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Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
.......................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 ...........................................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS .............100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ....................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)..............103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .......................................................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION........................................................................................................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH............................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ...........104 GERUND ......................................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).........................................................................................................................
Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. why is the text made?. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 . 2. Spoof 5. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Hortatory Exposition 3. Recount 6. These types of text are. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Report 4. Descriptive 10. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. analyzing the used structure in composing the text.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. Narrative 11. Review 7. Analytical Exposition 8. Procedure 12. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. News Items 13. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Explanation 2. Anecdote 9. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. The language feature. 1.
About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. cars create pollution. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. it is better to look at the fact. which causes them to die. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. and especially talk to someone. the risk is nineteen greater. lung cancer. Thirdly. If you live in the city. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. cars are very noisy. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. the city is very busy. as we all know. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Argument Firstly. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Additionally. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Example of Analytical Exposition A. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Secondly. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. you may find it hard to sleep at night. As we all know. Reiteratio In conclusion. cars. or concentrate on your homework. In one hour in smoky room.
Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. Furthermore. As the US. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. In this example of analytical exposition text.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. That wil be true if the conditions. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe.
leaded petrol car. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method.dsb. misalnya C. this method will help student to get better understanding. dsb. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. dsb. eraser. Secondly. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. pollution. • Relating verbs.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. misalnya She must save. misalnya policy. Additionally. • Technical verbs.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. and then complete the transaction. misalnya It is important. decide which computer or laptop they need. • Modal adverbs. dsb. misalnya species of animals. drawing book. • Action verbs. secondly. misalnya certainly. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. • Connectives. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. students need book. • Thinking verbs. (Simplified from the jakartapos. we. students need more to reach their progressive development. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. • Abstract nouns. misalnya Many people believe. ruler and such other stuff. Penguatan pernyataan. First. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. dsb • Modal verbs. dsb. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. misalnya we must preserve. dsb. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. misalnya firstly. pen. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. • Bahasa evaluatif. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. • Reiteration . misalnya car. dsb. dsb. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. The students just need to brows that online shop. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. government. in this multimedia era. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function.
Arabic translation. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. India translation will grow better and. According to Nida. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. E. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. It seems Indonesia. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Students just need to decide which type they really need. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. From all of that. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Career in Translation Functionally. That is really easy and save time and money. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. If Hindi translation is provided. Therefore. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price.delivered to the students' houses. India is likely being an English speaking country. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. D.
Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . do you know what? 4. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Orientation 3. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Using simple past tense 4. Using rhetoric question. Using exclamation words. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. write. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1.is inserted at the end of each article. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Using conjunction of time. Using imperative. it's wonderful!. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. because. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. go. afterward 6. For instance. Incident. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. Abstract 2. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Using action verb. listen to this 3. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. etc 5. it's awful!. 2. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. etc • Causal conjunction . etc 2. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. Crisis 4. then. 3. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to.
He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. nine children. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. and turned on the tap. dsb. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom. write. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . He shed tears of disappointment. whole business. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. The father was full of disappointed and anger. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. spitting and hissing at us. enough money. there were being quarantined for long days. their children to America. misalnya go. passport. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. Anna. America. dsb. who was only three at the time. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. The doctor sewed up the boy. The family worked and saved. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. so we set to. seperti then. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. They had gotten afterwards. The family dreams were dashed.
Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. They had to forget their plan. but because of the bitten son by a dog. • Description. He thanked God for saving their lives. or/and characteristics. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. When the dream will come true. When the father heard the news. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. 3. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . • Using simple present tense 4. It was unbelievable but it was. describing the phenomenon in parts. The ship.Five days latter. It made they were being quarantined. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. identifying the phenomenon to be described. there is something wrong last minute before it. qualities. or thing. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. 2. place. had shank. The father was angry with his son and God. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. The Clak family should have been on that ship. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. They had dream to travel to America. You have and so do I. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. the mighty Titanic. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. they were left behind. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger.
Today. Example of Description A. In three years1 time. This shoes really matches on her. The style. bright color. native plants and eucalypts. all her friends. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. Recently. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . She always pays much attention on her appearance. This year. In 1964. She is beautiful. a railway station is under construction. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. When she are walking on that shoes. attractive and trendy.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. yet retaining its beautiful site. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. a grass amphitheatre. She really have perfect appearance. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. She is really mad on that shoes. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. Sydney. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. She said that the products covered all genders. in 2004. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. She always want to be a trend setter of the day.
Borobudur is well-known.The temple is constructed. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The way to the summit extends through some 4. Borobudur temple • Description. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace.Budhist temple. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. B. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. casual. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. Cambodia. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa.8 km of passage and starways. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Indonesia. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Ballet. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. valuable • Using simple present tense. Central Java. The upper three are circular.she has. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . The products provide varieties of choice. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India.
White. dsb. 2. enough money to take Snow White. • simple present tense. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. My mum is realy cool. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. dsb.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. dsb. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. Misalnya: I have many pets. misalnya. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. kualitas. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. classifying. better or worse 3. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek.my cat. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. house. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. dsb. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. misalnya fast. but my favourite one is a cat. Description. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. sharp white fangs. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. misalnya. perilaku umum. bersifat describing. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. numbering. dsb. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. • action verbs. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. two strong legs. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. dsb. a sweet young lady. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. misalnya teacher. • berbagai macam adjectives. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. sifat-sifat (characteristic). Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. It has very thick fur.
She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. you may live here with us.” Doc. Hakim. had many suitors. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. in what way she will decide who the best is. one of the dwarfs. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome.” Snow White said. “what is your name?” Snow White said. One evening. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. “Without question. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. said. There they found Snow White sleeping. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. They want to know what next will happen. “If you wish. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. The dwarfs said. The third sheik. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. She saw the dwarfs. One by one she discarded them. Then Snow White woke up. which she strikes against herself. They were also rich and strong. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. who received a plate of delicious meat. As they were about to have dinner.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. They went inside. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. The following day. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. “Oh could I? Thank you. “My name is Snow White. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. who was called Hakim. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. The first gave her some left over food. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . Maura asked them for something to eat. The psychological conflict inside Maura. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. After dinner. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. Example of Narative A.
Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. misalnya then. in the mountain. The name of the place was Catano. two red apples. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. happily ever after. before that. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. At the first. soon.dsb. except one word. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. the parrot would not say it. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. stepsisters. the man really got very angry. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. Resolution. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. dsb. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. housework. I will cut the chicken 17 . There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. Penyelesaian masalah. Then he continued to humble. • action verbs dalam past tense. Masalah. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. phrase. long black hair. Although he tried hard to teach. waktu. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. He could not bear it. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. dsb. misalnya. misalnya here. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. climbed. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. dsb. dsb. Complication. Pengenalan tokoh. a man had a wonderful parrot. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. “You know. stayed. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. The parrot could say every word. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. There was no other parrot like it. misalnya. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. konflik dalam cerita. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time.
In the parrot story. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. It will show the crisis. the man came back to the chicken house. They were married happily. The daughters were crying. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not control his mad. the man attempted to teach the bird. I will eat you too.for my meal. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. A man and his parrot took place once time. To fix this problem. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. He felt in love with that fish-woman. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. He made the fish free. stupid parrot”. She attracted Batara Guru so much. paragraph 2. The next day. C. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. At the moment. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. 4 are describing the complication. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. readers see the problem is finished. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. One day. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. The fish begged him to set it free. he caught a fish. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. He liked fishing. There were three death chickens on the floor. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. Next it will be your turn. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. They had two daughters. there was a handsome man. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. That was the smartest parrot. They found their mother and talked her about it. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. After that he left the chicken house. Batara Guru could not bear it. As soon as it was free. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. rising crisis and climax of the story. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. 3. In that parrot story.
They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. D. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. One day. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. Volcanoes started to erupt. Magically. A few days later.The mother was very annoyed. and it became a beautiful ball gown. Finally. Cinderella?” a voice asked. “You must leave before midnight”. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. hardworking. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. did not work about the house. “Why are crying. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. In her hurry. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. They were married and live happily ever after. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. In the end. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. “Now. At last. the day of the ball came. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. one of her glass slipper was left behind. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . It fitted perfectly. Batara Guru broke his promise. The mother was shouting angrily. and away went the sisters to it. The two step sisters. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. such as scrubbing the floor. They treated Cinderella very badly. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. on the other hand.”you’ve been such a cheerful. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Then the earth began to shake. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. The earth formed a very big hole. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. there was a young girl named Cinderella. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. she was driven to the palace. She danced again and again with the king’s son. Cinderella”. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. she said. “Well” said the godmother. People believed that the big hole became a lake. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them.
the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. 3. introducing specific participants. once in Laos 2. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Once there was a farmer from Laos. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. Generic Structure Analysis 1. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Every morning and every evening. the man is very intelligent”. “Can I see your intelligence?”. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. The tiger asked. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. farmer and his buffalo. Orientation. “No. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. The Smartest Animal. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. Then he said. Complication. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. “you are so big and strong. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. said the buffalo. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. I can’t tell you”. Complication: In this Cinderella story. In the last paragraph. Resolution. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. “it at home”.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. “Yes” said the man. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. One day. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. After the man went home. But the man answered. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. He took his plough and hit the tiger. E. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. “oh. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. Resolution: Like complication. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal.
Material: Telling the needed materials 3. tie. 50 g cheese. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. the next day past tense. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Cook both sides 9. hit time conjunction. saw. Add milk and whisk well 4. bowl. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. Goal: showing the purpose 2. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. was surprised to action verb. answered thinking verb. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Place on a plate. the man tied the tiger. plate Method 1.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. once. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. cheese grater. spatula. fork. one day connectives. after. there was a farmer. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. ¼ cup milk. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8.
The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. tempat. etc • Action verb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. while. Use regular words. put. take the topic of benefits. Well. put the seeding on the soil. misalnya turn. Langkah-langkah. don’t. mix. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. misalnya for five minutes. excluded • Steps. Example of Procedure A. the following is a guided information B. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. Your customers don't care about you. dsb. wait it. cara yang akurat. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. put it. put. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. Firstly. planting is a nice activity. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. dry a handful seeding. put it in another big pot. It should be in open area Next. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. firstly. dsb. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. Don’t mix. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. but it will help.10. dsb. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. • action verbs. informing on how to plant chillies. not features. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. Finally. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . Tujuan kegiatan Materials. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. misalnya then. Here's a simple checklist to follow. Firstly. finally. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. Cut. Read aloud what you've written. etc • Temporal conjunction. • Material. menyatakan rinci waktu. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. next. Here are the steps. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. misalnya. you don't have to. 2 centimetres from the top. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. write your benefit like you talk it. dry.
might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. fifty gram cheese. firstly. Mix them up and keep things interesting. showing the method in writing for business. spatula. informing on how to write for business • Material. re-reading what have been written . a pinch of satlt and pepper. Listen carefully. add First. read. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. a quarter cup of milk. write like you talked. secondly. Use a nice rhythm.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. First. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. to make a cheese omelet. writing the topic like the way it is talked. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . Fourthly. Next. Some sentences are long and some are short. reread what you have done.Thirdly. lose the weak words. you need an egg. cheese grater. three tablespoons cookin oil. etc C. Edit it necesarily. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. write. such as. excluded • Steps/ method. choosing the advantageous topic. fork. Don't describe how your company may. etc • Temporal conjunction. etc • Action verb. Next. bowl and plate. Fifthly. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. News Item Text What is News Item? 1.re-read what you've done before publishing. frying pan. you need some tools.
News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. “But this just a suggestion. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. 2. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Using material process 4. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . it’s up to them”. time. Elaboration (background. Main event 2. a news report said. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Language Feature of News Item 1. Focusing on circumstances 2. Resource of information 3. Example of Procedure A. The events are considered newsworthy or important. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. place) 3. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. The accident. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. participant. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Generic Structure of News Item 1.
which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. dsb. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. tempat kejadian dsb. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. he said in the report. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. komentar saksi kejadian. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. Malaysian Aids Council president. (Source The Jakarta Post.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. Background Events. less then 10 percent are woman. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . Latar belakang kejadian. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. Sources. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. In the past the event was held behind closed door. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. pendapat para ahli. June 01. many women who contract HIV are housewives. orang yang terlibat. but the number is steadily rising. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. even though they know they have HIV” she said. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. named Suwartin. The maid. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. Kejadian inti. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Last year.
Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Resource. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia. Using material process.Then the maid was arrested. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. law of serious crimes. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. (Taken from: www. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. May 6.co. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. Background 3. behead. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Background 1. carry. Saudi Arabia. Last year. She had relationship the boy for five months.news. execute. Background 2.bbc.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. Hong Kong. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. the Saudi Interior Minister said. (Adapted from Reuters. Rape. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.
could. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. and social text. feel. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. similarly. many times. and causal connection. on the hand.1. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. however. may. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. hope. But. etc • Using additive. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. deliberately. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . etc • Using modalities. etc 4. 2. Example of Discussion Text A. etc • Using adverbial of manner. believe. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. hopefully. must. contrastive. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. should. historic. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. doing homework is not a great idea. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. Sometimes homework is boring and not important.
It is reliable. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It produces small amount of waste. England in 1956. so it is not expansive to make. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . and produces huge amounts of energy. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal.
dsb. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. Furthermore. misalnya deliberately. misalnya smoking is harmful. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Elaborasi (uraian). it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities. hopefully. dsb. dsb. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen.On the other hand. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. This example of discussion text present the two poles. Gagasan Pokok 2. perception and recommendation. seperti perhaps. misalnya similarly. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. dsb. must. • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. Elaborasi (uraian). should have been. misalnya uniforms. nuclear power is very. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. . alcohol. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. In many social activities. Elaborasi (uraian). In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. although it is reliable. dsb. believe. misalnya feel. dsb. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. could 29 be. Kesimpulan. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. memberikan informasi secara padu. dsb. however. should. very dangerous. • adverbials of maner. hope. on the hand.
Supporting point. Using thinking verb. It is often found in science. social. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Contrastive point. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Using connectives.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. farmer. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. must. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. hunting fox.bbc. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . scientific and cultural phenomena. 2. (Taken from: www. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Using modalities.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. Recommendation. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy. however. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings.co. B. Many farmer and even conservationists. believe. conservationists. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. geography and history text books. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled.
The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. next. Sequenced explanation. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. sun. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3. Example of Explanation Text A.• • General statement. to begin with. etc Using chronological connection. Language Feature • • • • 4. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. rain. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. Featuring generic participant. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat.
abstract nouns. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. misalnya word chopping. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves.panda. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. adverbial phrases. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. It causes day and night. (simplified from www.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. It is called as rotation. complex sentences. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. earthquakes. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. But that is the case. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. passive voice. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . However the sun does not actually move around the earth. This process is called revolution. the amount of • bahasa teksni. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. misalnya the temperature. dunia ilmiah. sosialbudaya. The earth also moves around the sun. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. Tsunami always bring great damage. simple present tense.org) B. conjunctions of time dan cause. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. noun phrase. It takes 365 days or a year. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. action verbs. misalnya the large cloud. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease.
Using evaluative words. you would be forgiven. surely. etc 3. Recommendation 3. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Using passive voice 9.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Using thinking verb 5. Using present tense. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Focusing on the writer 2. important. Using action verb 4. etc 7.co. firstly. Arguments 3. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using temporal connective. etc 8. etc 6. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Explanation. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. advantage. Using pasive voice. trustworthy. policy. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun.ictteachers. certainly. valuable. 2. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. I feel that when you travel through the country. so. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. but. daylight. Using simple present tense 4. Thesis 2. Using abstract noun. Using modal adverb. secondly.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. (Taken from: www. Using chronological connection. the earth is actually closer to the sun. then.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English .
leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Considering some facts mentioning above. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. pornography.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. consumerism and so on. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. Recently. Meanwhile. especially violence. However. Recomendatio I feel that country people. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. and the possibility of being aggressive. Those who want to penalise older . stress. and short sleep duration.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption.every five to ten minutes. of course.
The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. In many social activities. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. speech campaign. Basically. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. there papers. advertising. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. More dust bins should be put beside each step. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. straws. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. When we look at classroom. sales letter. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. In the first paragraph. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Both take place as argumentative essays. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. and napkin everywhere. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . school corridors and schoolyard. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. and news advertorial. B. mineral water cops. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. If it is a hortatory text. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain.the writer thought as stated in the text. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis.
where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. when they think about straightly seeking job. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. it will be quite confusing. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. they can find the dust bins easily. When they think about continuing study. So. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. distance learning provides possibility to grow better.meters. As the alternative method of studying. C. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. Where should be after High School?. they will think hard about the time and cost. In the same way. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. In the other hand. it will be very hard to looking for job. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. So when students want to throw away their litters. the available time will be more flexible for them. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. As result. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning.
part per part .we. plant. Action verbs. Argument. misalnya. animal. Generic Structure of Report 1. Connectives.D. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Technical verbs. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. valuable. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something.government dsb. dsb. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. misalnya I believe . public place. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Recommendation. misalnya species of animals. there is a way out of financial problem. Albert Smith is the proof.misalnya policy. felt Using simple present tense. Modal adverbs. dsb. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. dsb. etc which will be discussed in general 2. we must save. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . give up. dsb. as it is. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3. etc Using thinking verb. Thinking verbs.dsb. now there is a way out. misalnya should be. dsb. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. are you tired?. Relating verbs. Modal verbs. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. secondly. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. doesn’t seem to have been . make. We can show the way to give up work. dsb. reward Using action verb. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. he drives a sport car. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. dsb. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. misalnya firstly. misalnya important. misalnya We must preserve. Millions from Property Market. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan. misalnya certainly.
Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . perhaps two dozen birds. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. In the other hand. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. beating the water furiously with their wings. the animal of platypus. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. stating general classification. etc Using simple present tense 4. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Platypus. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. rivers.• • Using conditional logical connection. A group. and woolly layer of fur. and lakes. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Platypus' eyes and head are small. so. Example of Report Text A. when. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. Platypus lives in streams. driving the fish before them. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years.
kegunaannya jika non natural. habits or behaviors. misalnya lizards cannot fly. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. Platypus lives in streams. dsb. lingkungan.Description. male platypus does not need any burrow. misalnya. istilah teknis. keterangan. the animal of platypus conditional. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure General Clasification. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. dsb. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. apa adanya. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. in terms of parts. logical connective. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. benda buatan manusia. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. dsb. atau gejala-gejala sosial. dan klasifikasinya. but. qualities.
so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Dave found a nice office. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Using action verb. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Orientation 2. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. Twist 3. ‘ take him to the zoo’. 2. animals or certain things 2. Events 3. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Using adverb of time and place 4. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Language Feature of Spoof 1. Told in chronological order 4. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. Focusing on people. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A.1. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . ran. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it.’ replied the man. etc 3. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. ate.
binatang. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. B. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. “You want me. Event 1: Being rich. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. conversation on the phone. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. “Yes. I want you to leave the country. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. verbs. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . “If that is what you want. run. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. benda tertentu. terduga atau lucu). Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. no children. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). “Hey Abu Nawas. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. misalnya eat. He had not left the country yet. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. Then the man said to Dave. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He suddenly became a 1. In his office. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. Event 2: He had his new office. Instead leaving the country. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. Then “Remember. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2.
You have not left this country”. The play was very interesting. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. I had a very good seat. And since yesterday.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I could not bear it. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 . The King continued “And now. I do not step on the ground of this country”. So you see.In the end. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. young man and young woman. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. They did not pay any attention.guards.I got very angry. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C. I have been walking on this stilts. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. “I remember exactly what you said. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. I turned around. They were talking very loudly. look at you.I did not enjoy it. I turned around again. The king wondered and said “Abu. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. were talking noisily. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. Your Majesty. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. (Adapted from S. You walk on stilts like a child. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. The king was not able to say anything. I could not hear the actors. I do not step on the ground.
When he arrived in the party. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. It’s a private conversation”. he aske his coat to eat the served food E. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. The next day. “It’s none of your business. they just shook the head. the policeman saw the man in the same park. So. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. The host at once got up and came to meet him. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. “When I came here with my old clothes. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. The man was still carrying the penguin. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. nobody looked at me. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . He went to the party by wearing old clothes. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. He put his coat and said. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. He took it to a policeman and said. D. you give food to my coat instead of me”. "Take it to the zoo!". Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Getting Nasreddin's answer. “Eat the food. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink.
Reorientation: It is optional. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. walk up Using adverb of time and place. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. saw. etc • Using linking verb. He. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. They were in the park Event1.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. change. I. was. chronological order by days. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. once. today I am taking it to the movie".did. first. my group. carry. policeman Using action verb. etc • Using action verb. etc • Using simple past tense 4. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. in the park Told in chronological order. go. heard. look. Generic Structure of Recount 1. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . were. penguin. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. Even. etc • Using chronological connection. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. place and time 2. then. So. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. The following day.
It can be what the writer has done. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. they inserted a key-card to open the door. There was a film for their entertainment. The two week in London went by fast. They went to London. and Mrs. They gave them food and drink. The room had perfect view of the park. Then. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. They had variety of food. We saw cockatoos having a shower. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. the thing is an experience. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. They slept part of the way. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . they were quite tired but they felt very happy. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. read. We stayed at David and Della’s house. On the third floor. B. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. Vacation to London Mr. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. Instead of keys for the room. Richard with two sons. hear. At the end of the 14-day. on Example of Recount text A. They had booked fourteen days tour. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. They are Mr. Richard’s family was on vacation. This includes travel and accommodation. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. In writer's point of view. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They had a very pleasant flight. It was scary. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. Mr. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. The officers were pleasant.
(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. The event happened smoothly. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. dsb. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. The next stop was Celuk. then. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. funny. The first stop was at Batubulan. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. then on Monday. It reveals the conflict among the participants. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. the monkey. the second was to Ubud. he was ready. On the other hand. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. what happened on Sunday. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. On the day of the tour. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. Rekaman peristiwa. at my house. di mana dan kapan. Pengenalan. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. past tense. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. after that. misalnya and. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. sleep. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. a center of stone sculpture. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa.Small Notes and felt. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. It is a busy but quiet town. the on Tuesday. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. but. dsb. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. Events. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. misalnya beautiful. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. The first one was to Singaraja. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. misalnya go. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. kejadian atau kegiatan. C. waktu dan cara. In simple way. She was happy dsb. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. misalnya David. we dsb. run dsb. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. misalnya We went to the zoo. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. kejadian atau kegiatan. • • • • • . The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Reorientation. 46 slowly dsb. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. misalnya yesterday. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. recount describes series of events in detail.
My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. The car lunched to one side. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. etc E. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. When I reached my town. I was on my car. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. I did not know that it was an earthquake. walked. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. I • Using chronological connectives. using first person point of view. the ceremony was quite elaborate. in the town. I was on the car. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. When the earthquake happened. earthquake happened. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. was. Events. There were rocks everywhere. my car lunched on one side. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. moved. stating the writer's personal note. I thought I got flat tire. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. It took about a week. suddenly • Using linking verb. etc. Re-orientation. left. to the left. I was trapped by the rock. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. all his day was spent on the beach. like matchsticks. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. were • Using action verb. D. Even I could not move my car at all. describing a series of event which happened. introducing the participant. He was quiet satisfied. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. made. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. then. Several days before the ceremony was done. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. and. Overall. I was on the car las week. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. Although nothing was left. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony.
In the night. and then moved the corpse to face north. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. Then. you find words and phrases used to start. After that. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. Meanwhile. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. On the last day. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. Finally. They were great matches. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. there were also buffalo matches. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. chanting. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. However. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. Questions 1. First. and dancing. Finally. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. my brother. Those words and phrases are: First. Then. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. my uncle. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • .in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. connect a sentence with the next one. After that. During the day. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. a series of events in chronological order. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. In the text. A recount text has an orientation. The funeral was performed in two phases. we were feasting. and end your composition. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian.
The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. Definition Review is one of text genres. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. It is personal idea about the product. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. worthy. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. valuable. It can be product. It states the parts. or just a site which want to be known publicly. Dominant Language features: 1. etc. review text usually has generic structure as: 2. services which want to be sold. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Using metaphor 4. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. 3. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed.What is review text 1. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. After clearly explanation. As I said in my previous post. useful. Using long and complex clauses 4. quality of the product which will be known publicly. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. Focus on specific participants 2. Using adjectives 3. uniqueness. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine.
for example . A few other changes in this book . and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. and ultimately satisfying. and this part I loved.. Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. this was not my favorite. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. however. and parts of it do seem long. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. especially with being a teenager and all. I was truly moved by the last page. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book.housekeeping is still housekeeping. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. In some (Interpretati instances this works. fast-paced. depressing feel. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. The stories were bright. I cried!) as sad as it was.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. Still a really good book. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. with some editing it would have been great. He goes from being a warm-hearted. I actually liked the ending (and yes. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books.. magical or no. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. intriguing.
woman and man are available choice. if he works with Farsi translation. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. It is real. Again. easy and not complicated design. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. it will be quite difficult to make translation. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . It straightly goes to the end user. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. However. For Rosemarie. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. lexical. The site is her effort to record of what she did. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. Titanium. The translation experts. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. The site is quite simple but very informative. If we visit the site. Eyeglasses for children. the daily activities are worthily documented. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . In certain case. does and will do daily.the trend. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. The experts who have grammatical. aluminum and rimless frame are available. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. Similarly. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
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report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. is the scope of the written object. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Explanation. How a tornado form. phenomena. etc. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. If we talk about. animal and scientific object. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. etc is the best example of the procedure text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. descriptive text will convey more focus. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. its parts. However if they are analyzed carefully. It will talk about bicycle in general. how to make a good kite. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. For example how to make a cup of tea. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . this text type is commonly called as instruction text. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. In the other hand. What make different. In short. colour. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. report is written after getting careful observation. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. wheel style. goods. between report and descriptive text. first boil water. physical strengh. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. It is such word. eg: bicycle. Mostly. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. and so on. secondly prepare the cup. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. lengh. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. They give the detail description on something. Procedure. it belongs to report text. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. product case or problem.Some text types are quite difficult to differ.
Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Procedure. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . the thing is an experience. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. It can be what the writer has done. first boil water. product case or problem. On the other hand. recount describes series of events in detail. The event happened smoothly. In simple way. In writer's point of view. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. For example how to make a cup of tea. etc is the best example of the procedure text. secondly prepare the cup. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. hear. How a tornado form. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. They give the detail description on something. the on Tuesday. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. read. Explanation is such a scientific written material. and felt. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. and so on. phenomena. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. then on Monday. It is such word. It reveals the conflict among the participants. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. goods. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. how to make a good kite. Explanation. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. what happened on Sunday. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen.
rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Dominant Language Features: 1. 14. 16. Using thinking verbs 4. Using exclamations. and news item. 20. Crisis 4. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. These variations are known as GENRES. texts are divided into several types. 15. Orientation 3. procedure. hortatory exposition. report. Coda. Using action verbs 3. 25. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. 24. 23. 19. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using modals 2. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. Using material process 3. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . discussion. 26. Using adjective 6. 18. anecdote. Using technical terms 7. descriptive. Arguments 3. explanation.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. 17. They are narrative. Reaction 5. spoof. review. Thesis 2. Using adverbs 5. 22. recount. analytical exposition. Abstract 2.
Orientation 2. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Past Tense 2.1. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Materials/Equipments 3. Background event(s) 3. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Arguments for and against 3. Using action verbs 3. Short. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. Using adverb 4. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Using passive voice 4. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Using saying verbs 4. Using adverbs : time. Using adverbial phrase 6. Explanation 3. Using action verb 3. place and manner. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. General statement 2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Using technical terms 7. Complication 4. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using noun phrase 5. Using general and abstract noun 8. Resolution 5. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Issue 2. Using action verbs 3. Evaluation 3.
Using modality 7. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using technical terms 8. Description Language Features: 1. Using general and abstract noun 5. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using conjunction/transition 6.1. place or thing in detail. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Using adverbs 6. as it is. Thesis 2. Using adjective 7. Using adverb 4. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Identification 2. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. General classification 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . Using action verb 3. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Arguments 3. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. In simple word. Generic Structure 1. Using thinking verbs 5. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using thinking verb 4. Using general and abstract noun 9. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using modals 3. Using conditional logical connection 3.
Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Using adverb 4. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. etc while recount text is found in biography. whether Simple Past Tense. Using adjectives 3. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Orientation 2. folklore. social conflict or psychological conflict. Using metaphor 60 . Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Focus on specific participants 2. myth. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. Evaluation 5. Using Past Tense 2. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Event(s) 3. Using action verb 3. Orientation 2. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Using long and complex clauses 4. Interpretative Recount 4. In the contrary. Event(s) 3. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Orientation 2. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Using Past Tense 2. or Past Perfect Tense. Evaluation 3. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Using action verb 3. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. fable. Commonly narrative text is found in story book.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar.
dsb. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. tempat. tahun. 8. spoof dsb. 6. grafik. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. 7. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. biasanya tentang nama. 2. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. 4. penjelasan. 1. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. map. tanggal. tabel. 10. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text.exposition. 5. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 11. 9. descriptive. 3. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. label. Continuous text misalnya narrative.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. diagram dsb.
it is small.b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Menentukan makna kata. And cute. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 .” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. The purpose of the text is _____. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. fluffy.
readers to do something good. Besides. So when students want to throw away their litters. What is the writer’s intention? To …. and some more also the corridors. school corridors and school yard.. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps. more dust bins….. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. 1. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. When we look at classrooms. They put their litters on the proper places. and napkins here and there. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. in every ten meters. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. straws. they can find the dust bins easily. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. there are paper mineral water cups. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. outside of the classrooms. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment.EXERCISES. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. According to the writer. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. a number of dust bins should be increased.
Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. shopping malls. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. From the elaboration above. In addition. Furthermore. Secondly. They provide variety and fun.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . place or time reference. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. learning vocabulary. lexically and poetically. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. religion. which is just what many learners look for sample text. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. 5. spelling and culture. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. songs in general also use simple conversational language. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. even revolution. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. patriotism and yeas. The generic structures of the text are …. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. Although usually simple. practicing selective listening comprehension. with a lot of repetition. What is the text about …. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. songs are relaxing. translating songs. Last but not least. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. Firstly. learning English can be enjoyable and fun.
It must not be allowed because it is rude. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer.“They provide variety and fun. smoking in restaurants is impolite. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. Based on the text. The word reasons mean…. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others.Since we can find a thesis. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants..” The underlined word refers to …. Firstly.9. 11. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13. Finally. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English . smoking in a restaurant is impolite.. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. Therefore. not just in restaurants.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
my my my my my my my my my brother. I'm Linda 1. This is my friend. Harris. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Very nice to meet you. Nice to meet you too. Hi Jack. I don't believe we've met before. • I want to introduce you to …. 2. Mr. Carrie. Introducing someone else my name is. Ritter. teacher. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself.. Harris. Ms. Mrs. mother.. student. And you..Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself.. friend. co-worker. Jack. boss. It's a pleasure to meet you. Nice to meet you. Mary Jones. Penny Pitcher. Cindy. Mr. Likewise. father. I'm. Pleased to meet you. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Watson. Bob. sister.
we still have half an hour before the class starts. Adib. Adib : Anyway. a restaurant. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 . My name is Adib. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. are you a new student. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. Arnys? Retno : Okay. and Retno are new students. By the way.g. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. I am. Adib : Hi. I’m Arnys. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. Arnys. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. They meet at the students’ orientation course. Shall we go to the canteen?.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Situation: Adib. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. this is Retno. Hi.g. Retno. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. e. hotel.
(formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. . let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Bye. • Good bye.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. . thanks. Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. Not so bad. . . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. thanks. thanks. • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you. Very well. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. . . shake hands with other Virga :… women. Do you wanna . (informal) Would you like to . thank you. . (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. See you soon /later /tomorrow. before leaving.
.I’d be happy/glad to accept . Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it.. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .. Receiving .I’d love to .Some responds of inviting. ..to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .a chocolate bar? .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks..I’d like very much .That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. I’d be delighted to.? Would you like .Yes.. let’s not.
Thank you. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Happy birthday to you. helped carry your grocery bags. returned your lost wallet. I need it. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Thanks. Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat. Happy new year. you very much.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. complimented you on your necktie. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much.
holidays and other special occasions.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number ... What’s pity c. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . That’s too bad e. That’s pity f. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . and congratulations Special Days . Expressing of sympathy on minor a. I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A. What’s shame b.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. That’s a nuisance d.Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. not really. It’s nice of you to say so. How kind of you to say so.• • • Oh.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . Expression Displeasure a. d. I’m so happy …. Goodness! b. I enjoyed it I love it. j. d. I’m sorry to hear that b. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. How dreadful! C. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. f.B. How Awful! d. I feel disappointed. i. feel unpleased with …. c. g. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. h. I feel … b. I’m delighted. I’m sorry about that c. k. It was terrifi c. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I’m really sorry for them d. e. l. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. I feel …. m. b. Send my deepest condolence! f. I’m really sad to … c. How terrible! c.. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. ….
kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry.Satisfaction. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang.
• That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . What do you think of this refrigerator? So. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. As I see. In my opinion….. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. In my opinion. … If you ask me. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. • Yes. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions. I agree • I know what you mean.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)….. • I am with you • Definitely. I think the other one’s better. tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. say • Absolutely. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of.
Fear. No.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. I don't think that's what happened. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. that's not a good idea.
.. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1. it’s killing me! 2. • Ugh.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 . it’s very painful! • Oh. • I feel sick. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. • I’m glad it was done.. • I’m sick... • Thank God for ./I feel ill..
Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'." This is not very strong. This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. It means that you do not like something. but it is not a very strong dislike. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . BUT "I don't really like it. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 . Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. I was so ashamed. That’s a real embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I will.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment.. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment.. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I’m extremely unhappy about this.
. It's your fault for (doing something). It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner.. Excuse me if I'm out of line. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. I think you might have forgotten to. Maybe you forgot to... There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Right away... Of course. Blame (keluhan. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request. but.. Sure. I'm sorry to bother you. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright. but I think we should. but. There may have been a misunderstanding about..... Certainly. Don't get me wrong. Complaint..Palupi : OK.
I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry. I didn't mean to lose your book... I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.... Examples I'm really sorry. I'm so sorry. Apology (penyesalan. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry.. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. to express regret an exclamation a word.simply starters! Regret. I'd like to apologise for. Sorry for taking your DVD... Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. I'll clear up later. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. Pete. I ….. Sorry for. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. to ask for forgiveness. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .
It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability. distress.. yet. Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game.this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. There is a good chance that ….... NOTE : 1..… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 .. There is a little chance that …. • Is it possible to …? • Yes.. there is a possibility ..
we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he. Expressions capability are : to show I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….. doing something are: 4.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.she.they. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it.she. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he.they.you.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 . It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home 3.you.? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….? it. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he.she. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.
they.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.he.she. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .it Were utk S= you.
waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.
were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. Fred : Juda.is. practised d.does/am. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. “Srimpi”. have been practising b. is. the telephone rang twelve times.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 .were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. are Was.masa lampau. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. will be practising c. a.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do. was parctising e.
cleaned e. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. am living d. will start b. will have worked c. starts c. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. have lunch d. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. will have lived b. a. a. Iwan : Yes. will have lunch e. If we don”t hurry. a. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. will have started e. a. worked e. a. will have had lunch b. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. would have started d. were cleaning b. clean d. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. have been having lunch c. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. was living e. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. works d. has been working b. have been cleaning c.2. they are succesful. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. My family ____ when the postman arrived. have been living c. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 .
but I ____ there many times. carried e. has been b. sir. will have been c. had been 7. a. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. has worked for six months e. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. a. have been 6. a. would be b. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. had been 9. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. has forgotten d. will be b. started to work 6 months a go c. caused d. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . a. carry d. forgets b. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. a. were causing b. He ____ there for three weeks. was e. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. a.2. have caused c. When airport are located in the center of citied. Is it right? Student : Yes. will cause 5. has got a new job d. is still looking for a job 4. have been c. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. causes e. forgot c. He ____ ill for a week. would forget 8. has stopped looking for a job b. has been e. will have been c. This sentence means that Ann ___. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. had forgotten e. am carrying b. have carried c. was e. was carrying 3. a. am d. Learn all these. I forget to bring your book. was d. My father is still in Bali. is d.
would be attended DIRECT . Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. I ____ them by then. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). will be attending d. will have learnt c. Reni goes to her university every morning. am learning 10. sir.00 tomorrow. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. how. where. when. pronoun (kata ganti orang). ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. keterangan waktu. She studies business. who. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. You can’t meet her at her house at 10.Student : All right. has attended b. why. have learnt e. attended c. a. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. She ___ the lectures. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. dan tempat. struktur kalimat. a. learn d. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . has been attending e. will be learning b.
Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .
he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. He said ____ the previous day. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. he has gone to his country e. mom. The baby is sleeping. I am very noisy b. a. had gone to his country d. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . he went to his country b. that Mary had been absent b. I wasn’t so noisy d. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. a. Herman : Okay. why Mary was absent e. if I opened my mouth e. to open my mouth b. to be not so noisy c. not to be so noisy e. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. that I open his mouth d. Herman. if Mary was absent d. why Mary had been absent c. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. he goes to his country c.
4. c. He asked me ____ a. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Ari : What did he say. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. Mira closed the window. I got a headache. he asked me ____”. Mother said. what are you were doing now d. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. It is windy outside. he hasn’t cleaned 2. he does not clean e. a. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. It is windy outside. he headn’t cleaned b. I hadn’t cleaned d. he would not clean c. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. Mira closed the window. Anto : I am sorry Lina. 94 5. forgets b. what were you doing now. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. “What are you doing now?”. had forgotten e. I forgot to bring your book. Mira. has forgotten d. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. It was windy outside. a. e. e. what I am doing now. “ ___________” a. d. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. forgot c. It was windy outside. Does Mira close the window. what I was doing then. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. b. would forget 3. SMA Students’ Modul of English . he asked. b. c. Closed the window.c.
d. she said. not to spend e. 10. If he could go with us d. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. do not spend d. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. when is my appointment b. he went with us 6. to finish my work c. that I had an appointment c. a. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. Father said. “don’t make noise. can he go with us e. a. whether I had appointment 7. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. c. 8. “Can I find you a hotel?”. finish your work d. children”. to finish your work b. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a.a. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She said the children didn’t make noise c. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . My friend said to me. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. not spend c. Slamet. going with us b. a. did I have an appointment d. Mean____ a. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. how was my appointment e. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. She told the children not to make noise. She didn’t say the children should noise d. e. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. finished your work e. She told the children don’t make noise b. wether he goes with us c. b. not spending b. e.
Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 . • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.
are sold e. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. when…. has been postponed c. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was being postponed e. was kicked c. were sold b. a. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. were being unloaded e.? a. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. A : Look! The girl is crying. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. kicks d. will be unloaded b. was it abolishing d. Y : Really. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. she ____ a. a. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. The announcement ____ twice. had been sold c. kicked e. is sold d. has to be postponed b. was it to abolish b. have been unloaded d. did it abolish e. to be abolished c. was kicking b. are unloaded c. a. was postponed d.
a. would be built 4. will clean b. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. the baby is being looked after well e. was born e. cleaned c. will build d.A. have arranged b. destroyed d. was rewarded e. is being destroyed c. R. has been cleaned 5. is being cleaned e. will be destroyed b. a. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. is being rewarded b.1. is born d. is arranged d. was being cleaned d. has been rewarded c. a. the baby was looked after well c. The passive form is ____ a. was destroyed 6. had destroyed e. will be built e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. the baby is well looked after b. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. was arranged e. a. has been born c. have been arranged 3. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. has been built b. had been demilishing b. a. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. A big dam ___ in this area next year. the baby would be well looked after 7. was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. is being built c. would be born b. is demolishing c. will be rewarded 8. will be born 2. the baby will be well looked after d. a. is being demolished e. a. She looks after the baby well. demolishing d. has arranged c. rewarded d.
has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. is being taken e. a. was being promised c. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . will be promised 10. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. has promised d. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3.9. a. was taken b. took c. will be taken d. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. will be promised e. has been promising b. yaitu: 1.
did. was/were. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . -le.c. shall. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. dll. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. will. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. -er. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Contoh: large larger largest 4. -ow. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. had. can. may. dll. have/has. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3.
Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. 3.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . itulah yang diharapkan. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kalau kalimatnya (+). tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. I would have written you a letter. Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. I would go to the beach with you. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. Contoh : (+) If I had time. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Apa yang diucapkan. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang. Contoh: If I have much money. Kalau kalimatnya (+). ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana.). Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). I will buy a new car. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. (jika saya punya uang.
whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. I met him last week. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. his. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. your. (him = the man. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1.) 2. Their car has been stolen. whose. her. They are printed in English. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. our. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . their. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. whom. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. I bought it last year. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. of which.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. which. its. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Contoh: We saw the people. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man.
• Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. Where 8. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Its surface is not smooth. sebuah benda. (its surface/permukaannya meja. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night.
(Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. The manager gets the letter typed. 2. I had mechanic repair my car. Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). Jogging makes us fresh. The manager has the letter typed. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . I got the mechanic to repair my car. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes.
their.Amir’s. .V ketimbang main video game) 4. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. 6.V better than radio. Setelah possessive adjective (my.V .3.Juned prefers combro to deblo. get used to. 4.our. he said nothing. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. before dll. on. 3. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.her. Before leaving.Dona prefers dancing to singing. 5. than plays a video game. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. his. can’t help/can’t bear. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.Dita would rather watch T.I like T. to be busy. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use.your.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. Contoh : My hobby is cycling. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . to be worth. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1.V.to be used to.
I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. finally. when. a. 2. c. yaitu: 1. that. he come on time. b. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. somebody knocked on the door. d. but. b. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . c. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. Finally.Amir and I go to school everyday. if. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. After that. a. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga….I went to your house but you weren’t at home. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . while. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. Since I have no money. Contoh: . Menunjukan waktu: before.Contoh: . after that. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. after. a. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. then. as soon as. or. I can’t treat you. We went home after the rain stopped. 1. d. c. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. although/though.Although it was raining. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. dll. since.You can read this book if you like. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . first. b. e. we must prepare the ingredients.He is both wise and good. for. 3. we put some sauce and salt. Next. While he was reading her novel.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . next. we put them into frying pan. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) .
Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) . (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .He is not only active but also clever.Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .
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