DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

.......................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ............................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH.................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ......................................................................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS ..............................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ....................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)...........104 GERUND .............................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ....................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung).........................................................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ..............................................................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION....................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) .....................................

Recount 6. The language feature. 2. Anecdote 9. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Spoof 5. Explanation 2. Narrative 11. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Review 7. These types of text are. Descriptive 10. Hortatory Exposition 3. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Procedure 12. why is the text made?. News Items 13. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. 1. Report 4. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Analytical Exposition 8. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'.

If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. As we all know. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Smoking however is not good for every body else. it is better to look at the fact. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Thirdly. Reiteratio In conclusion. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. the risk is nineteen greater. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. and especially talk to someone. the city is very busy. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. If we smoke five cigarettes a day.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. If you live in the city. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Secondly. lung cancer. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. or concentrate on your homework. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. cars are very noisy. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Additionally. In one hour in smoky room. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Argument Firstly. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. cars. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. you may find it hard to sleep at night. as we all know. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. cars create pollution. which causes them to die. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers.

However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Furthermore.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. In this example of analytical exposition text. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. As the US. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . That wil be true if the conditions.

misalnya Many people believe. dsb. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. and then complete the transaction. Additionally. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. • Bahasa evaluatif. decide which computer or laptop they need. misalnya certainly. secondly. drawing book. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. • Thinking verbs. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. • Relating verbs. this method will help student to get better understanding. First. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. government. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. leaded petrol car. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. The students just need to brows that online shop. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. dsb. eraser. students need more to reach their progressive development. misalnya policy. Secondly. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. dsb. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. misalnya firstly. ruler and such other stuff. misalnya She must save.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. misalnya species of animals. misalnya car. dsb. • Connectives. dsb. • Abstract nouns. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. we. • Action verbs. pen. pollution. in this multimedia era. • Technical verbs. dsb • Modal verbs. dsb. misalnya we must preserve. misalnya C. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Penguatan pernyataan. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. dsb.dsb. misalnya It is important. • Reiteration . students need book. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. (Simplified from the jakartapos. • Modal adverbs.

It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Career in Translation Functionally. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Arabic translation. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . It seems Indonesia.delivered to the students' houses. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. If Hindi translation is provided. According to Nida. India is likely being an English speaking country. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. D. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. E. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. From all of that. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. India translation will grow better and. That is really easy and save time and money. Therefore.

Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. because. write. listen to this 3. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Incident. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Orientation 3. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Abstract 2. it's awful!. etc 2. Crisis 4. etc • Causal conjunction . go.is inserted at the end of each article. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. 3. etc 5. Using exclamation words. Using conjunction of time. 2. Using imperative. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. then. it's wonderful!. afterward 6. do you know what? 4. For instance. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Using simple past tense 4. Using action verb. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Using rhetoric question. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1.

They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. misalnya go. who was only three at the time. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. He shed tears of disappointment. spitting and hissing at us. so we set to. their children to America. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . there were being quarantined for long days. The family dreams were dashed. enough money.  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. whole business. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. The father was full of disappointed and anger. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. They had gotten afterwards. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna. The doctor sewed up the boy. The family worked and saved. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. However few days before their departure. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. dsb. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. nine children. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. passport. and turned on the tap.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. write. seperti then. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. dsb. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. America.

place. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. They had to forget their plan. qualities. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. • Using simple present tense 4. The ship. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. there is something wrong last minute before it. 2. or thing. or/and characteristics. He thanked God for saving their lives. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. It made they were being quarantined. the mighty Titanic. You have and so do I. It was unbelievable but it was. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. They had dream to travel to America. When the father heard the news. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. The father was angry with his son and God. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. had shank. 3. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. but because of the bitten son by a dog. • Description. identifying the phenomenon to be described.Five days latter. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. When the dream will come true. they were left behind. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. The Clak family should have been on that ship. describing the phenomenon in parts. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like.

Sydney. Today. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . a railway station is under construction. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. She is really mad on that shoes. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. in 2004. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. When she are walking on that shoes. In 1964. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. This year. She is beautiful. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. This shoes really matches on her. a grass amphitheatre. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. The style. bright color. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. all her friends. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. yet retaining its beautiful site. Example of Description A. attractive and trendy. In three years1 time. Recently. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. She really have perfect appearance. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. She always pays much attention on her appearance. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. She said that the products covered all genders. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. native plants and eucalypts.

Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . casual. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. valuable • Using simple present tense.Budhist temple. The upper three are circular.The temple is constructed. Central Java. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Cambodia. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Borobudur temple • Description. B. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Ballet. Borobudur is well-known. The way to the summit extends through some 4. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Indonesia.she has. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The products provide varieties of choice. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification.8 km of passage and starways.

misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. misalnya teacher. 2. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. a sweet young lady. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. enough money to take Snow White. perilaku umum. • berbagai macam adjectives. sharp white fangs. classifying. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage.  Description. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. Misalnya: I have many pets. bersifat describing.my cat. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. misalnya. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. My mum is realy cool. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. dsb. dsb. dsb. sifat-sifat (characteristic). Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). kualitas. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. misalnya. house. It has very thick fur. but my favourite one is a cat. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. better or worse 3. numbering. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. dsb. • action verbs. • simple present tense. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. dsb. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. White. two strong legs. misalnya fast. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. dsb. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods.

refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. you may live here with us. The dwarfs said. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. They went inside. The following day. They were also rich and strong. Example of Narative A. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. The psychological conflict inside Maura. One evening. Maura asked them for something to eat. As they were about to have dinner. said.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. The third sheik. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. She saw the dwarfs.” Snow White said. “If you wish. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. in what way she will decide who the best is. “Without question. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. who received a plate of delicious meat. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. There they found Snow White sleeping. The first gave her some left over food. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. who was called Hakim. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks.” Doc. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. Then Snow White woke up. one of the dwarfs. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. Hakim. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. “My name is Snow White. had many suitors. After dinner. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. “Oh could I? Thank you. They want to know what next will happen. One by one she discarded them. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. “what is your name?” Snow White said. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. which she strikes against herself. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace.

hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. “You know. stepsisters. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. waktu. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). I will cut the chicken 17 . dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. konflik dalam cerita.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. dsb. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. dsb. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. soon. • action verbs dalam past tense. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. Resolution. Pengenalan tokoh. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. stayed. Masalah. long black hair. The parrot could say every word. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. Penyelesaian masalah. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. climbed. At the first. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. The name of the place was Catano. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. a man had a wonderful parrot. There was no other parrot like it. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. the parrot would not say it. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. two red apples. the man really got very angry. happily ever after. misalnya here. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. Complication. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. dsb. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. in the mountain. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. Although he tried hard to teach. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. misalnya. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. before that. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. except one word. dsb. misalnya. phrase. Then he continued to humble.dsb. housework. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. He could not bear it. misalnya then.

The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. paragraph 2. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . 3. there was a handsome man. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. That was the smartest parrot.for my meal. The next day. He liked fishing. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. C. Batara Guru could not bear it. He opened the door and was very surprised. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. He could not control his mad. Next it will be your turn. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. he caught a fish. After that he left the chicken house. A man and his parrot took place once time. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. One day. rising crisis and climax of the story. He felt in love with that fish-woman. In the parrot story. They found their mother and talked her about it. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. They had two daughters. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. It will show the crisis. The daughters were crying. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. 4 are describing the complication. At the moment. She attracted Batara Guru so much. readers see the problem is finished. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. There were three death chickens on the floor. As soon as it was free. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. The fish begged him to set it free. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. They were married happily. In that parrot story. stupid parrot”. To fix this problem. the man attempted to teach the bird. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. the man came back to the chicken house. I will eat you too. He made the fish free.

The mother was very annoyed. People believed that the big hole became a lake. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. “Well” said the godmother. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. Cinderella”. the day of the ball came. In the end. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. such as scrubbing the floor. and away went the sisters to it. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. D. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. one of her glass slipper was left behind. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. In her hurry. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. She danced again and again with the king’s son.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Volcanoes started to erupt. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Cinderella?” a voice asked. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Finally. They were married and live happily ever after. did not work about the house. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. “Now. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Then the earth began to shake. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. At last. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. A few days later. Batara Guru broke his promise. The two step sisters. The mother was shouting angrily. The earth formed a very big hole. hardworking. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. and it became a beautiful ball gown. she was driven to the palace. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. “You must leave before midnight”. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. on the other hand. One day. Magically. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. she said. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. there was a young girl named Cinderella. “Why are crying. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. It fitted perfectly. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 .

The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. “Yes” said the man. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Orientation. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “oh. The tiger asked. Complication. The Smartest Animal. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. Every morning and every evening. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. introducing specific participants. Resolution. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. “you are so big and strong. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Once there was a farmer from Laos. E. After the man went home. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Generic Structure Analysis 1. farmer and his buffalo. I can’t tell you”. One day. Then he said. Complication: In this Cinderella story. once in Laos 2. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. In the last paragraph. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. the man is very intelligent”. “No. “Can I see your intelligence?”. said the buffalo. “it at home”. But the man answered. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. Resolution: Like complication. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. 3. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 .

3 tablespoons cooking oil. hit time conjunction. plate Method 1. cheese grater. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. was surprised to action verb. one day connectives. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. fork. tie. Goal: showing the purpose 2. saw. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. once.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. answered thinking verb. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. the man tied the tiger. after. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. spatula. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. ¼ cup milk. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. the next day past tense. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. bowl. Cook both sides 9. Add milk and whisk well 4. Place on a plate. there was a farmer. 50 g cheese.

planting is a nice activity. put it. firstly. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. put. • Material. informing on how to plant chillies. Here are the steps. Cut. next. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. but it will help. write your benefit like you talk it. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. 2 centimetres from the top. put it in another big pot. dsb. excluded • Steps. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. dry a handful seeding. don’t. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. Example of Procedure A. Finally. Here's a simple checklist to follow. Langkah-langkah. etc • Temporal conjunction. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . Well. wait it. menyatakan rinci waktu. not features. Use regular words. while. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. dry. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Your customers don't care about you.10. misalnya then. tempat. It should be in open area Next. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Don’t mix. misalnya. misalnya for five minutes. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. • action verbs. mix. put. dsb. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. you don't have to. dsb. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. finally. Firstly. Firstly. Read aloud what you've written. misalnya turn. take the topic of benefits. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. cara yang akurat. put the seeding on the soil. the following is a guided information B. etc • Action verb.

secondly. choosing the advantageous topic.Thirdly. three tablespoons cookin oil. etc • Temporal conjunction. bowl and plate. excluded • Steps/ method. firstly. etc C. Mix them up and keep things interesting.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. to make a cheese omelet. Listen carefully. Use a nice rhythm. a pinch of satlt and pepper. cheese grater. a quarter cup of milk. frying pan. Next. Fifthly. read. showing the method in writing for business. writing the topic like the way it is talked. etc • Action verb. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . Next. lose the weak words. you need some tools. fork. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. First. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. such as. spatula. reread what you have done. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. write like you talked. re-reading what have been written . fifty gram cheese. write. Edit it necesarily. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. informing on how to write for business • Material. you need an egg. add First. Some sentences are long and some are short. Don't describe how your company may. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Fourthly.re-read what you've done before publishing.

Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Using material process 4. Elaboration (background. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Language Feature of News Item 1. Generic Structure of News Item 1. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. 2. a news report said. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . “But this just a suggestion. The accident. The events are considered newsworthy or important. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. place) 3. Focusing on circumstances 2. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Main event 2. participant. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. time. Example of Procedure A. Resource of information 3. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. it’s up to them”. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper.

Last year. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. tempat kejadian dsb. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. but the number is steadily rising. orang yang terlibat. Kejadian inti. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. June 01. dsb. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. named Suwartin. even though they know they have HIV” she said. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. komentar saksi kejadian.  Sources. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . Malaysian Aids Council president. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. The maid. (Source The Jakarta Post. many women who contract HIV are housewives. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. pendapat para ahli. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events. he said in the report.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution.  Background Events. less then 10 percent are woman. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Latar belakang kejadian. In the past the event was held behind closed door.

Background 2. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. (Taken from: www. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. the Saudi Interior Minister said. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C.co. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. She will be sentenced in two week’s time.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event.Then the maid was arrested. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. behead. Last year. May 6. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. She had relationship the boy for five months. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. Using material process. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. (Adapted from Reuters. Rape. law of serious crimes. Background 3. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Resource. Background 1. Saudi Arabia. Hong Kong. execute. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner.bbc. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.news. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . carry.

Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. must. similarly. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. and causal connection. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. however. could. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. But. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . historic.1. deliberately. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. and social text. may. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. believe. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. etc • Using additive. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Example of Discussion Text A. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. hope. doing homework is not a great idea. etc 4. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. hopefully. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. etc • Using adverbial of manner. many times. on the hand. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. should. 2. etc • Using modalities. feel. contrastive.

so it is not expansive to make.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. It produces small amount of waste. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. It is reliable. England in 1956. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. and produces huge amounts of energy.

(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. should. dsb. on the hand. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. dsb. hopefully. . mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. seperti perhaps. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. misalnya feel. although it is reliable. however. misalnya deliberately. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. misalnya similarly. Furthermore. • thinking verbs untuk • additives.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. dsb. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points.On the other hand. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. could 29 be. should have been. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. Elaborasi (uraian). sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. Elaborasi (uraian). alcohol. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. • adverbials of maner. hope. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. misalnya smoking is harmful.  Kesimpulan. This example of discussion text present the two poles. perception and recommendation. believe. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. dsb. In many social activities. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. nuclear power is very.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. Gagasan Pokok 2. very dangerous. dsb. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. memberikan informasi secara padu. must. dsb. misalnya uniforms.

Contrastive point. geography and history text books. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. 2.bbc. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Recommendation. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Many farmer and even conservationists. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Using connectives.co. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Using thinking verb. must. B. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. It is often found in science. social. (Taken from: www. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Supporting point. however.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. scientific and cultural phenomena. hunting fox. conservationists. Using modalities. farmer. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. believe.

Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. sun.• • General statement. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. next. etc Using chronological connection. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Featuring generic participant. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Language Feature • • • • 4. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . rain. Sequenced explanation. Example of Explanation Text A. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. to begin with.

Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. The earth also moves around the sun.panda. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. earthquakes. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. conjunctions of time dan cause. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. misalnya the large cloud. the amount of • bahasa teksni. noun phrase. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. misalnya word chopping. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. sosialbudaya. It takes 365 days or a year. misalnya the temperature. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. abstract nouns.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. But that is the case. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. dunia ilmiah. Tsunami always bring great damage. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. passive voice. complex sentences. adverbial phrases. action verbs. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. This process is called revolution.org) B. It causes day and night. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. It is called as rotation. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. (simplified from www. simple present tense. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning.

Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. certainly. policy. Arguments 3. Using passive voice 9. etc 8. Using modal adverb. you would be forgiven. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. valuable. Focusing on the writer 2. Using chronological connection. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using abstract noun. Using pasive voice. Using temporal connective.co. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. etc 3. Explanation. trustworthy. Using action verb 4. Using simple present tense 4.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. advantage. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). firstly. Thesis 2. Using evaluative words. secondly. so. daylight. important.ictteachers. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. 2. then. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Using present tense. etc 6. etc 7. (Taken from: www. but.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . surely.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Using thinking verb 5. Recommendation 3. I feel that when you travel through the country. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun.

the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. However. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight.every five to ten minutes. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. especially violence. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Considering some facts mentioning above. stress. pornography. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . Recomendatio I feel that country people. and short sleep duration. and the possibility of being aggressive. Those who want to penalise older . Meanwhile. of course. Recently.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. consumerism and so on.

It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. mineral water cops. straws. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. school corridors and schoolyard. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. speech campaign. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. More dust bins should be put beside each step. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality.the writer thought as stated in the text. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. In many social activities. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. Basically. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. and napkin everywhere. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. sales letter. and news advertorial. When we look at classroom. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . If it is a hortatory text. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. advertising. In the first paragraph. Both take place as argumentative essays. there papers. B. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins.

C. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. they will think hard about the time and cost. So. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. As the alternative method of studying. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. it will be very hard to looking for job. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . In the other hand. In the same way. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. it will be quite confusing. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. they can find the dust bins easily. As result. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. Where should be after High School?. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. the available time will be more flexible for them. So when students want to throw away their litters. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate.meters. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. When they think about continuing study. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. when they think about straightly seeking job. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them.

dsb. misalnya certainly. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Argument. plant. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . dsb. misalnya important. dsb. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. we must save. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. felt Using simple present tense. Generic Structure of Report 1. are you tired?. Millions from Property Market. valuable.dsb. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. Recommendation. etc which will be discussed in general 2. public place. he drives a sport car. misalnya We must preserve.D. etc Using thinking verb. dsb. Action verbs. Thinking verbs.government dsb. misalnya firstly. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. give up. Technical verbs.misalnya policy. We can show the way to give up work. as it is. Modal adverbs. doesn’t seem to have been . Connectives. animal. part per part . etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Albert Smith is the proof. misalnya. Modal verbs. dsb. misalnya species of animals. misalnya I believe . dsb. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. secondly. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. Relating verbs.we. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. reward Using action verb. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. dsb. misalnya should be. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . now there is a way out. there is a way out of financial problem. make.

The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. and woolly layer of fur. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. A group. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Platypus lives in streams. beating the water furiously with their wings. when. Platypus. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. driving the fish before them. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. the animal of platypus. Platypus' eyes and head are small. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. so. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. stating general classification. and lakes. As the bird lifts its head.• • Using conditional logical connection. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. rivers. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. In the other hand. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. etc Using simple present tense 4. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . perhaps two dozen birds. Example of Report Text A. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore.

male platypus does not need any burrow. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. dsb. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. keterangan. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. but. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. atau gejala-gejala sosial. dsb. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . dan klasifikasinya. qualities. misalnya. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. kegunaannya jika non natural. Platypus lives in streams. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. habits or behaviors. logical connective.Description. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. istilah teknis. lingkungan. misalnya lizards cannot fly. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. apa adanya. dsb. in terms of parts. the animal of platypus conditional. dsb. benda buatan manusia.

Dave found a nice office. Told in chronological order 4. Events 3. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. Using action verb. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. ate. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office.’ replied the man.1. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. ‘ take him to the zoo’. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. etc 3. Language Feature of Spoof 1. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. ran. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. 2. Orientation 2. Focusing on people. Twist 3. Using adverb of time and place 4. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. animals or certain things 2.

He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. benda tertentu. I want you to leave the country. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. He had not left the country yet. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. Then “Remember. Then the man said to Dave. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Event 1: Being rich. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. “You want me. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. He suddenly became a 1. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. terduga atau lucu). “Hey Abu Nawas. misalnya eat.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. verbs. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. B. no children. “Yes. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. Event 2: He had his new office. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). Instead leaving the country. run. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. conversation on the phone. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. “If that is what you want. In his office. binatang. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house.

“This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. I turned around. The king wondered and said “Abu. I turned around again. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me.In the end. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. Your Majesty. “I remember exactly what you said. were talking noisily. You walk on stilts like a child. So you see. I do not step on the ground of this country”. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. look at you.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. young man and young woman. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. You have not left this country”. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. They did not pay any attention. I had a very good seat. The king was not able to say anything. They were talking very loudly.guards. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. I have been walking on this stilts. I could not hear the actors. The King continued “And now. (Adapted from S. I could not bear it.I did not enjoy it. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious.I got very angry. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . The play was very interesting. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. And since yesterday. I do not step on the ground.

“It’s none of your business. nobody looked at me. they just shook the head. It’s a private conversation”. The man was still carrying the penguin. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . He took it to a policeman and said. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. So. The host at once got up and came to meet him. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. The next day. you give food to my coat instead of me”. When he arrived in the party. “Eat the food. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. D. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. “When I came here with my old clothes. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. the policeman saw the man in the same park.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. Getting Nasreddin's answer. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. "Take it to the zoo!". "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. He put his coat and said.

Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. were. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. They were in the park Event1. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. etc • Using action verb. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. look. saw. place and time 2. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. penguin. heard. first. policeman Using action verb. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. in the park Told in chronological order. The following day. etc • Using simple past tense 4. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. He. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. So. today I am taking it to the movie". etc • Using linking verb. was. carry. Reorientation: It is optional. I. once. Generic Structure of Recount 1. then.did. go. chronological order by days. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. etc • Using chronological connection. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Even. my group. walk up Using adverb of time and place. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . Orientation: Introducing the participants. change.

read. It was scary. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. There was a film for their entertainment. At the end of the 14-day. They slept part of the way. hear. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They went to London. On the third floor. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. B. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. They gave them food and drink. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. In writer's point of view. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. they inserted a key-card to open the door. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. on Example of Recount text A. Instead of keys for the room. Vacation to London Mr. The officers were pleasant. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. We stayed at David and Della’s house. They are Mr. The room had perfect view of the park. This includes travel and accommodation. They had booked fourteen days tour. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. Richard’s family was on vacation. They had variety of food.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They had a very pleasant flight. We saw cockatoos having a shower. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. The two week in London went by fast. It can be what the writer has done. and Mrs. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. Then. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. Richard with two sons. the thing is an experience. Mr.

Rekaman peristiwa. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. waktu dan cara. In simple way. then on Monday. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. kejadian atau kegiatan. Pengenalan. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. The first stop was at Batubulan. misalnya We went to the zoo. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. C. then. misalnya go. the monkey. • • • • • . kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. what happened on Sunday. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. run dsb. sleep. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. misalnya and. 46 slowly dsb.  Reorientation. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event.Small Notes and felt. She was happy dsb. di mana dan kapan. at my house. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. recount describes series of events in detail. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. The first one was to Singaraja. It is a busy but quiet town. It reveals the conflict among the participants. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. the on Tuesday. dsb. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. dsb. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. he was ready. misalnya yesterday. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. we dsb. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. misalnya David. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. misalnya beautiful. kejadian atau kegiatan.  Events. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. but. The next stop was Celuk. after that. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. past tense. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. On the other hand. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. On the day of the tour. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. a center of stone sculpture. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. the second was to Ubud. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. funny. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. The event happened smoothly. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text.

Re-orientation. I was on my car. He was quiet satisfied. walked. made. left. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. introducing the participant. suddenly • Using linking verb. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. Several days before the ceremony was done. I was trapped by the rock. I was on the car. earthquake happened. D. etc. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. etc E. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. using first person point of view. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. my car lunched on one side. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. and. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . stating the writer's personal note. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. Even I could not move my car at all. to the left. The car lunched to one side. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. When I reached my town. I thought I got flat tire. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. was. the ceremony was quite elaborate. I • Using chronological connectives. I was on the car las week. There were rocks everywhere. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. moved. were • Using action verb. describing a series of event which happened. like matchsticks. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. When the earthquake happened. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Overall. then. in the town. Events. Although nothing was left. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. all his day was spent on the beach. It took about a week. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road.

It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. my uncle. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. On the last day. Meanwhile. After that. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. The funeral was performed in two phases. In the night. you find words and phrases used to start. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. and end your composition. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. During the day. chanting. and dancing. my brother. First. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. Those words and phrases are: First. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. However. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. and then moved the corpse to face north. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Then. A recount text has an orientation. connect a sentence with the next one. Finally. They were great matches. Then. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. Questions 1. After that. we were feasting. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. there were also buffalo matches. a series of events in chronological order. Finally.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. In the text. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian.

valuable. Focus on specific participants 2. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . worthy. Using metaphor 4. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Using adjectives 3. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. useful. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. As I said in my previous post. or just a site which want to be known publicly. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. This phase is the worth of the review for reader.What is review text 1. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. etc. Dominant Language features: 1. Using long and complex clauses 4. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. It can be product. Definition Review is one of text genres. uniqueness. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. It states the parts. It is personal idea about the product. services which want to be sold. 3. After clearly explanation.

with some editing it would have been great. especially with being a teenager and all.. I cried!) as sad as it was. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. In some (Interpretati instances this works. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. I actually liked the ending (and yes. however. for example .the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. A few other changes in this book . The stories were bright. I was truly moved by the last page. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. magical or no.housekeeping is still housekeeping. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. this was not my favorite. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. intriguing. and ultimately satisfying. He goes from being a warm-hearted. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. and parts of it do seem long. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. and this part I loved. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book..you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. depressing feel. fast-paced. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. Still a really good book. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character.

woman and man are available choice. Similarly. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . aluminum and rimless frame are available. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. The experts who have grammatical. The site is quite simple but very informative. The translation experts. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. lexical. Titanium. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. the daily activities are worthily documented. does and will do daily. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. In certain case. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. If we visit the site. It is real. easy and not complicated design. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. Eyeglasses for children. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. The site is her effort to record of what she did. However. It straightly goes to the end user. Again. it will be quite difficult to make translation. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. if he works with Farsi translation. For Rosemarie.the trend.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

and so on. How a tornado form. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. first boil water. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. eg: bicycle. product case or problem. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. What make different. how to make a good kite. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. lengh. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. Mostly. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . secondly prepare the cup. report is written after getting careful observation. it belongs to report text. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. They give the detail description on something. Explanation is such a scientific written material. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. physical strengh. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. For example how to make a cup of tea. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. between report and descriptive text. is the scope of the written object. colour. In short. It is such word. If we talk about. its parts. However if they are analyzed carefully. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. Procedure. descriptive text will convey more focus. etc. etc is the best example of the procedure text. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. In the other hand. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. animal and scientific object. wheel style.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Explanation. goods. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It will talk about bicycle in general. phenomena.

Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. It is such word. then on Monday. how to make a good kite. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. goods. the on Tuesday. first boil water. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . secondly prepare the cup. and so on. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. etc is the best example of the procedure text. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. read. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. what happened on Sunday. In simple way. the thing is an experience. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. In writer's point of view. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. On the other hand. hear. Procedure. It reveals the conflict among the participants. recount describes series of events in detail. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Explanation is such a scientific written material. The event happened smoothly. phenomena. They give the detail description on something. product case or problem. How a tornado form. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. For example how to make a cup of tea. Explanation. It can be what the writer has done. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. and felt. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something.

spoof. explanation. Using exclamations. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Dominant Language Features: 1. 19. Using general and abstract noun 8. 26. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. 16. 23. texts are divided into several types. Arguments 3.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. 25. analytical exposition. Using adverbs 5. descriptive. 24. These variations are known as GENRES. 15. review. hortatory exposition. Crisis 4. discussion. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verbs 4. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Using modals 2. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Coda. anecdote. Using adjective 6. 14. 18. recount. Reaction 5. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. 22. Thesis 2. 17. and news item. Orientation 3. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . procedure. report. Abstract 2. Using material process 3. They are narrative. 20. Using action verbs 3.

place and manner. Using adverbs : time. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adverbial phrase 6. Arguments for and against 3. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Resolution 5. Materials/Equipments 3. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Background event(s) 3. Complication 4. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Issue 2. Using Past Tense 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Orientation 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Evaluation 3. Using action verbs 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using action verb 3.1. Using passive voice 4. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Explanation 3. Short. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using adverb 4. Using technical terms 7. Using Imperatives sentence 3. General statement 2. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Using noun phrase 5.

Arguments 3. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using adverbs 6. Using general and abstract noun 9. Using thinking verb 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using modals 3. In simple word. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Identification 2. Using conditional logical connection 3.1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Description Language Features: 1. Generic Structure 1. Using general and abstract noun 5. place or thing in detail. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using action verb 3. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using modality 7. as it is. Using adjective 7. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using thinking verbs 5. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using adverb 4. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using technical terms 8. General classification 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Thesis 2.

Evaluation 5. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. etc while recount text is found in biography. Orientation 2. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. social conflict or psychological conflict. Event(s) 3. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Using action verb 3. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Event(s) 3. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Evaluation 3. Using adverb 4. Using long and complex clauses 4. fable. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. or Past Perfect Tense. whether Simple Past Tense. Simple Past Continuous Tense. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Interpretative Recount 4. folklore. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Focus on specific participants 2. Using action verb 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. Using Past Tense 2. Using Past Tense 2. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. In the contrary. Using adjectives 3. myth. Orientation 2. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using metaphor 60 . Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar.

tahun. descriptive. 9. 4. Continuous text misalnya narrative. 2. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 11. 1.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. map. 5. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. penjelasan. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 7. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. 8. tempat. spoof dsb. tabel. label. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. 6. dsb. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap.exposition. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. diagram dsb. 10. tanggal. grafik. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 3. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. biasanya tentang nama. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan.

Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. it is small. The purpose of the text is _____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. fluffy. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Menentukan makna kata. And cute.

school corridors and school yard. straws. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. in every ten meters. outside of the classrooms. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. a number of dust bins should be increased. there are paper mineral water cups. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. When we look at classrooms. According to the writer.. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. What is the writer’s intention? To …. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. So when students want to throw away their litters. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. Besides. more dust bins…. they can find the dust bins easily.EXERCISES. and napkins here and there. 1. They put their litters on the proper places. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease.. readers to do something good. and some more also the corridors. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4.

patriotism and yeas. Firstly. Furthermore. translating songs. place or time reference. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. even revolution. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. The generic structures of the text are …. In addition. 5. songs are relaxing. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. shopping malls. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. Last but not least. songs in general also use simple conversational language. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. What is the text about …. Secondly. lexically and poetically. From the elaboration above. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. spelling and culture. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. They provide variety and fun. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. practicing selective listening comprehension. religion. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. Although usually simple. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. with a lot of repetition. which is just what many learners look for sample text. learning vocabulary.

.9. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . not just in restaurants.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. Firstly.Since we can find a thesis. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. The word reasons mean…. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. Based on the text. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on.” The underlined word refers to ….“They provide variety and fun. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. 11. smoking in restaurants is impolite. Therefore. It must not be allowed because it is rude.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Finally. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

Jack.. teacher. Harris. Pleased to meet you. And you.. Cindy. It's a pleasure to meet you. Harris. Mr. Introducing someone else my name is. Mary Jones. Ritter. Ms. Nice to meet you too. Nice to meet you.. co-worker. mother. This is my friend. my my my my my my my my my brother. I don't believe we've met before. sister. Very nice to meet you. Penny Pitcher. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. father.. boss. Bob. • I want to introduce you to …. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. 2. student. I don't think we've actually met formally yet.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Mrs. Mr. Watson. friend. I'm Linda 1. Hi Jack. Carrie. I'm. Likewise.

Adib : Hi. By the way. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. we still have half an hour before the class starts. I’m Arnys. Hi. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. are you a new student. I am. Situation: Adib. Adib : Anyway. They meet at the students’ orientation course.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. a restaurant. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. this is Retno. My name is Adib.g. Retno. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Shall we go to the canteen?. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. Arnys. Adib.g. hotel. and Retno are new students. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. Arnys? Retno : Okay. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. e.

. • Good bye. See you soon /later /tomorrow. Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. thank you. Very well. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. . Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. Bye. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. before leaving. thanks. Do you wanna . . . thanks. shake hands with other Virga :… women. thanks. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . .Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Not so bad. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. (informal) Would you like to . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . . . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. .

? Would you like ... Receiving .I’d like very much .I’d love to .Some responds of inviting.to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like. .. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.... I’d be delighted to...Yes. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. let’s not.I’d be happy/glad to accept .a chocolate bar? . Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .

Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Happy new year. I need it. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. returned your lost wallet. Thanks. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. complimented you on your necktie. Thank you. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Happy birthday to you. you very much. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. helped carry your grocery bags.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you.

Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . It’s nice of you to say so. That’s too bad e.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. How kind of you to say so. What’s shame b. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. holidays and other special occasions. not really. That’s a nuisance d.• • • Oh. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. What’s pity c. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . That’s pity f. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 ... and congratulations Special Days .Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .

…. m. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . I’m really sorry for them d. Send my deepest condolence! f. How terrible! c. How dreadful! C. I feel …. I’m really sad to … c. e. c. I’m delighted. I’m sorry about that c. I enjoyed it I love it. I feel disappointed. It was terrifi c. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. Expression Displeasure a. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. k. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. How Awful! d. d. h. i.. l. I’m so happy …. I feel … b. g. j. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I’m sorry to hear that b.B. Goodness! b. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. d. f. b. feel unpleased with ….

kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh.Satisfaction. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 .

Disagreement/disapproval (setuju.  In my opinion. As I see.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. … If you ask me. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. In my opinion…. I agree • I know what you mean. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. say • Absolutely.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more.  I think the other one’s better. • Yes. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes.. • I am with you • Definitely.. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . you should buy the florescent light bulbs.

• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. that's not a good idea. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. No. Fear. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. I don't think that's what happened.

Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • Thank God for .. • I’m glad it was done. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . • Ugh./I feel ill.... Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. it’s very painful! • Oh. • I feel sick..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • I’m sick.. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. it’s killing me! 2.

When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something." This is not very strong. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. but it is not a very strong dislike. It means that you do not like something. BUT "I don't really like it. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.

I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment.. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . I was so ashamed. I’m extremely unhappy about this. That’s a real embarrassment. I will.. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.

 Right away. Complaint... but. but.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner... It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.. Excuse me if I'm out of line.  Certainly... I'm sorry to bother you.. Don't get me wrong. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. It's your fault for (doing something)..  Of course. Maybe you forgot to... There may have been a misunderstanding about..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it..Palupi : OK. Sure. Blame (keluhan. I think you might have forgotten to. but I think we should.

. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. I'll clear up later. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. I'd like to apologise for. Sorry for taking your DVD. I didn't mean to lose your book. Apology (penyesalan.. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. Sorry for. I'm so sorry. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . Examples I'm really sorry... Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. Pete. to express regret an exclamation a word.. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. to ask for forgiveness... I …. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess...simply starters! Regret.

yet... • Is it possible to …? • Yes.. NOTE : 1...  There is a good chance that …. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . there is a possibility . Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.  It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 ... distress.  There is a little chance that ….

she. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2. Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. doing something are: 4.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.  Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.she.they.you..it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 . It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3.they. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.? it.she. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.you.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.

we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .they. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.she.he. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.it Were utk S= you.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.

waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.

does/am. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. is. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. a. practised d.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. Fred : Juda.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. will be practising c. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . “Srimpi”. have been practising b.is. the telephone rang twelve times.masa lampau.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. are Was. was parctising e.

When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. My family ____ when the postman arrived. will have had lunch b. a. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. will have lived b. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. will have started e. will have lunch e. am living d. would have started d. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. cleaned e. Iwan : Yes. a. a. has been working b. works d. will start b. a. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung.2. have been cleaning c. was living e. clean d. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. have lunch d. starts c. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. have been living c. were cleaning b. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . a. have been having lunch c. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. they are succesful. If we don”t hurry. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. will have worked c. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. worked e.

Anto : I’m sorry Ary. but I ____ there many times. had forgotten e. was carrying 3. a. forgets b. I forget to bring your book. had been 7. He ____ there for three weeks. Is it right? Student : Yes. is d. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. sir. caused d. has worked for six months e. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . has been b. am carrying b. This sentence means that Ann ___. a. is still looking for a job 4. was e. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. My father is still in Bali. a. will be b. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. have caused c. has been e. have been c. am d. Learn all these. When airport are located in the center of citied. has got a new job d. would be b. a. a. a. have been 6. had been 9. started to work 6 months a go c. forgot c. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. will have been c. He ____ ill for a week. has stopped looking for a job b. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. was e. will cause 5. have carried c. causes e. was d. would forget 8. a.2. carry d. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. carried e. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. were causing b. will have been c. has forgotten d.

who. learn d. Reni goes to her university every morning. attended c. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. am learning 10.00 tomorrow. has attended b. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. I ____ them by then. have learnt e. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. a. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. a. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . why. pronoun (kata ganti orang). struktur kalimat. how. She ___ the lectures.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. where. has been attending e. would be attended DIRECT . Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan).Student : All right. will have learnt c. She studies business. dan tempat. sir. when. keterangan waktu. will be learning b. will be attending d.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

that Mary had been absent b. I wasn’t so noisy d. I am very noisy b. Herman : Okay. The baby is sleeping. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. if I opened my mouth e. mom. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. why Mary was absent e. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. had gone to his country d. not to be so noisy e. if Mary was absent d. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . he went to his country b. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. a. to be not so noisy c. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. that I open his mouth d. a. he goes to his country c. why Mary had been absent c. to open my mouth b. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. He said ____ the previous day. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. he has gone to his country e. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. Herman. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a.

b. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Closed the window. he hasn’t cleaned 2. It is windy outside. 4. 94 5. a. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. He asked me ____ a. forgot c. e. d. I forgot to bring your book. Mira closed the window. c. I got a headache. has forgotten d. what I am doing now. he headn’t cleaned b. would forget 3.c. It was windy outside. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. c. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. SMA Students’ Modul of English . Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. he asked me ____”. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. he would not clean c. Mira closed the window. Mira. I hadn’t cleaned d. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. what were you doing now. he asked. It is windy outside. “What are you doing now?”. what are you were doing now d. It was windy outside. he does not clean e. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Does Mira close the window. Anto : I am sorry Lina. what I was doing then. forgets b. “ ___________” a. had forgotten e. Ari : What did he say. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. e. Mother said. a. b.

My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. wether he goes with us c. “don’t make noise. children”. whether I had appointment 7. c. can he go with us e. She didn’t say the children should noise d. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. 8. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. a. e. not spending b. She told the children not to make noise. he went with us 6. do not spend d. to finish my work c. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. did I have an appointment d. Father said. She told the children don’t make noise b. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. going with us b. e. when is my appointment b. that I had an appointment c. she said. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. Slamet. how was my appointment e. She said the children didn’t make noise c. d. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. 10. a. not to spend e. b. Mean____ a. not spend c. “Can I find you a hotel?”. a. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. My friend said to me.a. to finish your work b. finished your work e. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. finish your work d. If he could go with us d. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 .

(passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.

to be abolished c. are sold e.? a. Y : Really. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. a. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. was kicked c. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. will be unloaded b. a. has to be postponed b. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. a. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. The announcement ____ twice. had been sold c. she ____ a. have been unloaded d. were sold b. was kicking b. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. were being unloaded e. was being postponed e. kicked e. was postponed d. has been postponed c.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. kicks d. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. when…. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. is sold d. was it abolishing d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. are unloaded c. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was it to abolish b. did it abolish e. A : Look! The girl is crying.

will be rewarded 8. is being cleaned e. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. The passive form is ____ a. A big dam ___ in this area next year. have been arranged 3. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. the baby will be well looked after d. was being cleaned d. is born d. has been rewarded c. is being demolished e. a. destroyed d. will be born 2. had destroyed e. a. was arranged e. will clean b. have arranged b. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . was destroyed 6. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. has been cleaned 5. cleaned c. rewarded d. would be born b. had been demilishing b.A. demolishing d. is demolishing c. is arranged d. the baby was looked after well c. She looks after the baby well. a. the baby would be well looked after 7. the baby is well looked after b. R. is being built c. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. a. will be destroyed b. a. the baby is being looked after well e. has been born c.1. will be built e. is being rewarded b. has arranged c. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. a. a. would be built 4. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. was born e. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. has been built b. is being destroyed c. was rewarded e. will build d.

9. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. will be promised 10. will be taken d. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. has been promising b. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. was being promised c. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. will be promised e. took c. a. was taken b. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. is being taken e. has promised d. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. yaitu: 1.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. a.

dll. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. have/has.c. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . -er. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. may. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. was/were. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. -le. will. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. had. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. can. -ow. shall. dll. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. did.

Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Kalau kalimatnya (+). 3. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). I would have written you a letter. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Kalau kalimatnya (+).). maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Contoh: If I have much money. itulah yang diharapkan. Apa yang diucapkan. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Contoh : (+) If I had time. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. I would go to the beach with you.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. (jika saya punya uang. I will buy a new car. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 .

I met him last week. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. of which. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. whom. Their car has been stolen. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. I bought it last year. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. their. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Contoh: We saw the people. our. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. its. (him = the man. They are printed in English. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. whose. his. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. your. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 .) 2. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). her. which. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4.

O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Where 8. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Its surface is not smooth. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. sebuah benda. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 .

O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . I got the mechanic to repair my car. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). The manager gets the letter typed. The manager has the letter typed. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1).CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Jogging makes us fresh. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. 2. I had mechanic repair my car. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes.

Amir’s. his. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. 5. Setelah possessive adjective (my. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. 4.I like T. he said nothing.V.her. 3. get used to.their. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . to be worth.to be used to.3.V better than radio.V . Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. than plays a video game. Before leaving.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. before dll.your. on. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. can’t help/can’t bear. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .Dona prefers dancing to singing. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. to be busy.V ketimbang main video game) 4. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .our. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. 6. . Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for.Dita would rather watch T.Juned prefers combro to deblo.

CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. we put some sauce and salt. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. while.He is both wise and good. although/though.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. somebody knocked on the door. I can’t treat you. as soon as. or. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . b. Since I have no money. yaitu: 1.Contoh: .maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . when. 2. d.Amir and I go to school everyday. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. since. Contoh: .Although it was raining. then. we must prepare the ingredients. e. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. but. a. Menunjukan waktu: before. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. c. c. a. a. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. Next.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. finally. for. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . we cut the vegetables into small pieces. We went home after the rain stopped. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. c. After that. that. after. Finally. 3. next. he come on time. first. dll. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. b. d.You can read this book if you like. we put them into frying pan. after that. While he was reading her novel. 1. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. if. b. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) .

(Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.He is not only active but also clever. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.