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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
.................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .....................................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ..........................................................................................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ...........102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH.......................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).................................99 QUESTION TAGS ...................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ................................................................................104 GERUND ...105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)............................................................................................................................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...................................................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .......................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.........................................
Narrative 11. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Recount 6. Explanation 2. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Procedure 12. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. News Items 13. Descriptive 10. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. 2. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. The language feature. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Hortatory Exposition 3. These types of text are. Report 4. 1. Review 7. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Spoof 5. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. why is the text made?. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Analytical Exposition 8. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Anecdote 9.
you may find it hard to sleep at night. Argument Firstly. which causes them to die. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. as we all know. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Thirdly. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. Additionally. Secondly. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Reiteratio In conclusion. lung cancer. or concentrate on your homework. Smoking however is not good for every body else. cars create pollution. In one hour in smoky room. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . the city is very busy. it is better to look at the fact. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. and especially talk to someone. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. cars. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. As we all know. cars are very noisy. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. If you live in the city. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. the risk is nineteen greater. Example of Analytical Exposition A.
paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. As the US. Furthermore. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. In this example of analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. That wil be true if the conditions. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments.
• Abstract nouns. secondly. misalnya Many people believe.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. misalnya It is important. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. misalnya She must save. • Connectives. decide which computer or laptop they need. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. • Bahasa evaluatif. we. misalnya we must preserve. (Simplified from the jakartapos. students need more to reach their progressive development. and then complete the transaction. Secondly. leaded petrol car. First. dsb. pen. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. drawing book. Additionally. • Technical verbs. misalnya C. misalnya policy. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. ruler and such other stuff. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. • Action verbs. dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. dsb • Modal verbs. dsb. • Modal adverbs. dsb. Penguatan pernyataan. • Relating verbs. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. this method will help student to get better understanding. government. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. dsb. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. misalnya species of animals. • Thinking verbs. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. misalnya firstly. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally.dsb. • Reiteration . eraser. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. dsb. students need book. misalnya car. in this multimedia era. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. misalnya certainly. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. dsb. pollution. The students just need to brows that online shop.
Students just need to decide which type they really need. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . According to Nida. Therefore. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. India translation will grow better and. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types.delivered to the students' houses. It seems Indonesia. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. If Hindi translation is provided. D. Arabic translation. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. From all of that. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. E. That is really easy and save time and money. Career in Translation Functionally. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. India is likely being an English speaking country. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money.
because. Using exclamation words. 3. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products.is inserted at the end of each article. listen to this 3. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. 2. Using action verb. then. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Incident. For instance. etc 2. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. write. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . etc • Causal conjunction . Abstract 2. Using imperative. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. it's wonderful!. Crisis 4. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. it's awful!. etc 5. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. afterward 6. do you know what? 4. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Using conjunction of time. go. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Using rhetoric question. Orientation 3. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Using simple past tense 4.
their children to America. who was only three at the time. so we set to. They had gotten afterwards. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. there were being quarantined for long days. passport. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. write. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. whole business. dsb. The family worked and saved. enough money. The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. The family dreams were dashed. spitting and hissing at us. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. America. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. Anna. The doctor sewed up the boy. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. and turned on the tap. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. However few days before their departure. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. He shed tears of disappointment. nine children. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. dsb. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. seperti then. misalnya go.
(Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. describing the phenomenon in parts. It was unbelievable but it was. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. 3. The ship. identifying the phenomenon to be described. the mighty Titanic.Five days latter. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. qualities. It made they were being quarantined. 2. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. When the dream will come true. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. • Using simple present tense 4. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. • Description. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. or/and characteristics. The Clak family should have been on that ship. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. but because of the bitten son by a dog. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. they were left behind. They had to forget their plan. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. or thing. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. had shank. When the father heard the news. place. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . there is something wrong last minute before it. They had dream to travel to America. He thanked God for saving their lives. The father was angry with his son and God. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. You have and so do I.
a grass amphitheatre. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. all her friends. Sydney. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She always pays much attention on her appearance. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. In three years1 time. Example of Description A. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. In 1964. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . Recently. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. yet retaining its beautiful site. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. The style. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. This shoes really matches on her. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. bright color. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. When she are walking on that shoes. She really have perfect appearance. Today. in 2004.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. a railway station is under construction. She is beautiful. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. She said that the products covered all genders. This year. native plants and eucalypts. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. She is really mad on that shoes. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. attractive and trendy.
identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. casual. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification.Budhist temple. valuable • Using simple present tense. The upper three are circular. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Borobudur is well-known. The products provide varieties of choice. Borobudur temple • Description. Indonesia.8 km of passage and starways. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Cambodia. The way to the summit extends through some 4. B. Ballet. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India.The temple is constructed. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Central Java.she has. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend.
sharp white fangs. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. enough money to take Snow White. a sweet young lady. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4.my cat. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. misalnya teacher. My mum is realy cool. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. 2. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. • action verbs. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. better or worse 3. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. • berbagai macam adjectives. Description. dsb. classifying. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. Misalnya: I have many pets. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. misalnya. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. two strong legs. bersifat describing. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. numbering. perilaku umum. sifat-sifat (characteristic). but my favourite one is a cat. It has very thick fur. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. dsb. dsb. White. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). misalnya. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. • simple present tense. kualitas. misalnya fast. dsb. dsb.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. dsb. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. house.
It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. Example of Narative A. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura.” Snow White said. There they found Snow White sleeping. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. She saw the dwarfs. The psychological conflict inside Maura. The third sheik.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. Maura asked them for something to eat. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. “If you wish. One by one she discarded them. who was called Hakim. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. “My name is Snow White. you may live here with us. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. “Without question. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. The first gave her some left over food. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. They went inside. which she strikes against herself. one of the dwarfs. As they were about to have dinner. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. said. After dinner. They were also rich and strong. They want to know what next will happen.” Doc. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. had many suitors. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. in what way she will decide who the best is. who received a plate of delicious meat. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. One evening. Hakim. Then Snow White woke up. The following day. “what is your name?” Snow White said. “Oh could I? Thank you. The dwarfs said. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him.
Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. the man really got very angry. At the first. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. The parrot could say every word. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. except one word. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. misalnya. phrase. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). waktu. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. two red apples. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. Resolution. Masalah. the parrot would not say it. stayed. stepsisters. misalnya then. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. misalnya here. He could not bear it. housework. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. happily ever after. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. The name of the place was Catano. soon. before that. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. a man had a wonderful parrot. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. dsb. konflik dalam cerita. I will cut the chicken 17 . “You know. There was no other parrot like it. dsb. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. dsb. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. Although he tried hard to teach. • action verbs dalam past tense. Penyelesaian masalah. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. dsb. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. Pengenalan tokoh. in the mountain. climbed. misalnya.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Complication.dsb. Then he continued to humble. long black hair.
Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. He liked fishing. A man and his parrot took place once time. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . She attracted Batara Guru so much. They were married happily. the man came back to the chicken house. readers see the problem is finished.for my meal. 4 are describing the complication. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. After that he left the chicken house. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. Next it will be your turn. At the moment. He felt in love with that fish-woman. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. As soon as it was free. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. He opened the door and was very surprised. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. paragraph 2. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. In that parrot story. there was a handsome man. stupid parrot”. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. There were three death chickens on the floor. 3. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. C. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. To fix this problem. It will show the crisis. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. The next day. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. the man attempted to teach the bird. rising crisis and climax of the story. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. They had two daughters. Batara Guru could not bear it. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. he caught a fish. One day. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. The daughters were crying. They found their mother and talked her about it. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. In the parrot story. I will eat you too. He made the fish free. The fish begged him to set it free. He could not control his mad. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. That was the smartest parrot.
uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. Then the earth began to shake. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. one of her glass slipper was left behind. In her hurry. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Magically. Finally. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Cinderella?” a voice asked. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. on the other hand. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. They treated Cinderella very badly. People believed that the big hole became a lake. did not work about the house. They were married and live happily ever after. At last. there was a young girl named Cinderella. such as scrubbing the floor. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. the day of the ball came. D. Volcanoes started to erupt. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. “You must leave before midnight”. “Now. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. The mother was shouting angrily. The earth formed a very big hole. A few days later. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. she said.”you’ve been such a cheerful. It fitted perfectly. “Why are crying. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. The two step sisters. and it became a beautiful ball gown. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. and away went the sisters to it. Batara Guru broke his promise. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. hardworking. “Well” said the godmother.The mother was very annoyed. She danced again and again with the king’s son. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. In the end. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. One day. she was driven to the palace. Cinderella”. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time.
The tiger asked. “it at home”. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Generic Structure Analysis 1.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. Resolution. But the man answered. “you are so big and strong. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. the man is very intelligent”. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. Once there was a farmer from Laos. Resolution: Like complication. One day. He took his plough and hit the tiger. E. “oh. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. I can’t tell you”. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. “Yes” said the man. Orientation. After the man went home. “No. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. said the buffalo. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Complication: In this Cinderella story. farmer and his buffalo. once in Laos 2. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . “Can I see your intelligence?”. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. The Smartest Animal. In the last paragraph. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Every morning and every evening. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. Then he said. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. introducing specific participants. 3. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. Complication.
plate Method 1. the next day past tense. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . fork. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. one day connectives. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. was surprised to action verb.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. bowl. spatula. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Cook both sides 9. there was a farmer. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. tie. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. hit time conjunction. ¼ cup milk. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Add milk and whisk well 4. Place on a plate. the man tied the tiger. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. once. answered thinking verb. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Goal: showing the purpose 2. after. 50 g cheese. saw. cheese grater. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3.
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. Example of Procedure A. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. • action verbs. Langkah-langkah. Firstly. dsb. misalnya for five minutes. dsb. put it. It should be in open area Next. not features. put. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. Cut. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. put it in another big pot. etc • Temporal conjunction. mix. etc • Action verb. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. put. excluded • Steps. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. finally. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. put the seeding on the soil. misalnya then. Use regular words. planting is a nice activity. dry a handful seeding. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences.10. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. don’t. wait it. menyatakan rinci waktu. misalnya. next. dsb. while. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. tempat. the following is a guided information B. firstly. take the topic of benefits. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. cara yang akurat. misalnya turn. Don’t mix. Finally. Here are the steps. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. 2 centimetres from the top. but it will help. write your benefit like you talk it. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. informing on how to plant chillies. • Material. you don't have to. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Your customers don't care about you. Firstly. dry. Well. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . Here's a simple checklist to follow. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. Read aloud what you've written.
fifty gram cheese. read. you need an egg. Don't describe how your company may. First. excluded • Steps/ method.re-read what you've done before publishing. Some sentences are long and some are short. to make a cheese omelet. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. firstly. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. Mix them up and keep things interesting. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . bowl and plate. such as. a quarter cup of milk. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. add First. three tablespoons cookin oil. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. etc C. fork. Use a nice rhythm.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. reread what you have done. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. Next. Listen carefully. Next. cheese grater. Edit it necesarily. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. re-reading what have been written . informing on how to write for business • Material. write. secondly. you need some tools. frying pan. etc • Temporal conjunction. Fourthly. spatula.Thirdly. a pinch of satlt and pepper. etc • Action verb. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. showing the method in writing for business. write like you talked. choosing the advantageous topic. writing the topic like the way it is talked. lose the weak words. Fifthly.
Focusing on circumstances 2. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. The events are considered newsworthy or important. The accident. Elaboration (background. 2. Resource of information 3. Language Feature of News Item 1. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. it’s up to them”. “But this just a suggestion. place) 3. Main event 2. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. Generic Structure of News Item 1. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Example of Procedure A. a news report said. participant. Using material process 4. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. time.
The maid. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. (Source The Jakarta Post. he said in the report. named Suwartin. Kejadian inti. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. June 01. even though they know they have HIV” she said. tempat kejadian dsb. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. many women who contract HIV are housewives. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. less then 10 percent are woman. dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. pendapat para ahli. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. In the past the event was held behind closed door. orang yang terlibat. komentar saksi kejadian. Background Events. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. Latar belakang kejadian. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Sources. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. but the number is steadily rising. Last year. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Malaysian Aids Council president.
the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. execute. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. She had relationship the boy for five months. May 6. Background 1. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. behead. (Taken from: www. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years.Then the maid was arrested. carry. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. Hong Kong. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Resource. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.news. Using material process. (Adapted from Reuters.bbc. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Last year. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Background 2. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 .co. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Saudi Arabia. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Rape. Background 3. law of serious crimes.
historic. etc • Using additive. deliberately. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. Sometimes homework is boring and not important.1. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. however. similarly. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. could. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . etc • Using adverbial of manner. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. on the hand. But. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. and causal connection. 2. should. Example of Discussion Text A. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. hope. etc • Using modalities. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. doing homework is not a great idea. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. and social text. etc 4. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. many times. feel. must. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. hopefully. believe. contrastive. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. may.
England in 1956. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. so it is not expansive to make. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. and produces huge amounts of energy. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. It produces small amount of waste. It is reliable.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 .
Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. Kesimpulan. hope. dsb. should. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. Gagasan Pokok 2. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. dsb. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. Elaborasi (uraian). a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. however. hopefully. This example of discussion text present the two poles. must. seperti perhaps.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. misalnya smoking is harmful. dsb. dsb. misalnya uniforms. misalnya feel. misalnya similarly. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. In many social activities. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. Furthermore. dsb. perception and recommendation. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. • adverbials of maner. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. very dangerous. although it is reliable. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. memberikan informasi secara padu. alcohol. Elaborasi (uraian). • thinking verbs untuk • additives.On the other hand. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. on the hand. should have been. . They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. dsb. believe. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. nuclear power is very. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. misalnya deliberately. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. could 29 be. Elaborasi (uraian).
social. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. geography and history text books. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. however.bbc. It is often found in science. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Recommendation. must. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Using thinking verb. 2. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Supporting point. (Taken from: www.co. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. B. scientific and cultural phenomena. conservationists. hunting fox.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. farmer. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. Using modalities. Using connectives. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Many farmer and even conservationists.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. believe. Contrastive point.
• • General statement. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. Language Feature • • • • 4. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Featuring generic participant. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. rain. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. to begin with. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Sequenced explanation. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. sun. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). etc Using chronological connection. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. next. Example of Explanation Text A. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena.
Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. But that is the case.panda. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . conjunctions of time dan cause. action verbs. (simplified from www. noun phrase. earthquakes. The earth also moves around the sun. passive voice. Tsunami always bring great damage. It is called as rotation. misalnya word chopping. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. simple present tense. This process is called revolution. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. sosialbudaya. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. It takes 365 days or a year. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. misalnya the temperature. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. complex sentences. adverbial phrases. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. dunia ilmiah. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front.org) B. the amount of • bahasa teksni. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. It causes day and night. misalnya the large cloud. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. abstract nouns. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam.
I feel that when you travel through the country. Using action verb 4. Using thinking verb 5. valuable. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1.ictteachers. Using evaluative words. Explanation. Thesis 2. Using simple present tense 4. Using chronological connection. so. surely. but. policy. Arguments 3. Using pasive voice. Using present tense. etc 3.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Focusing on the writer 2. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. secondly. certainly. etc 6. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). Using modal adverb. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. (Taken from: www. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. firstly. etc 8.co. etc 7.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Using abstract noun. trustworthy. Using temporal connective. you would be forgiven. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Recommendation 3. 2. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. then. the earth is actually closer to the sun.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using passive voice 9. important. advantage. daylight.
pornography. of course. Those who want to penalise older . Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from.every five to ten minutes. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Meanwhile. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Recomendatio I feel that country people. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. and short sleep duration. Recently. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. and the possibility of being aggressive. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. especially violence. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. stress. consumerism and so on. However.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. Considering some facts mentioning above. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 .
Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. Basically.the writer thought as stated in the text. mineral water cops. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. B. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. Both take place as argumentative essays. advertising. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. More dust bins should be put beside each step. straws. When we look at classroom. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. In many social activities. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. In the first paragraph. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. school corridors and schoolyard. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. and napkin everywhere. If it is a hortatory text. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. speech campaign. and news advertorial. sales letter. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. there papers. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school.
As result. they can find the dust bins easily.meters. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. In the same way. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. it will be very hard to looking for job. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. they will think hard about the time and cost. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. In the other hand. When they think about continuing study. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. it will be quite confusing. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. So. the available time will be more flexible for them. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. when they think about straightly seeking job. Where should be after High School?. As the alternative method of studying. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. So when students want to throw away their litters. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . C. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning.
Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. there is a way out of financial problem. misalnya firstly. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. misalnya. make. Relating verbs. as it is. misalnya important. etc Report Text What is Report? 1.dsb. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. are you tired?. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. Action verbs. Argument. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . misalnya certainly. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. dsb. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Technical verbs. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. dsb. misalnya I believe . dsb. misalnya We must preserve. Generic Structure of Report 1. etc Using thinking verb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Recommendation. plant. now there is a way out. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. misalnya should be. public place. Modal verbs. felt Using simple present tense. animal.government dsb. doesn’t seem to have been . dsb. secondly. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail.misalnya policy. Connectives. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. We can show the way to give up work.D. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Albert Smith is the proof. valuable. Millions from Property Market. dsb. dsb. part per part . misalnya species of animals. reward Using action verb. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Thinking verbs. dsb. he drives a sport car. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . etc which will be discussed in general 2. we must save. Modal adverbs.we. give up.
Platypus' eyes and head are small. In the other hand. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. and lakes. stating general classification. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. A group. rivers. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. when. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. driving the fish before them. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. the animal of platypus. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. beating the water furiously with their wings. and woolly layer of fur. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Platypus lives in streams. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. perhaps two dozen birds. Platypus. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. so. As the bird lifts its head. etc Using simple present tense 4.• • Using conditional logical connection. Example of Report Text A. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.
apa adanya. Platypus lives in streams. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. in terms of parts.Description. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. dsb. kegunaannya jika non natural. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. misalnya lizards cannot fly. dsb. dsb. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. the animal of platypus conditional. qualities. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . but. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. atau gejala-gejala sosial. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. habits or behaviors. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. dan klasifikasinya. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . dsb. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. keterangan. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. istilah teknis. logical connective. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. male platypus does not need any burrow. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. misalnya. dsb. lingkungan. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). benda buatan manusia. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis.
Language Feature of Spoof 1. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked.’ replied the man.1. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Dave found a nice office. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. Orientation 2. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. ‘ take him to the zoo’. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Told in chronological order 4. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Focusing on people. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. animals or certain things 2. Using action verb. Events 3. ran. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. ate. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. 2. etc 3. Using adverb of time and place 4. Twist 3. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin.
your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. misalnya eat. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. conversation on the phone. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. benda tertentu. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. “You want me.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. He suddenly became a 1. “Yes. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. binatang. “If that is what you want. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Then “Remember. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. “Hey Abu Nawas. terduga atau lucu). run. verbs. I want you to leave the country. B. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. In his office. Event 1: Being rich. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. Event 2: He had his new office. Instead leaving the country. Then the man said to Dave. no children. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. He had not left the country yet. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly.
I did not enjoy it. look at you. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I could not hear the actors. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. I do not step on the ground of this country”. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. You walk on stilts like a child. I have been walking on this stilts. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace.In the end. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. The king wondered and said “Abu. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. were talking noisily. You have not left this country”. The King continued “And now. (Adapted from S. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. I turned around. They did not pay any attention. Your Majesty. They were talking very loudly.guards. I turned around again. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The play was very interesting. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I could not bear it. I had a very good seat. “I remember exactly what you said.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. And since yesterday.I got very angry. So you see. young man and young woman. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I do not step on the ground. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. The king was not able to say anything. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly.
D. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. When he arrived in the party. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. "Take it to the zoo!". nobody looked at me. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. “It’s none of your business. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. It’s a private conversation”. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . He took it to a policeman and said. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. “Eat the food. The next day. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Getting Nasreddin's answer.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. The host at once got up and came to meet him. So. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. you give food to my coat instead of me”. the policeman saw the man in the same park. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. He put his coat and said. The man was still carrying the penguin. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. they just shook the head. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. “When I came here with my old clothes. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. he aske his coat to eat the served food E.
place and time 2. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. my group. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. He. policeman Using action verb. Reorientation: It is optional.did. were. heard. penguin. etc • Using simple past tense 4.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. etc • Using chronological connection. in the park Told in chronological order. etc • Using linking verb. carry. So. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. I. go. then. change. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. etc • Using action verb. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. They were in the park Event1. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. today I am taking it to the movie". finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . saw. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. The following day. look. Generic Structure of Recount 1. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. once. was. first. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. walk up Using adverb of time and place. Even. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. chronological order by days.
Richard’s family was on vacation. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. They went to London. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Instead of keys for the room. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. read. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They had a very pleasant flight. This includes travel and accommodation. Then. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. The room had perfect view of the park. There was a film for their entertainment. They are Mr. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. Richard with two sons. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. In writer's point of view. They slept part of the way. and Mrs. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. They had booked fourteen days tour. they inserted a key-card to open the door. The two week in London went by fast. They had variety of food. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. At the end of the 14-day. the thing is an experience. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. We stayed at David and Della’s house. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. We saw cockatoos having a shower. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. B. Vacation to London Mr. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. They gave them food and drink. Mr. The officers were pleasant. It was scary. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. hear. on Example of Recount text A. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. It can be what the writer has done. On the third floor. they had to go to Customs and Immigration.
kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. In simple way. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. 46 slowly dsb. Pengenalan. The first stop was at Batubulan. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. di mana dan kapan. misalnya We went to the zoo. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. • • • • • . On the day of the tour. the on Tuesday. he was ready. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. run dsb. misalnya yesterday. misalnya beautiful. The next stop was Celuk. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. Events. but. we dsb. dsb. a center of stone sculpture. The first one was to Singaraja. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. misalnya and. misalnya go. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. On the other hand. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. the second was to Ubud. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. C. the monkey. It reveals the conflict among the participants. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. misalnya David. then. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. She was happy dsb. It is a busy but quiet town. kejadian atau kegiatan. Reorientation. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. recount describes series of events in detail. funny. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. at my house. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. what happened on Sunday.Small Notes and felt. after that. past tense. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Rekaman peristiwa. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. then on Monday. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. sleep. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. dsb. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. waktu dan cara. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. The event happened smoothly.
I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. I was on the car las week. in the town. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. When the earthquake happened. Even I could not move my car at all. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. Although nothing was left. There were rocks everywhere. I • Using chronological connectives. using first person point of view. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. my car lunched on one side. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. were • Using action verb. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. I did not know that it was an earthquake. moved. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I was on the car. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. When I reached my town. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. Several days before the ceremony was done. Overall. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. earthquake happened. left. Re-orientation. then. I was trapped by the rock. made. The car lunched to one side. describing a series of event which happened. introducing the participant. He was quiet satisfied. and. all his day was spent on the beach. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. etc. Events. to the left. D. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. was. stating the writer's personal note. the ceremony was quite elaborate. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. walked. like matchsticks. suddenly • Using linking verb. etc E. I was on my car.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. It took about a week. I thought I got flat tire. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured.
in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. my uncle. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. Meanwhile. and dancing. Those words and phrases are: First. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . connect a sentence with the next one. we were feasting. During the day. After that. On the last day. Questions 1. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. chanting. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. my brother. In the text. First. and then moved the corpse to face north. After that. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. Then. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. A recount text has an orientation. there were also buffalo matches. and end your composition. They were great matches. a series of events in chronological order. The funeral was performed in two phases. Finally. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. In the night. Then. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. However. you find words and phrases used to start. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. Finally. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian.
However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. services which want to be sold. Using long and complex clauses 4. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. etc. uniqueness. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Definition Review is one of text genres. Using metaphor 4. It is personal idea about the product. It states the parts. useful. Focus on specific participants 2. 3. or just a site which want to be known publicly. worthy. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Dominant Language features: 1. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. After clearly explanation. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. It can be product.What is review text 1. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. As I said in my previous post. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Using adjectives 3. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. valuable.
Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. In some (Interpretati instances this works. I cried!) as sad as it was.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. for example . It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. magical or no. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. with some editing it would have been great. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. this was not my favorite. and ultimately satisfying.. The stories were bright. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. I was truly moved by the last page. He goes from being a warm-hearted.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. I actually liked the ending (and yes.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. depressing feel. fast-paced. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book.housekeeping is still housekeeping. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. and this part I loved. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. and parts of it do seem long. intriguing. however. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. A few other changes in this book . It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 .. Still a really good book. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. especially with being a teenager and all.
The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. However. In certain case. The site is quite simple but very informative. the daily activities are worthily documented.the trend. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . woman and man are available choice. If we visit the site. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. Eyeglasses for children. The site is her effort to record of what she did. For Rosemarie. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . he should understand well the language and aspect of India. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. it will be quite difficult to make translation. It straightly goes to the end user. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. does and will do daily. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. Titanium. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. if he works with Farsi translation. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. Similarly. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. The translation experts. easy and not complicated design. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. The experts who have grammatical. It is real. aluminum and rimless frame are available. Again. lexical.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
In the other hand. report is written after getting careful observation. first boil water. If we talk about. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. etc. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. Mostly. is the scope of the written object. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. its parts. It will talk about bicycle in general.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. How a tornado form. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Explanation. it belongs to report text. between report and descriptive text. wheel style. However if they are analyzed carefully. It is such word. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. What make different. physical strengh. In short. colour. product case or problem. Explanation is such a scientific written material. how to make a good kite. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. descriptive text will convey more focus. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. and so on. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. For example how to make a cup of tea. lengh. Procedure. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. phenomena. etc is the best example of the procedure text. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. eg: bicycle. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. goods. secondly prepare the cup. animal and scientific object. They give the detail description on something. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used.
hear. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. They give the detail description on something. secondly prepare the cup. the thing is an experience. In simple way. The event happened smoothly. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. It can be what the writer has done. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. then on Monday. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Procedure. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . Explanation is such a scientific written material. the on Tuesday. and so on. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. etc is the best example of the procedure text. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. It reveals the conflict among the participants. recount describes series of events in detail. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. phenomena. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. what happened on Sunday. read. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. and felt. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Explanation.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. first boil water. product case or problem. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. In writer's point of view. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. For example how to make a cup of tea. It is such word. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. On the other hand. goods. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. how to make a good kite. How a tornado form. To see the differences between explanation and procedure.
Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. Abstract 2. 17. Thesis 2. 16. Using thinking verbs 4. hortatory exposition. 22. spoof. 24. Using modals 2. These variations are known as GENRES. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. explanation. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . 19. Using adjective 6. review. Dominant Language Features: 1. anecdote. descriptive. 26. 18. Crisis 4. texts are divided into several types. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Using adverbs 5. 15. 14. procedure. recount. Using exclamations. Using action verbs 3. 20. Coda. Using material process 3.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. They are narrative. report. Reaction 5. and news item. Arguments 3. 25. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. discussion. analytical exposition. 23. Orientation 3.
Using adverbs : time. Orientation 2.1. Evaluation 3. Using technical terms 7. Short. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Arguments for and against 3. Explanation 3. place and manner. Using saying verbs 4. Using general and abstract noun 8. Complication 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. General statement 2. Issue 2. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using passive voice 4. Using action verbs 3. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Resolution 5. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Background event(s) 3. Using Past Tense 2. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verb 3. Using action verbs 3. Using noun phrase 5. Using adverb 4. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Materials/Equipments 3. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverbial phrase 6. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2.
Using adverbs 6. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using modals 3. Description Dominant Language Feature 1.1. as it is. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Thesis 2. General classification 2. Using action verb 3. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using thinking verb 4. Using adverb 4. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using thinking verbs 5. Using technical terms 8. place or thing in detail. Using conjunction/transition 6. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Generic Structure 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using modality 7. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Identification 2. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Arguments 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Description Language Features: 1. In simple word. Using adjective 7.
Using action verb 3. Event(s) 3. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. folklore. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Evaluation 3.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using metaphor 60 . myth. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Evaluation 5. Using Past Tense 2. social conflict or psychological conflict. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. In the contrary. fable. Using Past Tense 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using long and complex clauses 4. Using adverb 4. Interpretative Recount 4. etc while recount text is found in biography. whether Simple Past Tense. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Using adjectives 3. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Event(s) 3. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Orientation 2. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Orientation 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. Focus on specific participants 2. or Past Perfect Tense. Using action verb 3.
tabel. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. tempat. spoof dsb. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. dsb. descriptive. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. grafik. 6. 1. label. 4. tanggal. 7.exposition. map. 3. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. 8. 11. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. tahun. 10. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. diagram dsb. 5. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. penjelasan. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Continuous text misalnya narrative. biasanya tentang nama. 9. 2. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE.
Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. And cute. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . it is small. fluffy.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Menentukan makna kata. The purpose of the text is _____.
readers to do something good. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. and napkins here and there.EXERCISES. outside of the classrooms. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . they can find the dust bins easily. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school.. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. straws.. 1. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. They put their litters on the proper places. and some more also the corridors. a number of dust bins should be increased. there are paper mineral water cups. When we look at classrooms. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. in every ten meters. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Besides. So when students want to throw away their litters. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. According to the writer. more dust bins…. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. school corridors and school yard. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. What is the writer’s intention? To …. especially empty plastic cup or glasses.
etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. Secondly. Last but not least. religion. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Although usually simple. lexically and poetically. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Firstly. shopping malls. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. even revolution. The generic structures of the text are …. What is the text about …. learning vocabulary. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. spelling and culture. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. place or time reference. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. They provide variety and fun. songs in general also use simple conversational language. translating songs. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. 5. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. which is just what many learners look for sample text.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. Furthermore. patriotism and yeas. with a lot of repetition. songs are relaxing. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . From the elaboration above. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. practicing selective listening comprehension. In addition.
Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. smoking in restaurants is impolite. It must not be allowed because it is rude.” The underlined word refers to …. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . 11.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.Since we can find a thesis. Based on the text. not just in restaurants... Therefore.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.9. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. The word reasons mean…. Firstly. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers.“They provide variety and fun. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. Finally.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
boss. Hi Jack. I don't believe we've met before. student. Penny Pitcher. Very nice to meet you. sister. Introducing someone else my name is.. teacher. father. Ritter. Mrs. I'm. It's a pleasure to meet you. Ms. Pleased to meet you. Jack. Harris. mother. Mary Jones. Nice to meet you too. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Carrie. I'm Linda 1. friend. Bob. 2. Watson. And you. Cindy. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. my my my my my my my my my brother. This is my friend.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Nice to meet you. Likewise.. Mr. Harris.. co-worker. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Mr. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . • I want to introduce you to …..
Arnys. My name is Adib. Hi. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . hotel. By the way. Adib.g.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet.g. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. e. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Situation: Adib. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Adib : Hi. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Adib : Anyway. and Retno are new students. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. this is Retno. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. Retno. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. Shall we go to the canteen?. Arnys? Retno : Okay. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. They meet at the students’ orientation course. I am. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. I’m Arnys. a restaurant. are you a new student.
shake hands with other Virga :… women. Not so bad. . Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . See you soon /later /tomorrow. Bye. before leaving. . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . (informal) Would you like to . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . . . . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. . thank you. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. . Do you wanna . . • Good bye. thanks. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. thanks. Very well. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. thanks.
.. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.. let’s not. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .Some responds of inviting. . I’d be delighted to..? Would you like . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. Receiving .a chocolate bar? .I’d like very much .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .I’d love to .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.I’d be happy/glad to accept ...That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like..Yes.
Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. I need it. returned your lost wallet. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Happy new year. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. complimented you on your necktie. Happy birthday to you. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Thanks. you very much.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. helped carry your grocery bags. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Thank you.
How kind of you to say so. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . That’s a nuisance d. What’s shame b. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. That’s too bad e.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days.. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 .• • • Oh. not really.. It’s nice of you to say so. holidays and other special occasions. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. That’s pity f. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. What’s pity c.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . and congratulations Special Days .
Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. f. I’m delighted. b. How Awful! d. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. m. l. d. i. Expression Displeasure a. Goodness! b. k. feel unpleased with …. e. I’m really sad to … c. It was terrifi c. h. d. I feel disappointed. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . I’m so happy ….. I feel …. I’m sorry to hear that b. I’m sorry about that c.B. g. I feel … b. I’m really sorry for them d. How dreadful! C. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I enjoyed it I love it. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. c. …. Send my deepest condolence! f. How terrible! c. j.
kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . but your work is not satisfactory • Oh.Satisfaction. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.
say • Absolutely. In my opinion.. In my opinion…. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. … If you ask me. I agree • I know what you mean. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more.. • I am with you • Definitely. • Yes.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. As I see. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. I think the other one’s better.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. you should buy the florescent light bulbs.
kita bisa mengatakan: Well. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. that's not a good idea. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. Fear. No. I don't think that's what happened. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain.
• Thank God for . it’s very painful! • Oh.. • I’m sick.. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.. • I feel sick. • Ugh. it’s killing me! 2.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally... Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I’m glad it was done.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 ./I feel ill.
Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'." This is not very strong. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. but it is not a very strong dislike. It means that you do not like something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . BUT "I don't really like it. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger.
Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I will.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. I was so ashamed. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I’m extremely unhappy about this. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating... There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. That’s a real embarrassment. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.
..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.Palupi : OK. Complaint.. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright.. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. I think you might have forgotten to. but. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.. Sure. but.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. Excuse me if I'm out of line. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. It's your fault for (doing something). Certainly. Of course.. Right away. Maybe you forgot to.. There may have been a misunderstanding about. Blame (keluhan. I'm sorry to bother you.. but I think we should... Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. Don't get me wrong...
I'd like to apologise for.. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. I'll clear up later. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. Sorry for.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. Pete.. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.simply starters! Regret. To say why you're sorry Sorry about.. I'm so sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. Examples I'm really sorry. Sorry for taking your DVD.. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. Apology (penyesalan.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .. to ask for forgiveness. I didn't mean to lose your book.. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess.. I …. to express regret an exclamation a word.
. There is a good chance that …. There is a little chance that ….. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 ...... NOTE : 1. yet. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game. distress.… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible .. there is a possibility . It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness.
LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….she.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I. Expressions capability are : to show I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 . WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he..? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. doing something are: 4. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.they.they. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.you.you.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.she. It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home 3.she.? it.
we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .it Were utk S= you.he. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.she.they. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.
waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.
What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. was parctising e. “Srimpi”. are Was. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. will be practising c.does/am. have been practising b. a. the telephone rang twelve times. practised d.is. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. is.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do.masa lampau.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. Fred : Juda.
will start b. works d. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. have been having lunch c. was living e. have been cleaning c. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . clean d. a. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. will have lived b. they are succesful. a. worked e. were cleaning b. would have started d. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. cleaned e. will have lunch e.2. My family ____ when the postman arrived. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. have been living c. am living d. have lunch d. a. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. starts c. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. If we don”t hurry. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. a. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. has been working b. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. will have worked c. will have started e. Iwan : Yes. a. will have had lunch b.
has been b. carried e. caused d. will be b. My father is still in Bali. He ____ there for three weeks. have carried c. have been c. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. a. was e. a. Learn all these. have been 6. sir. would forget 8. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. has got a new job d. forgets b. has been e. will have been c. was carrying 3. a. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . a. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. would be b. has forgotten d. started to work 6 months a go c. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. am d. causes e. had been 7. This sentence means that Ann ___. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. has stopped looking for a job b. a. am carrying b. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. forgot c. When airport are located in the center of citied.2. will have been c. have caused c. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. had been 9. a. was e. is still looking for a job 4. I forget to bring your book. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. a. had forgotten e. will cause 5. were causing b. Is it right? Student : Yes. was d. He ____ ill for a week. is d. but I ____ there many times. carry d. has worked for six months e.
pronoun (kata ganti orang). dan tempat. She studies business. keterangan waktu. am learning 10.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. attended c. I ____ them by then. have learnt e. struktur kalimat. when. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . who.Student : All right. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. a. how. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. will have learnt c. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. a. Reni goes to her university every morning. has attended b. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. learn d. You can’t meet her at her house at 10.00 tomorrow. will be attending d. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). why. sir. where. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. will be learning b. would be attended DIRECT . She ___ the lectures. has been attending e.
Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .
he went to his country b. to open my mouth b. The baby is sleeping. Herman. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. a. if Mary was absent d.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. had gone to his country d. a. he has gone to his country e. to be not so noisy c. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. why Mary had been absent c. Herman : Okay. why Mary was absent e. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. that I open his mouth d. I am very noisy b. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. not to be so noisy e. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. mom. he goes to his country c. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. if I opened my mouth e. He said ____ the previous day. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . I wasn’t so noisy d. that Mary had been absent b.
would forget 3. forgot c. b.c. Mira. he headn’t cleaned b. Ari : What did he say. he asked. 4. It was windy outside. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. he would not clean c. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. he does not clean e. e. “ ___________” a. has forgotten d. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. a. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Mira closed the window. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. Anto : I am sorry Lina. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Mother said. forgets b. I forgot to bring your book. SMA Students’ Modul of English . b. I got a headache. c. He asked me ____ a. It is windy outside. Closed the window. what I am doing now. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. c. had forgotten e. he hasn’t cleaned 2. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. he asked me ____”. what I was doing then. It is windy outside. It was windy outside. d. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. what were you doing now. Mira closed the window. a. “What are you doing now?”. 94 5. I hadn’t cleaned d. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. Does Mira close the window. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. e. what are you were doing now d.
he went with us 6. do not spend d. d. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. whether I had appointment 7. 8. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. can he go with us e. finish your work d. how was my appointment e. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. wether he goes with us c. not to spend e. finished your work e. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . She told the children don’t make noise b. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. b. to finish my work c. to finish your work b. going with us b. 10. She said the children didn’t make noise c. she said. c. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. She told the children not to make noise. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. a. “don’t make noise. She didn’t say the children should noise d. e. when is my appointment b. Father said. not spend c. children”. that I had an appointment c. My friend said to me. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. a. Mean____ a. a.a. not spending b. “Can I find you a hotel?”. If he could go with us d. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. Slamet. e. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. did I have an appointment d.
Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 .Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.
a. A : Look! The girl is crying. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. did it abolish e. Y : Really. was postponed d. are unloaded c. was being postponed e. kicked e. is sold d.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. kicks d. was kicked c. to be abolished c. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. have been unloaded d. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. were sold b. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price.? a. she ____ a. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. are sold e. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. has to be postponed b. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. has been postponed c. was kicking b. will be unloaded b. a. had been sold c. was it abolishing d. when…. were being unloaded e. a. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. The announcement ____ twice. was it to abolish b.
has been rewarded c. the baby is well looked after b. will build d. a.A. A big dam ___ in this area next year. will clean b. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. the baby will be well looked after d. will be built e. R. have been arranged 3. has arranged c. will be destroyed b.1. has been born c. rewarded d. a. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. have arranged b. is born d. is being rewarded b. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . a. is being destroyed c. the baby would be well looked after 7. She looks after the baby well. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. would be born b. is being cleaned e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. has been cleaned 5. the baby is being looked after well e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. had destroyed e. was arranged e. was being cleaned d. would be built 4. has been built b. cleaned c. the baby was looked after well c. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. destroyed d. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. is being built c. is demolishing c. a. is arranged d. a. a. was destroyed 6. a. had been demilishing b. will be rewarded 8. is being demolished e. was born e. was rewarded e. demolishing d. will be born 2. The passive form is ____ a.
9. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. was being promised c. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. has been promising b. will be promised 10. will be taken d. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. has promised d. is being taken e. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. took c. will be promised e. a. was taken b. a. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . yaitu: 1.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative.
-le. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. dll. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. had. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. can. will.c. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. may. -er. shall. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. have/has. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. dll. -ow. did. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. was/were.
Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu.). Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. I would have written you a letter. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja).• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Apa yang diucapkan. Contoh: If I have much money. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. itulah yang diharapkan. I would go to the beach with you. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. 3. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. (jika saya punya uang. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. I will buy a new car.
whom. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. Their car has been stolen. I bought it last year. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. her. its. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. of which. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . which. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. his. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. our. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. Contoh: We saw the people.) 2. (him = the man. whose. their. your. I met him last week. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. They are printed in English. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English.
• Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. Its surface is not smooth.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. (its surface/permukaannya meja. Where 8. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. sebuah benda.
I got the mechanic to repair my car. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . I had mechanic repair my car. Jogging makes us fresh. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. The manager gets the letter typed. The manager has the letter typed. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1).CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). 2.
to be worth.V . Before leaving. to be busy. 3.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .V ketimbang main video game) 4.your. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.Juned prefers combro to deblo. 6. before dll. his.to be used to. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. can’t help/can’t bear.Amir’s. Setelah possessive adjective (my. on.Dita would rather watch T. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.V. get used to. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use.3. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .Dona prefers dancing to singing. than plays a video game. 4.V better than radio. he said nothing.our. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .I like T. 5. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .her.their. .
but. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. Since I have no money.He is both wise and good.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . c. After that. yaitu: 1. when. first. c. then. next. he come on time. b. after. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. a. although/though. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. 2. while. 3. c. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. Next. that.Although it was raining. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. Finally. Menunjukan waktu: before. dll. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata.You can read this book if you like. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . for. after that. Contoh: . e. 1. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. d. b.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (….Contoh: . we put them into frying pan. While he was reading her novel. a. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. d. a. if. we must prepare the ingredients. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. since. finally. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . we cut the vegetables into small pieces. we put some sauce and salt. We went home after the rain stopped.I went to your house but you weren’t at home.Amir and I go to school everyday. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. b.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. somebody knocked on the door. I can’t treat you. as soon as. or.
Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .He is not only active but also clever.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 . (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .
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