DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS

Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK

SMA Students’ Modul of English

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DAFTAR ISI
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2

The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3

...................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan).........................99 QUESTION TAGS ..........100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ...............................................................................................................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ...........................................................................................107 SMA Students’ Modul of English 4 .105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)........100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ......................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION.........................................................................104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) .....................................................................102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH................................................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .........................................................................................................104 GERUND ..................................................................................................

Narrative 11. 1. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. Hortatory Exposition 3. Recount 6. Spoof 5. 2. Descriptive 10. Review 7. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Explanation 2. why is the text made?. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Analytical Exposition 8.Understanding Types of Text Text can be classified into several types. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Anecdote 9. The language feature. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. These types of text are. News Items 13. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Report 4. Procedure 12. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city SMA Students’ Modul of English 5 .

we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. lung cancer. Example of Analytical Exposition A. Secondly. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Additionally. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. or concentrate on your homework. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Thirdly. cars. the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city. Reiteratio In conclusion. In one hour in smoky room. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. As we all know. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. If you live in the city. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. and especially talk to someone. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. you may find it hard to sleep at night. cars are very noisy. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. as we all know. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Argument Firstly. cars create pollution. SMA Students’ Modul of English 6 . Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. which causes them to die. the risk is nineteen greater.Thesis Cars should be banned in the city. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. Smoking however is not good for every body else. it is better to look at the fact.

They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. Furthermore. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. That wil be true if the conditions. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the SMA Students’ Modul of English 7 . It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. As the US. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. In this example of analytical exposition text. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments.

misalnya Many people believe. misalnya we must preserve. The students just need to brows that online shop. • Connectives. in this multimedia era. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. • Modal adverbs. pen. secondly. • Relating verbs. dsb. • Technical verbs. students need more to reach their progressive development. First. misalnya It is important. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Secondly. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. dsb. • Bahasa evaluatif. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. (Simplified from the jakartapos. dsb. • Thinking verbs. this method will help student to get better understanding.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. pollution. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. ruler and such other stuff. misalnya car. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. misalnya policy.dsb. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. decide which computer or laptop they need. misalnya species of animals. • Reiteration . terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. misalnya certainly. drawing book. After that the laptop will be 8 SMA Students’ Modul of English . dsb. misalnya She must save. • Action verbs. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. dsb • Modal verbs. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. eraser. and then complete the transaction. misalnya firstly. dsb. Penguatan pernyataan. Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. students need book. misalnya C. leaded petrol car. Additionally. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. • Abstract nouns. dsb. dsb. government. Laptop as Students' Friend Conventionally. we.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis.

translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. It seems Indonesia. India is likely being an English speaking country. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. Therefore. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon.delivered to the students' houses. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. From all of that. E. Arabic translation. India translation will grow better and. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. According to Nida. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. D. it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that SMA Students’ Modul of English 9 . Career in Translation Functionally. That is really easy and save time and money. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. If Hindi translation is provided. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study.

Using exclamation words. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Incident. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. it's awful!. Using simple past tense 4.is inserted at the end of each article. go. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. 3. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Using imperative. For instance. then. because. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. Using conjunction of time. listen to this 3. do you know what? 4. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath SMA Students’ Modul of English 10 . Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. Using action verb. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Using rhetoric question. write. Crisis 4. afterward 6. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. etc • Causal conjunction . 2. etc Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. etc 2. Abstract 2. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Orientation 3. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. it's wonderful!. etc 5.

The doctor sewed up the boy. dsb. and turned on the tap. write. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. They had gotten afterwards. misalnya go. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. America. He shed tears of disappointment. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. seperti then. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. whole business. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. However few days before their departure.  Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote  Koda (Coda) Menggunakan: A. enough money. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom.Abstract How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. passport. Anna. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. there were being quarantined for long days. The father was full of disappointed and anger. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. spitting and hissing at us. their children to America. dsb. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. nine children. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: SMA Students’ Modul of English 11 . The family worked and saved. so we set to. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. who was only three at the time. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better  Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly  Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed.

identifying the phenomenon to be described. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. The Clak family should have been on that ship. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. had shank. 2. It was unbelievable but it was.Five days latter. place. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 12 . When the dream will come true. qualities. He thanked God for saving their lives. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. there is something wrong last minute before it. or thing. but because of the bitten son by a dog. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. 3. the mighty Titanic. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. It made they were being quarantined. When the father heard the news. The father was angry with his son and God. they were left behind. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification. describing the phenomenon in parts. They had dream to travel to America. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. or/and characteristics. The ship. They had to forget their plan. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. • Description. • Using simple present tense 4. You have and so do I.

including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. bright color. native plants and eucalypts. in 2004. She is beautiful. Sydney. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. a railway station is under construction. a grass amphitheatre. My Friend's New Shoes I have a close Friend. all her friends. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. She really have perfect appearance. This year. The style.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. She said that the products covered all genders. In 1964. Example of Description A. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as SMA Students’ Modul of English 13 . A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. yet retaining its beautiful site. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. This shoes really matches on her. When she are walking on that shoes. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. She is really mad on that shoes. Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. Recently. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. attractive and trendy. Today. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. In three years1 time.

Central Java. casual. B.The temple is constructed. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The products provide varieties of choice. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. etc SMA Students’ Modul of English 14 . Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Borobudur temple • Description. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. The way to the summit extends through some 4. valuable • Using simple present tense. Ballet. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor. Cambodia. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way.she has. Borobudur is well-known. Borobudur is located in Magelang. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The upper three are circular. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers. Indonesia. Borobudur Temple Borobudur is Hindu . describing the Borobudur temple in parts.8 km of passage and starways.Budhist temple.

enough money to take Snow White. 15 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). 2. misalnya fast. dsb. to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. misalnya. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu. The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya. house. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants.Small Notes Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang. a sweet young lady. misalnya. kualitas. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3.  Description. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. misalnya It was a large open rowboat. better or worse 3. dsb. dsb. dsb. My mum is realy cool. misalnya teacher. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. but my favourite one is a cat. sifat-sifat (characteristic). Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Examples and structures of the text Snow White • relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik. sharp white fangs. • detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek. numbering. Misalnya: I have many pets. perilaku umum. Orientation Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. yang Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4. misalnya Our new informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. • berbagai macam adjectives. bersifat describing. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. dsb. White. It has very thick fur. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Identification. dsb. classifying. • simple present tense. two strong legs. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. at Complication 2 Then she saw this little cottage.my cat. • action verbs.

Example of Narative A. They want to know what next will happen. in what way she will decide who the best is. “My name is Snow White.Resolution 2 Meanwhile. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. After dinner. Then Snow White woke up.” Doc. you may live here with us. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. They went inside. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. which she strikes against herself. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. “If you wish. There they found Snow White sleeping. The third sheik. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. The following day. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. who received a plate of delicious meat. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. who was called Hakim. One evening. Maura asked them for something to eat. As they were about to have dinner. said. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. “Oh could I? Thank you. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. They were also rich and strong. “what is your name?” Snow White said. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. one of the dwarfs. One by one she discarded them.” Snow White said. “Without question. The psychological conflict inside Maura. had many suitors. Hakim. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. SMA Students’ Modul of English 16 . The first gave her some left over food. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her.

Masalah. long black hair. Then he continued to humble. in the mountain. misalnya. two red apples. stayed. before that. I will cut the chicken 17 . dsb. stepsisters. except one word. • action verbs dalam past tense. Pengenalan tokoh. Although he tried hard to teach.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. misalnya then. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. waktu. • adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions • adverbs dan adverbial phrases untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. Complication. dsb. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time. the man really got very angry. There was no other parrot like it. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English Once upon time. Resolution. The parrot could say every word. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. “You know. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita.dsb. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian). dsb. misalnya here. phrase. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. the parrot would not say it. At the first. soon. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. • • • Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. Penyelesaian masalah. The Smartest Parrot Small Notes Narrative (Naratif. He could not bear it. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. climbed. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. The name of the place was Catano. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. dsb. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. housework. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim B. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang. konflik dalam cerita. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. misalnya. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. a man had a wonderful parrot. happily ever after.

He liked fishing. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. Batara Guru could not bear it. stupid parrot”. To fix this problem. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. After that he left the chicken house. He opened the door and was very surprised. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. The fish begged him to set it free. They were married happily. 3. readers see the problem is finished. In the parrot story. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. C. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. He felt in love with that fish-woman. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken.for my meal. the man attempted to teach the bird. the man came back to the chicken house. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. He made the fish free. One day. there was a handsome man. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. SMA Students’ Modul of English 18 . rising crisis and climax of the story. A man and his parrot took place once time. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. The next day. She attracted Batara Guru so much. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. I will eat you too. That was the smartest parrot. The daughters were crying. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. As soon as it was free. he caught a fish. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. There were three death chickens on the floor. They had two daughters. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. They found their mother and talked her about it. In that parrot story. 4 are describing the complication. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. Next it will be your turn. He could not control his mad. paragraph 2. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. It will show the crisis. At the moment.

It fitted perfectly. Volcanoes started to erupt. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. “Now. Cinderella”. One day. Batara Guru broke his promise. one of her glass slipper was left behind. “Why are crying. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. In her hurry. “Well” said the godmother. D. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. The earth formed a very big hole. such as scrubbing the floor. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. Finally. and it became a beautiful ball gown.”you’ve been such a cheerful. A few days later. In the end. The two step sisters. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again.The mother was very annoyed. Magically. The mother was shouting angrily. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Cinderella?” a voice asked. the day of the ball came. and SMA Students’ Modul of English 19 . Then the earth began to shake. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Cinderella 1 Once upon a time. and away went the sisters to it. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. She danced again and again with the king’s son. on the other hand. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. They were married and live happily ever after. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. “You must leave before midnight”. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. hardworking. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. did not work about the house. she said. People believed that the big hole became a lake. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. At last. she was driven to the palace. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers.

Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree. Once there was a farmer from Laos. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis SMA Students’ Modul of English 20 . Generic Structure Analysis 1. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. Then he said. In the last paragraph. After the man went home. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. “No. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. Orientation. “oh. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. But the man answered. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. “you are so big and strong. E. Every morning and every evening. “Yes” said the man. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. One day. “Can I see your intelligence?”. once in Laos 2. Complication: In this Cinderella story. He took his plough and hit the tiger. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. I can’t tell you”. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. Complication. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. said the buffalo. the man is very intelligent”. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. The tiger asked. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. “it at home”. The Smartest Animal. Resolution: Like complication. 3. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. Resolution. introducing specific participants.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. farmer and his buffalo.

Place on a plate. cheese grater. Goal: showing the purpose 2. season with salt and pepper 21 Langkahlangkah (Step) SMA Students’ Modul of English . was surprised to action verb. spatula. there was a farmer. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. Cook both sides 9. bowl. the next day past tense. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. one day connectives. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. saw. tie. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. 50 g cheese. ¼ cup milk. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. answered thinking verb. after. plate Method 1. Add milk and whisk well 4. fork. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure  Using temporal conjunction  Using action verb  Using imperative sentence  Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. the man tied the tiger. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. once.• • • • • • Using Using Using Using Using Using saying verb. hit time conjunction.

Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. put. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. Here's a simple checklist to follow. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. Your customers don't care about you. firstly. Writing For Business Small Notes Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. don’t. menyatakan rinci waktu. mix. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • pola kalimat imperative. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. Tujuan kegiatan  Materials. Example of Procedure A. next. • Material. Planting Chilies Eat while warm. misalnya for five minutes. Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. tempat. How does it sound? SMA Students’ Modul of English 22 . dry. put it in another big pot. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Aim/Goal. wait it. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text  Steps.10. It should be in open area Next. 2 centimetres from the top. put the seeding on the soil. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Finally. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. Firstly. you don't have to. excluded • Steps. Firstly. dsb. Read aloud what you've written. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly. Cut. Use regular words. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk mengurutkan kegiatan. but it will help. Well. cara yang akurat. take the topic of benefits. Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. the following is a guided information B. dsb. dry a handful seeding. planting is a nice activity. • action verbs. write your benefit like you talk it. finally. put. Here are the steps. etc • Temporal conjunction. etc • Action verb. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. dsb. misalnya turn. while. Don’t mix. Langkah-langkah. not features. informing on how to plant chillies. misalnya then. put it. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. misalnya.

Use a nice rhythm. reread what you have done. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. read. Next. lose the weak words. you need an egg. News Item Text What is News Item? 1. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. choosing the advantageous topic. informing on how to write for business • Material. cheese grater. Definition of News Item SMA Students’ Modul of English 23 . Listen carefully. Next. Fourthly. frying pan. How to Make a Cheese Omelet Well. excluded • Steps/ method. secondly. write. a pinch of satlt and pepper. fifty gram cheese. three tablespoons cookin oil. a quarter cup of milk. to make a cheese omelet.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. Some sentences are long and some are short. showing the method in writing for business. writing the topic like the way it is talked. Fifthly. First. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Mix them up and keep things interesting. Edit it necesarily. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. firstly. Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. bowl and plate. Don't describe how your company may. spatula.Thirdly. add First. re-reading what have been written . etc • Action verb. you need some tools. such as. etc C. etc • Temporal conjunction. fork.re-read what you've done before publishing. write like you talked.

“This is not to debate them but to protect them. Using material process 4. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock. “But this just a suggestion. Elaboration (background. Main event 2. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. 2. Focusing on circumstances 2. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Resource of information 3. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. The accident. Language Feature of News Item 1.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. it’s up to them”. SMA Students’ Modul of English 24 . Generic Structure of News Item 1. participant. a news report said. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. place) 3. Example of Procedure A. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. time. The events are considered newsworthy or important. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union.

orang yang terlibat. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. June 01.  Sources. Kejadian inti. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. pendapat para ahli. even though they know they have HIV” she said. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. The maid. Malaysian Aids Council president. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. Last year. tempat kejadian dsb. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. named Suwartin.  Background Events. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims. less then 10 percent are woman. many women who contract HIV are housewives. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Newsworthy events. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. (Source The Jakarta Post. Latar belakang kejadian. SMA Students’ Modul of English 25 . he said in the report.Small Notes News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. dsb. but the number is steadily rising. In the past the event was held behind closed door. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV B. komentar saksi kejadian. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan.

Islamic law executed more than 130 people. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion? SMA Students’ Modul of English 26 . She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness C. Background 1. Indonesian Maid beheaded An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria.news. carry. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Rape. Last year. May 6. behead. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. execute. Resource. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos. Hong Kong. law of serious crimes. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. (Taken from: www. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia.bbc. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.id) Generic Structure Analysis Main event. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. She will be sentenced in two week’s time. Saudi Arabia. 2008) Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee.co. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. Background 2. (Adapted from Reuters. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Background 3.Then the maid was arrested. She had relationship the boy for five months. Using material process. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.

deliberately. feel. must. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. however. hope. may. etc • Using modalities. hopefully. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. contrastive. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. similarly. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power SMA Students’ Modul of English 27 . on the hand. should. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. and social text. etc • Using adverbial of manner. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. etc • Using additive. could. etc 4. Example of Discussion Text A. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. many times. and causal connection. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point.1. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. historic. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. 2. But. believe. doing homework is not a great idea.

Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. and produces huge amounts of energy. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. SMA Students’ Modul of English 28 . It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. England in 1956. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. It produces small amount of waste. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow: • • • • • It costs about the same coal. so it is not expansive to make. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It is reliable.

very dangerous. misalnya deliberately. misalnya uniforms. although it is reliable. should have been. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. nuclear power is very. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. alcohol. This example of discussion text present the two poles. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. Furthermore. .(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • general nouns untuk menyatakan kategori. misalnya similarly. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. hope. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. seperti perhaps. hopefully. dsb. it is presented the advantages of Small Notes Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. misalnya feel. must.On the other hand. Elaborasi (uraian). Elaborasi (uraian). • relating verbs untuk memberi informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. perception and recommendation. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. misalnya smoking is harmful. It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong.  Kesimpulan. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. contrastives dan causal • detailed noun groups untuk SMA Students’ Modul of English • modalities.(statement of issue and Preview)  Pendapat yang mendukung:     Gagasan Pokok 1. should. on the hand. believe. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). dsb. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Isu. dsb. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. • thinking verbs untuk • additives. In many social activities. dsb.  Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints)   Gagasan Pokok. however. • adverbials of maner. memberikan informasi secara padu. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb. Gagasan Pokok 2. could 29 be. dsb. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away.

Contrastive point. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Using modalities. B.uk) Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.co. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Definition and purposes of Explanation Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural. believe. social. farmer. It is often found in science. must. Using thinking verb.bbc. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. (Taken from: www.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Many farmer and even conservationists. Generic structure of Explanation SMA Students’ Modul of English 30 . farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. Recommendation. hunting fox. Using connectives. Supporting point. Hunting Fox Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. conservationists. scientific and cultural phenomena. 2. always Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. geography and history text books. however.

to begin with. Sequenced explanation. sun. etc Using chronological connection. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense 3.• • General statement. Language Feature • • • • 4. next. stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. SMA Students’ Modul of English 31 . A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Featuring generic participant. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. Example of Explanation Text A. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. rain. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed.

The earth also moves around the sun. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. adverbial phrases. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. misalnya the large cloud. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement.panda. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. earthquakes. Tsunami always bring great damage. simple present tense. (simplified from www. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. The revolution process causes the changes of the season C. It is called as rotation. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. passive voice. complex sentences.org) B. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. misalnya the temperature. abstract nouns. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. misalnya word chopping.Small Notes Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. It takes 365 days or a year. This process is called revolution. noun phrase. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night. Why Summer Daylight is Longger • • than Winter Daylight In the summer. dunia ilmiah. action verbs. It causes day and night. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. How Day and Night Happen • • • • • general dan abstract nouns. sosialbudaya. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight SMA Students’ Modul of English 32 . conjunctions of time dan cause. • • The sun seems to rise in the morning. But that is the case. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. the amount of • bahasa teksni.

Using present tense. (Taken from: www. Using chronological connection.co. trustworthy.uk) Generic Structure Analysis General statement. Explanation. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. Using thinking verb 5. etc 7. Using modal adverb. Focusing on the writer 2. Recommendation 3. Arguments 3. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country.where you only see another car 33 Arguments SMA Students’ Modul of English . it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun. daylight. Using action verb 4. so. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. Using pasive voice. Thesis 2.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. I feel that when you travel through the country. advantage. Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. but. etc 6. surely. important. secondly.ictteachers. etc 3. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. 2. valuable. the earth is actually closer to the sun. Using simple present tense 4. you would be forgiven. Using temporal connective. policy. Using passive voice 9. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. Using evaluative words. Using abstract noun. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. certainly. firstly. then. etc 8.

pornography. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads. and short sleep duration. and the possibility of being aggressive. However. Recomendatio I feel that country people. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like SMA Students’ Modul of English 34 . Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. stress. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. Those who want to penalise older .every five to ten minutes. especially violence.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city Example of Hortatory Exposition A. Considering some facts mentioning above. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. Recently. of course. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood. Meanwhile. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. consumerism and so on.

school corridors and schoolyard. straws. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. When we look at classroom. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough. sales letter. Basically. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. If it is a hortatory text. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten SMA Students’ Modul of English 35 . More Dust Bins is Cleaner. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. and napkin everywhere. speech campaign. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. B. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph.the writer thought as stated in the text. there papers. Both take place as argumentative essays. In the first paragraph. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. advertising. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. example of hortatory To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. mineral water cops. More dust bins should be put beside each step. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much. In many social activities. and news advertorial. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show.

When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. the available time will be more flexible for them. it will be very hard to looking for job. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them. So. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study. SMA Students’ Modul of English 36 . when they think about straightly seeking job. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. When they think about continuing study. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative. Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. Where should be after High School?. C. they will think hard about the time and cost. a hortatory text The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate. As result. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. they can find the dust bins easily. In the other hand. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. it will be quite confusing. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning.meters. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. In the same way. As the alternative method of studying. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. So when students want to throw away their litters.

General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect 37 • • • • • • • • SMA Students’ Modul of English . public place. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. dsb. reward Using action verb. Modal adverbs. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. make. etc Using thinking verb. part per part . misalnya We must preserve. a hortatory Small Notes Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . are you tired?. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. Millions from Property Market. we must save.we. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. dsb. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3.dsb. Action verbs. give up. Albert Smith is the proof. dsb. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something.D. he drives a sport car. there is a way out of financial problem. Recommendation. Argument. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. valuable. We can show the way to give up work. secondly. misalnya should be. as it is. Generic Structure of Report 1. Relating verbs. misalnya I believe . misalnya certainly. Kalimat pasif (passive voice) exposition text Dear friend. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Thesis.government dsb. dsb. Modal verbs. felt Using simple present tense. dsb. misalnya firstly. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. animal. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan  Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan.misalnya policy. Technical verbs. doesn’t seem to have been . Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. Thinking verbs. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Connectives. misalnya important. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. dsb. plant. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi  Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. now there is a way out. etc which will be discussed in general 2. dsb. misalnya species of animals. misalnya.

The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. stating general classification. Platypus. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light.• • Using conditional logical connection. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. one of the most The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. and woolly layer of fur. In the other hand. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Platypus lives in streams. etc Using simple present tense 4. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. the animal of platypus. and lakes. Platypus' eyes and head are small. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. beating the water furiously with their wings. SMA Students’ Modul of English 38 . As the bird lifts its head. Example of Report Text A. A group. a report text Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill. rivers. perhaps two dozen birds. so. driving the fish before them. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. when. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia.

Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • • • • • • general nouns. dsb. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. dsb. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. benda buatan manusia. male platypus does not need any burrow. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. atau gejala-gejala sosial. the animal of platypus conditional. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. dsb. dsb.Description. istilah teknis. dan klasifikasinya. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). but. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. misalnya. misalnya lizards cannot fly. Platypus lives in streams. dsb. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. keterangan. logical connective. in terms of parts. habits or behaviors. Spoof Text What is Spoof? SMA Students’ Modul of English 39 . (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  General Clasification. kegunaannya jika non natural. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. lingkungan. qualities. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. etc Small Notes Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. apa adanya. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan.  Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion .

Events 3. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. Twist 3. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. ate. Language Feature of Spoof 1. ‘ take him to the zoo’. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. etc 3. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text A. animals or certain things 2.’ replied the man. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Its social function is to entertain and share the story. Dave found a nice office. ran. Orientation 2. Using adverb of time and place 4. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important SMA Students’ Modul of English 40 . Told in chronological order 4. “That Phone is Off” Soon after he left college. 2. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. Using action verb. Focusing on people.1. Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin.

Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. Then “Remember. “You want me. run. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. didn’t he?” said the SMA Students’ Modul of English 41 . He had not left the country yet. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. “Hey Abu Nawas. He suddenly became a 1. I want you to leave the country. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. “If that is what you want. verbs. very rich man because of the  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone” Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure  Pengenalan. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. “Yes. Instead leaving the country. B. Event 2: He had his new office. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. benda tertentu. Event 1: Being rich. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. binatang. misalnya eat. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client.Small Notes Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. In his office. Orientation: Dave was a lucky  Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. He inherited his  Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. terduga atau lucu). I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. Saved by Stilts The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. no children. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. conversation on the phone. Then the man said to Dave.

“I could not hear a word” I said angrily. I do not step on the ground. (Adapted from S. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. You have not left this country”.I got very angry. SMA Students’ Modul of English 42 .In the end. The King continued “And now. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. were talking noisily. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. They were talking very loudly. Private Conversation Last week I went to the theatre. I could not hear the actors. The play was very interesting. I could not bear it. So you see. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country. I have been walking on this stilts. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace. And since yesterday. look at you. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country C.I did not enjoy it. I do not step on the ground of this country”. They did not pay any attention. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. The king was not able to say anything. I turned around. You walk on stilts like a child.guards. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I turned around again. “I remember exactly what you said.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. “This is a private conversation” (From: English New Concept) Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. The king wondered and said “Abu. young man and young woman. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. I had a very good seat. Your Majesty.

he aske his coat to eat the served food E. they just shook the head. When he arrived in the party. So. D. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. "What should I do?" The policeman replied. "I certainly SMA Students’ Modul of English 43 . "Take it to the zoo!". I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. the policeman saw the man in the same park.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. The host at once got up and came to meet him. The next day. “Eat the food. “When I came here with my old clothes. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. you give food to my coat instead of me”. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. He put his coat and said. Then I went home and put on my best clothes. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests. Penguin in the Park Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. nobody looked at me. Nasreddin’s Coat One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. The man was still carrying the penguin. Getting Nasreddin's answer. It’s a private conversation”. He took it to a policeman and said. “It’s none of your business.

etc • Using linking verb. look. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. were. I. Generic Structure of Recount 1.did. heard. chronological order by days. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. was. carry. then. in the park Told in chronological order. etc • Using chronological connection. my group. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. walk up Using adverb of time and place. change. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist. Reorientation: It is optional. first. Even. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. once. policeman Using action verb. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 44 . Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. They were in the park Event1. today I am taking it to the movie". go. place and time 2. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. Orientation: Introducing the participants. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. the next day Recount Text What is Recount? 1. The following day. etc • Using action verb. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. etc • Using simple past tense 4. penguin. He. So. saw.

On the third floor. They had booked fourteen days tour. We saw cockatoos having a shower. They slept part of the way. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. Vacation to London Mr. They had variety of food. It can be what the writer has done. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. The two week in London went by fast. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. Richard with two sons. The officers were pleasant. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. hear. on Example of Recount text A. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. There was a film for their entertainment. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. They gave them food and drink. Richard’s family was on vacation. the thing is an experience. They are Mr. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. and Mrs. read. At the end of the 14-day. Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. SMA Students’ Modul of English 45 . They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. they inserted a key-card to open the door. B. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. In writer's point of view. We stayed at David and Della’s house. They went to London. Instead of keys for the room. Mr. This includes travel and accommodation. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk. It was scary. They had a very pleasant flight. The room had perfect view of the park. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. Then.

 Reorientation. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. Rekaman peristiwa. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. dsb. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. 46 slowly dsb. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta. past tense. di mana dan kapan. misalnya yesterday. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure  Orientation. misalnya beautiful. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. It is a busy but quiet town. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. In simple way. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. then. He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. recount describes series of events in detail. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. then on Monday. but. sleep. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. kejadian atau kegiatan. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Visiting Bali Recount (Laporan peristiwa. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. The event happened smoothly. dsb. On the other hand. misalnya David. She was happy dsb. waktu dan cara. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. On the day of the tour. Mass is a tourist center SMA Students’ Modul of English • nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. C. The next stop was Celuk.Small Notes and felt. after that. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. misalnya go. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. the on Tuesday. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. a center of stone sculpture. the second was to Ubud. • • • • • . he was ready.  Events. at my house. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. run dsb. misalnya and. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. The first stop was at Batubulan. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. kejadian atau kegiatan. we dsb. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths. funny. misalnya We went to the zoo. The first one was to Singaraja. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. Pengenalan. the monkey. It reveals the conflict among the participants. what happened on Sunday.

introducing the participant. The car lunched to one side. I was trapped by the rock. Although nothing was left. Several days before the ceremony was done. then. My Horrible Experience Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. like matchsticks. using first person point of view. When I reached my town. etc • Using simple past tense pattern. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. to the left. I was on my car. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. Re-orientation. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. stating the writer's personal note. walked. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. earthquake happened. etc. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. left. I • Using chronological connectives. Overall. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. etc E. Events. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I did not know that it was an earthquake. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. describing a series of event which happened. He was quiet satisfied. moved. was. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. the ceremony was quite elaborate. all his day was spent on the beach. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. and. suddenly • Using linking verb. I thought I got flat tire. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. I was on the car las week. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. made.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. my car lunched on one side. in the town. When the earthquake happened. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. Even I could not move my car at all. grandpa’s body was kept SMA Students’ Modul of English 47 . I was on the car. D. There were rocks everywhere. were • Using action verb. It took about a week. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured.

What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. Meanwhile. First. there were also buffalo matches.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. my brother. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. In the night. you find words and phrases used to start. After that. In the text. Those words and phrases are: First. chanting. In this ceremony we wore black clothes. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. The funeral was performed in two phases. After that. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. During the day. Questions 1. my uncle. Review Text SMA Students’ Modul of English 48 • • • • . we were feasting. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. Finally. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. a series of events in chronological order. Then. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. Then. They were great matches. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. However. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. On the last day. A recount text has an orientation. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. and then moved the corpse to face north. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. connect a sentence with the next one. and dancing. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. and end your composition. Finally. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5.

uniqueness. Examples and structures of the text SMA Students’ Modul of English 49 . It can be product. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. After clearly explanation. etc. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. valuable. It states the parts. useful. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. Definition Review is one of text genres. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. It is personal idea about the product. Using long and complex clauses 4. worthy. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Using adjectives 3. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. Using metaphor 4. Dominant Language features: 1. review text usually has generic structure as: 2.What is review text 1. 3. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good. Focus on specific participants 2. or just a site which want to be known publicly. As I said in my previous post. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. quality of the product which will be known publicly. services which want to be sold.

In some (Interpretati instances this works. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more.. and this part I loved. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. depressing feel. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it.the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books.. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. with some editing it would have been great. especially with being a teenager and all. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. The stories were bright. this was not my favorite. intriguing. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. and ultimately satisfying. Example of Review text Zenni Optical.housekeeping is still housekeeping. for example . magical or no. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding SMA Students’ Modul of English 50 . Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. I actually liked the ending (and yes.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end. however. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. I was truly moved by the last page. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic. and parts of it do seem long. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. Still a really good book. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. A few other changes in this book . like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight. fast-paced. He goes from being a warm-hearted. I cried!) as sad as it was.

For Rosemarie. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. lexical. The translation experts. The site is her effort to record of what she did. It straightly goes to the end user. The experts who have grammatical. easy and not complicated design. In certain case. There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni.the trend. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. Eyeglasses for children. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. If we visit the site. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. Similarly. SMA Students’ Modul of English 51 . the daily activities are worthily documented. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. it will be quite difficult to make translation. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. The site is quite simple but very informative. It is real. Titanium. woman and man are available choice. if he works with Farsi translation. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. Again. does and will do daily. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . However. aluminum and rimless frame are available.

The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.

Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks:  Pengenalan; (orientation)  Evaluasi 1;  Evaluasi 2;  Tafsir;(Interpretive)  Evaluasi 3;  Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada;  Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:

• adjectives

menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;

• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.

Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 52

He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.

Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.

The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."

The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
SMA Students’ Modul of English 53

Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".

Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •

It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.

You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.

Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
SMA Students’ Modul of English 54

In short. product case or problem. What make different. Explanation. and so on. SMA Students’ Modul of English 55 . lengh. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. function for certain people or other general characters of bike.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. its parts. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. colour. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. Procedure. However if they are analyzed carefully. is the scope of the written object. Explanation is such a scientific written material. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It will talk about bicycle in general. descriptive text will convey more focus. In the other hand. For example how to make a cup of tea. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. between report and descriptive text. animal and scientific object. report is written after getting careful observation. goods. first boil water. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. Mostly. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. wheel style. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. How a tornado form. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. etc. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. physical strengh. how to make a good kite. They give the detail description on something. If we talk about. it belongs to report text. eg: bicycle. phenomena. It is such word. secondly prepare the cup. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. etc is the best example of the procedure text. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text.

To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. In writer's point of view. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It reveals the conflict among the participants. goods. and so on. On the other hand. then on Monday. product case or problem. and felt. They give the detail description on something. first boil water. It is such word. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. Explanation. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. How a tornado form. The event happened smoothly. In simple way. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. secondly prepare the cup. this text type is commonly called as instruction text.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. recount describes series of events in detail. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. read. how to make a good kite. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. the thing is an experience. etc is the best example of the procedure text. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. phenomena. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types SMA Students’ Modul of English 56 . It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It can be what the writer has done. the on Tuesday. Procedure. hear. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. For example how to make a cup of tea. Explanation is such a scientific written material. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. what happened on Sunday.

analytical exposition. 25. Dominant Language Features: 1. 24. Using exclamations. 14. 18. Using adverbs 5. Crisis 4. Using modals 2. 16. anecdote. Abstract 2. Using adjective 6. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. These variations are known as GENRES. Orientation 3. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. They are narrative. Using material process 3. discussion. texts are divided into several types. procedure. Using action verbs 3. 17. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. Using technical terms 7. descriptive. report. 20. explanation. 26. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Arguments 3. 19. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. 23. Generic Structure: SMA Students’ Modul of English 57 . and news item. Reaction 5. Using general and abstract noun 8. 15. review.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. 22. spoof. Coda. Thesis 2. recount. hortatory exposition. Using thinking verbs 4.

Using action verbs 3. Arguments for and against 3. Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 58 . telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using technical terms 7. Orientation 2. Complication 4. Background event(s) 3. Explanation 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Evaluation 3. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. place and manner. Using adverbs : time. Goal/Aim SMA Students’ Modul of English 2. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Short. Using action verb 3.1. General statement 2. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverbial phrase 6. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using adverb 4. Using noun phrase 5. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verbs 3. Resolution 5. Materials/Equipments 3. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Issue 2. Using Past Tense 2. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1. Using passive voice 4. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Newsworthy event(s) 2.

But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using conditional logical connection 3. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. Using technical terms 8. Using Simple Present Tense 59 . In simple word. Generic Structure 1. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. place or thing in detail. Using adjective 7. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Thesis 2. Using thinking verb 4. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using adverb 4. Description Dominant Language Feature 1.1. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Using adverbs 6. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Identification 2. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs SMA Students’ Modul of English 4. Using thinking verbs 5. Using action verb 3. as it is. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Using modals 3. Arguments 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2. General classification 2. Using general and abstract noun 9. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Description Language Features: 1. Using conjunction/transition 6. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using general and abstract noun 5. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using modality 7.

Using action verb 3. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Event(s) 3. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Using long and complex clauses 4. Using Past Tense 2. In the contrary. Using adjectives 3. Using action verb 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time SMA Students’ Modul of English or place. Interpretative Recount 4. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. folklore. Focus on specific participants 2. social conflict or psychological conflict. Evaluation 5. Evaluation 3. Using adverb 4. Orientation 2. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. whether Simple Past Tense. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. Orientation 2. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Using metaphor 60 . etc while recount text is found in biography. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. or Past Perfect Tense. Orientation 2. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. myth. fable.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. Event(s) 3.

grafik. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage? SMA Students’ Modul of English 61 . Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. spoof dsb. tahun. biasanya tentang nama. 3. 6. 7. diagram dsb. tabel. dsb. 2. 11. 4. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. tempat. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. penjelasan. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text.exposition. map. label. descriptive. 1. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 9. 8. tanggal. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. 5. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. Continuous text misalnya narrative. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. 10. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap.

Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. fluffy. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. The purpose of the text is _____. frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is … SMA Students’ Modul of English 62 . Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Menentukan makna kata. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to ….b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) ∞ The text mainly tells us about____. And cute. it is small.

Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps.EXERCISES. and some more also the corridors. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. readers to do something good. What is the writer’s intention? To …. a number of dust bins should be increased.. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. in every ten meters. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard 2. According to the writer. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. So when students want to throw away their litters. straws. school corridors and school yard. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. 1. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. a) Analytical exposition Dust Bin To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. and napkins here and there. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. there are paper mineral water cups. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. outside of the classrooms.. When we look at classrooms. They put their litters on the proper places. Besides. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. more dust bins…. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins? SMA Students’ Modul of English 63 . they can find the dust bins easily. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required 3.

Furthermore. even revolution. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. lexically and poetically. spelling and culture. which is just what many learners look for sample text. practicing selective listening comprehension. shopping malls. From the elaboration above. learning vocabulary. Although usually simple. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. with a lot of repetition. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7.Learning English Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. They provide variety and fun. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language SMA Students’ Modul of English 64 . Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. translating songs. religion. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. Firstly. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress. What is the text about …. The generic structures of the text are …. songs are relaxing. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. place or time reference. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. Secondly. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. Last but not least. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning 6. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. songs in general also use simple conversational language. patriotism and yeas. 5. In addition. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose.

Therefore.9.. Based on the text. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere.Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2 10. The word reasons mean…. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities Smoking in Restaurant Smoking in restaurants is just not on. 11. Finally.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. Firstly. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition 14. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. smoking in restaurants is impolite. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word 13.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. It must not be allowed because it is rude. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English .. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food.” The underlined word refers to …. not just in restaurants.“They provide variety and fun. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.Since we can find a thesis.

b) c) d) e)

impolite health risk harmful disease

d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant

16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration

The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66

SMA Students’ Modul of English

20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading

c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5

21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.

Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion

34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.

Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review

SMA Students’ Modul of English

67

FUNCTIONAL SKILL
Offering Help
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •

May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?

• • • • • • •

How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?

Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…

Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English

Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
68

Introducing your self and other people Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to …. Penny Pitcher. friend. Ms. student.. Mr. I'm. Nice to meet you. mother. Harris. I don't believe we've met before.. Hi Jack. This is my friend.. Jack. • I want to introduce you to …. Very nice to meet you. Mr. my my my my my my my my my brother. Mary Jones. Watson. I'm Linda 1. Harris. Pleased to meet you. And you. father. Mrs. How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. I don't think we've actually met formally yet. Carrie. Likewise. SMA Students’ Modul of English 69 . Nice to meet you too. sister. Ritter. Cindy. teacher. 2. Bob. boss. It's a pleasure to meet you.. Introducing someone else my name is. co-worker.

Adib. are you a new student. Retno. They meet at the students’ orientation course. I’m Arnys. My name is Adib. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. hotel. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School.g. Shall we go to the canteen?. Arnys? Retno : Okay. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well SMA Students’ Modul of English 70 .g. and Retno are new students. Arnys. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. e. Greeting (memberi salam) Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. this is Retno. we still have half an hour before the class starts.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. hasn't it? How are things with you? Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. By the way. a restaurant. I am. Adib : Hi. Adib : Anyway. Situation: Adib. Hi.

. • Good bye. . (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. • • Asking how someone is Saying how you are See you.Expressions • Functions • Greeting someone • • • • • • • • • • Good morning/afternoon/evening. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. • • • • • • • • • Do you want to . Saying good bye Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : … Inviting (mengundang/mengajak) Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. Very well. thank you. . Bye. before leaving. (informal) Would you like to . Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . thanks. See you soon /later /tomorrow. . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. . Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Not so bad. Do you wanna . thanks. thanks. . . . shake hands with other Virga :… women.

Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations? SMA Students’ Modul of English 72 .. Receiving ...That’s good ide Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like. Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it. Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks. Expressing Responses Thank you You are welcome.? Would you like . let’s not.a chocolate bar? .I’d like very much .Yes..I’d be happy/glad to accept .Some responds of inviting.. ..to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner Expressing Thanks (terimakasih) Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.I’d love to . I’d be delighted to...

complimented you on your necktie. I really like it!" b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone has just bought dinner for you. Happy birthday to you. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about…. Responding to compliments 73 SMA Students’ Modul of English . Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations You look cute with that hat.a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday. returned your lost wallet. Congratulations (ucapan selamat) Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Thank you. I need it. helped carry your grocery bags. (What do you say?) Example: "Thank you so much. Thanks. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • • • Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Happy new year. • Other expression Expression • • • • • • • Function Complimenting What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your … • Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. you very much.

• • • Oh... I'm so proud of you! Wedding / Anniversary Special Holidays Special Occasions Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati) A.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number . When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. That’s too bad e. It’s nice of you to say so. Expressing of sympathy on minor a. holidays and other special occasions. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your .Social Language It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. That’s a nuisance d. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . Oh dear SMA Students’ Modul of English 74 . How kind of you to say so. That’s pity f.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. and congratulations Special Days . not really. What’s shame b. What’s pity c.

….. g. How terrible! c. f. e. j. I’m delighted. b. k. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident a. i. I feel … b. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang) Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased Other expressions Expression Pleasure a. I’m really sorry for them d. m. feel unpleased with …. h. I’m so happy …. How Awful! d. I enjoyed it I love it. l. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. I’m sorry to hear that b. I’m really sad to … c. How dreadful! C. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. Expression Displeasure a. d. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances a. I feel …. Please accept my condolences! Pleasure. I’m sorry about that c. c. I feel disappointed. d. Goodness! b. SMA Students’ Modul of English 75 . It was terrifi c.B. Send my deepest condolence! f.

kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan. ketidakpuasan) Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang.Satisfaction. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with … … … … … Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating! SMA Students’ Modul of English 76 . kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang.

Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju.  In my opinion.. I agree • I know what you mean. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right! SMA Students’ Modul of English 77 . tidak setuju) Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true. • Yes. I feel… Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.. • I am with you • Definitely.  I think the other one’s better. As I see. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me … Agreement/approval. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat) Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)….  What do you think of this refrigerator?  So. In my opinion…. … If you ask me. say • Absolutely.

Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal) Examples: No. Fear. kita bisa mengatakan: Well. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. kegelisahan) Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. that's not a good idea. I don't think that's what happened. I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool Pain. kelegaan) SMA Students’ Modul of English 78 . No. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan.• • • • • • • • Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain.

• I feel sick. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief! Other expressions 1..Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally... • I’m glad it was done../I feel ill.. it’s killing me! 2. • Ugh. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse. it’s very painful! • Oh. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci) Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it SMA Students’ Modul of English 79 .. • I’m sick. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that . • Thank God for .

Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really) Verb like love Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV Extra a lot Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. It means that you do not like something. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. kejengkelan) Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me SMA Students’ Modul of English Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed 80 . This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. BUT "I don't really like it." This is not very strong. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV About the adverb 'really'. but it is not a very strong dislike.

please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I won’t Not likely You must be joking Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to . I will. Informal Situations … really makes me mad. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …? In Formal Situations In Informal Situations Request (permintaan) Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you…. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. SMA Students’ Modul of English 81 ... I’m extremely unhappy about this. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. I was so ashamed. That’s a real embarrassment. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating.

.  Of course. There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.  Right away... It's your fault for (doing something). but. Here are other expressions that you can use:  Alright. Don't get me wrong. Blame (keluhan. Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the 82 SMA Students’ Modul of English .. Here are some of the most common: • • • • • • • I'm sorry to have to say this but. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner... Complaint. Excuse me if I'm out of line. It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive.Palupi : OK. I'm sorry to bother you. Sure.. I think you might have forgotten to... but I think we should..  Certainly..menyalahkan) Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. There may have been a misunderstanding about... but. Maybe you forgot to..

Examples I'm really sorry. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday.. to express regret an exclamation a word. Sorry for.simply starters! Regret. I'll clear up later.. Sorry for taking your DVD. I'm so sorry. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I'd like to apologise for. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding SMA Students’ Modul of English 83 .. To say why you're sorry Sorry about. meminta maaf) Regret Much to my regret Sadly. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly.. I didn't mean to lose your book... to ask for forgiveness.. Apology (penyesalan.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies? Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry... Pete. To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'! Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry. I …. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.

distress. • Is it possible to …? • Yes... NOTE : 1. yet.....… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…? Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan) Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.  There is a little chance that ….  It’s possible that he’ll win the  possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. there is a possibility .  There is a good chance that …..this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. SMA Students’ Modul of English 84 . Several ways of indicating  There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game..

she.you.?  Do you think we are capable of  I can’t do it  I’m not sure I’m capable of doing ….? it.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I. Expressions capability are : to show  I’m capable of doing it  I can do it 2.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he. doing something are: 4. Expressions used to ask  There is a chance that I can do it.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I.you. Expressions to show  Would there be any possibility of incapability are: …. possibility or capability of  I’m able to do it  I have the ability to do it.  Is it possible for me to …?  I don’t think I have the ability  Are we capable enough to …?  I don’t feel capable of doing it  I don’t know how to do it.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12 SMA Students’ Modul of English Now At present At this moment To day Lately Recently For Since 85 .they.. It is impossible  Probably She is on the way  May be he needs more time  She might not be at home 3.she.she.they. WAKTU Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. LANGUAGE USAGE TENSES TENSES POLA KET.

it Were utk S= you.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau) hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago.they.he.we Yesterday Last… …ago Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English Before/when + S + V2 For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2 Tomorrow Next… 86 .she. already yet lately just V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.

Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang) V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv SMA Students’ Modul of English By + ket.waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau.waktu Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past If + past perfect 87 .

was parctising e. will be practising c. “Srimpi”. are Was. a.does/am. were Been be Present Past Perfect Future/modal Contoh soal 1. the telephone rang twelve times. is. have been practising b.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am.masa lampau. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket.waktu Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do.is. practised d. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense) SMA Students’ Modul of English 88 . What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. Fred : Juda.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was.

The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. have been having lunch c. has been working b. was living e. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard.2. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. am living d. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. a. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. works d. will be started SMA Students’ Modul of English 89 . would have started d. they are succesful. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. were cleaning b. a. clean d. have been living c. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. starts c. will have started e. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. worked e. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. a. have been cleaning c. a. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. a. If we don”t hurry. Iwan : Yes. will have lunch e. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4. have lunch d. will start b. will have worked c. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. cleaned e. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. My family ____ when the postman arrived. will have had lunch b. will have lived b.

sir. This sentence means that Ann ___. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. a. were causing b. Is it right? Student : Yes. My father is still in Bali.2. Learn all these. I forget to bring your book. SMA Students’ Modul of English 90 . have been 6. would forget 8. a. had been 9. would be b. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. but I ____ there many times. caused d. carry d. will have been c. have been c. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. a. was carrying 3. am carrying b. a. a. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. had forgotten e. have caused c. was e. is still looking for a job 4. has been e. is d. will cause 5. will have been c. had been 7. am d. started to work 6 months a go c. carried e. has stopped looking for a job b. forgets b. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. has forgotten d. was e. was d. He ____ ill for a week. has been b. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. has worked for six months e. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. He ____ there for three weeks. has got a new job d. causes e. will be b. a. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. have carried c. a. When airport are located in the center of citied. forgot c.

struktur kalimat. who. am learning 10. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. when.Student : All right. why. keterangan waktu. pronoun (kata ganti orang). how.00 tomorrow. a. where. will be learning b. She ___ the lectures. have learnt e. attended c. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). I ____ them by then. Reni goes to her university every morning. would be attended DIRECT . You can’t meet her at her house at 10. will have learnt c. has attended b. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses. a. sir. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. will be attending d. She studies business. has been attending e. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat SMA Students’ Modul of English 91 . dan tempat. learn d.

Direct (kalimat langsung) Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday SMA Students’ Modul of English Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous … 92 .

indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. mom. Herman. He said ____ the previous day. I wasn’t so noisy d. had gone to his country d. a. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course. he goes to his country c. if I opened my mouth e. if Mary was absent d. that Mary had been absent b. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. why Mary had been absent c. why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. to open my mouth b. not to be so noisy e. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a. he went to his country b. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. I am very noisy b. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. to be not so noisy c. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. opened my mouth 93 SMA Students’ Modul of English . that I open his mouth d. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. he has gone to his country e. The baby is sleeping. Herman : Okay. a. why Mary was absent e.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1.

would forget 3. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. I forgot to bring your book. what are you were doing now d. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. SMA Students’ Modul of English . To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. c. b. d. Ari : What did he say. Closed the window. Mira closed the window. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. Anto : I am sorry Lina. he would not clean c. a. I got a headache. It was windy outside. he asked me ____”. Mira. “What are you doing now?”. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. He asked me ____ a. a. Mother said. It is windy outside. Does Mira close the window. I hadn’t cleaned d. 94 5. he asked. It was windy outside. had forgotten e. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. what were you doing now. he hasn’t cleaned 2. b. Mira closed the window. that I want meatball or fried chicken e. e. he does not clean e. 4. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. what I am doing now.c. “ ___________” a. has forgotten d. forgot c. what I was doing then. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. c. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. he headn’t cleaned b. forgets b. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5. e. It is windy outside. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes.

I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. 8. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. My friend said to me. a. Slamet. did I have an appointment d.a. SMA Students’ Modul of English 95 . to finish my work c. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. e. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. children”. a. wether he goes with us c. he went with us 6. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. e. not to spend e. going with us b. can he go with us e. finished your work e. to finish your work b. She told the children not to make noise. “Can I find you a hotel?”. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She didn’t say the children should noise d. Mean____ a. not spending b. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr. she said. “don’t make noise. not spend c. She said the children didn’t make noise c. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. finish your work d. b. how was my appointment e. that I had an appointment c. c. whether I had appointment 7. d. 10. a. She told the children don’t make noise b. do not spend d. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. Father said. when is my appointment b. If he could go with us d.

(passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week • Tenses Simple Present Simple Past Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3 Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3 Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past) S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3 Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3 SMA Students’ Modul of English 96 .

were sold b. are unloaded c. have been unloaded d. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. kicked e. when…. a. was kicking b. Y : Really. has been postponed c. a. are sold e. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain. was it to abolish b. was it abolishing d. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. a. was being postponed e. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. was kicked c. The announcement ____ twice.? a. A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. kicks d. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. will be unloaded b. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was postponed d. were being unloaded e. to be abolished c.Perfect Continuous Future/modal been + V3 being + V3 be + V3 Contoh Soal 1. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan SMA Students’ Modul of English 97 . did it abolish e. is sold d. she ____ a. A : Look! The girl is crying. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. has to be postponed b. had been sold c. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5.

was being demolishing SMA Students’ Modul of English 98 . was being cleaned d. a. is born d. R. the baby was looked after well c. a. a. will be built e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. had been demilishing b. has been born c. a. is being built c. The passive form is ____ a. demolishing d. A big dam ___ in this area next year. has been built b. was rewarded e. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. a. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. will be destroyed b. She looks after the baby well. would be built 4. cleaned c. is arranged d. have been arranged 3. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. will clean b. would be born b. was born e. the baby would be well looked after 7. had destroyed e. is being cleaned e. is demolishing c. a. a. is being demolished e. is being rewarded b. has been rewarded c. was destroyed 6. the baby is well looked after b.A. rewarded d. destroyed d. will be rewarded 8. has arranged c. have arranged b. was arranged e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company.1. is being destroyed c. will build d. will be born 2. has been cleaned 5. the baby will be well looked after d. the baby is being looked after well e. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879.

took c. was being promised c. a. he ____ to the nearest hospital. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most SMA Students’ Modul of English 99 . has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. has promised d. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. a. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother.9. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative. was taken b. will be promised e. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. has been promising b. will be taken d. will be promised 10.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. is being taken e. yaitu: 1. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative.

Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. dll. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) • Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. -ow. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. have/has. dll. -le. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. was/were. had. Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. SMA Students’ Modul of English 100 . Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. will. can. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st.c. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. shall. did. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. -er. may. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan.

Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. Kalau kalimatnya (+). saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. I would go to the beach with you. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. I would have written you a letter. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence : 1. Apa yang diucapkan.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been SMA Students’ Modul of English 101 . 3. ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana.). tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang.• • Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. (jika saya punya uang. I will buy a new car. Kalau kalimatnya (+). Contoh: If I have much money. Future Conditional (type 1) Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. itulah yang diharapkan. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. Contoh : (+) If I had time. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2.

your. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. I met him last week. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. of which. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. whom. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories. his. which. its.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). I bought it last year. whose. (him = the man. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. her. Contoh: We saw the people.) 2. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. our. SMA Students’ Modul of English 102 . jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. They are printed in English. Their car has been stolen. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. their. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my. jabatan sebagai objek) 3.

Where 8. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu) SMA Students’ Modul of English 103 . (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. sebuah benda. (its surface/permukaannya meja. Its surface is not smooth. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today.

I got the mechanic to repair my car. Jogging makes us fresh. I had mechanic repair my car. She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). The manager gets the letter typed. (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1). Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. SMA Students’ Modul of English 104 . 2. The manager has the letter typed. She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1).

6. his. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. can’t help/can’t bear. . S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: . than plays a video game.Kokom likes reading better than watching T.V ketimbang main video game) 4. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for.to be used to. Setelah possessive adjective (my. get used to.your. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me.V. (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) . Contoh : My hobby is cycling.3. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1 SMA Students’ Modul of English 105 . (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . 5. on. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing.Amir’s. before dll.V better than radio.our. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. to be busy. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . 4.Dita would rather watch T.their.V . he said nothing.Juned prefers combro to deblo.her. to be worth.Dona prefers dancing to singing. Before leaving. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T. 3. Contoh : I am sorry for coming late.I like T.

3. as soon as. since. for. Next. but.You can read this book if you like. we must prepare the ingredients. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. we put some sauce and salt. After that. first.Contoh: . if.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. Contoh: . then. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. after that.Although it was raining. while. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. c. a. SMA Students’ Modul of English 106 . next. 2. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . b.Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) . (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. d. dll. a. somebody knocked on the door.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) .He is both wise and good. although/though. d. Menunjukan waktu: before. or. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of. yaitu: 1. I can’t treat you. finally. he come on time. a. when. We went home after the rain stopped. we put them into frying pan. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. 1. b. Since I have no money.Amir and I go to school everyday. e. that. b. Finally. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. after. While he was reading her novel. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. c. c. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata.

(Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment.The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.He is not only active but also clever. SMA Students’ Modul of English 107 . Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .

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