. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. of which. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. whom. her. Contoh: We saw the people. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. its. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much.
Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. sebuah benda. Its surface is not smooth. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu)
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. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Where 8. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store.
Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. I got the mechanic to repair my car. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). 2.
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. The manager gets the letter typed.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. The manager has the letter typed. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. Jogging makes us fresh. I had mechanic repair my car. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Gerund digunakan bila: 1. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2).
(Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.V better than radio.to be used to.their.3. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.
Contoh : My hobby is cycling. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1
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. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . 3. Setelah possessive adjective (my. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist
Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. before dll. get used to. 6.Dita would rather watch T.I like T. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. on. than plays a video game. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . 4.her.Amir’s.V ketimbang main video game) 4.our. 5.V . can’t help/can’t bear.Juned prefers combro to deblo. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Before leaving. he said nothing.V. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. to be busy.Kokom likes reading better than watching T.your. to be worth. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .Dona prefers dancing to singing. . his.
maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . we must prepare the ingredients.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. e.Although it was raining. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. after. first. or.He is both wise and good. While he was reading her novel. we put some sauce and salt. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) .Amir and I go to school everyday. c.
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. after that. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. Since I have no money. Finally.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. b. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Next. we put them into frying pan. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. b. when. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. he come on time. Menunjukan waktu: before. although/though. for. c. a. c. somebody knocked on the door. We went home after the rain stopped. Contoh: . 1. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. 2. since.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. next. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. if. as soon as. d. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . then. that. I can’t treat you.You can read this book if you like. d.Contoh: . Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. a. After that. yaitu: 1. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. finally. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. dll. a. while. 3. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. but. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . b.
The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.He is not only active but also clever.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .