Abstract In a global economy, increasingly organizations have a responsibility to facilitate, demonstrate and promote corporate social responsibility (CSR

). Long-term sustainability demands that organizations rethink their business goals and objectives from solely focusing on making a profit to corporate citizenship. Today, the impact of CSR is beginning to be seen in communities throughout the world--from human rights and labor practices to health care and the environment. At home and abroad, HR plays a critical role--that of leading and educating their firms regarding the importance of CSR while at the same time strategically implementing sound HR management practices that support the company's business and CSR goals. "More and more companies are accepting corporate citizenship as a new strategic and managerial purpose requiring their attention. Once seen as a purely philanthropic activity--a source of general goodwill, with no bottomline consequence--citizenship is moving from the margins of concern to the center at leading companies." Corporate social responsibility (CSR) means a commitment by a company to manage its roles in a society in a responsible and sustainable manner. Especially since the 1980's, CSR has become an increasingly important part of the business environment. Today there is a growing perception among enterprises that sustainable business success and shareholder value cannot be achieved solely through maximizing short-term profits, but instead through marketoriented yet responsible behavior. It is in this context, that the present study argues that
the Human Resource (HR) function can play a critical role in embedding CSR within corporations through employee communication and engagement, diversity management and community relationships. The paper highlights the growing important interfaces between HR and CSR, and captures the roles that HR can assume in implementing CSR.

Human resource managers are well positioned to play an instrumental role in helping their organization achieve its goals of becoming a socially and environmentally responsible firm – one which reduces its negative and enhances its positive impacts on society and the environment. Further, human resource (HR) professionals in organizations that perceive successful corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a key driver of their financial performance, can be influential in realizing on that objective. While there is considerable guidance to firms who wish to be the best place to work and for firms who seek to manage their employee relationships in a socially responsible way, there is a dearth of information for the HR manager who sees the importance of embedding their firm’s CSR values throughout the organization, who wish to assist the executive team in integrating CSR into the company’s DNA. And as high profile corporate failures such as Enron make all too clear, organizations that pay lip-service to CSR while neglecting to foster a CSR culture run the risk of damaging their corporate reputation if not their demise. Indeed, HR's mandate to communicate and implement ideas, policies, and cultural and behavioural change in organizations makes it central to fulfilling an organization’s objectives to “integrate CSR in all that we do.” That said, it is important to understand that employee engagement is not simply the mandate of HR. Indeed people leadership rests with all departmental managers. HR can facilitate the development of processes and systems; however, employee engagement is ultimately a shared responsibility. The more the HR practitioner can understand their leverage with respect to CSR, the greater their ability to pass these insights along to their business partners towards the organization’s objectives in integrating CSR throughout their operations and business model. As human resources influences many of the key systems and business processes underpinning effective delivery, it is well positioned to foster a CSR ethic and achieve a high performance CSR culture. Human resource management can play a significant role so that CSR can become “the way we do things around here”. HR can be the key organizational partner to ensure that what the organization is saying publicly aligns with how people are treated within the organization. HR is in the enviable position of being able to provide the tools and framework for the executive team and CEO to embed CSR ethic and culture into the brand and the strategic framework of the organization. It is the only function that influences across the entire enterprise for the entire ‘lifecycle’ of the employees who work there – thus it has considerable influence if handled correctly. HR is poised for this lead

role as it is adept at working horizontally and vertically across and within the organization, so important for successful CSR delivery. Of course, for effective CSR deployment, it needs to become a Board and Csuite imperative first. Should such an organizational gap exist, the senior HR leader can champion, lead and help drive a CSR approach if necessary. In the coming years as CSR increasingly becomes part of the business agenda and the fabric of responsible corporations, it will become a natural agenda for the HR practitioner. The following is an overview of the key trends and business drivers for fostering this CSR-HR connection, followed by a proposed roadmap or pathway for human resource leaders seeking to make a substantial contribution to sustainability, CSR and their firm’s business goals. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CSR covers all aspects of corporate governance. It is about how companies conduct their business in an ethical way, taking account of their impact economically, socially, environmentally and in terms of human rights. This moves beyond traditional business stakeholders such as shareholders or local suppliers. CSR includes social partners such as local communities, and global responsibilities such as protecting the environment and ensuring good labor standards in overseas suppliers. CSR also includes relationships with employees and customers. It inevitably involves working in partnership with other organizations or groups. It can be seen as a form of strategic management, encouraging the organization to scan the horizon and think laterally about how its relationships will contribute long-term to its bottom line in a constantly changing world.
What does it mean? Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is an expression used to describe what some see as a company’s obligation to be sensitive to the needs of all of the stakeholders in its business operations. A company’s stakeholders are all those who are influenced by, or can influence, a company’s decisions and actions. These can include (but are not limited to): employees, customers, suppliers, community organizations, subsidiaries and affiliates, joint venture partners, local neighborhoods, investors, and shareholders (or a sole owner ). One of the most frequently asked questions for all those individuals and organisations dealing with CSR issues is the obvious - just what does "Corporate Social Responsibility" mean anyway? Is it a stalking horse for an anticorporate agenda? Something which, like original sin, you can never escape? Or what? Different organisations have framed different definitions - although there is considerable common ground between them. I believe CSR is about how companies manage the business processes to produce an overall positive impact on society. Companies need to answer to two aspects of their operations. 1. The quality of their management - both in terms of people and processes (the inner circle). 2. The nature of, and quantity of their impact on society in the various areas. Outside stakeholders are taking an increasing interest in the activity of the company. Most look to the outer circle - what the company has actually done, good or bad, in terms of its products and services, in terms of its impact on the environment and on local communities, or in how it treats and develops its workforce. Out of the various stakeholders, it is financial analysts who are predominantly

focused - as well as past financial performance - on quality of management as an indicator of likely future performance. Other definitions The World Business Council for Sustainable Development in its publication "Making Good Business Sense" by Lord Holme and Richard Watts, used the following definition. "Corporate Social Responsibility is the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of the local community and society at large" The same report gave some evidence of the different perceptions of what this should mean from a number of different societies across the world. Definitions as different as "CSR is about capacity building for sustainable livelihoods. It respects cultural differences and finds the business opportunities in building the skills of employees, the community and the government" from Ghana, through to "CSR is about business giving back to society" from the Phillipines. Traditionally in the United States, CSR has been defined much more in terms of a philanphropic model. Companies make profits, unhindered except by fulfilling their duty to pay taxes. Then they donate a certain share of the profits to charitable causes. It is seen as tainting the act for the company to receive any benefit from the giving. The European model is much more focused on operating the core business in a socially responsible way, complemented by investment in communities for solid business case reasons. Personally, I believe this model is more sustainable because: Social responsibility becomes an integral part of the wealth creation process which if managed properly should enhance the competitiveness of business and maximise the value of wealth creation to society. When times get hard, there is the incentive to practice CSR more and better - if it is a philanphropic exercise which is peripheral to the main business, it will always be the first thing to go when push comes to shove. But as with any process based on the collective activities of communities of human beings (as companies are) there is no "one size fits all". In different countries, there will be different priorities, and values that will shape how business act.

WHY DOES CSR MATTER? CSR has grown in importance in recent years, often through public scandals and mismanagement. This has meant increased demands from customers, employees, statutory bodies and the general public for detailed information about whether companies are meeting acceptable standards. Increasingly companies have to take account of how their actions impact on society. The ‘employer brand’ has become an important way to add value but it is also more vulnerable to scrutiny and suspicion. Bad publicity travels fast through communication channels, which are often out of organizational control such as the Internet. CSR is an issue in which we all have a stake. Our actions today will influence the lives of future generations through for example, trying to protect the environment. It is changing the way business is done. Being proactive about CSR will increasingly provide a competitive advantage both externally through protecting company reputation and the accompanying publicity, and internally through employee engagement. To really ‘do’ CSR businesses need to accept that they don’t exist in a vacuum but operate in a wider community that has an impact on their, and others, futures. When CSR is done well, it means a precious, though precarious, trust in the business. Successful CSR can bring benefits such as a distinct position in the marketplace, protecting the employer brand, and building credibility and trust with current and potential customers

and employees. It can help significantly with recruitment, engagement and retention of employees. WHY DOES HR MATTER IN CSR? Companies increasingly need to co-ordinate their CSR activities and demonstrate their commitment to CSR. Effective CSR depends on being seen as important throughout an organization. Delivery, not rhetoric, is the key to stakeholders developing trust in an organization. HR has a key role in making CSR work. CSR without HR runs the risk of being dismissed as PR or shallow ‘window-dressing’. And CSR is an opportunity for HR to demonstrate a strategic focus and act as a business partner. CSR needs to be embedded in an organization’s culture to make a change to actions and attitudes, and the support of the top team is critical to success. HR already works at communicating and implementing ideas, policies, cultural and behavioral change across organizations. Its role in influencing attitudes and links with line managers and the top team mean it is ideally placed to do the same with CSR. HR is also responsible for the key systems and processes underpinning effective delivery. Through HR, CSR can be given credibility and aligned with how businesses run. CSR could be integrated into processes such as the employer brand, recruitment, appraisal, retention, motivation, reward, internal communications, diversity, coaching and training. The way a company treats its employees contributes directly to it being seen as willing to accept its wider responsibilities. Building credibility and trusting their employer are being increasingly seen as important by employees when they choose who they want to work for. People, especially Generation X and younger, don’t want to work where there is a clash with their personal values. Present and future employees are placing increasing value on the credibility of an organization’s brand. Employers are using the positive aspects of their brand in recruiting, motivating and retaining highly skilled people.

What are the risks in HR’s involvement with CSR?
The trust built through successful CSR is hard to regain if lost. HR needs to ensure that their organisation’s CSR can stand up to the inevitable scrutiny by stakeholders, and that training and communication mean it’s embedded throughout the culture of an organisation. HR needs to be an active business partner working with other functions, for example finance, PR/marketing etc. It will need to look beyond the boundaries of usual practice and arguably work on its own PR. CSR is a strategic opportunity, which is market-led and is restrained by bureaucracy. It needs dynamism, creativity, imagination and even opportunism.

What to consider when starting a CSR strategy?
Clarify your core values and principles. Make sure you know who your key internal and external stakeholders are and which issues affect your relationship with them. Get the top team on board, and know how to sell the benefits of CSR to different stakeholders. Understand how the CSR strategy is aligned to your business strategy and HR practices. Get endorsement for the CSR strategy from inside and outside the organization.

Communicate consistently. Training is vital, as CSR will only have an impact if employees are engaged: attitudes or behavior won’t change otherwise. Effectively measure and evaluate CSR, otherwise the time, effort and money invested are based on assumptions, not results. Direct results (such as saving fuel resulting in lower carbon emissions) and indirect results (increased employee satisfaction) of CSR strategies can be shown to contribute to business performance. One way outcomes can be measured is through a balanced scorecard approach, which allows for the different types of factors that contribute to a business’s bottom line including internal people, processes and customers.

A growing global role One thing that is for sure - the pressure on business to play a role in social issues will continue to grow. Over the last ten years, those institutions which have grown in power and influence have been those which can operate effectively within a global sphere of operations. These are effectively the corporates and the NGOs. Those institutions which are predominantly tied to the nation state have been finding themselves increasingly frustrated at their lack of ability to shape and manage events. These include national governments, police, judiciary and others. There is a growing interest, therefore, in businesses taking a lead in addressing those issues in which they have an interest where national government have failed to come up with a solution. The focus Unilever has on supporting a sustainable fisheries approach is one example. Using the power of their supply chain, such companies are placed to have a real influence. National governments negotiating with each other have come up with no solutions at all, and ever-depleting fish stocks. That is not to say businesses will necessarily provide the answers - but awareness is growing that they are occasionally better placed to do so than any other actors taking an interest.

CSR in the recession
Employers are not behaving towards employees in the current recession in the same way they did in the 1990s. Then, employers were happy to make large numbers of people redundant in the belief that this would appeal to shareholders looking for

evidence of tough cost cutting. This time, employers have been actively looking for alternative responses to reduced business volumes, declaring compulsory redundancies only as a last resort. Recruitment freezes; short-time and flexible working, sabbaticals and secondments have all featured as alternatives to redundancy in a range of sectors, including vehicles, telecommunications and consultancy. One factor is clearly that employers increasingly understand the high costs of making people redundant, including the damage to morale of those who remain. But there is also a concern about damage to reputation if employers don’t seem to care about what happens to their people, or treat them with respect. The ethical values underpinning both HR and CSR certainly appear to be having more influence in this recession than in the past. HR ‘s role in promoting CSR
When companies are global, an important challenge in garnering success is to respect other cultures and workforce environments and start forming a global profile or social consciousness. Companies are recognizing these differences with a sound Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plan that can simultaneously increase shareholder value, boost employee engagement and increase employer brand recognition. Human Resource Departments play a critical role in ensuring that the company adopts Corporate Social Responsibility programs. Furthermore, HR can manage the CSR plan implementation and monitor its adoption proactively, while documenting (and celebrating) its success throughout the company. Human Resources technology can help with a Corporate Social Responsibility program, including reducing the company’s carbon footprint to benefit the planet. Some of these areas are: Implement and encourage green practices. Foster a culture of social responsibility. Celebrate successes. Share and communicate the value of corporate social responsibility to employees and the community. Implement and Encourage Green Practices for Corporate Social Responsibility Implement green practices to assist in environmental waste reduction, while promoting and encouraging stewardship growth, better corporate ethics and long-lasting practices that promote both personal and corporate accountability. The value inherent in embracing green aspects of corporate • • • •

responsibility is clearly understood, given the direct impact that rising energy and utility costs has on employees’ pocketbooks. Conservation has become an accepted means of making our planet healthier. Reducing each employee’s carbon footprint is a great way of getting energy conservation and recycling waste initiatives off the ground. Here are suggestions to start: • • Recycle paper, cans and bottles in the office; recognize departmental efforts. Collect food and donations for victims of floods, hurricanes and other natural disasters around the globe. Encourage reduced energy consumption; subsidize transit passes, make it easy for employees to car pool, encourage staggered staffing to allow after rush hour transit, and permit telecommuting to the degree possible. Encourage shutting off lights, computers and printers after work hours and on weekends for further energy reductions. Work with IT to switch to laptops over desktop computers. (Laptops consume up to 90% less power.) Increase the use of teleconferencing, rather than on-site meetings and trips. Promote brown-bagging in the office to help employees reduce fat and calories to live healthier lives and reduce packaging waste, too.

• •

CSR in the Business Community Worldwide, companies and their HR leadership are coming to grips with what exactly CSR means in their organizations and how to strategically include CSR within business goals and objectives. There is growing evidence pointing to the validity of and the demand for CSR. For example, 82% of companies noted that good corporate citizenship helps the bottom line and 74% said the public has the right to expect good corporate citizenship. (3) However, as Niall FitzGerald, chairman of Unilever, explained in his presentation at the London Business School, "the reality of corporate social responsibility is there are no precedents to fall back on, and decisions must be based on judgment rather than tried and tested formulae." (4)

As the concept of CSR becomes more widely accepted and integrated in business, it is helpful in this discussion to understand that the development of CSR in organizations is in transition (see Figure 1). There are basically three "generations" of CSR in varying stages of sophistication. The first generation has demonstrated that companies can contribute to society without risking commercial success. Today, the second generation is developing more fully as CSR gradually becomes an integral part of companies' long-term business strategies. Finally, the third generation addresses significant societal issues, such as poverty and cleanup of the environment. (5) Evidence of the transition of CSR will be discussed throughout this article, with suggestions of how HR professionals can take on leadership roles that can contribute to CSR initiatives in their organizations. There are many such examples of the impact of CSR and how it may link to the bottom line. Making the Business Case for CSR In recent years, intangible assets--company values, human and intellectual capital, reputation and brand equity--have become increasingly important to organizations. (6) Companies that exhibit good corporate citizenship are likely to gain a competitive edge. Below are just a few examples of today's CSR success factors that are fast becoming the primary measures of an organization's credibility.

Reputation and Brand Enhancement Company reputation and brand are greatly influenced by public perception. For example, in the largest global survey of the public's expectations, the Millennium Poll on Corporate Social Responsibility documented that over 25,000 individuals across 23 countries on six continents revealed they form their impressions of companies by focusing on corporate citizenship and two out of three people want companies to go beyond making money and contribute to broader society goals. (7) Increasingly, there are success stories that show companies are listening to the public. A recent example is that of Ecolab of St. Paul, Minnesota, that quickly developed new products to address unexpected hazards with an antimicrobial disinfectant product in response to foot and mouth disease in livestock and another new product to combat SARS at the Toronto airport. (8) Today, companies are also seeking avenues of public acknowledgment of their employer brand. For example, Business Ethics Corporate Social Responsibility Report publishes a list of the 100 best corporate citizens. Companies are ranked by social scores regarding

environment, community and customer relations, employee relationships, and diversity. One of the 2004 winners was Proctor & Gamble, which donated funds to help disadvantaged youth in Vietnam, combat childhood malnutrition in India and provide earthquake relief in Turkey. (9) Another critical aspect of reputation and brand, as a CSR success factor, is the impact on a company's sustainability--that is, the conditions or characteristics that support an organization to continue its business, including environmental, social and economic aspects of the company.
Within business, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is managed in a variety of different places the different emphasis companies place on it. However, the topic of CSR is becoming a must for HR because of the growing recognition that staffing is an area of risk to business. This link of risk and CSR is fundamental relating it to the business and as this article discusses a key driver for HR involvement High staff turnover, loss of key employees at critical times, the high cost of recruitment and the training of new staff can all damage a business. CSR strategies and programmes can help manage this risk by creating an environment where staff can enjoy their work and where they can feedback concerns about the company’s behaviour so action can be taken - for example, the identification of illegal workers in the supply chain. The recognition of the value of staff to an organisation is one of benefits from CSR as it is not just about engaging with external audiences. Moreover, it is about how you interact with your staff. Increasingly businesses are realising the importance of employer brand. Just like other stakeholders, employees expect certain things not just a salary from their employer. Staff members want to feel they can identify with the company. Employer branding is about making sure that employees feel good about the place they work. They can then be ambassadors for the company and that ‘feel good factor’ can permeate out to others, notably customers and clients. For these benefits to be accrued the organisation needs to be CSR compliant (see note 2 below for more on this). The role of HR In many cases the board may have developed corporate policies that cover a range of issues, including CSR, but no one ensures they are adhered to, checks the staff awareness, or assesses their impact. It may be that the board’s present mission, objectives and values do not reflect the values of staff or expectations of customers. Arguably, HR is best placed to engage staff in these issues. HR can play an important role in developing the process where the business objectives

are assessed and values re-aligned to match them with staff expectations. There are many ways this can be done: Workshops to engage with staff and promote the exchange of real life experiences. Develop interactive intranet sites that show case examples of good practice, or build in opportunities for promotion of good practice at staff meetings. Review company policy and procedures to ensure values are consistent – procurement, recruitment, training, appraisals and exit interviews. Consult and involve staff more in the running of a business. Provide feedback questionnaires for employees, customers and suppliers – to show the organisation is living its values. HR should also play the gatekeeper role in the development and monitoring of staff policies and practice. It needs to be asking questions such as: ‘Does the business have a social responsibility policy or an environmental policy?’ and ‘How does the business ensure that these policies and the company’s values drive the way the company does business?’ These values need to be reflected in staffing issues – recruitment, training, appraisals, and in other processes such as procurement. HR has an important role to play in ensuring this happens. Future trends in CSR for HR departments CSR is here to stay, how and where it is displayed with business will depend on the board and other external factors. However, for CSR not to be merely an add on but to be actually embedded as part of the business - reflecting the way it does business, its culture and values - then HR will need to play its part. HR departments may have a natural ally in their financial directors who are beginning to recognise staff as an area of intangible risk. FDs should be prepared to invest to manage this risk and create an employer of choice which delivers benefits to the bottom line in a number of ways from improved staff retention to improved work performance through more motivated staff. Note 1: How HR can make the case for CSR ownership. Questions to ask the board or senior management team. Do we have CSR policies? Do our company values fit with our business objectives? Are our staff motivated and proud to work at our company? Do we have high staff turnover? Do our costs of recruitment need to be reduced? Making the business case – the benefits for championing CSR in HR Staff pride in the company they work for Improved staff motivation leading to improved work performance

Encouragement of innovation Reduced staff turnover - savings recruitment and training costs Reducing risk within business – from suppliers, staff, through to customers Increased profitability Note 2: Is your organization CSR compliant? Despite the wide scope of CSR there are some simple things that can be done to identify the way your organization conducts its business, for example: Does your organization have social and environmental policies? If yes, are staff and suppliers aware of them? Are you aware of the codes of practice, guidelines, indices that are relevant to your organisation? What standards cover most aspects of your organisation and are they universally used by your industry? Have you carried out an audit of your employees (and supply chain) activities to scope areas of opportunity and risk for your organisation?

HR’s Role in Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility across a Global Workforce
With this global expansion comes a “responsibility”. When companies are global, an important challenge in garnering success is to respect other cultures and workforce environments and start forming a global profile or social consciousness. A wonderful way to recognize these differences is to have a sound Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plan that can simultaneously increase shareholder value, boost employee engagement and increase employer brand recognition. Human Resource Departments play a critical role in ensuring that the company adopts corporate social responsibility programs. Furthermore, HR can manage its implementation and monitor its adoption proactively, while documenting (and celebrating) its success throughout the company. Foster a Culture of Social Responsibility Creating a culture of change and responsibility starts with HR. Getting the younger workforce, who are already environmentally conscious, excited about fresh CSR initiatives is a great way to begin. Having a committed set of employees that infuse enthusiasm for such programs would enable friendly competition and recognition programs. Over the past few years, major news organizations have been consistently reporting on large, trusted companies that have failed employees, shareholders and the public (i.e. Enron, Lehman, WaMu), which in its wake has created a culture of mistrust among the corporate world. All too often, employees and employers of all levels who competed for advancement and recognition in harsh workplaces were forced to accept corporate misconduct and waste as “business as usual.” Employer brands are being eroded and the once sacred trust that employees once had with stable pensions, defined benefits and lifelong jobs, are being replaced with pay for performance and adjustment to new learning goals. CSR can go a long way in rehabilitating the employer brand with potential new hires and society at large. It can help defeat the image that corporate objectives are rooted

in being a single minded profit machine at the expense of society and the environment. Social and community connections that are encouraged by employers give workers the permission to involve their companies in meaningful ways with the community. Employers can connect with their employees and the community thorough 1. Company matches to employee charitable contributions 2. Community programs/volunteer days 3. Corporate sponsorship of community events 4. Encouraging employees to participate in walkathons, food banks, etc. Three Key Areas of CSR Focusing on three key areas for Corporate Social Responsibility can help create a cohesive map for the present and future: 1) Community Relations 2) Training and Development 3) Cohesive Global CSR Platform. Encouraging Community Relations through your HR team includes implementing reward programs, charitable contributions and encouraging community involvement and practices. Examples of these programs include emails and company newsletters to staff members highlighting employees and managers involved in community relations and/or creating monthly reward programs to recognize efforts by individuals within the company. Training and Development programs that explain the connection between the company’s core products or services to functioning HR platform, which allows for distributing a sound corporate responsibility plan. the society at large, its value to the local community and ways in which to get involved in the correct CSR project would go a long way in sustaining and directing these initiatives. Global CSR policy centrally managed would be important to acknowledge successes and measurements along accepted standards. Central to measuring and communicating these results is the use of a web-based HRIS that is available globally to employees and managers with any web browser. In order to encourage and maintain a clear and cohesive Global workplace, it is critical for the entire global workforce of a company to be on a single, multi- functioning HR platform, which allows for distributing a social responsibility plan. Having a global HR solution that offers companies the flexibility, ease of use and the right mix of tools is essential to the success of both employees and employers alike, as they manage and maintain a work/life balance and thrive in a changing environment that includes taking on social responsibility.

CONCLUSIONToday, there are many references to corporate social responsibility (CSR), sometimes referred to as corporate citizenship, in our workplaces, in the media, in the government, in our communities. While there is no agreedupon definition, the World Business Council for Sustainable Development defines CSR as the business commitment and contribution to the quality of life of employees, their families and the local community and society overall to support sustainable economic development. (2) Simply put, the business case for CSR--establishing a positive company reputation and brand in the public eye through good work that yields a competitive edge while at the same time contributing to others--demands that organizations shift from solely focusing on making a profit to including financial, environmental and social responsibility in their core business strategies. Despite what the phrase corporate social responsibility suggests, the concept is not restricted to corporations but rather is intended for most types of organizations, such as associations, labor unions, organizations that serve the community for scientific, educational, artistic, public health or charitable purposes, and governmental agencies. In the late 1990s, CSR began to gain momentum as pressure from consumers, the media, activists and various public organizations demanded that companies contribute to society. Now, reputation, brand, integrity and trust are increasingly considered important measures of corporate social responsibility.

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