DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

.............................................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).....................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH...........105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)............................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .................................................99 QUESTION TAGS .....................................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET ...............................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) .....106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION......................104 GERUND ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) .........................

what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Descriptive 10. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Narrative 11. why is the text made?. Review 7. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. 1. Explanation 2. Spoof 5. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. 2. Report 4. Anecdote 9. Recount 6. Analytical Exposition 8. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 .Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Procedure 12. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Hortatory Exposition 3. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. The language feature. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. These types of text are. News Items 13.

Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. cars are very noisy. Reiteratio In conclusion. and especially talk to someone. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Secondly. If you live in the city. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. it is better to look at the fact. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. cars create pollution. As we all know. or concentrate on your homework. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. the city is very busy. as we all know. cars. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Thirdly. Example of Analytical Exposition A. you may find it hard to sleep at night. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. In one hour in smoky room. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Additionally. which causes them to die. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. the risk is nineteen greater. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. lung cancer. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. Argument Firstly.

are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. As the US. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. Furthermore. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. In this example of analytical exposition text. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. That wil be true if the conditions. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before.

misalnya She must save. ruler and such other stuff.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. we. • Connectives.dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. misalnya policy. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. Penguatan pernyataan. dsb • Modal verbs. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. • Abstract nouns. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. misalnya C. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. dsb. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. dsb. First. leaded petrol car. misalnya Many people believe. • Modal adverbs. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. • Relating verbs. eraser. misalnya certainly. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. secondly. misalnya species of animals. drawing book.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. misalnya firstly. • Thinking verbs. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. • Action verbs. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. students need book. government. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Secondly. (Simplified from the jakartapos. • Reiteration . in this multimedia era. pollution. misalnya It is important. dsb. Additionally. dsb. misalnya car. dsb. and then complete the transaction. decide which computer or laptop they need. pen. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. students need more to reach their progressive development. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. misalnya we must preserve. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. • Technical verbs. The students just need to brows that online shop. this method will help student to get better understanding. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. dsb. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. • Bahasa evaluatif. dsb.

Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. If Hindi translation is provided.delivered to the students' houses. Therefore. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. E. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. From all of that. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. India is likely being an English speaking country. Students just need to decide which type they really need. India translation will grow better and. According to Nida. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. It seems Indonesia. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. D. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Career in Translation Functionally. That is really easy and save time and money. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Arabic translation.

etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. etc • Causal conjunction . 3.is inserted at the end of each article. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. it's wonderful!. Using simple past tense 4. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Abstract 2. because. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. it's awful!. For instance. do you know what? 4. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Using rhetoric question. etc 2. 2. write. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. etc 5. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Using action verb. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. then. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. listen to this 3. Incident. Orientation 3. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Crisis 4. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Using imperative. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. afterward 6. go. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Using exclamation words. Using conjunction of time.

The father was full of disappointed and anger. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. dsb. nine children. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. Anna. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu.  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. The doctor sewed up the boy. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. dsb. They had gotten afterwards. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. The family worked and saved. The family dreams were dashed. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. However few days before their departure. spitting and hissing at us. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. America. seperti then. write. enough money. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. whole business. and turned on the tap.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. there were being quarantined for long days. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. misalnya go. their children to America. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . He shed tears of disappointment. so we set to. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. who was only three at the time. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband.

Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . When the dream will come true. describing the phenomenon in parts. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. 2. the mighty Titanic. or/and characteristics. identifying the phenomenon to be described. qualities. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had dream to travel to America. or thing. place. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. • Using simple present tense 4. they were left behind. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It made they were being quarantined. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. They had to forget their plan. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. You have and so do I. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. The ship. had shank. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.Five days latter. It was unbelievable but it was. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. 3. • Description. When the father heard the news. there is something wrong last minute before it. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. He thanked God for saving their lives. The father was angry with his son and God. The Clak family should have been on that ship. but because of the bitten son by a dog.

She always pays much attention on her appearance. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. in 2004. native plants and eucalypts. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. Today. attractive and trendy. She is really mad on that shoes. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. Recently. Example of Description A. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. yet retaining its beautiful site. a grass amphitheatre. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. She is beautiful. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. When she are walking on that shoes. This shoes really matches on her. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. In 1964. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. She really have perfect appearance. The style. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. bright color. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. a railway station is under construction. all her friends. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. This year. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. In three years1 time. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. Sydney. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. She said that the products covered all genders.

The temple is constructed.8 km of passage and starways. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Borobudur temple • Description. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. valuable • Using simple present tense. The upper three are circular. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Borobudur is well-known. casual. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle.Budhist temple. Cambodia. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Central Java. B. Borobudur is located in Magelang.she has. Ballet. The products provide varieties of choice. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. Indonesia. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.

berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. • action verbs. My mum is realy cool. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. numbering. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. Misalnya: I have many pets.my cat. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. 2. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. perilaku umum. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. bersifat describing. house. misalnya. enough money to take Snow White. dsb. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. dsb. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. misalnya. White. dsb. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. dsb. dsb. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. better or worse 3. • simple present tense. but my favourite one is a cat. misalnya fast. sharp white fangs.  Description. kualitas. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. • berbagai macam adjectives. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. classifying. dsb. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. two strong legs. misalnya teacher. It has very thick fur. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. a sweet young lady. sifat-sifat (characteristic).

This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. Maura asked them for something to eat.” Snow White said. one of the dwarfs. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. The third sheik. After dinner. who received a plate of delicious meat. The dwarfs said.Resolution 2 Meanwhile.” Doc. “Oh could I? Thank you. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. in what way she will decide who the best is. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. Hakim. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. Example of Narative A. which she strikes against herself. “My name is Snow White. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. had many suitors. The psychological conflict inside Maura. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. One by one she discarded them. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. said. They went inside. The following day. One evening. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. As they were about to have dinner. She saw the dwarfs.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. you may live here with us. “what is your name?” Snow White said. “If you wish. who was called Hakim. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. There they found Snow White sleeping. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. The first gave her some left over food. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. They want to know what next will happen. “Without question. Then Snow White woke up. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. They were also rich and strong.

misalnya. I will cut the chicken 17 . untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. dsb. dsb. waktu. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. At the first. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Resolution. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. the parrot would not say it. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. long black hair. soon. dsb. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. two red apples. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Although he tried hard to teach. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. Complication. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. before that. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. stepsisters.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. • action verbs dalam past tense. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. “You know. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian).dsb. except one word. misalnya here. stayed. climbed. Then he continued to humble. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. He could not bear it. dsb. misalnya then. a man had a wonderful parrot. misalnya. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. The parrot could say every word. housework. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. There was no other parrot like it. in the mountain. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. phrase. Penyelesaian masalah. The name of the place was Catano. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. happily ever after. the man really got very angry. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. konflik dalam cerita. Masalah. Pengenalan tokoh.

How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. As soon as it was free. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. That was the smartest parrot. They had two daughters. It will show the crisis. There were three death chickens on the floor. One day. In that parrot story. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. readers see the problem is finished. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. He liked fishing. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. he caught a fish. A man and his parrot took place once time. the man attempted to teach the bird. After that he left the chicken house. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. The next day. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. Next it will be your turn. paragraph 2. 3. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He opened the door and was very surprised. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. Batara Guru could not bear it. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. To fix this problem. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. stupid parrot”. He could not control his mad. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it.for my meal. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. They found their mother and talked her about it. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. 4 are describing the complication. He made the fish free. C. At the moment. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. The daughters were crying. rising crisis and climax of the story. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. They were married happily. the man came back to the chicken house. In the parrot story. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. The fish begged him to set it free. there was a handsome man. He felt in love with that fish-woman. I will eat you too.

“Well” said the godmother. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. she was driven to the palace. Then the earth began to shake. A few days later. In her hurry. D. She danced again and again with the king’s son.The mother was very annoyed. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. They treated Cinderella very badly. the day of the ball came. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. and away went the sisters to it.”you’ve been such a cheerful. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Batara Guru broke his promise. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. on the other hand. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. one of her glass slipper was left behind. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. she said. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. hardworking. They were married and live happily ever after. The earth formed a very big hole. and it became a beautiful ball gown. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. It fitted perfectly. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. “You must leave before midnight”. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. Finally. Magically. “Why are crying. One day. At last. “Now. The two step sisters. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. In the end. Cinderella?” a voice asked. such as scrubbing the floor. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. did not work about the house. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Cinderella”. Volcanoes started to erupt. The mother was shouting angrily.

“but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “it at home”. But the man answered. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. He took his plough and hit the tiger. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Every morning and every evening. once in Laos 2. Then he said. “Can I see your intelligence?”. E. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . 3.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. “oh. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Resolution. Resolution: Like complication. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. Once there was a farmer from Laos. In the last paragraph. The tiger asked. farmer and his buffalo. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. introducing specific participants. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. “Yes” said the man. The Smartest Animal. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. said the buffalo. I can’t tell you”. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. One day. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Complication. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. Generic Structure Analysis 1. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Orientation. the man is very intelligent”. “No. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. After the man went home. Complication: In this Cinderella story. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. “you are so big and strong.

answered thinking verb. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . spatula. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. 50 g cheese. Place on a plate. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. plate Method 1. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. fork. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Cook both sides 9. once. cheese grater. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. was surprised to action verb. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. ¼ cup milk. tie. after. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. the man tied the tiger. the next day past tense. hit time conjunction. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. bowl. there was a farmer. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Add milk and whisk well 4. saw. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. one day connectives.

Use regular words. write your benefit like you talk it. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. misalnya then. mix. Here's a simple checklist to follow. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. cara yang akurat. Cut. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. not features. etc • Action verb. misalnya turn. Finally. Langkah-langkah. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. put. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. 2 centimetres from the top. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. put it. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . put. dsb. Well. Your customers don't care about you. put the seeding on the soil. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. wait it. take the topic of benefits. Firstly. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. dry a handful seeding. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. Firstly. firstly. put it in another big pot. you don't have to. excluded • Steps. menyatakan rinci waktu. Read aloud what you've written. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. Don’t mix. Here are the steps. • action verbs. but it will help. • Material. planting is a nice activity. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. tempat. dry. Example of Procedure A. don’t. informing on how to plant chillies. It should be in open area Next. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. the following is a guided information B. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. misalnya for five minutes. dsb. finally. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. next. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. dsb. misalnya.10. while. etc • Temporal conjunction.

write. Don't describe how your company may. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. bowl and plate. you need some tools. Next. fifty gram cheese. Some sentences are long and some are short. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. etc C. etc • Temporal conjunction. Fourthly.re-read what you've done before publishing. secondly. such as. excluded • Steps/ method. a pinch of satlt and pepper. Edit it necesarily. spatula. informing on how to write for business • Material. re-reading what have been written . writing the topic like the way it is talked. firstly. three tablespoons cookin oil. you need an egg. read. a quarter cup of milk. Next. Mix them up and keep things interesting.Thirdly. Use a nice rhythm. to make a cheese omelet.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. reread what you have done. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. lose the weak words. etc • Action verb. Listen carefully. cheese grater. First. frying pan. Fifthly. showing the method in writing for business. add First. fork. write like you talked. choosing the advantageous topic.

The accident. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. it’s up to them”. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. Generic Structure of News Item 1. Main event 2. Using material process 4. Resource of information 3. “But this just a suggestion. Example of Procedure A. Focusing on circumstances 2. time. The events are considered newsworthy or important. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Language Feature of News Item 1. 2. participant. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. a news report said. place) 3. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Elaboration (background. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV.

“It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. less then 10 percent are woman. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to.  Background Events. he said in the report. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . Last year. Kejadian inti. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Latar belakang kejadian. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. many women who contract HIV are housewives. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. tempat kejadian dsb. orang yang terlibat. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. In the past the event was held behind closed door. dsb. pendapat para ahli. Malaysian Aids Council president. but the number is steadily rising. (Source The Jakarta Post. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. komentar saksi kejadian.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. June 01. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia.  Sources. The maid. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. named Suwartin. even though they know they have HIV” she said.

May 6. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. Saudi Arabia. carry.news. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. Background 3. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Last year. Using material process. Resource.Then the maid was arrested. behead. Hong Kong. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. Rape. (Taken from: www.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. execute. Background 2. She had relationship the boy for five months. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia. (Adapted from Reuters. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . the Saudi Interior Minister said. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer.bbc. Background 1. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. law of serious crimes.co.

stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. etc • Using adverbial of manner. hope. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. But. hopefully. contrastive. deliberately. however. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. and causal connection. on the hand. 2. may. should. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. similarly. believe. historic. many times. Example of Discussion Text A. must. could.1. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. etc • Using additive. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. doing homework is not a great idea. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. feel. etc • Using modalities. and social text. etc 4. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned.

Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. so it is not expansive to make. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. It is reliable. England in 1956. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 .Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. It produces small amount of waste. and produces huge amounts of energy. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide.

however. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan.On the other hand. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. Furthermore. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. alcohol. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. seperti perhaps. .  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. dsb.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. perception and recommendation. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. misalnya feel. misalnya deliberately. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. believe.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. could 29 be. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. misalnya smoking is harmful. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. nuclear power is very. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. dsb. should. hope. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. misalnya similarly. dsb. This example of discussion text present the two poles. although it is reliable. dsb. dsb. should have been. In many social activities. • adverbials of maner. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. hopefully. on the hand. misalnya uniforms.  Kesimpulan. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. Gagasan Pokok 2. memberikan informasi secara padu. very dangerous. Elaborasi (uraian). must. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident.

hunting fox. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . believe. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. Using thinking verb. geography and history text books.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Using modalities. Supporting point. It is often found in science. Using connectives. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. social. Recommendation. (Taken from: www. conservationists. Many farmer and even conservationists. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. however. Contrastive point.co.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel.bbc. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. farmer. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. B. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. 2. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. must. scientific and cultural phenomena. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.

sun. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. etc Using chronological connection. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips.• • General statement. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. to begin with. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Example of Explanation Text A. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. Featuring generic participant. Sequenced explanation. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. Language Feature • • • • 4. rain. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). next. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe.

sosialbudaya. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. earthquakes.org) B. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours.panda. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. adverbial phrases. This process is called revolution. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. action verbs. misalnya the temperature. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. noun phrase. But that is the case. simple present tense. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. It causes day and night. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. conjunctions of time dan cause. Tsunami always bring great damage. It takes 365 days or a year. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. (simplified from www. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. dunia ilmiah. misalnya the large cloud. passive voice. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. abstract nouns. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. complex sentences. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. The earth also moves around the sun. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. misalnya word chopping. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . the amount of • bahasa teksni. It is called as rotation.

it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. certainly. I feel that when you travel through the country. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. surely. Using abstract noun. Using simple present tense 4. etc 3. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Using pasive voice. but. 2. policy. advantage.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). important. Using evaluative words. Using thinking verb 5. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. firstly.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement.ictteachers. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. trustworthy. Recommendation 3. Arguments 3. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. then. etc 8. secondly. Using present tense. etc 6.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using passive voice 9. Using temporal connective. Using action verb 4. daylight. Using chronological connection. (Taken from: www. Focusing on the writer 2. Using modal adverb.co. you would be forgiven. valuable. etc 7. so. Thesis 2. Explanation.

who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. Considering some facts mentioning above.every five to ten minutes. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. However. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. and the possibility of being aggressive. of course. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. and short sleep duration. especially violence. Recomendatio I feel that country people. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. pornography. Those who want to penalise older . consumerism and so on. Recently. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. Meanwhile. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. stress.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A.

They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. In the first paragraph. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. there papers. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. More dust bins should be put beside each step. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. speech campaign. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. When we look at classroom. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. In many social activities. and news advertorial.the writer thought as stated in the text. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. Basically. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. Both take place as argumentative essays. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. B. school corridors and schoolyard. If it is a hortatory text. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. and napkin everywhere. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. mineral water cops. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. sales letter. advertising. straws. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school.

the available time will be more flexible for them. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. So. As result. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. As the alternative method of studying. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. In the other hand. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time.meters. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. it will be very hard to looking for job. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. they can find the dust bins easily. Where should be after High School?. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. when they think about straightly seeking job. So when students want to throw away their litters. it will be quite confusing. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . C. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. they will think hard about the time and cost. When they think about continuing study. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. In the same way. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them.

we must save. dsb. public place. plant. dsb. doesn’t seem to have been . give up. now there is a way out. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. are you tired?. misalnya should be. Thinking verbs. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something.dsb. Millions from Property Market. misalnya certainly. misalnya firstly. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis.government dsb. dsb. Connectives. dsb. valuable. We can show the way to give up work. misalnya We must preserve. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Argument. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . dsb. Generic Structure of Report 1. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. he drives a sport car. dsb. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. etc which will be discussed in general 2. misalnya I believe . misalnya important. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. Albert Smith is the proof. Action verbs. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. there is a way out of financial problem. dsb. part per part . Relating verbs. reward Using action verb.we. misalnya. make. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns.misalnya policy. as it is.D. Modal verbs. secondly. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. Recommendation. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. etc Using thinking verb. felt Using simple present tense. Modal adverbs. Technical verbs. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. misalnya species of animals. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. animal. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too.

Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal.• • Using conditional logical connection. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. and woolly layer of fur. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus' eyes and head are small. perhaps two dozen birds. so. rivers. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. etc Using simple present tense 4. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. stating general classification. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. the animal of platypus. Platypus lives in streams. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. when. Platypus. and lakes. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. driving the fish before them. As the bird lifts its head. A group. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. In the other hand. Example of Report Text A. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. beating the water furiously with their wings. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 .

istilah teknis. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification.Description. Platypus lives in streams. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. habits or behaviors. misalnya. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. qualities. keterangan. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. dsb. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. logical connective. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . dan klasifikasinya. lingkungan. dsb. dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. dsb. male platypus does not need any burrow. but. in terms of parts. kegunaannya jika non natural. apa adanya. atau gejala-gejala sosial. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . misalnya lizards cannot fly. the animal of platypus conditional. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. benda buatan manusia.

Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Focusing on people. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. 2. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Orientation 2. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Told in chronological order 4. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Using action verb. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. ran. Language Feature of Spoof 1. animals or certain things 2. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Events 3.1. Using adverb of time and place 4. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. etc 3. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. ‘ take him to the zoo’.’ replied the man. Dave found a nice office. ate. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Twist 3. What should I do?’ The policeman replied.

Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. He suddenly became a 1. He had not left the country yet. misalnya eat. benda tertentu. B. I want you to leave the country. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. verbs. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. Event 2: He had his new office. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . run.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Then the man said to Dave. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. conversation on the phone. Instead leaving the country. Then “Remember. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. no children. “Hey Abu Nawas. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. “Yes. In his office. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. “If that is what you want. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. binatang. terduga atau lucu). The man knocked at the door while this was going on. Event 1: Being rich. “You want me. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly.

Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. I could not hear the actors. So you see. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas.guards. look at you. The king was not able to say anything. I do not step on the ground. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. They did not pay any attention.In the end. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting. You walk on stilts like a child. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely.I did not enjoy it. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. I have been walking on this stilts. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. Your Majesty. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. (Adapted from S. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. You have not left this country”. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground.I got very angry. were talking noisily. I turned around again. They were talking very loudly. The king wondered and said “Abu. “I remember exactly what you said. I do not step on the ground of this country”. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The King continued “And now. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . I turned around. I could not bear it. young man and young woman. And since yesterday.

The next day. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. When he arrived in the party. It’s a private conversation”. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. “When I came here with my old clothes. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. nobody looked at me. they just shook the head. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. Getting Nasreddin's answer. "Take it to the zoo!". Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. “Eat the food. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. He put his coat and said. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. D. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. you give food to my coat instead of me”. He took it to a policeman and said. So. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. The man was still carrying the penguin. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. “It’s none of your business. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. the policeman saw the man in the same park. The host at once got up and came to meet him. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin.

walk up Using adverb of time and place. The following day. Orientation: Introducing the participants. change. in the park Told in chronological order. once. place and time 2. carry. chronological order by days. saw. was. go. look. I.did. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . He. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. my group. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. Generic Structure of Recount 1. They were in the park Event1.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. heard. Even. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. penguin. policeman Using action verb. Reorientation: It is optional. today I am taking it to the movie". Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. So. etc • Using chronological connection. etc • Using action verb. were. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. then. first. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. etc • Using simple past tense 4. etc • Using linking verb. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2.

The room had perfect view of the park. Richard’s family was on vacation. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. they inserted a key-card to open the door.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. Instead of keys for the room. Vacation to London Mr. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. This includes travel and accommodation. On the third floor. The two week in London went by fast. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. read. It was scary. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. The officers were pleasant. hear. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They had a very pleasant flight. They gave them food and drink. They went to London. Then. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . In writer's point of view. There was a film for their entertainment. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. and Mrs. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. Richard with two sons. They had booked fourteen days tour. They slept part of the way. B. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. on Example of Recount text A. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. the thing is an experience. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. It can be what the writer has done. They are Mr. At the end of the 14-day. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. Mr. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They had variety of food. We stayed at David and Della’s house.

kejadian atau kegiatan. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. at my house. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. but. kejadian atau kegiatan. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. It is a busy but quiet town. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. we dsb. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. On the day of the tour. he was ready. She was happy dsb. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian.  Reorientation. • • • • • . The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. C. 46 slowly dsb. misalnya go. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. The first stop was at Batubulan. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. di mana dan kapan. It reveals the conflict among the participants. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. The first one was to Singaraja. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. funny. run dsb. The event happened smoothly. the on Tuesday. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. misalnya David.  Events. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. the monkey. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. the second was to Ubud. Rekaman peristiwa. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. after that. misalnya We went to the zoo.Small Notes and felt. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. then. misalnya yesterday. misalnya beautiful. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. a center of stone sculpture. waktu dan cara. recount describes series of events in detail. misalnya and. dsb. sleep. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. what happened on Sunday. Pengenalan. dsb. In simple way. On the other hand. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. past tense. then on Monday. The next stop was Celuk.

and. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. Several days before the ceremony was done. moved. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. stating the writer's personal note. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. Re-orientation. D. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. my car lunched on one side. Even I could not move my car at all. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. describing a series of event which happened. I • Using chronological connectives. introducing the participant. Although nothing was left. then. was. I was trapped by the rock. the ceremony was quite elaborate. walked. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. I thought I got flat tire. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. were • Using action verb. Overall. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. etc E. in the town. all his day was spent on the beach. to the left. like matchsticks. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. left. Events. I was on the car las week. There were rocks everywhere. The car lunched to one side. made. using first person point of view. I was on the car. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. It took about a week. He was quiet satisfied. suddenly • Using linking verb. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . I was on my car. I did not know that it was an earthquake. etc. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. When I reached my town. When the earthquake happened. earthquake happened.

First. my brother. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. and end your composition. you find words and phrases used to start. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. Finally. Finally. Then. In the text. After that. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. we were feasting. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. and dancing. The funeral was performed in two phases. A recount text has an orientation. my uncle. Questions 1. They were great matches. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. there were also buffalo matches. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Then. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. On the last day. In the night. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. After that. However. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Those words and phrases are: First. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. connect a sentence with the next one. a series of events in chronological order.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. Meanwhile. and then moved the corpse to face north. During the day. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . chanting. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard.

Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. services which want to be sold. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. It is personal idea about the product. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. Focus on specific participants 2. uniqueness. Using long and complex clauses 4. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . 3. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. As I said in my previous post. worthy. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Using adjectives 3. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. quality of the product which will be known publicly. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad.What is review text 1. or just a site which want to be known publicly. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Definition Review is one of text genres. It states the parts. valuable. Dominant Language features: 1. useful. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. Using metaphor 4. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. After clearly explanation. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. etc. It can be product.

The stories were bright. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. this was not my favorite. depressing feel. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. fast-paced. A few other changes in this book . and this part I loved.. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. however. He goes from being a warm-hearted.. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. I cried!) as sad as it was. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. I was truly moved by the last page. and ultimately satisfying. and parts of it do seem long. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. Still a really good book. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. In some (Interpretati instances this works.housekeeping is still housekeeping. especially with being a teenager and all. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. for example . magical or no. I actually liked the ending (and yes. intriguing. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. with some editing it would have been great. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house.

sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. It straightly goes to the end user. woman and man are available choice. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . Titanium. Eyeglasses for children. In certain case. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. Again. the daily activities are worthily documented. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. The experts who have grammatical. if he works with Farsi translation. does and will do daily. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. For Rosemarie. easy and not complicated design. Similarly. The site is quite simple but very informative. However. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. such as India translation will help to fix the problem.the trend. lexical. If we visit the site. aluminum and rimless frame are available. The site is her effort to record of what she did. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. It is real. The translation experts. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. it will be quite difficult to make translation.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

this text type is commonly called as instruction text. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. colour. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. physical strengh. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. animal and scientific object. between report and descriptive text. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Procedure.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. It will talk about bicycle in general. etc is the best example of the procedure text. However if they are analyzed carefully. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. wheel style. How a tornado form. If we talk about. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. Explanation. report is written after getting careful observation. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. What make different. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. eg: bicycle. It is such word. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . goods. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. its parts. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. They give the detail description on something. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. it belongs to report text. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. In short. first boil water. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. and so on. product case or problem. Mostly. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. etc. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. For example how to make a cup of tea. how to make a good kite. In the other hand. descriptive text will convey more focus. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. phenomena. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. lengh. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. is the scope of the written object. secondly prepare the cup.

both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. The event happened smoothly. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. first boil water. Explanation is such a scientific written material. and so on. It reveals the conflict among the participants. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It is such word. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. then on Monday. the on Tuesday. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. hear. and felt. etc is the best example of the procedure text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. For example how to make a cup of tea. In simple way. what happened on Sunday. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. product case or problem. It can be what the writer has done. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. In writer's point of view. phenomena. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . goods. secondly prepare the cup. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. How a tornado form. On the other hand. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. read. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. recount describes series of events in detail. how to make a good kite. Procedure. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Explanation. They give the detail description on something. the thing is an experience. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity.

Using adverbs 5. and news item. 20. Orientation 3. Crisis 4. Using adjective 6. Using modals 2. 17. Reaction 5. 22. texts are divided into several types. report. descriptive. 19. Using material process 3. review. Thesis 2. spoof. anecdote. Using exclamations. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Using general and abstract noun 8. Coda. 15. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. 24. discussion. hortatory exposition. recount.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. Using thinking verbs 4. Dominant Language Features: 1. They are narrative. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . Abstract 2. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. These variations are known as GENRES. 14. Using technical terms 7. 25. analytical exposition. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. explanation. Arguments 3. Using action verbs 3. procedure. 23. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. 16. 18. 26.

Evaluation 3. Using Past Tense 2. Using saying verbs 4. General statement 2. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Explanation 3. place and manner. Arguments for and against 3. Using passive voice 4. Using action verb 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverbs : time. Using adverb 4. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using noun phrase 5. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Materials/Equipments 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Resolution 5. Complication 4. Short. Using action verbs 3. Background event(s) 3. Issue 2. Using technical terms 7.1. Using action verbs 3. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Orientation 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2.

Using action verb 3. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Thesis 2. Description Language Features: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using technical terms 8. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Generic Structure 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using thinking verbs 5. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using adjective 7. place or thing in detail. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using general and abstract noun 9. General classification 2. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using modality 7. Using adverbs 6. Identification 2. Using modals 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 5. In simple word. Arguments 3. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using thinking verb 4. Using conjunction/transition 6. as it is. Description Dominant Language Feature 1.1. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using adverb 4. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1.

Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. myth. or Past Perfect Tense. Using Past Tense 2. Event(s) 3. folklore. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. fable. Orientation 2. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. Using metaphor 60 . Using action verb 3. Using long and complex clauses 4. Evaluation 3. Orientation 2. etc while recount text is found in biography. Using Past Tense 2. Interpretative Recount 4. In the contrary. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Using adverb 4. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Using action verb 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using adjectives 3. Event(s) 3. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Evaluation 5. Focus on specific participants 2. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 2. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. whether Simple Past Tense. social conflict or psychological conflict.

exposition. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. spoof dsb. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. 9. tanggal. dsb. map. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. 1.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. descriptive. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . 2. biasanya tentang nama. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. label. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. tahun. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. 11. 8. 3. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. 10. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. 5. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. penjelasan. Continuous text misalnya narrative. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. 7. grafik. tabel. 4. tempat. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. 6. diagram dsb. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap.

Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. fluffy. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Menentukan makna kata. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. it is small.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. And cute.

Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. more dust bins…. When we look at classrooms. in every ten meters.. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. straws. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. outside of the classrooms. 1.. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. school corridors and school yard. and napkins here and there. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. According to the writer. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. So when students want to throw away their litters.EXERCISES. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. there are paper mineral water cups. What is the writer’s intention? To …. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . Besides. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. a number of dust bins should be increased. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. They put their litters on the proper places. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. and some more also the corridors. they can find the dust bins easily. readers to do something good. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment.

Firstly. shopping malls. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. Secondly. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. with a lot of repetition. From the elaboration above. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. In addition. What is the text about …. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. learning vocabulary. Although usually simple. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. religion. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. lexically and poetically. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . The generic structures of the text are …. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. 5. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. songs are relaxing. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. which is just what many learners look for sample text. Last but not least. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. practicing selective listening comprehension. spelling and culture. patriotism and yeas. translating songs. even revolution. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. They provide variety and fun. songs in general also use simple conversational language. Furthermore. place or time reference. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar.

Since we can find a thesis.. so we can conclude that this text belongs to….9.“They provide variety and fun. It must not be allowed because it is rude. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. Finally. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. smoking in a restaurant is impolite. smoking in restaurants is impolite.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.” The underlined word refers to …. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. The word reasons mean…. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. Based on the text. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. 11.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere. Therefore. not just in restaurants. Firstly. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

. Pleased to meet you. my my my my my my my my my brother. Carrie. Harris. I'm Linda 1. Jack. Mr.Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. 2. I don't believe we've met before. Nice to meet you. Cindy. This is my friend. Very nice to meet you. father. Penny Pitcher. I'm. Mrs. Mr. Harris.. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . co-worker. friend. teacher. Likewise.. Ms.. • I want to introduce you to …. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Hi Jack. Watson. Ritter. student. sister. Introducing someone else my name is. And you. Bob. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Mary Jones. It's a pleasure to meet you. Nice to meet you too. boss. mother.

By the way. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. e. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. I am. this is Retno. Adib : Anyway. Adib. and Retno are new students.g. Hi.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. Situation: Adib. Adib : Hi. Arnys? Retno : Okay. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. Arnys. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. I’m Arnys. Retno. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. a restaurant. hotel. My name is Adib. They meet at the students’ orientation course. are you a new student.g. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Shall we go to the canteen?. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. we still have half an hour before the class starts.

See you soon /later /tomorrow. . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Not so bad. thank you. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . (informal) Would you like to . • Good bye. . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. . • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. Very well. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. Do you wanna . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. . thanks. before leaving. shake hands with other Virga :… women. . . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . thanks. . Bye. thanks. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . .

. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.Yes.I’d love to .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.. .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 ..I’d like very much . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome... Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks.? Would you like .I’d be happy/glad to accept .. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. let’s not..Some responds of inviting. I’d be delighted to. Receiving .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.a chocolate bar? .

helped carry your grocery bags. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Thanks. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. complimented you on your necktie. Thank you. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. I need it. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. Happy new year. Happy birthday to you.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . you very much. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. returned your lost wallet.

That’s too bad e... When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. It’s nice of you to say so. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . That’s pity f. holidays and other special occasions. and congratulations Special Days . How kind of you to say so. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . That’s a nuisance d.• • • Oh. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . Expressing of sympathy on minor a. not really. What’s shame b. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. What’s pity c.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days.

Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. I’m sorry about that c. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. …. g. f. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. d. Goodness! b. Expression Displeasure a. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. I’m so happy ….B. h. j. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . d. How dreadful! C. I’m really sorry for them d. It was terrifi c.. m. I feel … b. b. l. I’m really sad to … c. I’m sorry to hear that b. k. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. feel unpleased with …. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I feel …. I’m delighted. c. I enjoyed it I love it. How Awful! d. i. I feel disappointed. How terrible! c. Send my deepest condolence! f. e.

Satisfaction. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan.

? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. I agree • I know what you mean.. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. As I see. • Yes.. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. In my opinion….Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. … If you ask me. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes.  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.  In my opinion. say • Absolutely. • I am with you • Definitely.  I think the other one’s better. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.

Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. Fear. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. I don't think that's what happened. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. that's not a good idea. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . No.

.. • I’m glad it was done... it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. it’s killing me! 2. • I’m sick.. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . • Thank God for . it’s very painful! • Oh. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .. • Ugh. • I feel sick. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse./I feel ill.

This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. BUT "I don't really like it." This is not very strong. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. but it is not a very strong dislike. It means that you do not like something. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 .Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'.

I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 .. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. I will. I was so ashamed. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes.. That’s a real embarrassment. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I’m extremely unhappy about this.

Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English . It's your fault for (doing something). but.Palupi : OK. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English.menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it.  Of course. Sure...  Certainly. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. There may have been a misunderstanding about.. I think you might have forgotten to.. Blame (keluhan.. Complaint. I'm sorry to bother you... but.. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but.. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request... Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright.. but I think we should.. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive..  Right away. Don't get me wrong. Excuse me if I'm out of line. Maybe you forgot to.

I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 . Sorry for taking your DVD. I'm so sorry.. I ….. Examples I'm really sorry. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. Pete. I'll clear up later.. Apology (penyesalan. Sorry for. To say why you're sorry Sorry about... Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. to ask for forgiveness.simply starters! Regret. I'd like to apologise for.. to express regret an exclamation a word. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. I didn't mean to lose your book.

 It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game.  There is a little chance that ….. NOTE : 1. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability... SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 ..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.  There is a good chance that ….. • Is it possible to …? • Yes... yet.. distress.this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. there is a possibility .

 Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it. It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he. Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it.?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….you.she.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 . WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.they.? it. doing something are: 4. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2.she.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.you.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.they.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.she.

we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .she. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.they.he.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.it Were utk S= you.

Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .

masa lampau. practised d. is. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. was parctising e.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do.is. will be practising c.does/am. a. “Srimpi”. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. Fred : Juda.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . have been practising b.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. are Was. the telephone rang twelve times. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.

will have had lunch b. were cleaning b. they are succesful. a. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . worked e. a. If we don”t hurry. would have started d. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. will have lunch e. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. starts c. My family ____ when the postman arrived. a. a. clean d. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. am living d. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. have been having lunch c. will have worked c. have been living c. Iwan : Yes. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. will have started e. a. works d. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. will have lived b. cleaned e. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. has been working b. have been cleaning c. have lunch d.2. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. was living e. will start b.

a. causes e. am d. will be b. will have been c. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. a. had been 9. have been c. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. My father is still in Bali. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. Learn all these. but I ____ there many times. has got a new job d. have been 6. He ____ ill for a week. a. has forgotten d. was e. forgets b. have caused c. had forgotten e. sir. carried e. has stopped looking for a job b. I forget to bring your book. will cause 5. a. will have been c. a. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . When airport are located in the center of citied. has been b.2. would be b. carry d. was d. a. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. is still looking for a job 4. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. had been 7. was e. was carrying 3. Is it right? Student : Yes. have carried c. He ____ there for three weeks. would forget 8. has been e. am carrying b. a. has worked for six months e. caused d. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. This sentence means that Ann ___. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. were causing b. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. started to work 6 months a go c. forgot c. is d. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table.

a. will have learnt c. how. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan).00 tomorrow. attended c. have learnt e. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. has been attending e.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. sir. She studies business. am learning 10. Reni goes to her university every morning. would be attended DIRECT . keterangan waktu. why. will be attending d. struktur kalimat. will be learning b. learn d. pronoun (kata ganti orang). She ___ the lectures. a.Student : All right. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. I ____ them by then. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. has attended b. dan tempat. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. who. where. when. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. he went to his country b. not to be so noisy e. a. Herman. He said ____ the previous day. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. The baby is sleeping. he goes to his country c. to open my mouth b. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. that I open his mouth d. if Mary was absent d. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. to be not so noisy c. if I opened my mouth e. why Mary had been absent c. why Mary was absent e. I am very noisy b. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . I wasn’t so noisy d. mom. he has gone to his country e. Herman : Okay. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. a. had gone to his country d. that Mary had been absent b.

Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. “ ___________” a. forgot c. Anto : I am sorry Lina. SMA Students’ Modul of English . It was windy outside. I got a headache. b. It was windy outside. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. “What are you doing now?”. Does Mira close the window. 4. It is windy outside. a. he would not clean c. what were you doing now. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. c. Ari : What did he say. he hasn’t cleaned 2. Closed the window. He asked me ____ a. a. what I was doing then. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. Mira closed the window. Mother said. would forget 3. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. what are you were doing now d. he asked. e. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. b. he asked me ____”. Mira. had forgotten e. forgets b. I forgot to bring your book. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. 94 5. It is windy outside. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a.c. e. d. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. I hadn’t cleaned d. Mira closed the window. he does not clean e. what I am doing now. c. he headn’t cleaned b. has forgotten d.

he went with us 6. wether he goes with us c. c. can he go with us e.a. e. to finish your work b. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. 8. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. do not spend d. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. d. a. She said the children didn’t make noise c. not to spend e. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. finish your work d. My friend said to me. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. b. not spending b. finished your work e. that I had an appointment c. she said. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. going with us b. Slamet. “don’t make noise. a. e. She told the children not to make noise. whether I had appointment 7. to finish my work c. She didn’t say the children should noise d. a. If he could go with us d. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. Mean____ a. She told the children don’t make noise b. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. children”. when is my appointment b. did I have an appointment d. not spend c. 10. “Can I find you a hotel?”. how was my appointment e. Father said. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 .

Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.

to be abolished c. had been sold c. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. was it abolishing d. was it to abolish b. kicks d. are sold e. a.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. a. when…. will be unloaded b. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. The announcement ____ twice. she ____ a. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. have been unloaded d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. were being unloaded e. was kicked c. a. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. is sold d. kicked e. was being postponed e. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck.? a. was postponed d. Y : Really. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. are unloaded c. were sold b. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. A : Look! The girl is crying. has been postponed c. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. did it abolish e. was kicking b. has to be postponed b.

therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. the baby is being looked after well e. would be born b. is demolishing c. a. is being built c. The passive form is ____ a. will be destroyed b.A. destroyed d. a. is being demolished e. the baby would be well looked after 7. was arranged e. would be built 4. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. rewarded d. was rewarded e. had been demilishing b. will build d. demolishing d. the baby will be well looked after d. She looks after the baby well. is arranged d. the baby was looked after well c. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. cleaned c. R. was destroyed 6. is being destroyed c. will be rewarded 8. A big dam ___ in this area next year. a. a. will be born 2. a. has arranged c. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 .1. has been cleaned 5. will clean b. a. was being cleaned d. has been rewarded c. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. have arranged b. a. has been born c. has been built b. have been arranged 3. will be built e. had destroyed e. was born e. is being rewarded b. is born d. the baby is well looked after b. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. is being cleaned e.

has promised d. he ____ to the nearest hospital. will be promised 10. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . a. was taken b. will be promised e. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. a. is being taken e. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother.9. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. yaitu: 1. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. was being promised c.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. will be taken d. took c. has been promising b.

Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. was/were. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3.c. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. dll. had. dll. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. will. may. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. -le. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. have/has. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. -er. can. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Contoh: large larger largest 4. -ow. did. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . shall.

ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Apa yang diucapkan.). Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. 3. (jika saya punya uang. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Kalau kalimatnya (+). saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Contoh: If I have much money. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Contoh : (+) If I had time. I will buy a new car. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. I would have written you a letter. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. itulah yang diharapkan. I would go to the beach with you. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi.

whom. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. I met him last week. whose. her. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. your. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Their car has been stolen. which. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. Contoh: We saw the people. (him = the man. their. our. I bought it last year. its. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). his. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. of which.) 2. They are printed in English. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 .

O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. sebuah benda. (its surface/permukaannya meja. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Its surface is not smooth. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today. Where 8. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. jabatan sebagai objek) 6.

Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. The manager has the letter typed. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. I had mechanic repair my car. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). 2. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. I got the mechanic to repair my car.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Jogging makes us fresh. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. The manager gets the letter typed. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2).

Dona prefers dancing to singing. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. to be worth. Setelah possessive adjective (my. 6.Kokom likes reading better than watching T.Juned prefers combro to deblo. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . he said nothing. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. 4. on.3. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 .your. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.V better than radio. get used to.I like T.Dita would rather watch T.their. Contoh : My hobby is cycling.her. his. to be busy.Amir’s. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.V. can’t help/can’t bear.V ketimbang main video game) 4. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: .V .to be used to. . than plays a video game. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. before dll. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.our. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . Before leaving. 5. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. 3.

he come on time. After that. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. but.Although it was raining. Since I have no money. finally. dll. b. d. since. We went home after the rain stopped. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . I can’t treat you. 1. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga….You can read this book if you like. that. we put some sauce and salt. While he was reading her novel. c. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. after that.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. b. e. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . if. then. after. Contoh: .Contoh: . somebody knocked on the door.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. c.He is both wise and good. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . yaitu: 1. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. as soon as. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. Finally. c. d. a. while. next. although/though. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. we put them into frying pan.Amir and I go to school everyday. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. for. when. 2. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. Menunjukan waktu: before. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. 3. a. or. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. we must prepare the ingredients. first. Next. a. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. b.

The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) . (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .He is not only active but also clever. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.

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