DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS
Disusun oleh Drs. NOFRI ANTEN. M.Pd GURU BAHASA INGGRIS SMA 4 SOLOK
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Understanding Types of Text ..............................................................5 Analytical Exposition Text....................................................................5 What is Analytical Exposition? .....................................................................5 Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis).......................................................8 Anecdote Text...................................................................................10 What is Anecdote? .....................................................................................10 Anecdote (Cerita Lucu)...............................................................................11 Description Text................................................................................12 What is Descriptive Text? ..........................................................................12 Description (Deskripsi)................................................................................15 Narrative Text...................................................................................15 What is Narrative? ......................................................................................15 Narrative (Naratif, dongeng).......................................................................17 Procedure Text..................................................................................21 What is Procedure? ....................................................................................21 Procedure (Prosedur)..................................................................................22 News Item Text.................................................................................23 What is News Item? ..........................................................................23 News Item (Berita)......................................................................................25 Discussion Text.................................................................................26 What is Discussion? ...................................................................................26 Discussion (Pembahasan)...........................................................................29 Explanation Text...............................................................................30 What is Explanation?...................................................................................30 Hortatory Exposition Text..................................................................33 What is Hortatory Exposition? ....................................................................33 Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory)..................................................37 Report Text.......................................................................................37 What is Report? ..........................................................................................37 Report ........................................................................................................39 Spoof Text........................................................................................39 What is Spoof? ...........................................................................................39 Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu).............................................41 Recount Text.....................................................................................44 What is Recount? .......................................................................................44 Recount (Laporan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau)...........46 Review Text ....................................................................................48 Zenni Optical; a site for eyeglasses ...........................................................50 Good Translation ........................................................................................51 Recording Mommy Journey ........................................................................51 Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan)....................................................................52 Good Young Mother ...................................................................................52 Recommended Software Applications ........................................................52 Writing job application letters............................................................53 Addressing job application letters:..............................................................53 SMA Students’ Modul of English 2
The Introductory Paragraph:.......................................................................53 The main body of job application letters:....................................................53 Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:.................................................54 Similarities and differenties...............................................................54 The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text ..............................54 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................55 Between Recount and Narrative ................................................................56 Between Explanation and Procedure Text .................................................56 A Complete Overview Of Tex Types....................................................56 Bentuk Soal Reading..........................................................................61 Dust Bin...................................................................................................... 63 Learning English..........................................................................................64 Smoking in Restaurant................................................................................65 The Importance of Reading.........................................................................66 Offering Help...............................................................................................68 Introducing your self and other people.......................................................69 Greeting (memberi salam)..........................................................................70 Inviting (mengundang/mengajak)...............................................................71 Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)................................................................72 Congratulations (ucapan selamat)..............................................................73 Special Days - Social Language..........................................................74 Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)........................................................74 Pleasure, Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)..........................................75 Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan, ketidakpuasan)...........................76 Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat).........................77 Agreement/approval, Disagreement/disapproval (setuju, tidak setuju) 77 Fear, Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan, kegelisahan)......................................78 Pain, Relief (ungkapan kesakitan, kelegaan)..............................................78 Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)...........................79 About the adverb 'really'.............................................................................80 This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence..................80 For example:...............................................................................................80 "I really don't like it!"..................................................................................80 This means you have a strong dislike of something...................................80 BUT 80 "I don't really like it."..................................................................................80 This is not very strong. It means that you do not like something, but it is not a very strong dislike..............................................................................80 Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu, kejengkelan)............80 Request (permintaan).................................................................................81 Complaint, Blame (keluhan,menyalahkan).................................................82 Regret, Apology (penyesalan, meminta maaf)............................................83 Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan).................84 LANGUAGE USAGE ............................................................................85 TENSES ...................................................................................................... 85 DIRECT - INDIRECT (Reported Speech) ......................................................91 PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) ...................................................................95 SMA Students’ Modul of English 3
SMA Students’ Modul of English
............................................106 CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) ..........................100 RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) ................DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan)..........................................................................................................................100 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian) ..........................................................................105 CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung)...104 PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) ....................................................................104 GERUND ...............................................................................106 ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION....................................................................................................99 QUESTION TAGS .............102 SUBJUNCTIVE WISH.........................103 CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET .....................................................................................................................................
Report 4. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. Explanation 2. 2. News Items 13. taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter. Analytical Exposition 8. Language Features of Analytical Exposition • Using relational process • Using internal conjunction • Using causal conjunction • Using Simple Present Tense 4. 1. Discussion These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. analyzing the used structure in composing the text. Narrative 11. what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer. Spoof 5. Descriptive 10.Understanding Types of Text
Text can be classified into several types. in what way is the text constructed by its writer. Anecdote 9. why is the text made?. Procedure 12. Hortatory Exposition 3. what is text made for by its writer The generic structure of the text. Review 7. These elements of text are: The purpose of the text. The language feature. These types of text are. Recount 6. Analytical Exposition Text What is Analytical Exposition? 1. Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition • Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position • Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position • Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more • Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position 3. Definition of Analytical Exposition Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Examples and structures of the text Cars should be banned in the city
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or concentrate on your homework. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. and ‘triggers’ off asthma. non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Smoking however is not good for every body else. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them. Additionally. the city is very busy. Cars today are our roads biggest killers. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day. Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents. Reiteratio In conclusion. If we smoke five cigarettes a day. Example of Analytical Exposition A. you may find it hard to sleep at night. As we all know. the risk is nineteen greater. what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers. cars are very noisy. which causes them to die. we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. cars create pollution. Thirdly. cars should be banned from the city for n the reasons listed. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. contribute to most of the s pollution in the world. Argument Firstly. children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. If you live in the city. Secondly. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. as we all know.Thesis
Cars should be banned in the city. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. and especially talk to someone. it is better to look at the fact. In one hour in smoky room. Is Smoking Good for Us? Before we are going to smoke. cars. Notes on the generic structure: From the generic structure.
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. lung cancer. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city.
In this example of analytical exposition text. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership. Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months. people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve. Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. the oilrich countries such as Saudi Arabia. The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia. Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe. Furthermore. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies B. financial crisis has now spread to Europe. As the US. Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. That wil be true if the conditions.Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the
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. Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves.
• Bahasa evaluatif. we. • Modal adverbs. Additionally. • Action verbs.com on Oct 9) NOTES ON Generic Structure: • Paragraph 1 is THESIS. leaded petrol car.
Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar atau pembaca) bahwa ada masalah yang tentunya perlu mendapat perhatian. misalnya firstly. Laptop as Students' Friend
Conventionally. dsb. (Simplified from the jakartapos. finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. dsb • Modal verbs. misalnya policy. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. ruler and such other stuff.dsb. misalnya
C. dsb. drawing book. modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Analytical Exposition (Eksposisi Analitis) • Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which Ciri Umum: restates the thesis in another phrases to (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: point the writer'opinion. The students just need to brows that online shop. students need book. decide which computer or laptop they need. • Reiteration . misalnya She must save. • Abstract nouns. this method will help student to get better understanding. dsb. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. misalnya Many people believe. Penguatan pernyataan. misalnya we must preserve. pen. terdiri atas “point” yang dikemukakan dan “elaborasi”. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. eraser. misalnya car. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. government. secondly. • Connectives. dsb. dsb. • Thinking verbs. students need more to reach their progressive development. dsb. misalnya species of animals. • Technical verbs. • Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios Small Notes stated in the above thesis. • Relating verbs. and then complete the transaction. Pernyataan pendapat • Argument. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan: • General nouns. Secondly. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Thesis. misalnya It is important. in this multimedia era. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk.government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. pollution.
First. dsb. After that the laptop will be
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis. misalnya certainly.
it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. It tries to bring the precise message in different language. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries.
D. translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. India translation will grow better and. From all of that. It seems Indonesia. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. Career in Translation
Functionally. According to Nida. Therefore. India is likely being an English speaking country. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. E. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that
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. Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. That is really easy and save time and money. such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. If Hindi translation is provided. Writing is a Great for Money Online The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. Arabic translation. Students just need to decide which type they really need. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog.delivered to the students' houses. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money Article writing is also good money to earn money online.
2. then. Writing takes some time to gain credibility. Its purpose is to entertain the readers. because. blog is a potentially earning money • Argumant 2. Orientation 3. Generic Structure of Anecdote 1. Incident. it's awful!. Language Feature of Anecdote 1. go. Writing is good in making money online • Argument 1. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. write. Using conjunction of time.is inserted at the end of each article. credible writer is powerful to make money online Language Feature Analysis • Simple present tense. Generic Structure Analysis • Thesis. etc 2. Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online. Crisis 4. Examples and structures of the text Snake in the Bath
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. afterward 6. etc
Anecdote Text What is Anecdote? 1. it's wonderful!. etc • Causal conjunction . listen to this 3. you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products. etc 5. Definition and Social Function of Anecdote Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. 3. writing articles is good in earning money • Conclusion. do you know what? 4. Using simple past tense 4. Abstract 2. Using rhetoric question. Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful. Using imperative. Using exclamation words. Using action verb. For instance.
dsb. which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. The doctor sewed up the boy. the youngest son was bitten by a dog. and turned on the tap. Indeed I had to(b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure or pull her out of the way she’d probably have leant over the Abstrak (Abstract) bath to get a better Pengenalan (Orientation) look! Coda Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly Krisis (Crisis) before running the bath water. The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. The father was full of disappointed and anger. It had taken several years but finally they had saved • conjunctions yang berhubungan dengan waktu. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. enough money. However few days before their departure. The family dreams were dashed.Abstract
How would you like to find a snake in your bath? A nasty one too! Orientation We had just moved into a new house. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune. Because of the possibility of getting rabies. write. wasnyata yanginterested in the quite bertujuan menghibur. They had gotten afterwards. Then out slithered the Notesof his long thin body. He twisted and turned onAnecdote (Cerita Lucu) the the slippery bottom of Ciri Umum: bath. He shed tears of disappointment. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America. their children to America. who was only three at the time. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. Incident For an instant I stood there(a) Tujuan paralysed. They were making plan to travel with • action verbs. America. nine children. so we set to. seperti then. Anna. dsb. misalnya go. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned. Blessing behind Tragedy There was a black family in Scotland • seruan/kata seru. spitting and hissing at us. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first. They had a dream to go to isn’t it? dsb. who luckily came running and berdasarkan khayalan atau peristiwa killed the snake with the handle of a broom.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. passport. Tindakan (Incident) Example of Anecdote
Menggunakan: A. The family worked and saved. a snake’s head appeared in Small rest the plug-hole. pertanyaan retorik dan kata-kata seperti Listen to this! years ago. whole business. Then I quite Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian/peristiwa lucu yelled for my husband. Crisis Suddenly to my horror. there were being quarantined for long days. They were Clark family with And do you know what? It’s awful.
or thing. Examples and structures of the text
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. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. The Language Feature of Descriptive Text • Using attributive and identifying process. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person. the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. identifying the phenomenon to be described. • Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group. The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text Descriptive text has structure as below: • Identification.Five days latter. or/and characteristics. the mighty Titanic. his youngest son was bitten by a dog. Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. They had to forget their plan. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. He thanked God for saving their lives. You have and so do I. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. What will we feel? What will we do? Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. The ship. It was unbelievable but it was. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. had shank. When the father heard the news. It made they were being quarantined. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2) Generic Structure Analysis Abstract: Everybody has a dream. but because of the bitten son by a dog. Description Text What is Descriptive Text? 1. 3. describing the phenomenon in parts. Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. They prepared well for their plan Crisis: few days before they went to America. qualities. they were left behind. When the dream will come true. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it. They had dream to travel to America. The Clak family should have been on that ship. The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing. 2. • Description. place. • Using simple present tense 4. there is something wrong last minute before it. The father was angry with his son and God.
Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe. Today. native plants and eucalypts. Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. She always pays much attention on her appearance. and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles. When she are walking on that shoes. Recently. The style. attractive and trendy. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as
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. Sydney.MacQuarie University Identificati Macquarie University is one of the largest universities on in Australia. a grass amphitheatre. including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. My Friend's New Shoes
I have a close Friend. in 2004. it celebrates its 40 th anniversary. and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She is beautiful. She really have perfect appearance. but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. She said that the products covered all genders. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university. a railway station is under construction. Example of Description
A. In 1964. She is really mad on that shoes. Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. yet retaining its beautiful site. Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. Description The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt. This year. all her friends. This shoes really matches on her. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor. bright color. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway. One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. In three years1 time.
The way to the summit extends through some 4. Ballet. Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Borobudur Temple
Borobudur is Hindu .Budhist temple. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. Central Java. boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way.
B. Indonesia. Generic Structure Analysis • Identification. Borobudur temple • Description. eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics Language Feature Analysis • Using adjective and classifiers.she has.8 km of passage and starways. casual. Borobudur is well-known. etc
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle.The temple is constructed. The upper three are circular. describing the Borobudur temple in parts. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. valuable • Using simple present tense. identifying the phenomenon to be described in general. Borobudur is located in Magelang. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The products provide varieties of choice. Cambodia. Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor.
enough money to take Snow White. White. perilaku umum. a sweet young lady. dsb. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Identifikasi tentang topik yang akan dideskripsikan. Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. Examples and structures of the text Snow White
• relating verbs untuk memberikan Snow informasi tentang subjek. Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises. misalnya It was a large open rowboat.
to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. Misalnya tampilan fisik (physical appearance). The next morning she ran away from home puppy bites our shoes. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep. berisi deskripsi tentang bagian-bagiannya.my cat. It has very thick fur.
• action verbs. Definition of Narrative Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. two strong legs. misalnya teacher. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers. Description. classifying. She lived with her Aunt because her parents were dead. misalnya fast. yang
Narrative Text What is Narrative? 1. Generic Structure of Narrative A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1. dsb. misalnya. benda atau tempat tertentu secara spesifik.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. misalnya Police believe the suspect is armed. dsb. kualitas. bersifat describing. sifat-sifat (characteristic).
house. dsb. Language Features of Narrative • Using processes verbs • Using temporal conjunction • Using Simple Past Tense 4.
• berbagai macam adjectives.
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named and Uncle
Complication 1 One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking • thinking verbs dan feeling verbs about leaving Snow White in the castle because they
untuk mengungkapkan pandangan both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have pribadi penulis tentang subjek. • simple present tense.Small Notes
Description (Deskripsi) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang.
• detailed noun phrase untuk
memberikan informasi tentang subjek. numbering. misalnya Our new
informasi tambahan tentang perilaku tersebut. dsb. sharp white fangs. 2. • abverbials untuk memberikanShe ran away into the woods. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Identification. I think it is a clever Resolution 1 Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt animal. misalnya. My mum is realy cool. dsb. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• nouns tertentu. when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. Misalnya: I have many pets. better or worse 3. but my favourite one is a cat. at Complication 2
Then she saw this little cottage.
who was called Hakim. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks Maura. who received a plate of delicious meat.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after. the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. “Without question. Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks.Resolution 2
Meanwhile. One by one she discarded them.” Doc. said. “If you wish. Hakim. Then Snow White woke up. you may live here with us. one of the dwarfs. who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia. They want to know what next will happen. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running.
Example of Narative A. One evening. The first gave her some left over food. refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him. They were also rich and strong. “So it is Hakim I will marry”. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them. Narrative Complication in Generic Structure As it is said many times that.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. After dinner. in what way she will decide who the best is. the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp. who will be chosen by Queen Maura. which she strikes against herself. Maura asked them for something to eat. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. “what is your name?” Snow White said. “My name is Snow White. until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. The psychological conflict inside Maura. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. There they found Snow White sleeping. had many suitors. The dwarfs said.” Snow White said. “Oh could I? Thank you. The following day. They went inside. She saw the dwarfs. The third sheik. offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. As they were about to have dinner.
long black hair. One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. “You know. The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. At the first.
• action verbs dalam past tense. untuk mengurutkan kejadiankejadian. I will cut the chicken
. Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim
B. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. two red apples. dongeng) Ciri Umum: (d)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca (yang bertalian dengan pengalaman nyata. Penyelesaian masalah. waktu. happily ever after. climbed. dan tempat terjadinya peristiwa. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over. housework. The name of the place was Catano. Masalah. the man really got very angry. yang pada akhirnya menemukan suatu penyelesaian).
• • •
Koda: perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh dan pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita. Resolution. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. before that. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. misalnya. Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time.Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added. a man had a wonderful parrot. phrase. dsb. the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry.dsb. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word. • saying verbs yang menandai SMA Students’ Modul of English
Once upon time. Pengenalan tokoh. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano. stayed. hewan dan benda tertentu dalam cerita. stepsisters. misalnya. konflik dalam cerita. Although he tried hard to teach. The parrot could say every word. soon. in the mountain. khayal atau peristiwa pelik yang mengarah ke suatu krisis. dsb. Then he continued to humble.
• adjectives yang membentuk noun • time connectives dan conjunctions
• adverbs dan adverbial phrases
untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. dsb. except one word. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. misalnya then. dsb. He could not bear it. the parrot would not say it. (e)Struktur Teks/Generic structure • Orientation. Complication. misalnya here. There was no other parrot like it. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. (f) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti
orang. The Smartest Parrot
There were three death chickens on the floor.
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. the man attempted to teach the bird. stupid parrot”. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. At the moment. It will show the crisis. Analysis the Generic Structure Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. After that he left the chicken house. The daughters were crying. He could not control his mad. C. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. rising crisis and climax of the story. As soon as it was free. They were married happily. In the parrot story. Next it will be your turn. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. The fish begged him to set it free. paragraph 2. Batara Guru could not bear it. He liked fishing. 4 are describing the complication. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. A man and his parrot took place once time. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. I will eat you too.for my meal. there was a handsome man. Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. That was the smartest parrot. He made the fish free. She attracted Batara Guru so much. 3. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story. the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. To fix this problem. readers see the problem is finished. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it. He opened the door and was very surprised. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The next day. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. The Legend of Toba Lake Once upon time. In that parrot story. the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication. One day. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. the man came back to the chicken house. “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. They had two daughters. he caught a fish. They found their mother and talked her about it.
“Why are crying. “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. Finally. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. Cinderella?” a voice asked. It fitted perfectly. At last. The mother was shouting angrily. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters. and it became a beautiful ball gown. there was a young girl named Cinderella. Cinderella 1
Once upon a time. Then the earth began to shake. she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. one of her glass slipper was left behind. “Now. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. such as scrubbing the floor. Batara Guru broke his promise. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. They were married and live happily ever after. They treated Cinderella very badly. The earth formed a very big hole. the day of the ball came. One day. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake. “You must leave before midnight”. the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house.The mother was very annoyed. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear. she was driven to the palace.”you’ve been such a cheerful. hardworking. cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. Cinderella”. did not work about the house. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”. Magically. her step mother which treated Cinderella badly. and
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. A few days later. no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. In the end. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve. “Well” said the godmother. and away went the sisters to it. She danced again and again with the king’s son. In her hurry. The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. Notes on Generic Structure Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story. she said. the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. Volcanoes started to erupt. The two step sisters.
D. on the other hand. the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace.
the man is very intelligent”. “you are so big and strong. he ploughed his field with his buffalo. Then he said.her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. introducing specific participants. After the man went home. Complication. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered. the tiger spoke to the buffalo. Complication: In this Cinderella story. Resolution. “oh.
Once there was a farmer from Laos. 3. “Can I see your intelligence?”. Resolution: Like complication. “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it. He took his plough and hit the tiger. “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “Yes” said the man. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal. “No. One day. The Smartest Animal. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters. the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence. once in Laos 2. said the buffalo. farmer and his buffalo. it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. I can’t tell you”. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. “but you can ask him” So the next day the tiger asked to the man. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome. The tiger asked. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. Orientation. But the man answered. there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution. The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment. Generic Structure Analysis 1. Every morning and every evening. the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger Language Feature Analysis
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. “it at home”. a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. Can I tie you to a tree?” After the man tied the tiger to the tree.
E. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo. he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication. In the last paragraph.
Pour the mixture into the frying pan 7. there was a farmer. once. 50 g cheese. Add milk and whisk well 4. tie. Place on a plate. fork. the next day past tense. the man tied the tiger. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir 5. Heat the oil in a frying pan 6. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose Language Feature of Procedure Using temporal conjunction Using action verb Using imperative sentence Using Simple Present Tense Examples and structures of the text Tujuan (Goal) Bahan (Material) How to Make a Cheese Omelet Ingredients 1 egg. bowl. Material: Telling the needed materials 3. ¼ cup milk. spatula. was surprised to action verb. after. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series Generic Structure of Procedure 1. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth 3. one day connectives. Crack an egg into a bowl 2. plate Method 1.
Procedure Text What is Procedure? Definition of Procedure Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. hit time conjunction. saw.• • • • • •
Using Using Using Using Using Using
saying verb. Goal: showing the purpose 2. season with salt and pepper
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns 8. 3 tablespoons cooking oil. Cook both sides 9. cheese grater. answered thinking verb. a pinch of salt and pepper Utensils Frying pan.
Here's a simple checklist to follow. dsb. Here are the steps. Cut. Example of Procedure
A. How does it sound?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. wait it. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon. Planting Chilies
Eat while warm. take the topic of benefits. while. you don't have to. It should be in open area Next. put the seeding on the soil. Tujuan kegiatan Materials.
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time.
Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. put it. dsb. Read aloud what you've written. but it will help. dry a handful seeding. • connectives untuk • adverbials untuk
mengurutkan kegiatan. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• pola kalimat imperative. dsb.10. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger. They want to know "What's in it for me?" Secondly. Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot. informing on how to plant chillies.
misalnya. Bahan-bahan Note: Materials are not required for all Procedure text Steps. Well. firstly. menyatakan rinci waktu. Firstly. Firstly. misalnya turn. Writing For Business
Procedure (Prosedur) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberi petunjuk tentang cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Aim/Goal. write your benefit like you talk it. Don’t mix. the following is a guided information
B. 2 centimetres from the top. Langkah-langkah. etc • Temporal conjunction. planting is a nice activity. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. mix. tempat. Finally. • Material. put. etc • Action verb. cara yang akurat. next. Use regular words. excluded • Steps. showing the steps or method in planting chillies. misalnya for five minutes. • Language Feature Analysis Imperative sentences. secondly • Simple present tense pattern. finally. put it in another big pot. Your customers don't care about you. don’t. put.
• action verbs. misalnya then. not features. dry. dry a handful seeding under the sunlight Secondly.
informing on how to write for business • Material. etc • Action verb. Fifthly. such as.re-read what you've done before publishing. Don't describe how your company may. three tablespoons cookin oil. showing the method in writing for business. choosing the advantageous topic. read. cheese grater. Listen carefully. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through. reread what you have done. spatula. etc
C. Fourthly. lose the weak words. excluded • Steps/ method. to make a cheese omelet. you need some tools. fifty gram cheese. Use a nice rhythm.
Simplified from: http://EzineArticles. secondly. writing the topic like the way it is talked. crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Mix them up and keep things interesting. etc • Temporal conjunction. might or should help customers but talk about how your company will. fork.
News Item Text What is News Item? 1.Thirdly. you need an egg. Next. add First. re-reading what have been written . First. Edit it necesarily. Language Feature Analysis • Imperative sentences. How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Well. Some sentences are long and some are short. bowl and plate.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor
Generic Structure Analysis • Goal. frying pan. Next. a pinch of satlt and pepper. firstly. write like you talked. a quarter cup of milk. write. Definition of News Item
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participant. Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV. Examples and structures of the text Town ‘Contaminated Newsworthy events Background Events Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy. which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster. “But this just a suggestion.News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. a news report said. The events are considered newsworthy or important. it’s up to them”. Language Feature of News Item 1.
Example of Procedure A. Focusing on circumstances 2. 2. “This is not to debate them but to protect them. which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town. time. Elaboration (background. place) 3.
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. The accident. Resource of information 3. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIVpositive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town. Sumber Informasi Sources A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy. Generic Structure of News Item 1. but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Main event 2. Using material process 4. Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.
pendapat para ahli. but the number is steadily rising. 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS.
(Source The Jakarta Post. Sources. June 01. Malaysian Aids Council president. were infected unknowingly by their husbands. The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution. The maid. A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. (c)Ciri Kebahasaan:
Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day. In the past the event was held behind closed door. komentar saksi kejadian. less then 10 percent are woman. he said in the report. • Menggunakan action Background event 2: The number of verbs Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising. Adeebah Kamarulzaman. named Suwartin. many women who contract HIV are housewives. orang yang terlibat. Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex
A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together. pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan. Background Events. dsb. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia. Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV
Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV. had worked with the boy family for 11 years. Latar belakang kejadian. Last year. in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
News Item (Berita) Ciri Umum: (a)Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Memberitakan kepada pembaca. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Newsworthy events. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to. was quoted as saying besides sex workers. even though they know they have HIV” she said. tempat kejadian dsb. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. Kejadian inti. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV. Background event 1: International • Informasi singkat Memorial Day was held openly in tertuang dalam Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV headline victims.
Generic Structure Analysis News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer Background event: The maid is a divorcee. She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. execute. which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria. The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country. the Saudi Interior Minister said. Background 3. behead. May 6. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said. etc Discussion Text What is Discussion?
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.news. serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.co.Then the maid was arrested. carry. Using material process. Background 2. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. Resource.bbc. Saudi Arabia. She had relationship the boy for five months. murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom. Rape. Indonesian Maid beheaded
An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer. She apologized and felt guilty Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness
C. Hong Kong. Islamic law executed more than 130 people. The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year. law of serious crimes. the Saudi Interior Minister statement. Last year. She will be sentenced in two week’s time.
(Adapted from Reuters.
(Taken from: www. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. Language Feature Analysis Focussing circumtances. Background 1. an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia.id)
Generic Structure Analysis Main event. the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos.
Example of Discussion Text
A. etc • Using modalities. could. many times. stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse 3. Generic Structure of Discussion • Statement of issue. Examples and structures of the text Homework Issue Statemen t of issue and Preview Statemen t of various viewpoint s I have been wondering if homework is necessary. similarly. etc • Using additive. doing homework is not a great idea. feel. 2. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. and social text. however. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work. believe. should. Definition of Discussion Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. Sometimes homework is boring and not important. deliberately. stating the issue which is to discussed • List of supporting points. Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power
The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. etc • Using adverbial of manner. historic. hopefully. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical. on the hand.1. and causal connection. contrastive. Language Feature of Discussion • Introducing category or generic participant • Using thinking verb. But. may. presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point • Recommendation. presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue • List of contrastive point. hope. must. Homework is really good because it helps with our education. etc 4. I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family. Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned.
England in 1956. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:
• • • • •
It costs about the same coal. It produces small amount of waste.Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide. so it is not expansive to make. It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed. Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria. It is reliable. so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect. and produces huge amounts of energy.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Elaborasi (uraian). This example of discussion text present the two poles. misalnya the dumping of unwanted kittens. however. In the 1990's nuclear power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world. misalnya deliberately. misalnya uniforms.On the other hand. a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go wrong. a nuclear accident ca be a major accident. could 29 be. dsb. seperti perhaps. should have been. hopefully. memberikan informasi secara padu. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Isu.
. believe. although it is reliable. misalnya smoking is harmful. nuclear power is very. In many social activities. perception and recommendation. dsb. must.
Pendapat yang menentang: (Statement of various viewpoints) Gagasan Pokok. alcohol. it is presented the advantages of
Discussion (Pembahasan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Mengetengahkan suatu masalah (isu) yang ditinjau paling tidak dari 2 (dua) sudut pandang. between the advantage and disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. dsb.(conclusion or recomendation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• general nouns untuk menyatakan
• thinking verbs untuk
• additives. contrastives dan causal
• detailed noun groups untuk
SMA Students’ Modul of English
• relating verbs untuk memberi
informasi tentang isu yang didiskusikan. connectives untuk menghubungkan argumen. discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in thought.(statement of issue and Preview) Pendapat yang mendukung: Gagasan Pokok 1. on the hand. People are increasingly concerned about this matter. Furthermore. misalnya feel.
Kesimpulan. dsb. Elaborasi (uraian). It is a case which need to be talked and discussed from two points. very dangerous. dsb. Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. They are represented in the generic structure which is used: Stating the Issue: In the first paragraph. should. • adverbials of maner. It must be sealed up and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Supporting Point: In the second paragraph. it is stated that using nuclear power can be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy. sebelum sampai pada suatu kesimpulan atau rekomendasi. hope. Gagasan Pokok 2. Elaborasi (uraian). It is important to to get the understanding between the two differences. dsb. dsb. mengungkapkan pandangan pribadi penulis. misalnya similarly.
geography and history text books. have always argue that the fox is a pest which attacks livestock and must be controlled. Generic structure of Explanation
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. believe. Supporting point. Explanation text is to say 'why' and 'how' of the forming of the phenomena. farmers and conservationists agree to hunt fox because they attack livestok. It is often found in science. scientific and cultural phenomena. Many people believe that it is cruel to hunt a fox with dogs and totally agree with its ban. Language Feature Analysis Introducing category participant. social.
2. however. Recommendation. Hunting Fox
Foxhunting is a subject that provokes very strong feelings.
B. conservationists. must. Recommendation: This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy. Contrastive point. Do not be cruel in hunting fox just control it in safe way. Many farmer and even conservationists.uk)
Generic Structure Analysis Stating the issue. Using thinking verb.co. Using connectives. Using modalities.
(Taken from: www. many people disagree hunting fox with dog because it is cruel. Definition and purposes of Explanation
Explanation is a text which tells processes relating to forming of natural.bbc. farmer. always
Explanation Text What is Explanation? 1. It gives the contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource of energy.nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's energy needed Contrastive Point: The third paragraph shows the balance. hunting fox.
explanation of why or how something occurs At the mill the bark of the logs is removed and the logs are taken to a chipper which cuts them into small pieces called woodchips. to begin with. rain. sun. Tsunami The term of “tsunami” comes from the Japanese which means harbour ("tsu") and wave ("nami"). stating a series of steps which explain the phenomena. The woodchips are then screened to remove dirt and other impurities. stating the phenomenon issues which are to be explained. Such large vertical movements of the earth's crust can occur at plate boundaries. The pulp is then bleached and the water content is removed. Featuring generic participant. Examples and structures of the text Making Paper from Woodchips A general statement Woodchipping is a process used to obtain pulp and paper products from forest trees. Sequenced explanation.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. At this stage they are either exported in this form or changed into pulp by chemicals and heat. A tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water.• •
Example of Explanation Text A. A tsunamigk is a series of waves generated when water in a lake or the sea is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Language Feature
• • • •
4. The woodchipping process begins when the trees are cut down in a selected area of the forest called a coupe. next. A sequenced Next the tops and branches of the trees are cut out and then the logs are taken to the mill. etc Using chronological connection. etc Using passive voice pattern Using simple present tense
3. Closing Finally the pulp is rolled out to make paper.
dunia ilmiah.Small Notes
Explanation Text Ciri Umum: Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: • Menerangkan proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pembentukan atau kegiatan yang terkait dengan fenomena alam. and occur where denser oceanic plates slip under continental plates. the amount of • bahasa teksni. misalnya the large cloud. Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan. as the height of the sea keeps rising fast and floods powerfully into the coastal area. earthquakes. sosialbudaya. passive voice. It is the tilt of the earth that determine the amount of daylight
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. It takes 365 days or a year. Earth's turning on its axis makes it look as if the sun is moves. This process is called revolution.panda. adverbial phrases. conjunctions of time dan cause. The earth is actually closer to the sun in winter than it is in summer but you would be forgiven for thinking that this can not be true after looking out of your window on a cold and frosty morning. How Day and Night Happen
• • • •
general dan abstract nouns. misalnya the temperature. daylight that we get is more than we • kalimat pasif get in winter. atau lainnya yang bertujuan menjelaskan. Most of the damage is caused by the huge mass of water behind the initial wave front. Tsunami always bring great damage. The earth also moves around the sun. crosses the sky during the day and sets at night.org)
B. Penjelasan proses • Penutup. it radiates across the ocean like ripples on a pond. complex sentences.
The sun seems to rise in the morning. The earth makes a complete turn on its axis for 24 hours. Struktur Teks/Generic structure • A general statement.
Subduction of earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis. noun phrase.
(simplified from www. The revolution process causes the changes of the season
C. Penjelasan umum • A sequenced explanation of why or how something occurs. simple present tense. This is not because as much people think we are closer to the sun but because of the tilt of the earth. It causes day and night. It is called as rotation. However the sun does not actually move around the earth. abstract nouns. It seems strange that as the earth get closer to the sun during its orbit then the amount of daylight that we get decrease. Why Summer Daylight is Longger
than Winter Daylight In the summer. misalnya word chopping. But that is the case. As the displaced water mass moves under the influence of gravity to regain its equilibrium. action verbs.
Hortatory Exposition Text What is Hortatory Exposition? 1. etc 6.uk)
Generic Structure Analysis General statement. you would be forgiven.
(Taken from: www. Using simple present tense 4. secondly. so. etc 3. but.where you only see another car
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Language Feature Analysis Focusing generic participant. stating the phenomenon whic daylight in summer is longer than in winter. etc 7. Using chronological connection.ictteachers. there doesn’t seem to have been any mention of the diffence between driving in the city and in the country. Recommendation 3. advantage. Arguments 3. etc 8. 2. Thesis 2. Using thinking verb 5. Using evaluative words.co. policy. Using passive voice 9.that we get and so the length of time that for us the sun is above the horizon. Explanation. Using present tense. daylight. Using action verb 4. Using modal adverb. Definition of Hortatory Exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of the writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way. certainly. important. firstly. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition 1. Generic Structure of Hortatory Exposition 1. Examples and structures of the text Thesis In all discussion over the removal of lead from petrol ( and the atmosphere). then. Using pasive voice. Using abstract noun. surely. I feel that when you travel through the country. Using temporal connective. Focusing on the writer 2. the earth is actually closer to the sun. While I realise my leaded petrol car is polluting the air wherever I drive. trustworthy. valuable. it is the tilt of the earth that determines the amount of daylight not the distance of the earth from the sun.
many studies have identified a relationship between kids who watch TV a lot and being inactive and overweight. Meanwhile. and short sleep duration. a study demonstrated that spending too much time on watching TV during the day or at bedtime often cause bed-time disruption. However. stress.the problem is not as severe as when traffic is concentrated on city roads.every five to ten minutes. who often have to travel n huge distances to the nearest town and who already spend a great deal of money on petrol. of course. leaded petrol vehicles and their owners donn’t seem to appreciate thet in the country there is no public transport to fall back upon and ones own vehicle is the only way to get about. consumerism and so on. protect your children with the following tips: • Limit television viewing to one-two hours each day • Do not allow your children to have a TV set in their own bedrooms • Review the rating of TV shows which your children watch • Watch television with your children and discuss what is happening in the show Notes on the Generic Structure of this Hortatory Exposition example Firstly. Watch your Kids While Watching TV Television becomes one of the most important devices which takes place in almost houses. absolutely "Yes" and that should be done by all parents. Television can expose things you have tried to protect the children from. Considering some facts mentioning above. Recomendatio I feel that country people. pornography. we have to always remember that the social function of hortatory exposition text is driving the readers to act like
SMA Students’ Modul of English 34
. especially violence. is it important to know what your kids are watching? The answer is. and the possibility of being aggressive. Another research found that there is a significant relationship between the amount of time spent for watching television during adolescence and early adulthood.should be treated differently to the people who live in the city
Example of Hortatory Exposition
A. Recently. It can unite all members of the family as well as separate them. Those who want to penalise older .
Probably one dust bin should be in every ten
SMA Students’ Modul of English 35
. outside of the classrooms and some along of the corridors. example of hortatory
To improve comfort and cleanliness at the school. In many social activities. More Dust Bins is Cleaner. and napkin everywhere. advertising. However the last paragraph of the essay usually make the difference from hortatory and analytical exposition. both hortatory and analytical exposition have the similar position. the text is completed with the writer's recommendation on how the parents should protect the children from the bed effect of watching TV. If it is a hortatory text. In the first paragraph. It is supported by various researches that there are a great relationship between watching TV and the watcher's personality. sales letter.
B. mineral water cops. Anyway I notice that most of the students have responsibilities for their school environment. The condition of unseemliness really hinders learning and teaching environment. it will be closed with restatement of the writer's first paragraph. It is important to protect the children from the bad influences of TV show. speech campaign. Thesis: The writer's thought is presented as thesis which is proven with several arguments. the writer points his thought about the importance of accompanying children while they are watching TV show. it will be ended with a strong recommendation while for analytical exposition. Both show how important idea of the writer to be known. Then the purpose of this hortatory is influencing and persuading the readers by presenting the supporting arguments. They put their litter on the proper place but some of them are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Arguments: The next paragraphs show the writer arguments in supporting his thesis. Basically. straws. school corridors and schoolyard. This can be placed for mosquito to spread out. Recommendation: After stating the thesis and proving with various arguments. When we look at classroom. and news advertorial. One study describes that much time in watching TV can cause bed-time disruption. More dust bins should be put beside each step. The numbers of the dust bins in the school are not enough.the writer thought as stated in the text. Both take place as argumentative essays. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. there should be an increasing number of dust bins. there papers. hortatory is applied for writing recommended thought. The others show the possibility of becoming an aggressive character because of watching television too much.
Then it will be very possible to seek job and get the appropriate one. Therefore it should come to their mind of continuing studying at higher school from their own home. the available time will be more flexible for them. In the same way. It is true because they have to do and adapt a lot of things in their new higher school. it will be very hard to looking for job. As the alternative method of studying. a hortatory text
The National examination result will be publicly enounced in next short time. In the other hand. Possibly working and studying surely will create high quality graduate.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Euphoria will flood for those who get success. what skill and competence they have got is a big matter of questioning. students do not have problem of discomfort any more. For those who succeed soon will think to decide. they can find the dust bins easily. where will they be after graduating high school? Actually it will be easy to decide for those has been arranged and thought earlier but for those have not planed yet. Continuing study or looking for work is the primary choice among them. It will be sorry to hear that there are some of them do not succeed in their national final examination. Continuing study as well as seeking job is possibly done but it will be hard for them. Where should be after High School?. it will be quite confusing. Conventionally studying in the university needs much time to spend especially in the first year. So provide more dust bins and school will be very clean and become a very nice place to study.meters. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. besides the conventional studying which students and the lecturer have to meet in the fixed time and place regularly. when they think about straightly seeking job. How long the higher study will last? And how high is about the cost. So when students want to throw away their litters. distance learning provides possibility to grow better. This type of studying is publicly known as distance learning. When they think about continuing study. So. As result. they will think hard about the time and cost. doing both choices in the same time is an alternative.
C. Distance learning should appear as a considerable choice for them.
Thinking verbs. dsb. misalnya I believe . Are you tired of the daily grind? Sick of working all hours of the day for litle reward? Tired of having enough money to really enjoy yourself? Well. he drives a sport car. valuable. Argument. Join property market ! Language Feature Analysis Using abstract noun. Language Feature of Report • Introducing group or general aspect
• • • • • • • •
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. It is as a result of systematic observation and analysis 2. secondly. Simple present tense Bahas evaluatif. plant. dsb. Modal adverbs. etc which will be discussed in general 2. Generic Structure of Report 1. (b)Struktur Teks/Generic structure Thesis. Action verbs.D. there is a way out of financial problem. now there is a way out. give up. dan mengarah ke rekomendasi Recomendation: pernyataan tentang bagaimana seharusnya atau tidak seharusnya (c) Ciri kebahasaan menggunakan: • • • Abstrac nouns. Technical verbs. Pernyataan isu yang dipersoalkan Arguments: berupa alasan mengapa ada keprihatinan.government dsb. etc Report Text What is Report? 1. Modal verbs. We can show the way to give up work. Definition of Report Report is a text which presents information about something. reward Using action verb. misalnya should be. Now he drives a sport car arround the South of France and his wife has one of her own too. a hortatory
Hortatory Exposition (eksposisi hortatory) Ciri Umum:
Tujuan Komunikatif Teks (Communicative Purpose) Memaparkan dan mempengaruhi audience (pendengar/pembaca) bahwa seharusnya demikian atau tidak demikian . Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail. we must save. Recommendation. dsb. doesn’t seem to have been . felt Using simple present tense. dsb.dsb. are you tired?. Millions from Property Market. Albert Smith is the proof. make. Generic Structure Analyse Thesis. misalnya important. Kalimat pasif (passive voice)
exposition text Dear friend.we. customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials 3.misalnya policy. Connectives. misalnya species of animals. Albert Smith felt just like you untill he read our leaflet. misalnya We must preserve. dsb. dsb. dsb. misalnya firstly. Sit back and make millions for yourself and your loved ones on property market. misalnya. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing. misalnya certainly. as it is. part per part . animal. etc Using thinking verb. Relating verbs. public place.
A group. perhaps two dozen birds. male platypus does not need any burrow to stay. Platypus. etc Using simple present tense
4. will gather in a curved arc some distance offshore. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from intruders and flooding. the water drains from its bill leaving the fish which are then swallowed. Analyzing on the Text Generic Structure analysis General classification. In the other hand. Pelicans are among the oldest group of birds.
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. and lakes.• •
Using conditional logical connection. Examples and structures of the text THE PELICAN REPORT General Clasification Description The white pelican is successful fish-eating birds. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and light. As the bird lifts its head. Platypus' eyes and head are small. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered with a thick. Female platypus usually dig burrows in the streams or river banks. so. driving the fish before them. Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia. Fossils of this genus have been found dating back 40 million years. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud. The birds then begin to move forward towards the shore. When the water is shallow enough for the birds to reach the fish. the animal of platypus. one of the most
The success is largely due to its command hunting behaviour. stating general classification. rivers. Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. beating the water furiously with their wings. the formation breaks up as each bird dips its bill into the water to scoop up its meal. and woolly layer of fur. when. Platypus lives in streams.
Example of Report Text
A. a report text
Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill.
Description. kegunaannya jika non natural. atau gejala-gejala sosial. keterangan. istilah teknis. action verbs dalam mejelaskan perilaku. kebiasaan atau tingkah laku jika benda hidup. apa adanya. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
• • • • • •
general nouns. dsb. benda buatan manusia.
Spoof Text What is Spoof?
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. dsb. Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subjek laporan. ikan paus termasuk binatang mamalia karena ikan tersebut melahirkan anaknya. sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis. seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Insland’. Gambaran dari fenomena yang akan didiskusikan seperti bagian – bagiannya. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum. misalnya. lingkungan. dsb. habits or behaviors. male platypus does not need any burrow. misalnya reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilia). dan klasifikasinya. paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi. misalnya lizards cannot fly. Description:tells what the phenomenon under discussion . in terms of parts. dsb. relating verbs untuk menjelaskan ciri. dsb. misalnya Komodo dragons usually weight more than 160 kg. the animal of platypus conditional. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure
General Clasification. logical connective. but. describing in detail characterization of platypus' body and habitual life Language Feature Analysis Focusing in group. qualities. misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen. Platypus lives in streams. in the other hand Simple present tense pattern. etc Small Notes
Report Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu. present tense untuk menyatakan suatu yang umum. Yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gajala alam.
Kejadian/peristiw The next day the policeman saw the same a/ kegiatan 2 man in the same park and the man was still carrying the penguin with him. Orientation 2. so today I’m taking him to the moviest! Example of Spoof text
A. Events 3. “It must be my first customer” Dave thought. Dave found one of his uncles who was very rich and had no children of his own died and left him a lot of money. ‘ take him to the zoo’. ‘Why are you still carrying that penguin about? Didn’t you take it to the zoo? ‘ ‘I certainly did. ran. 2. What should I do?’ The policeman replied. Examples and structures of the text Penguin In The Park Pengenalan Once a man was walking in a park when he came across a penguin. Dave found a nice office. Told in chronological order 4. He quickly picked up the telephone and pretended to be very busy answering an important
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. ate. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. he had only been there for e few hours when he heard someone coming toward the door of his office. He bought some new furniture and moved in. Language Feature of Spoof 1. “That Phone is Off”
Soon after he left college. Twist 3. Twist (Akhir yang ‘ and it was a great idea because he really lucu) enjoyed it. Focusing on people.’ replied the man. Generic Structure of Spoof 1. so he decided to set up his own real estate agency. animals or certain things 2. ‘ I have a/ kegiatan 1 just found this penguin. Using adverb of time and place 4. etc 3.
Kejadian/peristiw He took him to a policeman and said. happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.1. Definition and Social Function of Spoof Spoof is a text which tells factual story. Using action verb.
So he invited Abu Nawas to the palace. he wanted (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: to set up his estate company • Terfokus pada orang. “I am from the telephone company and I was sent here to connect your telephone”
Notes on the Spoof’s Generic Structure Pengenalan. “You want me. misalnya eat. Then the man said to Dave. “Yes. In his office. peristiwa aneh atau lucu berdasarkan kejadian atau peristiwa dalam kehidupan nyata yang bertujuan menghibur. your Majesty?” greeted Abu Nawas. no children. Instead leaving the country. very rich man because of the Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan death of his rich uncle who had 2. you have fooled me three times and that’s too much. Otherwise you will have to go to jail” said the king. He suddenly became a 1. verbs. He inherited his Twist (akhir yang tidak uncle’s money. He came in and waited politely for Dave to finish his conversation on the phone. Then “Remember. Orientation: Dave was a lucky Kejadian/peristiwa/kegiatan man. Event 1: Being rich. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure
call from someone in New York who wanted to buy a big and expensive house in the country. The man knocked at the door while this was going on. I want you to leave the country. The guards were very surprised found Abu Nawas still in his house. “If that is what you want. why haven’t you left this country yet? The king ordered you not to step on the ground of this country anymore. from tomorrow you may not step on the ground of this country anymore” the king said seriously. He came to Dave’s office to connect that phone. conversation on the phone.
B. yang biasa diakhiri dengan sesuatu yang tidak diharapkan (twist). • Menggunakan past Twist: The man whom he showed is a telephone technician. He showed by making keterangan waktu dan tempat. He acted as had an important • Menggunakan client. binatang. terduga atau lucu). didn’t he?” said the
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. I will do what you said” said Abu Nawas sadly. run. benda tertentu. Abu Nawas was swimming in small pool in front of his house. The following morning the king ordered his two guards to go to Abu Nawas’ house. He had not left the country yet.Small Notes
Spoof (Laporan kejadian atau peristiwa lucu) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Menceritakan kejadian. he pretended to be • Menggunakan action a very successful businessman. Then Abu nawas left the king palace sadly. Saved by Stilts
The king wanted to test Abu Nawas’ smartness. “Hey Abu Nawas. Event 2: He had his new office.
look at you. “This morning I took a bath in the small pool in my house so that I had not to step on the ground. The king was not able to say anything. The king wondered and said “Abu. I turned around again.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. I do not step on the ground. I could not hear the actors. “I remember exactly what you said. Private Conversation
Last week I went to the theatre. You walk on stilts like a child. They did not pay any attention. young man and young woman. Abu Nawas came to the palace on stilts.
(Adapted from S. The guards were not able to argue with Abu Nawas so they left Abu Nawas’ house and went back to the palace. were talking noisily.I got very angry. Therefore the king ordered his guard to call Abu Nawas to come to the palace.I did not enjoy it. I looked at the man and the young woman angrily. “I could not hear a word” I said angrily. The King continued “And now. I turned around.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. You have not left this country”.In the end. “But look at me! Do I step on the ground of this country? No. I am swimming on the water” continued Abu Nawas. Your Majesty” Abu Nawas answered calmly. “Sure he did” answered Abu Nawas calmly. I have been walking on this stilts. I had a very good seat. So you see. Your Majesty. And since yesterday. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. The play was very interesting. I will surely punish you because you haven’t done what I have said. “This is a private conversation”
(From: English New Concept)
Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last week Event 1: the other theatregoers. I do not step on the ground of this country”. The guards reported what they had seen to the king. I could not bear it. Harianto’s Abu Nawas and King Aaron)
Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: Introducing Abu Nawas and the King on the counteracts about leaving and staying in the country Event 1: Abu Nawas was swimming on the pool Event 2: Abu Nawas was walking on the stilts Twister: Abu Nawas explained that swimming in the pool and walking on the stilts meant not stepping on the ground of the country
C. Are you crazy? The king pretended to be furious. They were talking very loudly.guards. The king was curious on Abu Nawas’ excuse not to leave the country.
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. Nasreddin’s Coat
One day Nasreddin had been invited to the dinner party. “When I came here with my old clothes. Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said. He took it to a policeman and said. "Take it to the zoo!". Then I went home and put on my best clothes. When he arrived in the party. The next day. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation: one day. “It’s none of your business. It’s a private conversation”. The host at once got up and came to meet him. The policeman was rather surprised and walked up to the man and asked. Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”. I came back in my newest coat and you all give me this best food and drink. Nasreddin was invited to a dinner party Event 1: He was in the party with his old cloth Event 2: He was in the party with his best newest coat Twist: Among the hosts and guests.
D. they just shook the head. Coat!” the hosts and guests were very surprised and asked Nareddin. He got no food in the party so he went home and change his clothes Next he put on his best clothes. the policeman saw the man in the same park. "What should I do?" The policeman replied.Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man and young woman talk to not to make noisy. “Eat the food. Getting Nasreddin's answer. The host offered him the best table and gave him a good seat and served him the best food Nasreddin sat and put off his coat. he aske his coat to eat the served food
E. “What are doing?” Nasreddin replied calmly. He went to the party by wearing old clothes. So. He put his coat and said. nobody looked at me. He wore his newest coat and went to the party again. "Why are you still carrying the penguin? Didn't you take it to the zoo?" The man replied. Penguin in the Park
Once a man was walking in a park when he across a penguin. nobody looked at him and nobody gave him a seat. you give food to my coat instead of me”. The man was still carrying the penguin.
policeman Using action verb. first. look. He. go. then. Stating personal comment of the writer to the story 3. saw. Examples and structures of the text
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. the next day
Recount Text What is Recount? 1. etc • Using action verb. Language Feature of Recount • Introducing personal participant. chronological order by days.introducing participants: "He" and Penguin. etc • Using linking verb. was. Reorientation: It is optional. Analyzing the Text Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. heard. So. Orientation: Introducing the participants. There is no complication among the participants and that differentiates from narrative 2. Events: Describing series of event that happened in the past 3. etc • Using simple past tense 4. The following day. place and time 2. change. etc • Using chronological connection. And it was a great idea because the penguin really enjoyed it. once.did. finally the man would take the penguin to the movies Language Feature Analysis Focusing on certain certain participants. walk up Using adverb of time and place. today I am taking it to the movie". They were in the park Event1. penguin. Generic Structure of Recount 1. I. carry. Its purpose is either to inform or to entertain the audience. were. Even. my group. in the park Told in chronological order. Definition of Recount Recount is a text which retells events or experiences in the past. The man tended to take the penguin to the park Event. the man were still carrying the penguin Twist.
Reorientati In the afternoon we went home. They are Mr. They arranged the transfer to a hotel. and Mrs. The flight was nearly fourteen hours. We went to some antique shops and I tried on some old hats. They had booked fourteen days tour. They gave them news paper and magazine to read. they had to go to Customs and Immigration. We saw cockatoos having a shower. At the end of the 14-day. It can be what the writer has done. Events On Saturday we saw the Three Sisters and went on the scenic railway. Richard with two sons. On Sunday we went on the Scenic Skyway and it rocked. In writer's point of view. It was scary. There was a film for their entertainment. The two week in London went by fast. On arrival at Heathrow Airport. Vacation to London
Mr. read. They slept part of the way. They had variety of food. Instead of keys for the room. Then. They went to London. The room had its own bathroom and toilet. They gave them food and drink.
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. They saw their travel agent and booked their tickets. It has a big garden with lots of colourful flowers and a tennis court. On the third floor. Mummy and I went shopping with Della. on Example of Recount text
B. Richard’s family was on vacation. They went to the British Embassy to get visas to enter Britain. The officers were pleasant. The hotel was a well-known four-star hotel. hear. the thing is an experience. they inserted a key-card to open the door. On the plane the cabin crews were very friendly. They checked the document carefully but their manners were very polite. The room had perfect view of the park.Our trip to the Blue Mountain Orientation On Friday we went to the Blue Mountains. This includes travel and accommodation. Between Recount and Narrative
Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. Mr. We stayed at David and Della’s house. They had a very pleasant flight. there was a restaurant serving Asian and European food. They also included tours around London They boarded a large Boeing flight. they were quite tired but they felt very happy. Richard and his family collected their bags and went to London Welcome Desk.
He spent the first three days swimming and surfing on Kuta beach. adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns. waktu dan cara. The street are lined with trees and there are many old Dutch houses. My friend stayed in Kuta on arrival. funny. then on Monday. misalnya David. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. It reveals the conflict among the participants. The next stop was Celuk. after that. past tense. On the day of the tour. Mass is a tourist center
SMA Students’ Modul of English
nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang. Events. misalnya yesterday. conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa. She was happy dsb. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. It was not to see the scenery but to see the art and the craft of the island. at my house. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. Singaraja is a city of about 90 thousands people. kejadian atau kegiatan. It is a busy but quiet town. misalnya go. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. After that he stopped a little while for lunch at Sukawati and on to mass. yang biasanya disampaikan dalam urutan kronologis. recount describes series of events in detail.Small Notes and felt. what happened on Sunday. the on Tuesday. Pengenalan ulang yang merangkum rentetan peristiwa. There my friend watched young boys were carving away at big blocks of stone. Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian. sleep. misalnya and. kejadian atau kegiatan yang terjadi. (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Menggunakan:
There were so many places to see in Bali that my friend decided to join the tours to see as much as possible. Pengenalan. dsb. Rekaman peristiwa. kejadian atau kegiatan dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. but. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. The first stop was at Batubulan. the monkey. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event. The first one was to Singaraja. 46 slowly dsb. He visited some tour agents and selected two tours. then. The event happened smoothly. we dsb.
• • •
. Reorientation. misalnya We went to the zoo. kejadian atau kegiatan. Visiting Bali
Recount (Laporan peristiwa. My friend and his group drove on through mountains. In simple way. he was ready. On the other hand. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. di mana dan kapan. dsb. a center for silversmiths and goldensmiths.
C. The second tour to Ubud was a very different tour. a center of stone sculpture. yaitu memberikan informasi tentang siapa. action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan. kejadian atau kegiatan masa lampau) Ciri Umum (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melaporkan peristiwa. (b) Struktur Teks/Generic structure Orientation. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat. the second was to Ubud. misalnya beautiful. run dsb. hewan atau benda yang terlibat. Then they returned very late in the evening to Kuta.
I was on my car. Even I could not move my car at all.My friend ten-day-stay ended very quickly beside his two tour. grandpa’s body was kept
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. The car lunched to one side. describing a series of event which happened. walked. We gathered there with our kin in the ceremony. Several days before the ceremony was done. The earthquake made a lot of damage to my town. I did not know that it was an earthquake. Events. When I reached my town. Generic Structure Analysis Orientation. Re-orientation. was. It was my first time to go to such a ceremony. I • Using chronological connectives. Then I saw a lot of rocks tumbling across the road. I thanked God that nobody was seriously injured. There was nothing I could do but left the car and walked along way to my house. made. Suddenly my car lunched to one side. earthquake happened. Language Feature Analysis • Using personal participant. I knew it was an earthquake when I saw some telephone and electricity poles falling down to the ground. Telephone and electricity poles was falling down. etc. Although nothing was left. left. like matchsticks. Overall. introducing the participant. and. I was so surprised that there was almost nothing left. I was on the car. stating the writer's personal note. When the earthquake happened. There were rocks everywhere. etc • Using simple past tense pattern.
D. etc E. My Horrible Experience
Let me remind you my experience during an earthquake last week. were • Using action verb. to the left. my car lunched on one side. suddenly • Using linking verb. My Grandpa’s Funeral in Toraja Last month my family and I went to Toraja to attend Grandpa’s funeral. He went sailing or surfboarding every day. I was on the car las week. He was quiet satisfied. It took about a week. I was trapped by the rock. I thought I got flat tire. I was driving home from my vocation to Bali. moved. then. Thanking God because nobody was seriously injured. the ceremony was quite elaborate. all his day was spent on the beach. in the town. using first person point of view.
In this ceremony we wore black clothes. and then moved the corpse to face north. Review Text
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• • • •
. His corpse was dressed in a fi ne wearing. What did they do after the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffi n? 5. First. we slaughtered the pigs and buffaloes. The funeral ceremonies made my family and me tired. Finally. Then. we were feasting. the corpse was placed in a sandal wood coffin. Those words and phrases are: First. Questions 1. Finally. However. the grandpa’s coffin were lowered from the funeral tower and brought up to the mountain side family graveyard. What did they do to the corpse before the funeral was done? 4. After that. A recount text has an orientation. and end your composition. chanting. When did the writer attend the funeral? 2. connect a sentence with the next one. They were great matches. The next phase of the ceremony was held in this place. and I prepared the wooden puppet and a funeral tower called lakian. personal remarks on the events and a reorientation that “rounds off” the sequence of events. In the text. and dancing. How long did the writer and his family hold the ceremony? 3. The funeral was performed in two phases.in a series of houses arranged in a circular row around an open field called tongkonan. a series of events in chronological order. It was followed by great shouting and excitement from the relatives and the guests. it was brought out of the house and placed on an open platform beneath the granary. Then. you find words and phrases used to start. In the night. The coffin is borne from the house and placed in the lakian. On the last day. After that. What did they do on the last day of the ceremony? Notes: A recount text is a text that tells you a part of experience. Meanwhile. we were grateful because it ran smoothly. During the day. my brother. we installed the wooden puppet on a high balcony where other puppets representing the members of a whole family were already there. my uncle. there were also buffalo matches.
review text usually has generic structure as: 2. it is the time for reviewer to write about what he thinks or impresses on the product. a reviewer will make a final comment whether the product is valuable or not for targeted buyer. Using long and complex clauses 4. It is personal idea about the product. etc. uniqueness. useful. It can be product. Using metaphor 4. Dominant Language features: 1. Summary: this phase is recommending conclusion for reader of the product. Using adjectives 3. services which want to be sold. This phase is the worth of the review for reader. It states the parts. He states in which side the product has additional value or honestly admitted that the product lacks value in certain side. Generic Structure Introduction: it is the highlight of the general description about what will be reviewed. Then it will drive more traffic into the site. In this phase reviewer will apply much evaluative word. Each text type will have different form of generic structure. After clearly explanation. Of course this phase can be done after getting enough evaluation on the product. However too much detail description will “teach” the will-buyer and it does not sound good.What is review text 1. The term of evaluation will not be far from simple word of good or bad. quality of the product which will be known publicly. Frequently to support and strengthen his idea or impression. This classification of text types is commonly based on the structure which used by the writer to compose his text. Definition Review is one of text genres. valuable. Interpretation: after writing about the objective thing of the product. or just a site which want to be known publicly. Focus on specific participants 2. a reviewer describes a comparison to other similar product. 3. worthy. Evaluation: the second phase is coming inside into the product in details. Evaluating as far as necessary for the targeted buyer is more genuine. As I said in my previous post. Examples and structures of the text
SMA Students’ Modul of English
I actually liked the ending (and yes. and Harry has apparently been taken off his meds.. Rangkuman The "real" story seemed to happen in the last 1/3 of the book. depressing feel. Example of Review text Zenni Optical. and ultimately satisfying. this was not my favorite. Evaluasi 1 Evaluasi 2 I have to say that of all of the books. I cried!) as sad as it was. I was truly moved by the last page. but the sudden change in his character seemed too drastic.Harry Potter: Order of the Phoenix Pengenalan I absolutely love the Harry Potter series. intriguing. It packed a punch and it made me care about the story even more. magical or no. In some (Interpretati instances this works. as if we're reading all about Harry "just hanging out" instead of having his usual adventures. especially with being a teenager and all.. I know that he had a lot to be grumpy in this book. Other times the book just has a slightly dreary. and parts of it do seem long. however. and all of the / Orientasi books will always hold a special place in my heart. The stories were bright. a site for eyeglasses Eyeglasses will become more and more important. When the series began it was as much of a "feel good" experience as a huge mug of hot cocoa. and this part I loved. with some editing it would have been great.you feel a whole new level of ve recount) intensity and excitement by the time you get to the end.housekeeping is still housekeeping. for example . fast-paced. It is not only because for protecting our eyes from the hot light but also for holding
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. and I'm not very interested in doing it or reading about other people doing it. A few other changes in this book .the "real" world comes much more in to play rather than the fantasy universe of the previous books. He goes from being a warm-hearted. like he turned into a walking cliché of the "angry teen" overnight.
Tafsiran Order of the Phoenix is a different kind of book. It just seemed like it didn't fit with his character. Reading in detail about Harry cleaning up an old house. The galloping pace of the other books has slowed to a trot here. considerate person to someone who will bite his best friend's heads off over nothing. Still a really good book.
aluminum and rimless frame are available.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. sociolinguistics specialization will match in transferring the message from one language to another language. lexical. such as India translation will help to fix the problem. he has to be familiar with linguistics and non-linguistics of Farsian. a pretty young Filipino single mother for 2-year kid. woman and man are available choice. If we visit the site. Again. he should understand well the language and aspect of India. However. Titanium. For Rosemarie. we will easily catch various information about eyeglasses. It straightly goes to the end user. what makes it different is this site gives the Great Eyeglasses For Less cost.
There is information about Variable Dimension Frames From Zenni. translation providers can bridge that difficulty. If he is an English translator and wants to make Hindi translation. Eyeglasses for children. How is to make good Arabic translation from English phrase of “as white as snow” meanwhile there is no snow in Arabian? The basic requirement of a good translator is mastering resource and target language with all non-linguistic aspect . The site is quite simple but very informative. The product can be sold in cheap price because it has cut the marketing link. The experts who have grammatical. It is real. Good Translation Translation is transferring not only words by word but also message to message. The eyeglasses are designed for different users. the daily activities are worthily documented. does and will do daily. In certain case. it will be quite difficult to make translation. Similarly. easy and not complicated design. Recording Mommy Journey Life itself is a journey.the trend. With quick loading this site will bring us quickly in to what we want. The translation experts. The site is her effort to record of what she did. if he works with Farsi translation. There are a lot of online sites which provides products of eyeglasses but Zenni Optical was on FOX news! is just the perfect one.
The site consists of several topic; family, motherhood, shopping, money, love fashion and shopping. These topics are close related to her own life. She is not only young but also pretty and she has a kid. These topics will be useful to her. Rosemarie is also interested with making money, internet, business, computer, loan and other interesting stuff. She is a widely knowledge mom. The template design of her site is very girly, pink centered. She has arranged her site very attractive, fresh and bright. Again, this physical appearing site must represent her personal mood because she is a young and pretty mom. I like this site and you, young mothers, surely will like the site too. Good Young Mother It is about a young mother. It has a title of yummy mummy. This blog is representative of her idea of becoming young mother. He pours her thought and opinion on this blog in relating her position of a mother of kid and a wife of a husband. Beside that, she is trying to monetizing it This blog has fresh physical appearance. She choose green border of her template. She is young therefore she has to have a blog look fresh and energetic. She looks to have strong care to her baby that is why we find her monthly calendar of feeding milk to her baby attaches on the header of the blog. She is not only a good mother for her baby but also a good wife for her husband. She expresses it in her post labeled wedding anniversary. It is a romantic scene. In the last she is monetizing this blog. It must help her husband support financially the family. It is really a reference blog for every young mother and wife.
Review (Ulasan atau tinjauan) Ciri Umum: (a) Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: Melakukan kritik terhadap peristiwa atau karya seni untuk pembaca atau pendengar halayak ramai, misalnya film, pertunjukan, buku, dll. (b) Struktur Teks: Pengenalan; (orientation) Evaluasi 1; Evaluasi 2; Tafsir;(Interpretive) Evaluasi 3; Evaluasi 4, dsb. Jika ada; Rangkuman. (Evaluative Summation) (c) Ciri Kebahasaan: Terfokus pada partisipan tertentu; Menggunakan:
menunjukkan sikap, seperti bad, good;
• klausa panjang dan kompleks; • metafor.
Recommended Software Applications Software application have grown to their density. A lot of softwares have been offered to us. They claim that they are the best product. A buyer is really a king. He/she has so many choices to select which he/she likes most. In one side, this phenomenon present us comparable software products but, in the other hands, it make us complicated to choose. Due to this complex phenomenon of consumer, a review site is necessary. It will be a recommending bridge between consumer and producer. A good reviewer will place hes/her self in the middle arena.
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He/she will not tend to specially software producer or absolutely consumer. He/she just presents the real description of the product. He/she will observes to find the good and bad side of the product. In the last, he/she will recommends whether the reviewed products deserve to choose or not. That is really helpful for consumer. Writing job application letters The job application letter's sole purpose is to get the recipient to read your CV. It should be clear, concise and straight to the point. Here you are simply telling the employer that you are worth having a look at. The application letter should be brief, no more than one page in length. It should be easy to read and flow through. It should include only the absolute necessary information. Like most other things, there is a formula that works extremely well for preparing job application letters. Following we discuss each paragraph and give you some guidelines.
Addressing job application letters:
The style you choose is not important, there are many different styles of job applications and professional letters, this comes down to personal preference. However somewhere on the top, whether it is on the right or left hand sides, there should be your address and the date. Following this, on the left hand side you should address it. Ensure you include the name of the person, their title, company name, address and any position reference number. This is probably obvious, but ensure that you spell their name correctly, nothing worse than receiving a letter incorrectly addressed or misspelled. It gives a poor first impression.
The Introductory Paragraph:
The first paragraph should simply state why you are writing to them. If it is an advertised position, mention the position title and where it was advertised. If you are "cold calling" a company then you should specify that you are applying for any current or future employment opportunities. An easy way to start this paragraph is with the following statement: " Please find enclosed my CV, which I am forwarding to you as an application for the position of......."
The main body of job application letters:
The main body of the letter should be two to three paragraphs at the most. Here is where you tell them what you have to offer and why they should read your CV. This is a good time to read the job advertisement again. In one paragraph (two at the most) you need to summarise your experience and skills, at the same time, you need to respond to the position requirements as per the advertisement.
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Analyse your career and summarise it in a few sentences, highlight what you specialise in, or how many years in the industry you might have, or even the level that you have reached. This paragraph should direct the reader to your CV and should sell you on some unique points that you might have. A good way to start this paragraph is with a statement like this: "You will see from my enclosed CV...." then go ahead and tell them something about your career which will immediately get their interest. The next part of the body of the letter should be a brief description of your personal skills. Again read the advertisement and respond to their needs. If they are asking for someone with good co-ordination skills, then ensure you mention something to that effect. If it is communication or perhaps leadership skills they value, then tell them that you have these. Use adjectives like "demonstrated ability", "well developed", "strong".
Job Application Letters Closing Paragraph:
The closing paragraph should ask for some action from the recipient. This is where you ask for an interview. It should also state where and how they can reach you, and it should thank the recipient for giving you the opportunity to apply. You can include things like "should you require further information....." . Finish the letter by adding a closing remark, either "yours sincerely", "yours faithfully' or whatever you feel comfortable with and obeying general letter writing etiquette. Leave a few spaces for your signature and then place your full name. Before you mail the application letter, read it over again, making sure that it is perfect. Special attention should be placed to ensure the letter:
• • • •
It is not too long. There are no grammar or spelling errors. That you have answered the job requirements. The application letter flows and is easy to read.
You might have to type and edit the letter many times before you are happy with it, but just remember that the job application letter is just as important as the CV itself. The letter should invite the recipient to read the resume, in turn the resume should raise enough interest for them to want to interview you. The Interview is where you will demonstrate your skills and abilities.
Similarities and differenties The Differences between Report and Descriptive Text
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It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to phenomenon of nature. What make different. It will talk about bicycle in general. Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the factual condition of the object. It is such word. between report and descriptive text.
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. is the scope of the written object. first boil water. Explanation. its parts. etc is the best example of the procedure text. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference from descriptive text. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. wheel style. phenomena. However if they are analyzed carefully. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the objective fact of the thing. If we talk about. animal and scientific object. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. etc. They give the detail description on something. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point of the object through that showing writing style. Procedure. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is. lengh. physical strengh. product case or problem. For example how to make a cup of tea. the slight difference between the two text types will reveal. The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. goods. Mostly. eg: bicycle. Explanation is such a scientific written material. colour. how to make a good kite. function for certain people or other general characters of bike. In short. it belongs to report text. for example "my bicycle" with its specific characters. this text type is commonly called as instruction text. and so on.Some text types are quite difficult to differ. descriptive text will convey more focus. secondly prepare the cup. Such report and descriptive text have the similarity in the social function and generic structure. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. How a tornado form. report is written after getting careful observation. In the other hand.
then on Monday. narrative introduces crises and how to solve them. Recount text presents the past experiences in order of time or place. It describes how certain phenomenon or event happen. How a tornado form. It reveals the conflict among the participants. read. Procedure. They give the detail description on something. how tsunami works are the best example of explanation text. The event happened smoothly. Between Explanation and Procedure Text Seeing the social function. On the other hand. What does recount differ from narrative? The easiest way to catch the difference is analyzing the generic structure. the on Tuesday. goods. Explanation is such a scientific written material. A Complete Overview Of Tex Types
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. and felt. For example how to make a cup of tea. In writer's point of view. It use the “to infinitive verb” which is omitted the “to”. recount describes series of events in detail. Narrative text always appear as a hard potrait of participant's past experience. It uses pattern of commend in building the structure. It can be what the writer has done. It is a kind of instruction text which uses full commend verb. In simple way. Cinderella's conflicts with her step mother and sister are the example. The conflict is the most important element in a narrative text. To see the differences between explanation and procedure. Composing recount and narrative is retelling the experiences of the past event to be a present event.Between Recount and Narrative Something which happened in the past is the main resource to compose both recount and narrative text. It does not expose the struggle on how to make them happen. It uses passive pattern in describing the topic. what happened on Sunday. first boil water. It is such word. we have to analyze the dominant language feature and how the texts are used. and so on. Narrative without comflicts is not narrative any more. hear. Procedure is commonly used to describe how to make something which is close to our daily activity. etc is the best example of the procedure text. secondly prepare the cup. how to make a good kite. Explanation. both procedure and explanation texts have the similarity in which both describe how to make or done something. the thing is an experience. it is commonly used the passive voice in building the text. phenomena. product case or problem. this text type is commonly called as instruction text.
24. 15. 26. review. Coda. Using action verbs 3. Using exclamations. 14. Arguments 3. Using adverbs 5. analytical exposition. texts are divided into several types. Using material process 3. Thesis 2. Using general and abstract noun 8. Reaction 5. descriptive. 25. and news item. Crisis 4. spoof. 23. Using connectives/transition b) ANECDOTE
Purpose: to share with others an account of an unusual or amusing incident Generic Structure: 1. Generic Structure:
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Using thinking verbs 4. Using technical terms 7. 19. Dominant Language Features: 1. They are narrative. explanation. Using temporal conjunctions c) DESCRIPTIVE Purpose: To explain the processes involved in the formation or working of natural or socio-cultural phenomena. These variations are known as GENRES. Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion 21. 18. 17. recount. Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
a) ANALYTICAL EXPOSITION Purpose: To reveal the readers that something is the important case Generic Structure: 1. 16. Orientation 3. 22.Based on generic structure and language feature dominantly used. rhetorical question or intensifiers 2. Using adjective 6. 20. discussion. anecdote. Reiteration/Conclusion Dominant Language Features: 1. hortatory exposition. report. procedure. Abstract 2. Using modals 2.
Conclusion Dominant Language Features:
. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using adverb 4. Evaluation 3. Using adverbs : time. Using adverbial phrase 6. Background event(s) 3. Explanation 3. Closing Dominant Language Features: 1.1. Orientation 2. Complication 4. Arguments for and against 3. Materials/Equipments 3. Steps/Methods Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verb 3. General statement 2. Using conjunction of time and cause-effect. place and manner. Using noun phrase 5. Using technical terms f) NEWS ITEM Purpose: to inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or important Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Short. Using Imperatives sentence 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using saying verbs 4. Using passive voice 4. Issue 2. Using Past Tense 2. telegraphic information about story captured in headline 2. Using technical terms 7. g) DISCUSSION Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’) Generic Structure: 1. Using action verbs 3. d) NARRATIVE Purpose: To amuse/entertain the readers and to tell a story Generic Structure: 1. Chronologically arranged e) PROCEDURE Purpose: to help readers how to do or make something completely Generic Structure: 1. Sources Dominant Language Features: 1. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Goal/Aim
SMA Students’ Modul of English
2. Newsworthy event(s) 2. Resolution 5. Using general and abstract noun 8. Using action verbs 3.
Using conjunction/transition 6. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Thesis 2. Using general and abstract noun 5. Arguments 3. Introducing group or general aspect 2. Using Simple Present Tense 2. Using modality 7. Recommendation Dominant Language features: 1. Using adverb 4. as it is. place or thing in detail. Use of relating verb/to be 3. Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How should". Using Simple Present Tense
. It is to convince that the thing should be done j) REPORT Purpose: to presents information about something. Using conditional logical connection 3. Using adverb of manner h) EXPLANATION Purpose: to describe a particular person. Identification 2. Using action verbs
SMA Students’ Modul of English
4. Using technical terms 8. General classification 2. Generic Structure 1. Using thinking verb 4. Dominant Generic Structure: 1. Using adverbs 6. Using modals 3. Using Simple Present Tense 2.1. Using adjective 7. But for the question" How should student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. Using thinking verbs 5. Using connectives/transition Then what is the basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition. Using action verb 3. Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his examination? The point is the important thing to do. In simple word. Description Language Features: 1. Using special technical terms i) HORTATORY EXPOSITION Purpose: to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done Generic Structure: 1. Description Dominant Language Feature 1. Using general and abstract noun 9.
Evaluation 5.k) SPOOF Purpose: to tell an event with a humorous twist and entertain the readers Generic Structure: 1. myth. Using action verb 3. fable. social conflict or psychological conflict. Both are telling something in the past so narrative and recount usually apply PAST TENSE. Event(s) 3. Focus on specific participants 2. Using adjectives 3. Reorientation Dominant Language Features: 1. Using action verb 3. etc while recount text is found in biography. Evaluation 3. Evaluative Summation Dominant Language features: 1. Using Past Tense 2. Simple Past Continuous Tense. Interpretative Recount 4. folklore. Event(s) 3. Orientation 2. Orientation 2. Using Past Tense 2. Using long and complex clauses 4. whether Simple Past Tense. Commonly narrative text is found in story book. Twist Dominant Language Features: 1. The thing that makes narrative and recount different is the structure in which they are constructed. Using metaphor
. In some ways narrative text combines all these conflicts. Using adjectives Narrative and recount in some ways are similar. Recount applies series of event as the basic structure m) REVIEW Purpose: to critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant Generic Structure: 1. or Past Perfect Tense. Narrative uses conflicts among the participants whether natural conflict. In the contrary. Chronologically arranged l) RECOUNT Purpose: to retell something that happened in the past and to tell a series of past event Generic Structure: 1. The ways narrative and recount told are in chronological order using time
SMA Students’ Modul of English
or place. we do not find these conflicts inside recount text. Orientation 2. Using adverb 4.
tabel. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tersirat’ adalah informasi yang tidak tertera jelas dalam text. 11. 6. diagram dsb. Jika pertanyaan menanyakan ‘TOPIC’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam satu kata atau bentuk frasa. descriptive. 8. uraian topic atau merupakan pendapat penulis tentang topic tulisannya.exposition. dsb. artikel dll yang mempunyai makna. 10. Dibawah ini adalah macam-macam bentuk pertanyaan yang biasa ada dalam soal Reading: a) Menemukan gambaran umum/topic isi bacaan/teks. tempat. Frasa adalah rangkaian kata yang mempunyai makna. PARAGRAPH adalah bagian dari sebuah tulisan/teks dan mungkin saja terdiri dari sebuah kalimat atau sekumpulan kalimat yang merupakan pengembangan dari pokok pikiran/main topic/main idea. 4. 7. 2. grafik.Bentuk Soal Reading BEBERAPA pertanyaan yang diajukan dalam teks pada umumnya siswa dituntut untuk dapat memberikan penjelasan seperti hal sebagai berikut: Apakah yang dimaksud dengan. 5. TOPIC dari sebuah paragrap/teks adalah subjek dari tulisan. Non-continuous text misalnya brosur. Continuous text misalnya narrative. Untuk dapat menjawab pertanyaan spt ini dibutuhkan keterampilan ‘reading between the lines’. 9. tanggal. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ Which of the following is the most suitable title…? ∞ What is the suitable topic of the passage?
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. Topic sentence biasanya ada pada awal/akhir/kadang di tengah sebuah paragrap. penjelasan. tahun. label. Gambaran umum tentang isi bacaan bisa merupakan MAIN TOPIC atau MAIN IDEA. sedangkan MAIN IDEA adalah keterangan. 3. Oleh karena itu pertanyaan tentang topic dari sebuah paragraph/text bisa tentang inti isi tulisan yang juga bisa merupakan judul. spoof dsb. Kalimat yang menggambarkan main idea/pokok pikiran dari sebuah paragraph disebut TOPIC SENTENCE. biasanya tentang nama. tetapi jika pertanyaan menanyakan tentang ‘MAIN IDEA’ maka jawaban ditulis dalam kalimat lengkap. TEXT adalah segala bentuk tulisan yang ada pada sebuah buku. 1. map. Yang dimaksud dengan ‘informasi tertentu/specific information’ adalah informasi yang tertera jelas dalam text.
frasa dan kalimat berdasarkan konteks. Contoh : The best order of the sentences above is … The best arrangement of the sentences to make a good paragraph is …
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. The purpose of the text is _____.” The underlined word mean ____ Menentukan type text yang digunakan penulis. Contoh : ∞ What is the main idea of the passage? ∞ The fourth paragraph tells us ____. Contoh : “Brownie is Chinese breed. Menentukan communicative purpose/tujuan kominikativ sebuah teks Contoh : The communicative putpose of the text above is ___. And cute. it is small. Menemukan informasi tertentu/khusus dari bacaan. Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersirat dari bacaan teks/dialog. Contoh : ∞ Which statement is NOT TRUE according to the text? ∞ The following are TRUE about Maria EXCEPT… Menentukan main idea yang tersurat/tersirat dari suatu paragrap. Contoh : ∞ Which of the following requirements is not mentioned in the passage? ∞ “They may be classified in several different ways…” ∞ The underlined word refers to …. Menyusun kalimat dengan baik. Contoh pertanyaan : ∞ When did she make her first solo flight? In… Menemukan informasi rinci yang tersurat dari bacaan teks/dialog. fluffy. Menentukan makna kata.b) c)
∞ The text mainly tells us about____. Contoh : What type text is used by the writer? The text above is in the form of _____.
They put their litters on the proper places. When we look at classrooms. 1. Besides. straws. What is the writer’s intention? To …. a) b) c) d) e) inform explain describe entertain persuade a) They can prevent litters b) They can save janitor’s energy c) Students are asked to clean them d) They make school environment neat e) Students can throw garbage away easily 4. They can be filled out with water coming from the rain. and napkins here and there. What is the writer’s suggestion? a) b) c) d) To buy more dustbins To hire more gardeners To use dustbins efficiently To ask parents to give more dustbins e) To ask students to clean the school yard
2. school corridors and school yard. The condition of uncleanliness and discomfort really hinders learning and teaching environment. So when students want to throw away their litters. outside of the classrooms. Litters thrown carelessly cause disease. these rubbish can deteriorate the scene. a number of dust bins should be increased. especially empty plastic cup or glasses. This can be placed for dengue mosquitoes to spread out. readers to do something good. According to the writer. What is the writer’s argument on a sufficient number of dust bins?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Our school will be very clean and become a nice place to study. in every ten meters. When school is equipped with sufficient dust bins. But some are not diligent enough to find the dust bins. Anyway I notice that most of the students in our school have responsibilities for the school environment. and some more also the corridors. a) Analytical exposition
To improve comfort and cleanliness at our school. Well painted wall and green school yard do not mean anything litters are scattered everywhere. Probably one dust bin should be in every ten meters. The numbers of dust binds in our schools are not enough.. they can find the dust bins easily.EXERCISES. a) b) c) d) e) should be decorated should be painted should be placed are unnecessary are not required
3. there are paper mineral water cups. we do not have problems of freak and discomfort any more. Ore dust bins should be put beside each of steps.. more dust bins….
You can mix pleasure with learning when you listen to a song and exploit the song as a means to your English progress.Learning English
Learning English through music and songs can be very enjoyable. it can be concluded that learning through music and songs. songs in general also use simple conversational language. place or time reference. “the song stuck in my head” Phenomenon (the echoing in our minds of the last song we heard after leaving a restaurant. Furthermore. etc) can be both enjoyable and sometimes unnerving. even revolution. What is the communicative purpose of the text? a) To tell the reader about the songs b) To entertain the reader with the songs c) To show the reader the use of songs d) To explain above the songs e) To persuade the reader to use songs in learning language
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. They provide variety and fun. translating songs. 5. songs are relaxing. with a lot of repetition. In addition. learning English can be enjoyable and fun. patriotism and yeas. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. The fact that they are effective makes them many times more motivating than other text. This phenomenon also seems to reinforce the idea that songs work on our short-and-long term memory. From the elaboration above. Little wonder they are important tools in sustaining culture. religion. Although usually simple. What is the text about …. a) Thesis – arguments – recommendation b) General statement – sequential explanation c) Newsworthy events – background events – sources d) Thesis – arguments – reiteration e) General statement – arguments 8. some songs can be quite complex syntactically. and can be analyzed in the same way as any other literary sample. which is just what many learners look for sample text. Secondly. Most pop songs and probably many other types don’t have precise people. learning vocabulary. The type of the text above is … a) b) c) d) e) Analytical exposition Hortatory exposition Narrative Discussion Explanation 7. Firstly. Some underlying reason can be drawn to support the idea why we use songs in language learning. spelling and culture. there are many learning activities we can do with songs such as studying grammar. practicing selective listening comprehension. a) b) c) d) e) Learning songs Very enjoyable music The phenomenon Music listeners Using songs in language learning
6. The generic structures of the text are …. shopping malls. lexically and poetically. song can be appropriated by listener for their own purpose. Last but not least.
smoking is dangerous and a health risk to the smokers. a) b) c) d) e) conclusion point of view argument reinforcement statement text.Since we can find a thesis. smoking in restaurants is impolite... It must not be allowed because it is rude.9.We have many reasons to say that smoking must be avoided. Therefore. Based on the text. 11.“They provide variety and fun. Another reason smoking should not be allowed in restaurant is the harm it can do to others. People pay to taste good food and not to be put off by foul smelling smoke. so we can conclude that this text belongs to…. a) b) c) d) e) description narration anecdote procedure analytical exposition
14. there are …… reason for using songs in learning language a) b) c) d) e) 6 4 5 3 2
10. smoking in a restaurant is impolite.What is the purpose of the text? a) To inform the readers to the readers b) To persuade to the readers c) To describe to the readers d) To tell a story to the readers e) To argue about smoking to the readers 15. arguments and reiteration in the SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Cigarettes cause heart and lung disease and people should not smoke anywhere.The synonym of the dangerous in the text is…… a) rude 65 word
13. The smell of the smoke affects all people and can turn them off their food. a) b) c) d) e) Groups Learners People Songs Activities
Smoking in Restaurant
Smoking in restaurants is just not on. harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. Passive smoking that is breathing in smoke made by a smoker can lead to asthma attacks and even cancer. and encourage harmony within oneself and within one group. The word reasons mean….” The underlined word refers to ….Smoking in the restaurants must be avoided because…… a) b) c) d) It is harmful to others It is impolite It’s dangerous to the smokers It can cause hearth and lung disease e) All answers are correct 12. Firstly. Finally. not just in restaurants. harmful to others and a health risk to the smokers and should not be allowed in any restaurants.
b) c) d) e)
impolite health risk harmful disease
d) topic sentence e) supporting details 17.Smoking in restaurant should not be allowed. It means that….. a) people should do smoking in restaurant b) people should not do smoking in restaurant c) people must not smoking in restaurant d) people must not smoke in restaurant e) people should smoke in restaurant
16.Smoking in restaurants is just not on. It must not be allowed because it is rude, harmful to others and dangerous for the smokers. The sentence above characterize as….. of the text. a) thesis b) arguments c) reiteration
The Importance of Reading
I personally think that reading is a very important activity in our life. Why do I say so? Firstly, by reading we can get a lot of knowledge about many things in the world such as Science, technology. Sports, arts, culture, etc written in either books, magazine, newspaper, etc. Secondly, by reading we can get a lot of news and information about something happening in any parts of the world which can we see directly. Another reason, reading can give us pleasure too. When we are tired, we read books, newspaper or magazine on the entertainment coloumn such as comedy, short story, quiz, etc. To make us relaxed. The last, reading can also take us to other parts of the world. By reading a book about Irian Jaya we may feel we’re really sitting in the jungles not at home in our rooms. From the facts above, it’s obvious that everyone needs to read to get knowledge, information and also entertainment. Or in summary we can say reading is truly important in our life. 18.Why is reading very important in our life? Because….. a) By reading, we can get a lot of friends, relatives, experience, etc. b) By reading, we can get little knowledge but a lot of entertainment. c) By reading, we are always relaxed. d) By reading, we are always happy. e) By reading we can get a lot of knowledge, news, information and entertainment 19.If we want to get knowledge, what should we do? a) buy a lot of books b) borrow a lot of books c) look for newspaper and magazine d) sell and buy many expensive books e) Read a lot of books and other printed materials. 66
SMA Students’ Modul of English
20.What does the text tell us about? a) b) c) d) e) The The The The The description of reading function of reading importance of reading disadvantages of reading purpose of reading
c) To entertain the reader d) To give information e) To persuade the reader 22.Paragraph…. In the text is the thesis. a) b) c) d) e) 1 2 3 4 5
21.What is the social function of the text? a) To tell a story b) To describe the reader
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33.
Analytical Exposition Anecdote Descriptive Narrative Procedure News Items Discussion
34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39.
Explanation Hortatory Exposition Report Spoof Recount Review
SMA Students’ Modul of English
There are a number of formulas used when offering help in English. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • • •
May I help you? Can I help you? Are you looking for something? Would you like some help? Do you need some help? What can I do for you today? Could I help you? How can I be of assistance to you?
• • • • • • •
How can I be of help to you? What can I help you - What can I do for you? How can I assist you? How can I help you? Let me help you? Do you want me to help you? Shall I …?
Respond offering help • • • • • • • Receiving Yes please, Sure, Why not, Ofcourse, Certainly, I’d love to, It’s a good idea, That’s great. • • • • Refusing No, thanks, Please don’t bother, I’d love to but…, That’s great but…
Some ways to offering help for meals and drinks: • Would you like…?, • Would you care for …?, • Why don’t you have…?, • How about having …? • May I offer you …? Example: Offering - Would you like some bread? - Would you care for some coffee? - Why don’t you have some biscuit, please?
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Responses Yes, please. No, thanks. I don’t drink coffee. Thanks, I’d love to.
. Ms. Mrs. Harris. Harris.
2. Nice to meet you. Ritter. boss.Introducing your self and other people
Introducing your self • I’d like to introduce myself. Likewise. • I want to introduce you to …. student. • My I introduce myself? • Let me introduce myself! • I want to introduce myself Introducing people • I’d like you to meet … (name) • This is my friend/boss/etc…(name) • Have you met…(name)? • May I introduce you to … (name/occupation) • Let me introduce you to ….
Pleased to meet you. friend. Carrie.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. teacher. I'm. Mr. Very nice to meet you. Watson. Hi Jack. And you. Penny Pitcher. I don't think we've actually met formally yet... I don't believe we've met before. my my my my my my my my my
brother. mother.. Mr. It's a pleasure to meet you. co-worker. Introducing someone else my name is. This is my friend.
Nice to meet you too. Mary Jones.
How to introduce people (in formal situations) Introducing yourself I just wanted to introduce myself. Cindy. I'm Linda
1. Bob. father. Jack. sister.
we still have half an hour before the class starts. when speaking to your superiors Meeting a VIP e. a restaurant.I'd like to introduce you to… There's someone I'd like you to meet. They meet at the students’ orientation course.g. Retno. Adib : Hi. Arnys. and Retno are new students. travel agent Greeting someone older than you At work. My name is Adib. I’m Arnys. Are you a new student? Arnys : Yes. e. Adib : 4) ________________ Nice to meet you? Retno : Nice to meet you too. Situation: Adib.
Greeting (memberi salam)
Greetings morning Goo d afterno on evening sir madam Mr Jones Mrs Smith Language in the programme How are you? It's lovely to see you again! It's been a long time. hotel. are you a new student. this is… Have you met…? Exercises: Complete the following conversation with the correct expressions in the box. Adib. Hi. a politician Being polite to someone you don't know very well
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.g. I am. this is Retno. Adib : Anyway. By the way. 1) ______________________ Arnys : 2) _________________ Well. Arnys? Retno : Okay. 3) __________________ She was my classmate in the Junior High School. too? Adib : I’m a new student too. hasn't it? How are things with you?
Examples of situations where you might use formal greetings Working in the service industry. Shall we go to the canteen?.
Saying good bye
Exercises: Cultural Tips Complete the dialogues below with correct Meeting and Greeting in expressions. . before leaving. thanks. . (more polite) How about (V+ing) ? How would you like to . . 5) Anita : Hi! Marcell : …
Here are some phrases and expressions for inviting in English. let’s + V1 Why don’t we …? I’d like to invite you to… I wonder if you’d like to 71
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Do you wanna . . thanks. .Expressions
Functions • Greeting someone
• • • • • • • • • •
Good morning/afternoon/evening. Not so bad. • Good bye. . Australia 1) Arnys :… • Shake hands with everyone Ruben : Very well. . Bye. thanks. shake hands with other Virga :… women. See you soon /later /tomorrow. Very well. Den? How are you doing I’m fi ne. Retno :… • Women generally do not 4) Adib : See you tomorrow. (informal) Would you like to . .
Asking how someone is Saying how you are
See you. Denias : … Allow women to offer their 3) Andi : How are you doing? hands fi rst. (formal) Hi!/Hello! (informal) How are you. present upon meeting and 2) Ayu : Good evening.
• • • • • • • • • Do you want to . thank you.
I’d like very much . let’s not..? Would you like . Refusing I’m sorry I can’t I’d like to but… I’m afraid I can’t No.a chocolate bar? .to come to my house for dinner? I wondered / was wondering I wondered I was wondering Other expressions I would very much like it if you could come along Shall I bring a bottle? . .I’d be happy/glad to accept .if you'd like to come to my house for dinner
Expressing Thanks (terimakasih)
Here are some sample phrases and sentences for expressing thanks.. Any time Exercise How would you express thanks in the following situations?
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...I’d love to . I’d be delighted to.Yes.That’s good ide
Polite invitations Checking someone is not busy Are you free on Friday? Are you busy on Friday? What are you doing on Friday? Would you like.. Receiving . Not at all Thank you very much for… (kata benda) Don’t mention it I’m grateful for…(kata benda/noun) Thet’s all right I appreciate it. Expressing Responses
Thank you You are welcome.. Thank you very much That’s all right Thanks..Some responds of inviting..
a) Someone just gave you a gift for your birthday.
Congratulations (ucapan selamat)
Ungkapan Congratulations Congratulations on … I’d like to congratulate you. Happy birthday to you. (What do you say?)
Example: "Thank you so much. helped carry your grocery bags.
Other expression Expression • •
• • • • •
What a …! That’s a very nice … I like your …
Congratulations on winning … Congratulating I’d like to congratulate you on … I must congratulate you on your … Well done. I really like it!"
b) Someone c) Someone d) Someone e) Someone
has just bought dinner for you. you very much. Good luck! Have a nice holiday Expression • •
Respon Thank Thank Thank Thank you you and the same to you you. Congratulations! Thank you for saying so. I need it. Thank you. Happy new year. complimented you on your necktie.
Function Complimenting Congratulating Responding to compliments and congratulations
You look cute with that hat. Responding to compliments
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Thanks. returned your lost wallet. I’d like to congratulate you on… It was great to hear… It was to hear about….
What’s shame b. All the best for a happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc.. it is also common to ask them what they received: Merry Christmas! What did you get from Santa Claus? Happy Birthday! What did your Daddy get for you? Congratulations on your promotion! All the best for your . holidays and other special occasions. That’s a nuisance d.. What’s pity c.use an ordinal number) birthday! Many happy returns! Congratulations! Best wishes / good luck on your tenth (number .• • •
Oh. I'm so proud of you!
Wedding / Anniversary
Sympathy (menyatakan rasa simpati)
A. That’s pity f. When making special greetings to children on their birthday and at Christmas. It’s nice of you to say so. Expressing of sympathy on minor
Special Days .Social Language
It is common to use a special greeting used just for that occasion on special days. That’s too bad e. not really.use an ordinal number) anniversary! Here's to many more happy years together (used when making a toast) Merry Christmas! Happy New Year / Easter / Hanukkah / Ramadan etc. Here are some of the most common: Birthdays
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Happy birthday! Best wishes / Good luck on your thirtieth (age . Oh dear
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. How kind of you to say so.
h. k. c. Goodness! b. f. Please accept my condolences!
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. Send my deepest condolence! f. Displeasure (senang & tidak senang)
Pleasure/senang • • • • • It’s really delightful/Iam delighted I’m satisfied That’s great That’s wonderful It’s really a great pleasure • • • • Displeasure/tidak senang I’m dissatisfied We are fed up with… I feel dosappointed She is extremely displeased
Other expressions Expression Pleasure
a. j. It was terrifi c. I’m sorry to hear that b. m. How Awful! d. I’m really sad to … c.
a. e. How happy to … I’m very pleasure with … It’s a pleasure to … Pleasure Great! Terrific! I’m pleased. i. I’m so happy …. Please accept my deepest sympathy e. Expressing of sympathy on personal circumstances
a. How terrible! c.. …. I feel ….B. d. l. feel unpleased with …. b. g. I’m really sorry for them d. I’m sorry about that c. I enjoyed it I love it. d. I’m delighted. Expressing of sympathy on serious accident
a. I feel disappointed. I feel … b. How dreadful!
Ketika kita akan mengungkapkan kepuasan atas kerja seseorang. Dissatisfaction ( kepuasan.Satisfaction. kita dapat gunakan: • I’m not satisfied with work • You haven’t done well enough • I am really dissappointed • Sorry. kita dapat gunakan ungkapan: • Well done! • Great! Good work • I am satisfied with your work • You did well • Your job is satisfactory • I am so happy about this • I’m glad to what you’ve done • It’s really satisfying Katika kita akan mengungkapkan ketidakpuasan atas kerja seseorang. but your work is not satisfactory • Oh. no! • It’s not very nice • It’s really not good enough Informal Satisfaction very pleased with … content with … satisfi ed with … very delighted with … situation Dissatisfaction … displeased with … … discontented with … … dissatisfi ed with … … disappointed with …
… … … …
Formal situation Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Super! Horrible! Great! Very sad! Terrifi c! Annoying! Fantastic! Disappointing! Smashing! Frustrating!
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Here are other expressions that you can also use: Asking Opinion Giving opinion • • • • What is your opinion? What do you think of. … If you ask me. I feel…
Other examples Those expressions are used to ask for opinions.? How do you feel about…? How do you see …? I think … I believe … I feel … It seems to me …
Agreement/approval. I agree • I know what you mean.. kita bisa mengatakan: • So do I • I’m of exactly the same • Yes. do you think I should buy those florescent light bulbs? Those expressions are used to give opinions. I think the other one’s better. • Yes. I agree with you opinion • It is certainly • I think so • Exactly • I go along that line • That’s what I want to • I agree completely • That's true.. • I am on your side • I couldn't agree more. In my opinion…. • That’s quite true • I suppose you’re right • You’re absolutely right!
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.Asking & Giving Opinion (meminta & memberi pendapat)
Asking Opinion How was the trip? How do you like your new house? How do you think of Rina’s idea? How do you feel about this dicition? What is your opinions of the movie? What are your feelings about it? Giving opinion I think (that)…. tidak setuju)
Ketika kita merasa sependapat dengan opini orang lain. Disagreement/disapproval (setuju. • I am with you • Definitely. What do you think of this refrigerator? So. you should buy the florescent light bulbs. say • Absolutely. In my opinion. As I see.
I am afraid if… Respon Don’t be afraid There is nothing to be afraid of It is nothing
Respon Take is easy Calm down I know you are worried but… It is not a big deal Don’t worry Stay cool
Pain. No. Relief (ungkapan kesakitan. but I have to I can’t say so disagree On contrary • I couldn’t agree less I don’t buy that idea • I’m not sure I can agree
Other expression of disagreeing Useful vocabulary for disagreeing no I don't agree that's not true I don't accept that Note: 'no' is usually followed by a statement (see below) (quite direct) (quite formal)
Examples: No. kelegaan)
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. I don't think that's what happened. that's not a good idea. Anciety (ungkapan ketakutan.• • • • • • • •
Ketika kita merasa tidak sependapat dengan opini orang lain.
Fear I am afraid I am feared I am scared I am terrified The sound is horrifying Anciety I am worried about… I am anxious to know about… I wondered if… That made me worried I have been thinking about …. I don’t think so • I’m afraid I entirely disagree I don’t think that is true • I can’t agree I disagree with … • I don’t think it’s very good I wouldn’t say that • Surely not Exactly not • I am sorry. kita bisa mengatakan: Well.
/I feel ill. it’s killing me! 2. • I’m sick... • Ugh. Expressions of Pain • I am suffering from a relapse.. it’s very painful! • Oh.. • I feel sick. • Thank God for .. Expressions of Relief • It’s a relief to know that .. • Thank goodness! • Thank heavens! • I’m glad about …! • It’s a great relief! • Whew
Like/Love & Dislike/Hate (suka/cinta & tidak suka/benci)
Like Dislike I love it I don’t really like it I like it I dislike it I am keen on it I am not really interested in… I am crazy about it I can’t enjoy… We all enjoy (benda/noun/gerund)…is not my (benda/noun/gerund)…is my cup of tea cup of tea I can’t stand I hate it
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. it was over I feel relieved I feel much better I’m glad it’s over That’s a great relief I’m extremely glad to hear… Thank goodness for that Marvellous What a relief!
Other expressions 1. • I’m glad it was done.Pain Ouch! That was hurt It is painful It hurts me I’ve got a backache/toothache/stomachache I feel sore all over My eyes hurt
Relief I’m very relieved to hear… Finally.
This adverb as we have seen is very useful in making what you say stronger. Language for expressing likes Subject Adverb I (really)
Verb like love
Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV
Extra a lot
Embarrassment & Annoyance (Ungkapan rasa malu. It means that you do not like something.Language for expressing likes Subject I Adverb (really) Verb don't like can't stand Noun it them ice cream Chinese food playing football watching TV
About the adverb 'really'. When talking about things you don't like though it can have a different meaning depending on where you put it in the sentence." This is not very strong. For example: "I really don't like it!" This means you have a strong dislike of something. BUT "I don't really like it. kejengkelan)
Embarrassment I am embarrassed I feel ashamed Oh my God Shame on me
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Annoyance I am annoyed I had enough with it I can’t bear it any longer You made me annoyed
. but it is not a very strong dislike.
please? Would you mind …? Any chance of… Can you…? Acceptance I should be delighted to come By all means I have no objection I’d be happy to Sure Yeah OK No problem Mmm Refusal I regret to say that we find ourselves unable to go I’m afraid it’s not possible I’m afraid not Sorry No. There are some other expressions to show embarrassment. That’s a real embarrassment. I cannot stand … Why on earth he didn’t …?
In Formal Situations In Informal Situations
Request Would it be possible for you to Would you be so kind as to Would you….
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. Formal Situations I’m extremely displeased with … … is very irritating. I was so ashamed. Informal Situations What a shame! It’s my embarrassment to .. I will.I don’t feel comfortable I feel awkward
You are such a pain in the neck You made me sick
There are some other expressions you can use to show your annoyance. I won’t Not likely You must be joking
Granting Request In the dialogue between Ayu and Palupi you fi nd the following expressions: Ayu : Will you tell me about it? Palupi : Sure. such as: Formal Situations What an embarrassment! I must say that it’s an embarrassment. Informal Situations … really makes me mad.. Ayu : Let’s try to make lepat sometimes. I’m extremely unhappy about this.
Here are other expressions that you can use: Alright..
There are a number of formulas used when complaining in English. Maybe you forgot to. I will and OK are expressions to grant a request.menyalahkan)
Complaint I’m not at all satisfied with the service I really do/must objec to the service I take great exception to… I want to complain about… This is crazy! Blame You’re the one to blame It’s your fault! It’s your mistake! You’re wrong I think you're the only person who could have done it. but... It's important to remember that a direct complaint or criticism in English can sound rude or aggressive. but. It's your fault for (doing something).. Blame (keluhan... Of course. I'm sorry to bother you.
Complaint. but I think we should. Excuse me if I'm out of line. Sure. Right away. Here are some of the most common:
• • • • • • •
I'm sorry to have to say this but. I think you might have forgotten to...
Expressing shocked disagreement But that's ridiculous! unfair! unreasonable! A negative structure It's just not fair to charge us for the
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.. It's best to mention a problem in an indirect manner. There may have been a misunderstanding about.. Certainly....Palupi : OK.. Don't get me wrong.
Regret. I'm so sorry I forgot your birthday. Pete.. I … Apology Please accept my apologies for what I did Please forgive me for what I did I am extremely sorry I really must apologies May I offer you my sincerest apologies?
Language for saying sorry To emphasise how you feel I'm really sorry.. to ask for forgiveness... I'd like to apologise for. Oliver! Examples Sorry about the mess. Sorry for. Examples I'm really sorry. meminta maaf)
Regret Much to my regret Sadly.. often through surprise or anger to hurt someone's feelings to make someone feel upset or unhappy a misunderstanding
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. Apology (penyesalan. I ….. phrase or sentence that is shouted out suddenly. Sorry for taking your DVD. I didn't mean to lose your book. Unfortunately I’m terribly sorry I honestly regret that I … Sorry. I'll clear up later... To say why you're sorry Sorry about. to express regret an exclamation a word. I'm so sorry. I'd like to apologise for the way I spoke to you earlier.
To say sorry without using the words 'I'm sorry'!
Vocabulary around saying sorry to apologise to say sorry...
. It’s possible that he’ll win the possibly he hasn’t heard the news game. There is a good chance that …. distress.. yet... Several ways of indicating There’s a possibility of his winning the game/ that he will win the possibility are: game...this can mean 'a small disagreement' trouble unhappiness. • Is it possible to …? • Yes. worry or danger a hard time a difficult time to be out of order (informal) to be impolite or rude
Possibility & Impossibility (kemungkinan & ketidakmungkinan)
Menyatakan Kemungkinan Menanyakan Kemungkinan I think there is possibility to … Do you think he/it could…? I sassume/believe… Would you say we’re capable of…? In all probability.
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1... There is a little chance that ….… Are you capable of…? it is going to be possible for Are you able to…? me to… Do you have any experience of…? that will probably … Can you…? it’s quite possible … Do you know how to…? Do you think you can…?
Expressions for Discussing Possibilities • Would there be any possibility of …? • Do you think we are capable of …? • Would it be possible for (somebody) to …? • I think that would be possible . there is a possibility .
you.she. It is impossible Probably She is on the way May be he needs more time She might not be at home
TENSES TENSES POLA KET.it n yang terjadi Father has gone to work for 12
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Now At present At this moment To day
Lately Recently For Since
.it dilakukan) She goes to school everyday She does not go to school everyday N= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are) + adj/n/adv She is beautiful Present V= (+) S+ to be (am/is/are)+V-ing Continuous She is not going to school (Menyatakan everyday aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu bicara) Present Perfect V= (+) S + have/has + V3 (Menyatakan Have utk S= I. doing something are: 4.we perbuatan/tindaka Has utk S= he.you.she. Expressions used to ask There is a chance that I can do it.
Expressions capability are :
I’m capable of doing it I can do it 2.we Always dll sekarang masih Does utk S= he. Is it possible for me to …? I don’t think I have the ability Are we capable enough to …? I don’t feel capable of doing it I don’t know how to do it. WAKTU
Present Tense V= (+) S+V¹ (-s/es utk S he. possibility or capability of I’m able to do it I have the ability to do it.they.? Do you think we are capable of I can’t do it I’m not sure I’m capable of doing …. Expressions to show Would there be any possibility of incapability are: ….they..? it.she.it) Every… (Menyatakan (-) S+Do/Does not + V¹ Usyally kebiasaan hingga Do utk S= I.
we waktu yang akan N= (+) S + will/shall +be + datang) adj/n/adv
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Before/when + S + V2
For + periode waktu + when/ before + S + V2
.pada waktu yang tidak tertentu di masa lampau dan pada saat berbicara perbuatan/tindaka n tsb telah selesai/baru aja selesai dilakukan) Past Tense (Menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan pada waktu lampau)
hours N= (+) S + have/has+Been + adj/n/adv Father has been at his office since 12 hours ago. aktivitas tsb masih berlangsung) Future tense (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + V¹ aktivitas yang Will utk semua Sabjek (S) akan dilakukan di Shall utk S = I.
already yet lately just
V= (+) S + V2 (-) S + did not + V¹ Did utk semua Subjek N= (+) S + Be (was/were) + adj/n/adv Was utk S= I.it Were utk S= you.she.he.they.we
Yesterday Last… …ago
Past Perfect V= (+) S + had + V3 Tense Had utk semua Sabjek (S) (Menyatakan N= (+) S + had been + adj/n/adv aktivitas yang telah selesai dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi pada waktu lampau) Past Perfect V= (+) S + had been + V-ing Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang telah berlangsung selama periode waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu lampau.
waktu aktivitas yang N= (+) S + will/shall +have +been akan telah selesai +adj/n/ dilakukan ketika aktivitas lain terjadi diwaktu yang akan datang) Future Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall +have+been aktivitas yang + V-ing akan telah sedang berlangsung selama waktu tertentu ketika aktivitas lain terjadi di waktu yang akan datang) Past Future Tense V= (+) S + would/should + V¹ (Menyatakan N= (+) S + would/should + be + perbuatan/keadaa adj/n/adv n yang akan datang dilakukan/terjadi diwaktu lampau. Perbuatan tsb sudah direncanakan tapi tidak terlaksana) Past Future Perfect Tense V= (+) S + would/should + have (menyatakan +V3 suatu N= (+) S + would/should + pengandaian pada have been + adj/n/adv
SMA Students’ Modul of English
By + ket.Future Continuous (Menyatakan aktivitas yang akan sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang)
V= (+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing
At this time tomorrow At ten tomorrow
Future Perfect (Menyatakan V= (+) S + will/shall + have + V3 By + ket.waktu
Yesterday Last… Just now If + simple past
If + past perfect
is. Fred : Juda.does/am. have been practising b. are Was.is. were Been be
Present Past Perfect Future/modal
Contoh soal 1. the telephone rang twelve times. have practised Jawaban : B (Past Continuous Tense)
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.were have/has/had + V3/been will/shall/may/can/must + V¹/be would/sould/might/could/had to + V¹/be Tobe + v-ing TO BE Am. will be practising c. practised d. a.are Simple past Perfect Future/modal (present) Future/modal (past) Continuous V2/did/was. sesuatu seharusnya akan telah terjadi pada saat suatu syarat terpenuhi) Past Perfect Continuous (Menyatakan perbuatan yang seharusnya sudah sedang berlangsung di suatu waktu di masa lampau tetapi kenyataanya gagal berlangsung) V= (+) S + would/should + have been + V-ing By + ket. was parctising e. What were you doing? Juda: I____ Javanese dancing. “Srimpi”.waktu
Kita bisa mengenali setiap tensis dengan mengetahui ciri-ciri khusus yang dimiliki setiap tensis: Simple Present V¹/do.masa lampau.
2. a. will have worked c. a. will have lunch e. they are succesful. will start b. have lunch d. cleaned e. works d. Dian : The Public Health Centre ____ there for more than twenty years. When + simple past dapat dijadikan ciri) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. have to live Jawaban : E (Present Perfect Continuous. a. If we don”t hurry. will be started
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. will have started e. worked e. will have had lunch b. Iwan : Yes. a. The doctors and paramedis work hard to improve the people’s health especially children. were cleaning b. were having lunch Jawaban : C (Past Continuous tense biasa juga dipakai untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang dilakukan ketika kegiatan lain terjadi pada waktu lampau. The infant/death rate has decreased remarkably. is working Jawaban : D (Present Perfect Continuous = peristiwa yang terjadi/dimulai pada waktu lampau dan sekarang masih berlangsung. Retno : Why don’t you reply my letter? Hadi : Oh sorry. the meeting ___ by the time we get there. starts c. a. I forget to tell you that I ___ in Bali since last year. am living d. Devi : So you have finished washing the dished. would have started d. has been working b. clean d. Tanda waktu since dapat dijadikan ciri) 5. will have lived b. have been living c. was living e. My family ____ when the postman arrived. Ada tanda waktu for yang bisa dijadikan ciri) 3. Vina : When did you get the letter? Fani : Yesterday. have been cleaning c. have been having lunch c. When did you do it? Sri : I did while you ____ the yard. had cleaned Jawaban : D (Past Continuous tense = menyatakan suatu kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung ketika kegiatan lain terjadi di waktu lampau. Kata while bisa dijadikan ciri) 4.
forgets b. has been b. was e. Librarian : What was the noise? Student : I dropped some books while I ____ them to the table. The librarian suddenly heard a noise. was e. a. Ary : What did he say Lina? Lina : Anto said that he ___ to bring your book. am d. a. have carried c. has forgotten d. will have been c. started to work 6 months a go c. have been 6. a. carried e. had been 7. carry d. but I ____ there many times. My father is still in Bali. Agam : Where will we go next holiday? Joko : What about Bali? Agam : That’s OK. Teacher : I”ve heard that Benny is ill. is still looking for a job 4. will have been c. a. am carrying b. Learn all these. would forget 8. had been 9. has been e. a. has stopped looking for a job b. would be b.2. a. a. is d. had forgotten e. Anto : I’m sorry Ary. caused d. has worked for six months e. He ____ there for three weeks.
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. have caused c. sir. were causing b. will cause 5. they ___ noise pollution and distrub people’s life. Is it right? Student : Yes. When airport are located in the center of citied. has got a new job d. causes e. This sentence means that Ann ___. I forget to bring your book. was d. forgot c. Teacher : You will be ready for a test next week. will be b. have been c. was carrying 3. Ann has been looking for a job for six month. He ____ ill for a week.
a. will be learning b. how. She ___ the lectures. dan tempat. pronoun (kata ganti orang). learn d. sir. Kata penghubungnya adalah (+) to infinitive/V1. Kata penghubungnya adalah if/whether dan what. Jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat tanya maka ketika kalimat itu diulang (kalimat tidak langsung) tidak membentuk kata tanya lagi tetapi menjadi kalimat berita. struktur kalimat. Perubahan pronoun dan possessive tergantung kepada sabjek dan objek yang dipakai di kalimat langsung/tidak langsung. ada beberapa hal yang mengalami perubahan diantaranya perubahan tenses.00 tomorrow. (-) not to infinitive/V1 Contoh Kalimat
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. will have learnt c. where. a. would be attended DIRECT . why. Reni goes to her university every morning. when. has been attending e. Possessive (kata ganti kepemilikan). I ____ them by then. attended c. who. keterangan waktu. has attended b. Begitu pula jika kalimat langsung adalah kalimat perintah maka di kalimat tidak langsung menjadi kalimat berita.INDIRECT (Reported Speech) Ketika kita merubah kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. will be attending d. You can’t meet her at her house at 10. She studies business. am learning 10.Student : All right. have learnt e.
Direct (kalimat langsung)
Perubahan Tenses Indirect (kalimat tidak langsung) Simple Past Past Continuous Past Future Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous
Simple Present Present Continuous Present Future Present Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Simple Past Past Continuous
Lebih singkatnya perubahan tenses tersebut adalah: Direct Indirect V1 (eat) V2 (ate) Am/is/are Do/does Do/does not Did not Was/were Am/is/are + V-ing Was/were +V-ing Has/have + V3 Will/shall/can/may/must Could/might/should/would + V1/be V2 (ate) Had + V3 (had eaten) Was/were Did Did not Had not + V3 Had been Was/were + V-ing Had been + V-ing Had + V3 Would/should/could/might/had to could/might/should/would + have+ V3/been
Perubahan Keterangan Waktu dan Tempat Direct Indirect Now Today Tomorrow Next… Last… …ago Yesterday
SMA Students’ Modul of English
Then That day The next day The day after The following day A day later The… after The following… The…before The previous …
why was Mary absent Jawaban : E (direct berbentuk Wh-question bentuk past tense jadi indirec berbentuk past perfect) 3. a. that Mary had been absent b. to be not so noisy c. Herman. indirect/tdk langsung harus past perfect) 2. that I open his mouth d. Doctor : Open your mouth! Mother : What did the doctor tell you? Son : The doctor told me ___ a.The preceeding The day before yesterday …before Here …earlier This The day before These The previous day The preceeding day Two day before There That those Contoh Soal 1. not to be so noisy e. The baby is sleeping. he went to his country b. I am very noisy b. He said ____ the previous day. had gone to his country d. if Mary was absent d. Herman : Okay. to open my mouth b. Mother : Don’t be so noisy. don’t be noisy Jawaban : B (direct: don’t + be maka indirect: not + to be) 4. Ferdy? Ferdy : he wanted to know ____ a. he goes to his country c. he has gone to his country e. he will go to his country Jawaban : A ( kalau kalimat langsung/direct simple past. opened my mouth
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. I wasn’t so noisy d. why Mary was absent e. why Mary had been absent c. mom. Teacher : Why was Mary absent yesterday? Jenifer : What did the teacher want to know. if I opened my mouth e. a. Rudy : What did your mother just told you? Herman : She told me ___ because the baby was sleeping. Beckham : Did you know what Fingo said yesterday? Raul : Of course.
c. a. whether I wanted meatball or fried shicken b. Does Mira close the window. what are you were doing now d. Ari : What did he say. forgot c. I hadn’t cleaned d. what were you doing now. he would not clean c. It is windy outside. d. had forgotten e. he asked. He asked me ____ a. 4. It was windy outside. he hasn’t cleaned 2. has forgotten d. b. Mother asked Mira to close the windows because it was windy outside. I got a headache. to open my mouth Jawaban : D (direct: V1 + O maka direct: to V1 + O) 5.
5. It is windy outside. Lina? Lina : Anto said to me that he ___ to bring my book. Mira closed the window. he does not clean e. Head master : Why didn”t you clean this room this morning? Jani : I am sorry. Mira closed the window. e. It was windy outside. a. b. Mother : Do you want meatballs or fried chicken? Mother asked me ____ a. c. if I want meatball or fried chicken Jawaban: A (direct: do/does + S +V1 maka indirect: if/whether + S + V2) Soal-Soal Latihan 1. Anto : I am sorry Lina. he headn’t cleaned b. Closed the window. Mother said. what I was doing then. forgets b. The headmaster asked her why ___ the room this morning. what I was doing then “Is John coming to the party tonight?” “yes. that I wanted meatball or fried chicken d. what I am doing now. would forget 3. whether I want meatball or fried chicken c. e.c. I forgot to bring your book. “What are you doing now?”. “ ___________” a. Mira.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. he asked me ____”. To close the window Mira! It is windy outside. that I want meatball or fried chicken e.
“Can I find you a hotel?”. b. when is my appointment b. My friend said that I could help him find a hotel. If he could go with us d. d. She didn’t tell the children to make noise 9. c. a. My friend said to me. sedangkan kalimat aktif subjeklah yang melakukan tindakan/pekerjaan. e. he went with us 6. My parents advised my sister ____ too much money on clothes. “don’t make noise. a. not spend c.
8. not spending b. finish your work d. how was my appointment e. that I finish my work PASSIVE VOICE (kalimat pasif) Kalimat passif adalah kalimat dimana subjek dikenai tindakan/pekerjaan. She told the children not to make noise. She told the children don’t make noise b. Slamet. she said. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel. Mean____ a. a. wether he goes with us c.
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. did not spend The secretary asked me ___ with Mr.
10.a. can he go with us e. I wondered if my friend could help me find a hotel. that I had an appointment c. not to spend e. to finish my work c. finished your work e. did I have an appointment d. e. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel. Hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam merubah aktif ke pasif adalah: • Yang dapat dijadikan kalimat passive adalah Verbal Sentence (kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja/V) • Verbal sentence yang dapat dirubah ke Passive Voice (kalimat pasif) adalah kalimat yang memiliki objek penderita. Father said. going with us b. She said the children didn’t make noise c. do not spend d. “Finish your work!” The indirect form is: Father told me ____ a. My friend asked me to find a hotel for him. She didn’t say the children should noise d. whether I had appointment
7. to finish your work b. children”.
Perubahan aktif ke pasif atau sebaliknya tidak merubah makna kalimat. Perubahan iti terjadi hanya pada struktur kalimatnya saja. • Ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice adalah to be + V3 dan kata by (kata ini bukan merupakan syarat yang harus ada dalam kalimat pasif ) Contoh : (Aktive) Bajuri loves Oneng S P/V1 O (Passive) Oneng is loved by Bajuri. (passive) A new motorcycle was bought by me last week
Tenses Simple Present Simple Past
Rumus Pola aktif-pasif untuk semua tenses Active Passive S + V1 S + V2 S + am/is/are + V3 S + was/were + V3
Present Continuous Present perfect continuous Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Continuous Future Perfect Continuous Past Futurre Continuous Past Future Perfect Continu
S + am/is/are + V-ing S + am/is/are + being + V3 S + have/has + been + S + have/has +been + V-ing being +V3 S + was/were + V-ing S + was/were + being + S + had + been + V-ing V3 S + will/shall + be + V.S + had + been + being + ing V3 S + will + have + V-ing S + will/shall + be + being S + would + be + V+ V3 ing+ S + will +have+been+ S +would being +V3 +have+been+V-ing S + would + be + being + V3 S +would+have+been+ being+V3 S + have/has + V3 S + had + V3 S + have/has + been + V3 S + had + been + V3
Simple Perfect Past Perfect Simple Future Past Future Modal (present) Modal (past)
S + will/shall + V1 S + will/shall + be + V3 S + would/should + V1 S + would/should + be + S + may/can/must + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to S + may/can/must + be + + V1 V3 S + might/could/had to + be + V3
Jadi lebih singkatnya ciri kalimat pasif/passive voice selain by + O adalah Present am/is/are + V3 Past was/were + V3
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. S P/V3 (Active) I bought a new motorcycle last week.
A : Do you know the result of the test? B : Not yet. was kicking b. has to be postponed b. was postponed d. she ____ a. had been sold c. a. Karena subjek items jamak maka to be yang sesuai adalah are) 4. are sold e. is sold d. are being unloaded Jawabab: B (pola pasif past continuaou tense: S + was/were + being + V3) Soal-Soal Latihan
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. Mela : Why do you prefer Surya Depstore to others? Noni : Because the items ____ at a reasonable price. have been unloaded d. A : Look! The girl is crying.Perfect Continuous Future/modal
been + V3 being + V3 be + V3
Contoh Soal 1. was kicked c. The announcement ____ twice. will be unloaded b. was sold Jawaban: B (konteks kalimat adalah simple present. X : There’s no longer a rule for the youth to enter military service in Britain.? a. has been postponed c. were being unloaded e. when…. a. Dita : When did the accident happen? Dini : When the goods ____ from the truck. was it abolished Jawaban: C (pola pasif introgative simple past: was/were + S + V3) 5. Y : Really. was it to abolish b. was being postponed e. will be postponed Jawaban : A (konteks kalimat adalah simple past) 3. will kick Jawaban : E (simple past: S + was/were + V3) 2. kicks d. kicked e. What happened to her just now? B : While playing with her brother. did it abolish e. a. to be abolished c. are unloaded c. were sold b. was it abolishing d.
She looks after the baby well. a. was born e. Everybody knew that he had shown great loyalty to the company. the baby would be well looked after 7. a. had destroyed e. a. The books in the library ___ in alphabetical order. Kartini ____ in Jepara in 1879. is being built c. have been arranged 3. have arranged b. will build d. will clean b. The passive form is ____ a. the baby will be well looked after d. would be born b. destroyed d. is arranged d. the baby was looked after well c. At the moment the old building ____ to make space dor a parking lot. would be built 4. cleaned c.A. R. is being demolished e. will be born 2. has arranged c. demolishing d. is born d. will be built e. will be destroyed b. was rewarded e. had been demilishing b. is being cleaned e. is being destroyed c. was arranged e. They had just been living in the house for two years when it ___ by the fire. therefore he ____ a big sum of money at the anniversary of the company. will be rewarded 8. We can’t swim in the swimming pool now because it ___. a. A big dam ___ in this area next year. was being cleaned d. was destroyed 6. the baby is well looked after b. a. has been cleaned 5. rewarded d. is demolishing c. a. is being rewarded b. a. has been rewarded c. has been born c. has been built b.1. was being demolishing
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. the baby is being looked after well e.
Contoh: beautiful more beaitiful the most beautiful b. Contoh: bad worse worst good better best much more most
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. Sita is waiting for her birthday party dress because she ____ a new one by her mother. will be taken d. a. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata dua/lebih harus diawali kata “more” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “the most” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative.9. will be promised e. yaitu: 1. has been taken DEGREES OF COMPARISON (tingkat perbandingan) Terdiri dari 3 tingkatan. As the victem was badly hurt in the car accident. a. was taken b. he ____ to the nearest hospital. will be promised 10. Superlative (tingkat palinga) S + tobe + the most/-est + noun phrase Contoh: Jojon is the most handsome Bajuri is the cleverest person Catatan a. Comparative (tingkat perbandingan) S + tobe + more/-er + adjective + than contoh: Jojon is more handsome than Aming Bajuri is cleverer than Oneng 3. Beberapa kata harus dibentuk dengan cara tidak beraturan pada comparative dan superlative. is being taken e. has promised d. has been promising b. was being promised c.sifat contoh: Jojon is handsome Gogon is clever 2. took c. Positive (tingkat biasa) S + tobe + adjective/k.
Begitu pula jika statement adalah kalimat nominal maka question tag-nya pun dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat nominal yaitu ada kata kerja to be yang dipakai seperti: am/is/are. dll.
SMA Students’ Modul of English
.c. Tetapi jika –y tsb didahului vokal maka aturan tersebut di atas tidak berlaku. did. isn’t she? My husband didn’t go to Bandung last week. -ow. b) Jika statement (+) maka question tag (-) dan sebaliknya CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (kalimat pengandaian)
Conditional sentence terdiri dari anak kalimat (sub clause) dan induk kalimat (mean clause) dimana bentuk tenses yang di pakai pada keduanya berbada. Contoh : Pok Ati is a beautiful woman. Kata yang berakhir dengan 2 konsonan / 1 konsonan yang didahului dengan 2 vokal. Kata yang terdiri dari dua suku kata yang berakhiran – some. Contoh: rich richer richest deep deeper deepest 2. Contoh: large larger largest 4. Contoh: easy easier easiest coy coyer coyest 5. can. Adjective/kata-kata sifat yang bersuku kata satu/dua yang
berakhir dengan akhiran “-er/-r” pada kalimat perbandingan/comparative dan “-est/-st” pada kalimat tingkat paling/superlative adalah: 1. was/were. did he? a) Jika statement adalah kalimat verbal maka question tag-nya dibentuk menurut kaidah kalimat verbal yaitu ada kata kerja bantu/modal yang dipakai seperti: do/does. have/has. Contoh: clever cleverer cleverest QUESTION TAGS Merupakan bentuk pertanyaan berekor yang fungsinya untuk mempertegas suatu pertanyaan. will. Kata yang berakhir dengan –e dalam perubahannya hanya diberi akhiran –r dan –st. Dalam perubahannya konsonan tersebut digandakan sebelum diberi akhiran –er dan –est. dll. -le. shall. Kata yang berakhir dengan 1 konsonan yang dudahului oleh 1 vokal. Kata yang berakhir dengan –y yang didahului konsonan dalam perubahannya huruf –y tersebut berubah menjadi –i. had. Contoh: big bigger biggest 3. -er. may.
Kalimat ini diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa lalu. saya sudah mengirim surat padamu. Jika anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat maka setelah anak kalimat ada koma (. I would go to the beach with you. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah ada (bukan imajinasi) tapi kalau syarat terpenuhi. 3. tetapi tidak dilakukan/ tidak terpenuhi. Contoh: If I have much money.ini bermakna saya tidak mengirim surat karena saya tidak tahu kamu berada di sana) Pola: If + past perfect + past future perfect/modal perfect Had + V3 would/should/could/had to/might + have + V3 Had been would/should/could/had to/might + have been
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. I would have written you a letter.• •
Induk kalimat biasanya diawali dengan kata “if”. Kalau kalimatnya (+). I will buy a new car. Apa yang diucapkan. Kalau kalimatnya (+). ( Jika saya tahu waktu dulu kamu berada di sana. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja) Contoh : (+) If I had known you were there. Ada 3 tipe conditional sentence :
1. (Saya sebenarnya tidak punya waktu sekarang ini sehingga tidak bisa pergi) Pola: If + simple past + past future/modal V2 would/should/could/had to/might + V1 Was/were would/should/could/had to/might + be Di tipe ini hanya were saja yang dipakai. maka makna/meaning yang disampaikan (-) dan sebaliknya. saya akan membeli mobil baru) Pola : If + simple present + simple future/modal S + V1 S + will/shall/can/must/may + V1 S + am/is/are S + will shall/can/must/may + be 2. Contoh : (+) If I had time. Kemungkinan harapan terpenuhi di tipe ini adalah tidak ada (hanya imajinasi saja). (jika saya punya uang. Past Conditional (type 3) Kalimat yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kewajiban/kegiatan yang dilakukan dimasa lampau. maka makna/meaning-nya (-) dan sebaliknya. itulah yang diharapkan.). Future Conditional (type 1)
Kalimat yang diucapkan dan kenyataan yang sebenarnya tidak bertolak belakang. Present Conditional (type 2) Kalimat yang diucapkan bertolak belakang dengan kenyataan yang sebenarnya di masa sekarang.
whom. of which. Kata-kata yang digunakan sebagai penghubung yaitu: who. They live in Jakarta S O S We know a lot of people who live in Jakarta (They = a lot ao people. S O S O The girl feel in love with the man whom I met last week. Their car has been stolen. whose. Who/that: “yang” Digunakan utk pengganti orang sbg subjek Contoh: We know a lot of people. their. your. our. Rumus Umum : Jabatan dalam kalimat orang benda Subjek Who/that Which/that Objek Whom/that Which/that Kepunyaan (possesseve) whose Of which 1. which.) 2. I bought it last year. (him = the man. whose: “yang punya” Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan: my.
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. S O possessive We saw the people whose car had been stolen. jabatan sebagai objek) 3. its. Orang yang dimaksud = the people) 4. Contoh: We saw the people. Whom/that: “yang” Digunakan untuk pengganti objek Contoh: The girl feel in love with the man. jabatan dalam kalimat subjek. (their car = mobilnya orang-orang. (they = the stories/cerita adalah kata benda yg kedudukannya sebagai S) My mother loves a red car very much. which/that Digunakan untuk mengganti kata benda/binatang sebagai subjek Contoh: I don’t like the stories.RELATIVE PRONOUNS (kata ganti penghubung) Relative Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengantikan salah satu pokok kalimat/bagian kalimat lainnya yang menghubungkan dua buah kalimat menjadi satu kalimat majemuk (complex sentence). her. I met him last week. S I don’t like the stories that/which are printed in English. his. They are printed in English.
Contoh: I sent the table back to the store. (saya berharap kamu akan berhenti mengatakan itu) I wish she would come to my party to night (saya berharap dia akan dapat datang ke pesta saya minggu ini) • Present Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + V2/were Contoh : I wish you were old enough to marry me. Meja yg dimaksud the table) 7. sebuah benda.O O My mother loves a red car which/that I bought last year very much ( it = a red car. Where 8. Its surface is not smooth. (mereka berharap sekarang ini mereka tidak harus pergi sekolah) • Past Rumus : S¹ + wished + S² + had V3/could have V3 Contoh : She wished she had had more time last night. Of which Digunakan untuk mengganti kata ganti kepunyaan/possessive untuk benda/binatang. jabatan sebagai objek) 6. When SUBJUNCTIVE WISH Subjunctive/angan-angan digunakan untuk menyatakan/mengungkapkan harapan yang tidak dapat terpenuhi. (its surface/permukaannya meja. • Future Rumus : S¹ + wish + S² + could/would + V¹/be Contoh : I wish you would stop saying that. (saya berharap tadi malam dia punya banyak waktu)
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. Possessive I sent the table of which surface is not smooth back to the store. (saya berharap sekarang ini umurmu cukup tua untuk menikahi saya) They wish they didn’t have to go to school today.
2. Jogging makes us fresh. sedangkan causative get berarti meminta (dengan persuasif) seseorang melakukan sesuatu. Contoh: Swimming is a good sport. The manager has the letter typed. I got the mechanic to repair my car.
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. Verb/kata kerja sebagai subjek. I had mechanic repair my car.CAUSATIVE HAVE/GET Causative have dan get digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pekerjaan yang dilakukan orang lain untuk si Subjek. Rumus Active S + have/has/had + Object¹ + V1 + Object² S + get/gets/got + Object¹ + to V1 + Object Contoh : (1). Gerund digunakan bila: 1. Verb sebagai complement/pelengkap. (saya menyuruh mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya Contoh : (1). The manager gets the letter typed. (Dia meminta Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) (2). She has the shoemaker mend her shoes S Someone/O¹ V1 something/O² (Dia menyuruh Pembuat sepatu memperbaiki sepatunya) O¹ V1 O² (2). Causative have berarti menyuruh/memerintahkan seseorang melakukan sesuatu. O V3 (Menejer menyuruh surat itu ditik) (2). (Menejer meminta surat itu ditik) GERUND Gerund adalah kata kerja yang dibendakan/ kata benda yang dibentuk dari kata kerja yang diberi akhiran –ing (V-ing). She gets the shoemaker to mend her shoes. (saya meminta mekanis memperbaiki mobil saya) Rumus Passive S + have/has/had + O + V3 S + get/gets/got + O + V3 Contoh (1).
his. he said nothing. can’t help/can’t bear.V. S + would prefer + to V1 + rather than + V1
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. Before leaving.V . (Dona lebih menyukai menari ketiumbang menyanyi) .V better than radio.Juned prefers combro to deblo.I like T.V ketimbang main video game) 4.Kokom likes reading better than watching T. 3. PREFERENCES (pilihan/kesukaan) Menyukai A ketimbang B 1. 6. .her. to be worth. (Juned lebih menyukai combro ketimbang deblo) 2.your. Contoh : It is no use studying without practicing. 4. Kata kerja/V setelah kata kerja tertentu Admit Appreciate Claim Can’t help Resume Consider Avoid Delay Deny Risk Enjoy Finish Quit Resist Siggest Mind Miss Postpone Practice Advise Recall Regret Report Recent resist
Contoh : We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.Dona prefers dancing to singing.Dita would rather watch T.
Contoh : My hobby is cycling.Amir’s. on.to be used to. S + prefers + noun/V-ing + to + noun/V-ing Contoh: . Contoh : I am sorry for coming late. Setelah possessive adjective (my.3. 5. dll) Contoh : His staring frigtens me. Setelah kata depan/preposition seperti for. than plays a video game. Setelah istilah khusus seperti no use. get used to. S + like + noun/V-ing + better than + noun/V-ing Contoh: . before dll. (Dita lebih menyukai nonton T.their. to be busy.our. S + would rather + V1 + than + V1 Contoh: .
we put some sauce and salt. yaitu: 1. next.Although it was raining.He is both wise and good. e. While he was reading her novel.maupun…) neither…nor… (…tidak…dan tidak…) Contoh: . Finally. we must prepare the ingredients. 3.Amir and I go to school everyday. Connectors dibagi menjadi 3. I went to the hospital because I had a serious accident. a. c. or. CONJUNCTIONS (Kata Sambung) Kata sambung adalah kata yang digunakan untuk menyambung dua kalimat/kata-kata. Kata sambung yang berdiri sendiri seperti: and. d.
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. that. b. I was really sad when I saw a drama movie. Kata sambung yang berpasangan seperti: both…and… (…dan juga…. if. We went home after the rain stopped. Menunjukan tanda urutan: first. we put them into frying pan. while.I went to your house but you weren’t at home. then. b. c. b. when. (walaupun hujan dia datang tepat waktu) 2. a. for. finally. After that. (kamu dapat membaca buku ini jika kamu mau) . (Amir dan saya pergi ke sekolah setiap hari) .Ayu would prefer to phone me rather than send SMS. Menunjukan sebab dan akibat: because/because of.) not only…but also… (…tidak hanya…tetapi juga…) either…or… (…. since. Menunjukan waktu: before. (saya pergi ke rumahmu tapi kamu tidak ada di rumah) . 1. (Ayu lebih menyukai menelpon saya ketimbang mengirim SMS) CONNECTORS (Kata Penghubung) Connectors digunakan untuk menggabungkan dua kalimat/lebih menjadi satu kalimat. d. but. c. I started to look for an apartment as soon as I arrived in this city. Since I have no money.You can read this book if you like. 2. we cut the vegetables into small pieces. as soon as. I went to the hospital because of my serious accident. first. after. Contoh: . dll. Next. he come on time.Contoh: . a. after that. although/though. I can’t treat you. I prepare my ticket and passport before I go on holiday to Paris. somebody knocked on the door.
He is not only active but also clever.(dia bijaksana dan juga baik) .
SMA Students’ Modul of English
. (Polusi pabrik telah mencemari tanah maupun air di lingkungan kita) .Factory pollutions have polluted either land or water in our environment. Kalimat elip digunakan untuk menghindari adanya pengulangan kata yang sama dalam suatu kalimat. (dia tidak hanya aktif tetapi juga pintar) .The research is neither intersting nor accurate (Penelitian itu tidak menarik dan tidak akurat) ELLIPTIC CONSTRUCTION Kalimat elip merupakan pemendekan dari dua kalimat/lebih dengan cara menghilagkan beberapa bagian kalimat yang memiliki kesamaan arti asalnya.