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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
.................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ............................................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ..............99 QUESTION TAGS ......DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)............105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)................................................................................................................................................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH......................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................104 GERUND .................................................................................................................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .....104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .......106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION...
Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. The language feature. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Spoof 5. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Hortatory Exposition 3. These types of text are. Analytical Exposition 8. Report 4. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. 1. Anecdote 9. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Review 7. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. why is the text made?. Narrative 11. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Recount 6. News Items 13. Procedure 12. Descriptive 10. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. 2. Explanation 2. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4.
and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. as we all know. cars. which causes them to die. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. cars create pollution. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. As we all know. In one hour in smoky room. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Additionally. If you live in the city. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Reiteratio In conclusion. Smoking however is not good for every body else. cars are very noisy. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . or concentrate on your homework. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. Argument Firstly. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. the city is very busy. Example of Analytical Exposition A. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Secondly. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. and especially talk to someone. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Thirdly.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. lung cancer. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. the risk is nineteen greater.
The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. That wil be true if the conditions. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. In this example of analytical exposition text. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . As the US. Furthermore. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure.
• Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. misalnya She must save. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. and then complete the transaction. • Thinking verbs. ruler and such other stuff. drawing book. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. leaded petrol car. • Relating verbs. misalnya C. misalnya we must preserve. government. misalnya It is important. misalnya car. pollution. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya firstly. • Technical verbs. students need book. misalnya Many people believe. The students just need to brows that online shop. misalnya certainly. • Action verbs.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. pen. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. eraser. First. • Reiteration . The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. • Abstract nouns. dsb. • Connectives. we. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. this method will help student to get better understanding. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. Secondly. misalnya policy. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Penguatan pernyataan. • Modal adverbs. Additionally. in this multimedia era. dsb.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. dsb. secondly. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. misalnya species of animals. (Simplified from the jakartapos. • Bahasa evaluatif. dsb. dsb. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. dsb • Modal verbs. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. decide which computer or laptop they need. dsb.dsb. dsb.
Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. India is likely being an English speaking country. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. If Hindi translation is provided. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Arabic translation.delivered to the students' houses. D. Students just need to decide which type they really need. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. It seems Indonesia. Career in Translation Functionally. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . According to Nida. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. India translation will grow better and. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. From all of that. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. That is really easy and save time and money. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Therefore. E. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers.
Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. it's awful!. listen to this 3. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. it's wonderful!. go. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Orientation 3. For instance. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. 2. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. Crisis 4. Using imperative. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Using rhetoric question. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. etc • Causal conjunction . afterward 6. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. because. Using exclamation words. Abstract 2. 3. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Using action verb. do you know what? 4. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using conjunction of time. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. etc 5. etc 2. Incident.is inserted at the end of each article. write. then. Using simple past tense 4. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2.
Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. The father was full of disappointed and anger. They had gotten afterwards. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. enough money. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. write. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. seperti then. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. their children to America. He shed tears of disappointment. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. and turned on the tap. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. nine children. America. who was only three at the time. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. misalnya go. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. spitting and hissing at us. The doctor sewed up the boy. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Anna. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. passport. so we set to. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. However few days before their departure. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. The family worked and saved. whole business. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. dsb. there were being quarantined for long days. dsb. The family dreams were dashed.
(Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. They had to forget their plan. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it.Five days latter. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. You have and so do I. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. qualities. they were left behind. there is something wrong last minute before it. The father was angry with his son and God. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. but because of the bitten son by a dog. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. When the dream will come true. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. It made they were being quarantined. identifying the phenomenon to be described. describing the phenomenon in parts. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. the mighty Titanic. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The Clak family should have been on that ship. • Description. When the father heard the news. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. or thing. They had dream to travel to America. It was unbelievable but it was. • Using simple present tense 4. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. He thanked God for saving their lives. 2. The ship. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. place. had shank. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. 3. or/and characteristics.
and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. She really have perfect appearance. yet retaining its beautiful site. When she are walking on that shoes. She is really mad on that shoes. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. In 1964. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. This shoes really matches on her. bright color. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. The style. This year. attractive and trendy. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. native plants and eucalypts.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. a railway station is under construction. Sydney. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. She is beautiful. all her friends. in 2004. In three years1 time. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. a grass amphitheatre. She said that the products covered all genders. Recently. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. Today. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. Example of Description A. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. describing the Borobudur temple in parts.Budhist temple. Borobudur temple • Description. Borobudur is located in Magelang. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Central Java.8 km of passage and starways. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Ballet. The products provide varieties of choice. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Cambodia. Indonesia. valuable • Using simple present tense. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The upper three are circular.The temple is constructed. B. casual. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.she has. Borobudur is well-known.
to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. sifat-sifat (characteristic). misalnya teacher. misalnya. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. classifying. dsb. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. numbering. misalnya fast. dsb. enough money to take Snow White. dsb. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. • simple present tense. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. Description. better or worse 3. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. It has very thick fur. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . misalnya. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. Misalnya: I have many pets. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu.my cat. two strong legs. house. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. kualitas. sharp white fangs. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. White. a sweet young lady. • berbagai macam adjectives. 2. dsb. dsb. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. bersifat describing. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. perilaku umum. My mum is realy cool. but my favourite one is a cat. dsb. • action verbs.
The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. After dinner. The first gave her some left over food. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. The psychological conflict inside Maura. They went inside. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. The following day. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. had many suitors. Example of Narative A. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . “Oh could I? Thank you.” Snow White said. There they found Snow White sleeping. you may live here with us. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. Maura asked them for something to eat. “If you wish. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. One by one she discarded them. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. “My name is Snow White. The third sheik. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. One evening. who received a plate of delicious meat. Hakim. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp.” Doc. Then Snow White woke up. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. She saw the dwarfs. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. The dwarfs said. “what is your name?” Snow White said. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. They were also rich and strong. As they were about to have dinner. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. “Without question. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. said. in what way she will decide who the best is. They want to know what next will happen. one of the dwarfs. which she strikes against herself.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. who was called Hakim.
Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Then he continued to humble. konflik dalam cerita. The parrot could say every word. dsb. stepsisters. waktu. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. misalnya then. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. Penyelesaian masalah. housework. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. misalnya. Although he tried hard to teach. • action verbs dalam past tense. dsb. He could not bear it. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. in the mountain. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. except one word. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word.dsb. long black hair. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. “You know. Pengenalan tokoh. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. At the first.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. misalnya here. phrase. a man had a wonderful parrot. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. misalnya. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. dsb. There was no other parrot like it. Resolution. soon. two red apples. The name of the place was Catano. Masalah. the parrot would not say it. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. climbed. happily ever after. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. dsb. I will cut the chicken 17 . stayed. the man really got very angry. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. before that. Complication.
stupid parrot”. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. He liked fishing. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. Next it will be your turn. C. 3. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. The fish begged him to set it free. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. rising crisis and climax of the story. One day. paragraph 2. the man attempted to teach the bird. I will eat you too. It will show the crisis. They found their mother and talked her about it. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. there was a handsome man. A man and his parrot took place once time. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. At the moment. He made the fish free. The next day. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. They had two daughters. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. She attracted Batara Guru so much. To fix this problem. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. He opened the door and was very surprised. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . he caught a fish. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. He felt in love with that fish-woman. Batara Guru could not bear it. As soon as it was free.for my meal. The daughters were crying. 4 are describing the complication. the man came back to the chicken house. There were three death chickens on the floor. readers see the problem is finished. After that he left the chicken house. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. In the parrot story. They were married happily. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. That was the smartest parrot. In that parrot story. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. He could not control his mad. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”.
and away went the sisters to it. In the end. Then the earth began to shake. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. D. They were married and live happily ever after. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. A few days later. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. “Now. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. The mother was shouting angrily. At last. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. did not work about the house. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. The two step sisters. the day of the ball came. Finally. People believed that the big hole became a lake. The earth formed a very big hole. Magically. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. such as scrubbing the floor. and it became a beautiful ball gown. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. “Why are crying. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. there was a young girl named Cinderella. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. “Well” said the godmother. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. Volcanoes started to erupt. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. hardworking. she said. she was driven to the palace. on the other hand.The mother was very annoyed. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. In her hurry. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Cinderella?” a voice asked. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. They treated Cinderella very badly. It fitted perfectly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. “You must leave before midnight”. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered.”you’ve been such a cheerful. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Batara Guru broke his promise. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. One day. She danced again and again with the king’s son. Cinderella”.
“but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . the tiger spoke to the buffalo. But the man answered. Generic Structure Analysis 1. Every morning and every evening. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. the man is very intelligent”. introducing specific participants.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. Complication. He took his plough and hit the tiger. One day. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “No. Resolution. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. I can’t tell you”. “Can I see your intelligence?”. farmer and his buffalo. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. “Yes” said the man. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. “you are so big and strong. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. Orientation. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Resolution: Like complication. After the man went home. “oh. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. “it at home”. Then he said. said the buffalo. 3. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. Once there was a farmer from Laos. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. In the last paragraph. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. E. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. Complication: In this Cinderella story. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. once in Laos 2. The Smartest Animal. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. The tiger asked.
season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Place on a plate. hit time conjunction. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. tie. 50 g cheese. answered thinking verb. ¼ cup milk. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. saw. after. bowl. once.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. fork. Add milk and whisk well 4. the man tied the tiger. plate Method 1. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. there was a farmer. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. was surprised to action verb. cheese grater. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. one day connectives. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. spatula. Goal: showing the purpose 2. the next day past tense. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. Cook both sides 9. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5.
Read aloud what you've written. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. mix. misalnya. Use regular words. misalnya for five minutes. put. misalnya turn. Here are the steps. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Example of Procedure A. dsb. Firstly. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Langkah-langkah. put it. 2 centimetres from the top. • Material. Firstly. • action verbs. Don’t mix. finally. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. put. put it in another big pot. wait it. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. misalnya then. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. dsb. dry a handful seeding. Here's a simple checklist to follow. don’t. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. you don't have to. while. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. firstly. etc • Action verb. cara yang akurat. Tujuan kegiatan Materials. but it will help. put the seeding on the soil. etc • Temporal conjunction. the following is a guided information B. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . next. Your customers don't care about you. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. menyatakan rinci waktu. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. dry. informing on how to plant chillies. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. planting is a nice activity. excluded • Steps. Well. It should be in open area Next. write your benefit like you talk it. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. tempat. Cut. Finally.10. not features. dsb. take the topic of benefits. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time.
How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. a pinch of satlt and pepper. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. writing the topic like the way it is talked. Some sentences are long and some are short. Use a nice rhythm. etc • Temporal conjunction. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles.re-read what you've done before publishing. Listen carefully. Next. First. to make a cheese omelet. frying pan. Edit it necesarily. cheese grater. such as. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. bowl and plate. informing on how to write for business • Material. write like you talked. fifty gram cheese. etc C. excluded • Steps/ method. you need some tools. add First. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . write. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. fork. secondly. three tablespoons cookin oil. Don't describe how your company may. Fifthly. re-reading what have been written . Fourthly. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. lose the weak words. firstly. etc • Action verb. reread what you have done. you need an egg. showing the method in writing for business. spatula. Next.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. read. Mix them up and keep things interesting.Thirdly. a quarter cup of milk. choosing the advantageous topic.
Resource of information 3.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. Main event 2. Generic Structure of News Item 1. it’s up to them”. “But this just a suggestion. participant. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. Focusing on circumstances 2. a news report said. The accident. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . The events are considered newsworthy or important. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. 2. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. place) 3. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Example of Procedure A. Using material process 4. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Language Feature of News Item 1. time. Elaboration (background. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
had worked with the boy family for 11 years. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. Latar belakang kejadian. The maid. pendapat para ahli. Sources. many women who contract HIV are housewives. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. Kejadian inti. less then 10 percent are woman. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. tempat kejadian dsb. komentar saksi kejadian. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. In the past the event was held behind closed door. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. orang yang terlibat. but the number is steadily rising. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Background Events. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . Last year. June 01. dsb. he said in the report. named Suwartin. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. (Source The Jakarta Post. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. Malaysian Aids Council president. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. even though they know they have HIV” she said. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months.
The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. carry. behead. Background 3. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. Rape. She had relationship the boy for five months. Resource. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner.news. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. Last year.co. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. Saudi Arabia. May 6. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. Background 1. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Using material process. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . Hong Kong. law of serious crimes. execute. (Adapted from Reuters. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos.Then the maid was arrested. the Saudi Interior Minister said.bbc. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. (Taken from: www. Background 2.
Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. however. and social text. believe. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. many times. hopefully. feel. Example of Discussion Text A. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. etc • Using modalities. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. may. etc 4. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. But. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. on the hand. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. etc • Using additive. hope.1. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. and causal connection. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. etc • Using adverbial of manner. must. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. doing homework is not a great idea. historic. 2. deliberately. could. similarly. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. should. contrastive.
It produces small amount of waste. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . England in 1956. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. and produces huge amounts of energy. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. so it is not expansive to make. It is reliable.
(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. however.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. Furthermore. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. alcohol. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. should have been. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. Kesimpulan. could 29 be. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. Gagasan Pokok 2. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. nuclear power is very. dsb. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. should. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. misalnya similarly. seperti perhaps. . dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. hope. perception and recommendation. very dangerous. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. dsb. misalnya smoking is harmful. although it is reliable. misalnya uniforms. misalnya feel.On the other hand. believe. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. Elaborasi (uraian). People are increasingly concerned about this matter. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. Elaborasi (uraian). It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. hopefully. dsb. • adverbials of maner. This example of discussion text present the two poles. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. dsb. dsb. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. on the hand. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. must. memberikan informasi secara padu. misalnya deliberately. In many social activities.
B. Using thinking verb. 2. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. (Taken from: www. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. hunting fox. Recommendation. farmer. Using modalities. scientific and cultural phenomena. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. It is often found in science. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok.bbc. social. believe. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. conservationists. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.co. geography and history text books. Many farmer and even conservationists. Using connectives. must. Supporting point. however. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Contrastive point.
Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Featuring generic participant. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). sun. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. next. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. to begin with. Sequenced explanation. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat.• • General statement. rain. etc Using chronological connection. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Example of Explanation Text A. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Language Feature • • • • 4.
The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. sosialbudaya. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. conjunctions of time dan cause. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. simple present tense. complex sentences. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. misalnya the large cloud. It takes 365 days or a year. Tsunami always bring great damage. dunia ilmiah. It causes day and night. (simplified from www. the amount of • bahasa teksni. abstract nouns. noun phrase. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. But that is the case. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. action verbs. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. The earth also moves around the sun. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. passive voice. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. This process is called revolution. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. misalnya the temperature.panda.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. adverbial phrases. earthquakes. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. It is called as rotation. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs.org) B. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . misalnya word chopping.
Arguments 3. etc 6. Using simple present tense 4.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Recommendation 3. Using thinking verb 5. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using action verb 4. I feel that when you travel through the country. daylight. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant.ictteachers. but.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. trustworthy. surely. Using abstract noun. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. 2.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. (Taken from: www. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Using temporal connective. so. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. Using evaluative words. Focusing on the writer 2. etc 3. policy. Thesis 2. firstly. advantage. etc 8. etc 7. Explanation. Using modal adverb. Using passive voice 9. you would be forgiven.co. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. important. Using pasive voice. certainly. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. then. valuable. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. secondly. Using chronological connection. Using present tense. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere).
of course. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. pornography. consumerism and so on. especially violence. Considering some facts mentioning above. stress. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is.every five to ten minutes. and short sleep duration. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. and the possibility of being aggressive. Meanwhile. Those who want to penalise older . Recomendatio I feel that country people. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. However. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Recently. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from.
advertising. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. Both take place as argumentative essays. straws. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. sales letter. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. When we look at classroom. In the first paragraph. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. If it is a hortatory text. Basically. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. In many social activities. and napkin everywhere. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis.the writer thought as stated in the text. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. and news advertorial. mineral water cops. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. there papers. B. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. More dust bins should be put beside each step. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. school corridors and schoolyard. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. speech campaign.
When they think about continuing study. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. As result. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. So. the available time will be more flexible for them. it will be very hard to looking for job. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. In the same way. when they think about straightly seeking job. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Where should be after High School?. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate.meters. So when students want to throw away their litters. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . students do not have problem of discomfort any more. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. As the alternative method of studying. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. C. they can find the dust bins easily. In the other hand. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. it will be quite confusing. they will think hard about the time and cost.
reward Using action verb. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. misalnya species of animals. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. now there is a way out. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. as it is. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. etc which will be discussed in general 2. make. dsb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. dsb. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . misalnya important. Albert Smith is the proof. secondly. misalnya We must preserve. We can show the way to give up work. are you tired?. Recommendation. misalnya certainly. misalnya I believe . customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3.we. part per part . Modal verbs. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. doesn’t seem to have been . valuable.misalnya policy. dsb. Action verbs.government dsb. Thinking verbs. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan.D. etc Using thinking verb.dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. animal. felt Using simple present tense. Generic Structure of Report 1. public place. Technical verbs. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. dsb. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. he drives a sport car. there is a way out of financial problem. misalnya should be. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. misalnya firstly. misalnya. Modal adverbs. dsb. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Millions from Property Market. Connectives. Relating verbs. dsb. plant. dsb. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. Argument. give up. we must save.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. etc Using simple present tense 4. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. In the other hand. stating general classification. perhaps two dozen birds. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. the animal of platypus. A group. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. Platypus' eyes and head are small. As the bird lifts its head. and lakes. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. Platypus lives in streams. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. beating the water furiously with their wings. so. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. when. driving the fish before them. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. and woolly layer of fur. Example of Report Text A.• • Using conditional logical connection. Platypus. rivers.
dsb. dsb. Platypus lives in streams. but. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. atau gejala-gejala sosial. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. qualities. misalnya. dsb. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . keterangan. dsb. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. logical connective. lingkungan. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. apa adanya. male platypus does not need any burrow. benda buatan manusia. kegunaannya jika non natural. istilah teknis. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. the animal of platypus conditional. dan klasifikasinya. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum.Description. habits or behaviors. in terms of parts. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. misalnya lizards cannot fly. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia).
He bought some new furniture and moved in. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Using adverb of time and place 4. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. 2. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Events 3.’ replied the man. etc 3. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Told in chronological order 4. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. ‘ take him to the zoo’.1. ran. Focusing on people. Language Feature of Spoof 1. ate. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Twist 3. Using action verb. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. animals or certain things 2. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Dave found a nice office. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Orientation 2. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office.
I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. B. In his office. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. run. benda tertentu. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Then the man said to Dave. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. terduga atau lucu). He suddenly became a 1. binatang. misalnya eat. no children. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. He had not left the country yet. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. Event 1: Being rich. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. conversation on the phone. “Hey Abu Nawas. “Yes. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. Then “Remember. I want you to leave the country. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). Event 2: He had his new office. “If that is what you want. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. Instead leaving the country. verbs. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. “You want me. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore.
You walk on stilts like a child. You have not left this country”. And since yesterday. The king wondered and said “Abu. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. I have been walking on this stilts. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. young man and young woman. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. I could not hear the actors. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . The King continued “And now.I did not enjoy it. look at you. I do not step on the ground. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. So you see. I turned around.guards. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I do not step on the ground of this country”. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I could not bear it. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. I had a very good seat.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. They were talking very loudly. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. were talking noisily.In the end. (Adapted from S. They did not pay any attention.I got very angry. Your Majesty. The play was very interesting. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. I turned around again. “I remember exactly what you said. The king was not able to say anything.
The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. The man was still carrying the penguin. When he arrived in the party. “Eat the food. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. It’s a private conversation”. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. "Take it to the zoo!". He put his coat and said. He took it to a policeman and said. nobody looked at me. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. So. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. D. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. “When I came here with my old clothes. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. The host at once got up and came to meet him. “It’s none of your business. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. the policeman saw the man in the same park. you give food to my coat instead of me”. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. they just shook the head. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. The next day. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. "What should I do?" The policeman replied.
Orientation: Introducing the participants. penguin. policeman Using action verb. heard. etc • Using linking verb. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Generic Structure of Recount 1. once. then. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. saw. were. in the park Told in chronological order. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. They were in the park Event1. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. my group. I. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Even. carry. look. first. etc • Using simple past tense 4. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . chronological order by days. walk up Using adverb of time and place. place and time 2. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience.did. today I am taking it to the movie". change. was. etc • Using chronological connection. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. go. The following day. He. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. etc • Using action verb. Reorientation: It is optional.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. So. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past.
The room had perfect view of the park. Then. Instead of keys for the room. On the third floor. This includes travel and accommodation. Richard’s family was on vacation. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. and Mrs. They gave them food and drink. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . The room had its own bathroom and toilet. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. hear. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. read. We stayed at David and Della’s house. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. Vacation to London Mr. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. Mr. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They are Mr. They had booked fourteen days tour. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. In writer's point of view. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. We saw cockatoos having a shower.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. the thing is an experience. they inserted a key-card to open the door. The two week in London went by fast. They went to London. There was a film for their entertainment. B. They had a very pleasant flight. It can be what the writer has done. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. The officers were pleasant. They slept part of the way. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. It was scary. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They had variety of food. Richard with two sons. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. At the end of the 14-day. on Example of Recount text A.
misalnya go. It reveals the conflict among the participants. The first one was to Singaraja. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. misalnya beautiful. waktu dan cara. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. C. funny. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. sleep. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. the second was to Ubud. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. a center of stone sculpture. but. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. at my house. • • • • • . di mana dan kapan. On the day of the tour. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. dsb. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. 46 slowly dsb. then.Small Notes and felt. past tense. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. misalnya David. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. Reorientation. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. what happened on Sunday. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. misalnya We went to the zoo. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. we dsb. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. run dsb. then on Monday. In simple way. he was ready. She was happy dsb. Rekaman peristiwa. misalnya and. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. dsb. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. Events. kejadian atau kegiatan. The next stop was Celuk. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. recount describes series of events in detail. It is a busy but quiet town. the on Tuesday. Pengenalan. after that. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. The first stop was at Batubulan. the monkey. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. On the other hand. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. kejadian atau kegiatan. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. misalnya yesterday. The event happened smoothly. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them.
It took about a week. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. I was on my car. describing a series of event which happened. were • Using action verb.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. I was trapped by the rock. left. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. He was quiet satisfied. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. Although nothing was left. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. and. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. There were rocks everywhere. in the town. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. then. made. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. Even I could not move my car at all. my car lunched on one side. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. Re-orientation. stating the writer's personal note. I thought I got flat tire. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. introducing the participant. I did not know that it was an earthquake. the ceremony was quite elaborate. like matchsticks. to the left. etc E. I was on the car. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. When I reached my town. using first person point of view. walked. Events. Overall. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . moved. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. all his day was spent on the beach. When the earthquake happened. Several days before the ceremony was done. suddenly • Using linking verb. was. I was on the car las week. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. etc. The car lunched to one side. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. earthquake happened. D. I • Using chronological connectives.
and dancing. there were also buffalo matches. First. Finally. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. my brother. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. In the night. Finally. and then moved the corpse to face north. and end your composition. After that. In the text. During the day. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . A recount text has an orientation. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Then. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. chanting. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. Then. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. my uncle. They were great matches. Meanwhile. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. Those words and phrases are: First. On the last day. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. After that. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. However. you find words and phrases used to start. The funeral was performed in two phases. Questions 1. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. connect a sentence with the next one. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. we were feasting. a series of events in chronological order. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events.
review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Using long and complex clauses 4. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 .What is review text 1. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. As I said in my previous post. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. quality of the product which will be known publicly. useful. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. It is personal idea about the product. services which want to be sold. uniqueness. etc. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. 3. Using adjectives 3. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. It can be product. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Using metaphor 4. Definition Review is one of text genres. After clearly explanation. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. It states the parts. Dominant Language features: 1. valuable. worthy. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Focus on specific participants 2. or just a site which want to be known publicly.
but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. and ultimately satisfying. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. A few other changes in this book . I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. fast-paced. I actually liked the ending (and yes. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. and parts of it do seem long. with some editing it would have been great. In some (Interpretati instances this works.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. intriguing. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. He goes from being a warm-hearted. Still a really good book. for example . and this part I loved. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. I cried!) as sad as it was. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book.. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. however. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more.. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. especially with being a teenager and all. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. depressing feel. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here.housekeeping is still housekeeping. this was not my favorite. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. The stories were bright. magical or no. I was truly moved by the last page.
It straightly goes to the end user. Similarly. aluminum and rimless frame are available. The site is her effort to record of what she did. The experts who have grammatical. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . The site is quite simple but very informative. The translation experts. However. In certain case. lexical. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. if he works with Farsi translation.the trend. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. It is real. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. it will be quite difficult to make translation. Again. easy and not complicated design. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . such as India translation will help to fix the problem. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. If we visit the site. the daily activities are worthily documented. Eyeglasses for children. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. woman and man are available choice. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. Titanium. For Rosemarie. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. does and will do daily. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54
It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. In the other hand. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. It will talk about bicycle in general. secondly prepare the cup. How a tornado form. descriptive text will convey more focus. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. report is written after getting careful observation. lengh. between report and descriptive text. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Mostly. it belongs to report text. However if they are analyzed carefully. What make different. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. Explanation. first boil water. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. phenomena. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . its parts. how to make a good kite. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. etc is the best example of the procedure text. colour. They give the detail description on something. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. physical strengh. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. and so on. wheel style. It is such word.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. eg: bicycle. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. goods. product case or problem. For example how to make a cup of tea. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. is the scope of the written object. etc. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Procedure. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. In short. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. If we talk about. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. animal and scientific object.
It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. It can be what the writer has done. Procedure. secondly prepare the cup. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. On the other hand. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. It is such word. the thing is an experience. read. phenomena. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. what happened on Sunday. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Explanation. The event happened smoothly. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 .Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. In simple way. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. then on Monday. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. how to make a good kite. and so on. goods. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. first boil water. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. the on Tuesday. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. and felt. etc is the best example of the procedure text. hear. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. For example how to make a cup of tea. Explanation is such a scientific written material. product case or problem. How a tornado form. They give the detail description on something. recount describes series of events in detail. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. In writer's point of view.
review. 22. Using material process 3. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. explanation. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Dominant Language Features: 1. report. 24. 26. 19. 20. 16. 25. These variations are known as GENRES. They are narrative. anecdote. 14. Abstract 2. discussion. descriptive. 18. Using adjective 6. Orientation 3. analytical exposition. Arguments 3. Using adverbs 5. Crisis 4. texts are divided into several types. spoof. Coda. 15. and news item. Using action verbs 3. Using technical terms 7. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verbs 4. Using general and abstract noun 8. Thesis 2. 23. Reaction 5. recount. Using modals 2. 17.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. hortatory exposition. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. procedure. Using exclamations.
Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using noun phrase 5. Using technical terms 7. Orientation 2. Using Past Tense 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using action verbs 3. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using saying verbs 4. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using action verbs 3. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2.1. Background event(s) 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using action verb 3. place and manner. Explanation 3. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Resolution 5. Using adverb 4. General statement 2. Arguments for and against 3. Issue 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Materials/Equipments 3. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using adverbs : time. Complication 4. Using passive voice 4. Evaluation 3. Short. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1.
Using modals 3. General classification 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should".1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Thesis 2. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using adverbs 6. Using thinking verb 4. place or thing in detail. Using conjunction/transition 6. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. as it is. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverb 4. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Description Language Features: 1. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using technical terms 8. Identification 2. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Generic Structure 1. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using adjective 7. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using general and abstract noun 5. Using modality 7. Arguments 3. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using action verb 3. Using thinking verbs 5. In simple word.
Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. fable. Orientation 2. Using action verb 3. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. myth. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Using long and complex clauses 4. Using action verb 3. Event(s) 3. Interpretative Recount 4. Evaluation 3. Focus on specific participants 2. Orientation 2. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. folklore.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Orientation 2. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. whether Simple Past Tense. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Using adverb 4. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. or Past Perfect Tense. Event(s) 3. etc while recount text is found in biography. Using adjectives 3. Using metaphor 60 . social conflict or psychological conflict. Evaluation 5. In the contrary.
TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. tabel. label. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 3. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. Continuous text misalnya narrative. 10. tanggal. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. spoof dsb. tahun. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. diagram dsb. 2. 8. descriptive. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. map. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. 6. 11. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. dsb.exposition. biasanya tentang nama. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. 1. 4. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. grafik.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. tempat. 9. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 7. penjelasan. 5.
Menentukan makna kata. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. it is small. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. And cute. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. The purpose of the text is _____. fluffy. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis.
They put their litters on the proper places. there are paper mineral water cups. readers to do something good. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. and some more also the corridors. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. a number of dust bins should be increased. According to the writer.. in every ten meters. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. What is the writer’s intention? To …. 1. more dust bins…. they can find the dust bins easily. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. and napkins here and there. straws.EXERCISES. When we look at classrooms. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. outside of the classrooms. school corridors and school yard. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. So when students want to throw away their litters. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere.. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. Besides. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 .
In addition. religion. with a lot of repetition. What is the text about …. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. Furthermore. spelling and culture. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. shopping malls. which is just what many learners look for sample text. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. From the elaboration above. The generic structures of the text are …. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. lexically and poetically. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. 5. songs in general also use simple conversational language. songs are relaxing. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . Secondly. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. Although usually simple. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. even revolution. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. learning vocabulary. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Last but not least. Firstly. practicing selective listening comprehension. patriotism and yeas. They provide variety and fun. translating songs. place or time reference.
so we can conclude that this text belongs to….The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. Based on the text. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers.. smoking in restaurants is impolite. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.“They provide variety and fun. 11. The word reasons mean…. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. It must not be allowed because it is rude. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.Since we can find a thesis. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . smoking in a restaurant is impolite.9.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. not just in restaurants. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. Finally.. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. Therefore.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Firstly.” The underlined word refers to ….
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
And you. Mrs. Pleased to meet you. Harris.. Very nice to meet you. Likewise.. I'm. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. 2. sister. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Ritter. Jack. Carrie. co-worker. This is my friend. I'm Linda 1. Cindy. my my my my my my my my my brother. It's a pleasure to meet you. teacher.. • I want to introduce you to …. Mary Jones. I don't believe we've met before. Harris. Penny Pitcher. friend. Bob. Hi Jack.. mother. Mr.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Ms. student. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Mr. Nice to meet you. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. boss. Watson. Introducing someone else my name is. father. Nice to meet you too.
hotel.g. we still have half an hour before the class starts. Shall we go to the canteen?. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Adib : Hi. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too.g. Retno. Arnys. I’m Arnys. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. this is Retno. are you a new student. a restaurant. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Adib : Anyway. Adib. Hi. I am. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. Arnys? Retno : Okay. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . e. Situation: Adib. By the way. and Retno are new students. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. They meet at the students’ orientation course. My name is Adib.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet.
Not so bad. thanks. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. • Good bye. . shake hands with other Virga :… women. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. See you soon /later /tomorrow. Very well. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. Do you wanna . thank you. . • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . (informal) Would you like to . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. before leaving. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. thanks. . . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. . . thanks. Bye. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English .
I’d like very much .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .Yes. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.? Would you like .I’d be happy/glad to accept .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.... Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.Some responds of inviting..a chocolate bar? . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .. let’s not... Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. . I’d be delighted to. Receiving .I’d love to . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it..if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.
• Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. I need it. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. helped carry your grocery bags. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. you very much. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Thank you. Thanks. Happy birthday to you. returned your lost wallet. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. complimented you on your necktie. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Happy new year.
holidays and other special occasions.. not really.. That’s a nuisance d.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. What’s shame b. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . It’s nice of you to say so. and congratulations Special Days .• • • Oh. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. That’s too bad e.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. What’s pity c. That’s pity f.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. How kind of you to say so. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.
I’m really sad to … c. feel unpleased with …. Expression Displeasure a. d. I’m sorry to hear that b. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . j. l. How Awful! d. Send my deepest condolence! f. I feel …. Goodness! b. I’m sorry about that c. k. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. How terrible! c. How dreadful! C. I’m delighted. I feel disappointed. f. I feel … b. i. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. e. ….B. b. I enjoyed it I love it. c. h.. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. m. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I’m really sorry for them d. g. d. I’m so happy …. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. It was terrifi c.
Satisfaction. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.
I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. … If you ask me. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. In my opinion…. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. • I am with you • Definitely. • Yes. I agree • I know what you mean. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. As I see. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 .. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. In my opinion.. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I think the other one’s better. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. say • Absolutely.
Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. I don't think that's what happened. No. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . that's not a good idea. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. Fear.
it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.. • Ugh. it’s killing me! 2. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.. • I’m sick... • I’m glad it was done. • I feel sick. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . it’s very painful! • Oh./I feel ill.. • Thank God for .
Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. BUT "I don't really like it. It means that you do not like something. but it is not a very strong dislike. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence." This is not very strong. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.
Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No.. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I’m extremely unhappy about this. I will. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I was so ashamed..I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. That’s a real embarrassment.
Sure.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.. Certainly. but. Blame (keluhan.. I'm sorry to bother you. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Don't get me wrong...Palupi : OK. but I think we should.. Maybe you forgot to.. Excuse me if I'm out of line... Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. I think you might have forgotten to.. Of course. There may have been a misunderstanding about. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright. It's your fault for (doing something). It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. Complaint.. Right away. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . but. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.....
I didn't mean to lose your book.... meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. to express regret an exclamation a word.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . Examples I'm really sorry.. I'm so sorry.simply starters! Regret. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I …. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Sorry for.. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. I'd like to apologise for.. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly.. to ask for forgiveness. Sorry for taking your DVD. Apology (penyesalan. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. I'll clear up later.. Pete. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. To say why you're sorry Sorry about.
there is a possibility . NOTE : 1.. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .... distress.… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. There is a good chance that ….. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. • Is it possible to …? • Yes. There is a little chance that …..this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. yet... Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.
they.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.you. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it. doing something are: 4. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET. Expressions capability are : to show I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 .they.. It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home 3. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….she.? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.she.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.? it. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.you.she.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.
it Were utk S= you.he.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.they.she.
Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.
the telephone rang twelve times.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. Fred : Juda. are Was. “Srimpi”.does/am. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. practised d. will be practising c. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. was parctising e.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do.masa lampau.is.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. a. is. have been practising b.
Iwan : Yes. a. a. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. starts c. cleaned e. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. am living d. will have had lunch b. clean d. works d. a. a. will start b. has been working b. would have started d. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. will have lived b. have been cleaning c. they are succesful. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. worked e. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. If we don”t hurry. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. will have started e. have been living c. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 .2. a. have been having lunch c. will have worked c. My family ____ when the postman arrived. will have lunch e. was living e. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. have lunch d. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. were cleaning b.
Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. have been c. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. have carried c. sir. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. a. He ____ ill for a week. forgot c. a. had forgotten e. a. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. a. was d. has stopped looking for a job b. is still looking for a job 4. a. would forget 8. was carrying 3. has got a new job d. This sentence means that Ann ___. has forgotten d. but I ____ there many times. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. Learn all these. would be b. will have been c. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. is d. started to work 6 months a go c.2. will be b. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. forgets b. Is it right? Student : Yes. will have been c. had been 9. has worked for six months e. am carrying b. am d. When airport are located in the center of citied. I forget to bring your book. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. has been b. were causing b. has been e. was e. was e. have been 6. caused d. carried e. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . causes e. He ____ there for three weeks. carry d. a. had been 7. My father is still in Bali. will cause 5. a. have caused c.
where. am learning 10. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). attended c. when. dan tempat. sir.00 tomorrow. has attended b. will be learning b. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . I ____ them by then. She studies business. who. will have learnt c. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. would be attended DIRECT . a. pronoun (kata ganti orang). You can’t meet her at her house at 10. keterangan waktu.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. why. has been attending e. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. have learnt e.Student : All right. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. will be attending d. struktur kalimat. learn d. a. Reni goes to her university every morning. how. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. She ___ the lectures. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what.
Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .
Herman : Okay. that Mary had been absent b. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. He said ____ the previous day. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. why Mary had been absent c. to open my mouth b. not to be so noisy e. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. I wasn’t so noisy d. he has gone to his country e. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. to be not so noisy c. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. mom. if Mary was absent d. I am very noisy b. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. a. he goes to his country c. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . had gone to his country d. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. Herman. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. The baby is sleeping. if I opened my mouth e. that I open his mouth d. a. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. why Mary was absent e. he went to his country b.
Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. he does not clean e. he asked me ____”. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. had forgotten e. would forget 3. what were you doing now. I forgot to bring your book. e. Mother said. I hadn’t cleaned d. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning.c. c. he hasn’t cleaned 2. It is windy outside. he headn’t cleaned b. I got a headache. a. Does Mira close the window. he asked. “What are you doing now?”. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. It was windy outside. what I am doing now. he would not clean c. “ ___________” a. Anto : I am sorry Lina. c. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Mira closed the window. d. Closed the window. It was windy outside. 4. SMA Students’ Modul of English . Ari : What did he say. what are you were doing now d. He asked me ____ a. Mira. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. e. Mira closed the window. It is windy outside. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. forgets b. 94 5. b. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. what I was doing then. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. a. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. b. forgot c. has forgotten d.
finish your work d. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. She told the children not to make noise. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. My friend said to me. she said. did I have an appointment d. to finish your work b. Father said. “Can I find you a hotel?”. 8. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9.a. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. how was my appointment e. whether I had appointment 7. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . not spending b. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. he went with us 6. do not spend d. d. that I had an appointment c. when is my appointment b. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. wether he goes with us c. Slamet. She said the children didn’t make noise c. a. finished your work e. She told the children don’t make noise b. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. can he go with us e. e. She didn’t say the children should noise d. b. a. e. 10. not to spend e. “don’t make noise. children”. If he could go with us d. Mean____ a. c. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. not spend c. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. to finish my work c. going with us b.
Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri.
? a. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. was it abolishing d. are unloaded c. has been postponed c. was being postponed e. a. has to be postponed b. was postponed d. have been unloaded d. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. had been sold c. kicks d. A : Look! The girl is crying. was kicked c. were being unloaded e. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. will be unloaded b. is sold d. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. to be abolished c. did it abolish e. when…. Y : Really. was it to abolish b. The announcement ____ twice. a. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. a. kicked e. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. were sold b. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. she ____ a. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. was kicking b. are sold e.
a. is demolishing c. is being destroyed c. is being built c.A. has been built b. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. a. will be destroyed b. a. was being cleaned d. A big dam ___ in this area next year. has been rewarded c. will be built e. has been born c. had been demilishing b. demolishing d. will build d. destroyed d. the baby is well looked after b. the baby will be well looked after d. R. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. will be rewarded 8. rewarded d. is being rewarded b. is arranged d. She looks after the baby well. will clean b. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. have arranged b. the baby was looked after well c. a. would be born b. cleaned c. was arranged e. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order.1. is being demolished e. a. the baby is being looked after well e. will be born 2. had destroyed e. The passive form is ____ a. is being cleaned e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. would be built 4. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . is born d. was rewarded e. have been arranged 3. the baby would be well looked after 7. a. has been cleaned 5. has arranged c. was born e. a. was destroyed 6.
sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. is being taken e. was being promised c. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. a. yaitu: 1. was taken b. he ____ to the nearest hospital. took c. will be taken d. will be promised 10.9. a. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. will be promised e. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. has promised d. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. has been promising b. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother.
Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . was/were. dll. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. -ow. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. -le. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. -er. shall. can. had. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal.c. have/has. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. may. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. will. dll. did. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: large larger largest 4.
Apa yang diucapkan. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. itulah yang diharapkan. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya.). saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. (jika saya punya uang. 3. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Contoh: If I have much money. I would go to the beach with you. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). I would have written you a letter.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Kalau kalimatnya (+). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. I will buy a new car. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi.
whom. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. They are printed in English. your. of which. their. its. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. which. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. Their car has been stolen. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. her. I met him last week. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. whose. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who.) 2. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. (him = the man. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. I bought it last year. Contoh: We saw the people. his. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. our.
Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. sebuah benda. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Its surface is not smooth. (its surface/permukaannya meja. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Where 8. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today.
Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). I had mechanic repair my car. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . Gerund digunakan bila: 1. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. 2. The manager has the letter typed. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). The manager gets the letter typed. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). I got the mechanic to repair my car. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. Jogging makes us fresh. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing).
her.their. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.Dita would rather watch T. before dll.I like T. than plays a video game.your. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for.3.V .V. Setelah possessive adjective (my.V better than radio. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.V ketimbang main video game) 4. . PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.our. get used to.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . his. on. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.Juned prefers combro to deblo. he said nothing. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me.Dona prefers dancing to singing. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. Before leaving. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . 6. 3. 5. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .Amir’s. to be busy. can’t help/can’t bear. 4. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .to be used to. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . to be worth. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use.
I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. for.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . somebody knocked on the door. while. since. 2. but. 3. c. after that. a. as soon as. Menunjukan waktu: before. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. d. We went home after the rain stopped. Finally. when. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 .He is both wise and good. if. after. then.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. finally. a. b. c. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. yaitu: 1. 1. After that. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . c.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. we put them into frying pan. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first.Amir and I go to school everyday. dll. he come on time. Since I have no money. While he was reading her novel.Although it was raining. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. b. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . that. a. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. next. b. we put some sauce and salt.Contoh: . (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and.You can read this book if you like. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. Next. although/though. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. e. Contoh: . we must prepare the ingredients. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . first.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. or. I can’t treat you. d.
The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .He is not only active but also clever.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) . (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.
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