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the information provided herein is not intended as a representation or warranty on the part of the AGA. The material provided herein has been developed to provide accurate and authoritative information about after-fabrication hot-dip galvanized steel. Anyone making use of this information assumes all liability arising from such use. IN SPEC TION .REPAIR TOUCH-UP SPECIFICATION PASSIVATION METHODS SAMPLING TESTING INSPECTION TESTING HOT-DIP GALVANIZED REPAIR PASSIVATION CONSIDERATIONS SAMPLING APPEARANCE VISUAL © 2008 American Galvanizers Association. This material provides general information only and is not intended as a substitute for competent professional examination and verification as to suitability and applicability.
TABLE TablE OF CONTENTS Purpose of Inspection Coating Measurements Coating Thickness Coating Weight 3 5 Appearance Visual Observation Reasons for Different Appearances 6 Visual Inspection Bare Spots Chain and Wire Marks Clogged Holes/ Clogged Threads Distortion Dross Inclusions Excessive Aluminum in Galvanizing Bath Flux Inclusions Products in Contact Rough Surface Condition Runs Sand Embedded in Casting Striations Surface Contamination Weeping Weld Wet Storage Stain Zinc Skimmings 7-10 7 8 9 10 Additional Inspection Testing Adherence Test Embrittlement Test Bending Test 11 Sampling Methods Passivation Testing Repair Method Selection and Considerations Touch-Up and Repair Methods Zinc-Based Solders Zinc-Rich Paints Zinc Spray 11 11 12 12 Related Specifications and Materials 13 .
0 4. to plan for the extension of a product’s service life and facilitate long-term budget planning. pipe and tubing. A 153/A 153M includes small castings. A 123/A 123M. nails. and finish. maintenance-free corrosion protection systems available. The difference between these specifications is the type of steel product covered by each. For any environment.0 3.5 5. In Canada. A 153/A 153M. coating thickness is an important requirement in the specification and effectiveness of hot-dip galvanizing as a corrosion protection system. Other requirements include adherence. the specification CSA G 164 covers the requirements for all hot-dip galvanized articles. In all cases. appearance. 100 Time to First Maintenance* (years) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1. Average Thickness of Zinc (mils) 1 mil = 25. flat bar. nuts. A 123/A 123M covers structural steel.5 4. However.0 1. And A 767/A 767M covers reinforcing steel bars. and small parts centrifuged after galvanizing to remove excess zinc.5 2. hot-dip galvanized steel requires an inspection of the finished product to ensure compliance with applicable specifications. For hot-dip galvanized products. Measuring coating thickness is only one of the many specification requirements in the inspection process. a key feature is durability and decades of maintenance-free performance.5 3. the inspection of hot-dip galvanized products is conducted at the galvanizing plant prior to shipment of the article. bolts. and wire.56oz/ft2 Time to First Maintenance for Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . and ISO 1461 is the standard used in Europe. the estimated time to first maintenance in atmospheric exposures can be seen in the chart below.4µm = 0. the service life of hot-dip galvanized steel is directly proportional to the thickness of the zinc coating. Thus. Like any other manufacturing process.0 2.PURPOSE OF INSPECTION Hot-dip galvanizing is one of the most economical.0 Key Rural Suburban Temperate Marine Tropical Marine Industrial *Time to first maintenance is defined as the time to 5% rusting of the substrate steel surface. The requirements for hot-dip galvanized coatings are found in three ASTM specifications. washers. The inspection process requires a clear understanding of both specification requirements and compliance measurement techniques to make an accurate assessment. and A 767/A 767M.
0 85 600 3.6) 45 45 45 35 — 1 All Specimens Tested Steel Thickness Range (Measured).35 mm) in thickness F asteners 3/8 in.4) 100 100 75 80 100 Table 2: Minimum Coating Thickness from ASTM A 153/A 153M.25 (381) 1.0 45 320 2. (4.8) 75 75 75 60 — >3/16 to <1/4 (>4. Minimum Average Coating Thickness by Material Class ..8 35 245 1.00 3.85 (259) B-3 - Class C - Class D - A n the case of long pieces. pressed and forged articles (except those which would be included under Class C or D) 3 /16 in.52 mm) and under in diameter.80 (550) 2.3 100 705 Minimum Coating Thickness by Class .8 1.Table 1: Minimum Coating Thickness from ASTM A 123/A 123M.6 to < 3.00 (610) 1.ASTM A 153/A 153M (iron and steel hardware) Class of Material Class A - Class B - B-1 - B-2 - Minimum Weight of Zinc Coating. such as anchor rods and similar articles over 5 ft (1.52 mm) in diameter and similar articles. rivets.2 1. (See Table 1a for information on Coating Thickness Grade) Minimum Average Coating Thickness Grade by Material Category .6 1.8 to <6.00 (305) 0. Steel R olled. plates.76 mm) in thickness and over 15 in. (9.80 (550) 1.50 2. (9.7 75 530 3. nails and similar articles.3 55 390 2.10 (336) 1.00 (305) 1. 4 and larger Class II Bar designation size no. 10  and larger 610 Coating Class Class I Bar designation size no. g/m2 of Surface Class I Bar Designation Size No. oz/ft2 of Surface 3.0 1. the weight of coating shall be determined at each end and I the middle of the article..2) 65 65 45 50 — 1 /8 to 3/16 (3.50 (458) 1. (381 mm) in length U nder 3/16 in. bars and strips) Material Category Structural Shapes Strip and Bar Pipe and Tubing Wire Reinforcing Bar <1/16 (<1.00 (610) Any Individual Specimen 1.ASTM A 123/A 123M (rolled. and 1/4 in. in. 3 Bar designation size no.4) 85 85 75 65 — >1/4 (>6. Washers under 3/16 in. (381 mm) in length Any thickness and 15 in.00 AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . Washers 3/16 in. castings.30 (397) 1. (4.2 to 4. (4. pressed and forged shapes. (4. In no case shall individual measurements be below the minimum shown in the “Any Individual Specimen” column.9 2. (4.76 mm) and over in thickness and over 15 in.ASTM A 767/A 767M (reinforcing bars) Coating Class Mass of Zinc Coating min. Malleable Iron.25 (381) 1.3 2.52 mm) in length.76 and 6.76 mm) in thickness 2. 3 and larger Weight of Zinc Coating min. 13  and larger 1070 Class II Bar Designation Size No. oz/ft2 (g/m2) of SurfaceA Average of Specimens Tested Castings.76 mm) and under in length F asteners over 3/8 in.4 0. Table 3: Minimum Coating Thickness from ASTM A 767/A 767M Table 1a: Coating Thickness Grades from ASTM A 123/A 123M Coating Thickness Grade Coating Grade mils oz/ft2 um g/m2 35 45 55 65 75 85 100 1.5 65 460 3. (mm) /16 to <1/8 (1. 10  915 Bar Designation Size No.
Utilizing a magnetic thickness gauge is a non-destructive.COATING COaTING MEASUREMENTS The specifications give requirements concerning the amount of coating applied to the steel part during the hot-dip galvanizing process. is the electronic Figure 2: The Banana Gauge or digital thickness gauge. The calibrated Figure 4: Microscopy eyepiece of an optical microscope can then determine the thickness of the coating. as seen in Figure 1 (above). is only appropriate for single specimen samples. There are three different types of magnetic thickness gauges. Figure 1: Pencil-Style Magnetic Thickness Gauge COATING THICKNESS The first type of magnetic thickness gauge is pocket-size and employs a spring-loaded magnet encased in a pencillike container. Two different methods can be used to measure the coating weight of hot-dip galvanized steel. without recalibration or interference from gravity. The weights must then be divided by the surface area of the steel part to determine a value that can be compared to the specification requirements. Weigh-strip-weigh measures the weight immediately after a galvanized part is cooled and. The first method uses a process called weigh-galvanize-weigh. The minimum coating requirements specified by ASTM for different classes of work are summarized in Table 1 for ASTM A 123/A 123M. Two different methods are used to measure the coating thickness of hot-dip galvanized steel. The most accurate gauge. and is only appropriate for single specimen samples. as seen in Figure 2 (left) is another tool used to measure coating thickness. a magnetic thickness gauge and microscopy. then. and Table 3 for ASTM A 767/A 767M located on the previous page. The accuracy of the pencil-style gauge depends on the skill of the inspector. The weigh-strip-weigh renders the part unusable as the coating is removed. The second method is a destructive technique called weigh-strip-weigh. A banana gauge. Banana gauges can measure coating thickness in any position. thus the measurement should be made multiple times. The other method to measure coating thickness is a destructive technique that exposes the edge of a coating under an optical microscope as shown in Figure 4 (right). Figure 3: Electronic or Digital Thickness Gauge Coating weight refers to the mass of hot-dip galvanized coating applied to a product for a given surface area. The specification ASTM E 376 contains information on measuring coating thickness using a magnet or electromagnetic current to make coating thickness measurements as accurate as possible. and again. Since this technique destroys the part being measured. then. Weighgalvanize-weigh measures the weight of a steel part after it has been cleaned and. The specifications include tables providing specific requirements for thickness or weight based upon the steel part type and the measured steel thickness. The sample must be sectioned then mounted and polished to show the exposed edge of the hot-dip galvanized coating. and easiest to use. it is only used as a reference method for resolving measurement disputes. The amount of coating can be specified by thickness or weight. COATING WEIGHT AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . Coating thickness refers to the thickness of the final hot-dip galvanized coating. Table 2 for ASTM A 153/A 153M. as seen in Figure 3 (below). again after it has been galvanized. again after the coating has been stripped off the part using an acid solution. Electronic gauges can also store data and perform averaging calculations. simple way to measure coating thickness. This technique only measures the zinc metal added to the steel and will underestimate the total coating weight by up to 10 percent.
04% ridges of thicker coating (Acceptable unless used for handrail) where there is increased intermetallic growth. The recommended silicon composition is either less than 0. The corrosion protection is not affected and these parts Figure 7: Gray Coating Due to Processing (Acceptable) meet the specification. The Sandelin Curve. Dull (Acceptable) parts. and bend areas. The micrographs clearly show the differences in coating structure that can occur due to the amount of silicon in the steel. the micrograph on the left shows a recommended silicon steel zinc-iron alloy formation. The visual inspection should be completed at the galvanizing facility before the part is shipped. the outer edges of the product were cooled rapidly. junctions. dull gray. Figure 10 (right) shows steel with phosphorus levels over 0.25%. shows products with connected galvanized pieces that have different appearances. As the product weathers. The appearances of these pieces differ greatly from one another due to the steel chemistry of the different sections of the Figure 5: Shiny vs. Some of these factors can be controlled by the galvanizers. others cannot. welds.Several factors can affect the finish and appearance of hot-dip galvanized coatings.04% which produce Figure 10: Rough Coating Due to dull coating areas and Phosphorous Levels Over 0. all of these products continue to have an equal amount of corrosion resistance throughout and meet the specification. VISUAL OBSERVATIONS REASONS FOR DIFFERENT APPEARANCES AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . A visually dull and shiny coating on a product can also be the result of a different cooling rate. compares zinc coating thickness to Figure 8: Sandelin Curve the mass percentage of silicon in the steel. The end result is a rough surface with a ridged appearance. as seen in Figure 8 (right). allowing a free zinc layer to form on top of the intermetallic layers. Finish fINISh & APPEARAnCE The amount of silicon added during the steelmaking process can create differences in the appearance of galvanized products. In addition to silicon. The stresses in the steel from processing affect the intermetallic formation and can result in this striped look. the differences in appearance will become less noticeable and the overall color will turn a Figure 6: Gray Coating Due to Temperature Differences (Acceptable) uniform.04% or between 0. the presence of phosphorus influences the reaction between molten zinc and steel. while the micrograph on the right shows reactive silicon steel zinc-iron alloy formation. which is performed by fully observing all parts and pieces of a hot-dip galvanized product to ensure all specification requirements have been met. Visual inspection is done in order to observe surface conditions (both inside and out) and to check all contact points. In Figure 9 (above). however. The inspection of finish and appearance is done with an unmagnified visual inspection.15% and 0. The top rail in Figure 7 (below) has a winding pattern of dull gray areas corresponding to the process used during the making of the tube. Any steels not within these ranges are considered reactive steels and can be expected to form thicker than average zinc coatings. This difference in appearance is a result of the rapid zinc-iron intermetallic growth that consumes Figure 9: Recommended Silicon vs Reactive Zinc/ Alloy Layers all of the pure zinc layer (the growth of the intermetallic layer is out of the galvanizer’s control). Figure 5 (right). The fabrication and processing of the steel can also create a bright or dull appearance in galvanized products. Reactive steels tend to produce thicker galvanized coatings with a matte gray appearance instead of the typical shiny appearance. In Figure 6 (left).
can be cleaned by using post-galvanizing cleaning operations such as a centrifuge or by heating them with a torch to approximately 500 F (260 C) and then brushing them off with a wire brush to remove the excess zinc. Figure 12: Chain and Wire Marks (Acceptable unless bare steel is exposed) Clogged threads are caused by poor drainage of a threaded section after the product is withdrawn from the galvanizing kettle. VISUAL VISUal INSPECTION CLOGGED HOLES/CLOGGED THREADS Clogged holes are a defect caused by molten zinc metal not draining adequately and partially or completely filling holes with excess zinc. like those seen in Figure 12 (below). Some of these surface defects are rejectable. in such a case. If the size of the bare spot or total number of spots causes rejection. regalvanized. regardless. like those seen in Figure 11 (below). Molten zinc will not drain easily from holes less than 3/10" (8mm) in diameter due to the viscosity of zinc metal. as seen in Figure 13b (below). CHAIN AND WIRE MARKS Another type of surface defect occurs when steel is lifted and transported using chains and wires attached to overhead cranes. are a surface defect that can occur because of inadequate surface preparation. Clogged threads. Figure 13b: Clogged Threads (Acceptable after threads are cleaned) AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . the galvanizer must ensure the surfaces are clean and without rust after pretreatment. Clogged holes can be minimized by making all holes as large as possible. excess aluminum in the galvanizing kettle. In order to avoid bare spots. the galvanizer must repair the bare areas before the part is acceptable. left on the galvanized coating from the lifting attachments are not grounds for rejection unless the marks expose bare steel. unless it prevents the part from being used for its intended purpose. The clogged threads must be cleaned before the part will meet the specification. Small bare spots can be repaired in the galvanizing shop. and then re-inspected for compliance to the Figure 11: Bare Spots (Rejectable) specifications. Lifting devices can leave uncoated areas on the finished product that will need to be renovated. Superficial marks. Bare spots may be caused by welding slag. clogged holes less than 1/2” in diameter are not a cause for rejection.The hot-dip galvanized coating can have various surface defects that may or may not lower the long-term corrosion performance. Figure 13a: Clogged Holes (Acceptable) BARE SPOTS Bare spots. the parts may be stripped. defined as an uncoated area on the steel surface. while others will have little effect on the corrosion performance and are not cause for rejection. sand embedded in castings. or lifting devices that prevent the coating from forming in a small area. as they can decrease the corrosion protection. A good example is the screen shown in Figure 13a (below).
called a gross dross particle in the specification. The galvanizer is responsible for proper handling of all steel parts in order to avoid defects from products in contact. Many distorted parts on thin steel sheets can be bent after galvanizing to bring the part to an acceptable final condition. Interior of Pipe (Rejectable) it can be cleaned and repaired. a bare spot is exposed) Another type of surface defect is caused when steel parts come in contact with one another or are stuck together during the galvanizing process. If the dross particles are large. Distortion is acceptable. they will not affect the corrosion protection. Flux inclusions can be created by the failure of the flux to release during the hot-dip galvanizing process. then the dross particle must be removed and the area repaired. shown in Figure 18 (left). Figure 14: Distortion (Acceptable) ExCESS ALUMINUM IN GALVANIzING BATH Another type of surface defect. Touch marks are caused by galvanized products resting on one another or by the material handling equipment used during the galvanizing operation. and if removed. as seen in Figure 15 (below). and regalvanized. flat steel plate or other flat material such as wire mesh. as illustrated in Figure 18 (below). If this condition occurs over the entire part.DISTORTION Distortion.) Figure 18: Products in Contact/ Touch Marks (Rejectable) AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . Touch marks. PRODUCTS IN CONTACT/TOUCH MARKS Figure 15: Dross Inclusions (Acceptable unless large. seen as black marks. stripped. as seen in Figure 17 (above). Flux deposits on the interior of a hollow part. FLUx INCLUSIONS DROSS INCLUSIONS Dross inclusions are a distinct particle of zinc-iron intermetallic alloy that can become entrapped or entrained in the zinc coating. which is a damaged or uncoated area on the surface of the product. and are acceptable. the part must be rejected. If the dross particles are small and completely covered by zinc metal. the galvanized coating will not form under the flux spot. Dross inclusions. and prevent the full galvanized coating from forming on the steel. on the surface of the steel. If this occurs. If Figure 17: Flux Inclusions from the area is small enough. This creates a high stress level often relieved by distortion of the part. The part may be repaired only if small areas Figure 16: Excess Aluminum in Galvanizing Bath (Rejectable) of bare spots are evident. and the part must be rejected. If the flux inclusion covers a large area. as seen in Figure 14 (below). is the buckling of a thin. Since the steel is welded in place it cannot move. Distortion occurs when the steel tries to move to accommodate the thermal expansion. unless it prevents the part from fulfilling its intended use. cannot be repaired. such as a pipe or tube. creating the chance products may become connected or overlapped during the galvanizing process. shown in Figure 16 (left). This creates bare spots. are cause for rejection. VISUal INSPECTION (CONT. but may be repaired if the size meets the specification requirement for repairable areas. Parts rejected for flux deposits may be stripped of their zinc coating and then regalvanized. is caused by an excess amount of aluminum in the galvanizing bath. sometimes may be avoided by changing the lifting orientation or redesigning the product to allow for more effective drainage. then the part must be rejected. A similar type of surface defect is known as a touch mark. This usually occurs when many small products are hung on the same fixture.
Figure 20: Runs (Acceptable) Striations are characterized by raised parallel ridges in the galvanized coating. Sand inclusions are not removed by conventional acid pickling. right). can actually have a positive effect on corrosion performance because a thicker zinc coating is produced. and while the appearance is affected. Striations. seen in Figure 22 (below. Rough surface condition. or the part must be rejected. Sand embedded in a casting is shown in Figure 21 (below). Figure 19: Rough Surface Condition/ Steel Surface Condition (Acceptable) SAND EMBEDDED IN CASTINGS Sand inclusion defects occur when sand becomes embedded in the castings and creates rough or bare spots on the surface of the galvanized steel. If runs are unavoidable and will interfere with the intended application.ROUGH SURFACE CONDITION Rough surface condition or appearance is a uniformly rough coating with a textured appearance over the entire product. as seen in Figure 19 (below). they can be buffed. Figure 21: Sand Embedded in Casting (Rejectable) RUNS STRIATIONS Runs are localized thick areas of zinc on the surface. left). These surface conditions do not affect the corrosion performance and are acceptable. as seen in Figure 22 (below. and regalvanized. are related to the type of steel that was galvanized. the performance of the corrosion protection is not– striations are acceptable. Runs are not cause for rejection unless they affect the intended use of the steel part. stripped. Figure 22: Striations/ Fish Boning (Acceptable) AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . Fish-boning. similar to striations. is an irregular pattern over the entire surface of the steel part. This type of defect leaves bare spots and must be cleaned and repaired. therefore abrasive cleaning should be done before the products are sent to the galvanizer. The cause for rough surface condition could be the steel chemistry or the preparation of the surface by mechanical cleaning. such as blasting before the part reaches the galvanizer. Runs occur when zinc freezes on the surface of the product during removal from the zinc bath. as seen in Figure 20 (below). One of the few situations where rough coating is cause for rejection is if it occurs on handrails. which is caused by differences in the surface chemistry of a large diameter steel piece and variations in the reaction rate between the steel and molten zinc. which can be caused by the chemical composition of the steel.
Medium WET STORAGE STAIN Weeping welds stain the zinc surface at the welded connections on the steel. or heavy white powder on the galvanized steel product. Light 2. Zinc skimmings on the molten zinc surface are then trapped on the zinc coating. as seen in Figure 24 (below). are not the responsibility of the galvanizer and are not cause for rejection. Caused by entrapped cleaning solutions that penetrate the space between the two pieces. This can be caused by paint. This will allow the zinc to penetrate the gap. then the repair requirements apply and small areas may be repaired. should be mechanically removed prior to the galvanizing process. and a surface defect may occur. or lacquer not removed during the pretreatment cleaning steps. Surface contaminants. medium. and the entire part must be regalvanized. If they result in bare areas. as seen in Figure 26 (below). and bars. and having no air flow over the surface. Figure 23: Surface Contaminant (Rejectable) SURFACE CONTAMINANT Wet storage stain is a white. The weld must then be made with gaps instead of continuous weld bead. weeping welds can be avoided by providing a 3/32" (2. Figure 24: Weeping Weld (Acceptable) WEEPING WELD 3. dew. plates. Each of these appearances can be seen in Figure 25 (below). The zinc coating underneath is not harmed during their removal and it meets the necessary specifications.Surface contaminants will create an ungalvanized area where the contaminant was originally located. as seen in Figure 23 (below). Heavy (3) is Rejectable) Zinc skimming deposits are usually caused when there is no access to remove the zinc skimmings during the withdrawal of the steel from the galvanizing kettle. actually making a stronger joint when the process is complete. angles. wax. or condensation.4mm) or larger gap between the two pieces when welding them. It can have the appearance of light. Zinc skimming deposits. such as galvanized sheets. oil. Figure 26: Zinc Skimmings (Acceptable) zINC SKIMMINGS VISUAL INSPECTION AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION . such as rain. but a large area is grounds for rejection. Water reacts with the zinc metal on the surface to form zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide. Wet storage stain is most often found on stacked and bundled items. Heavy Figure 25: Wet Storage Stain (Light (1) or Medium (2) is Acceptable. powdery surface deposit on freshly galvanized surfaces. are not grounds for rejection. Wet storage stain is caused by the newly galvanized surfaces being covered by moisture. Weeping welds. 1.
A clear result indicates the presence of a chromate passivation coating. Steel reinforcing bars bent cold prior to hot-dip galvanizing should be fabricated to a bend diameter equal to or greater than the specified value in A 767/A 767M. tests should be conducted on the galvanized article according to the procedure described in A 123/A 123M. then there is unpassivated zinc present. randomly chosen specimens selected to represent the lot. If this solution creates a dark deposit or black stain.ADHERENCE TEST addITIONal additional inspection testing Testing of the zinc coating adherence to the steel is achieved using a stout knife. and washers. To properly evaluate hot-dip galvanized coatings. waiting 5 seconds. The minimum average coating thickness for a lot is the average of the specimen values and must meet the minimum for the material category as stated in the appropriate specification. it may be necessary to test a small group of the products to measure the ductility. and A 767/A 767M. bolts. BENDING TEST The hot-dip galvanized coating on a steel bar must withstand bending without flaking or peeling when the bending test is preformed in accordance with the procedure in A 143/A 143M. Extremely large parts should be tested in sections to properly represent the entire product. as stated in A 123/A 123M and A 153/A 153M. the not are are For large articles such as plates. EMBRITTLEMENT TEST When there is suspicion of potential embrittlement of a product. A 153/A 153M. The specification to determine the presence of chromate on zinc surfaces is ASTM B 201. bars and angle sections. an entire article should be the test specimen as stated in A 153/A 153M. The measurement of coating thickness should be taken at widely dispersed points to represent a true sampling of the whole part. Rebar is commonly bent prior to the hot-dip galvanizing process. and then blotting it gently. PaSSIVaTION testing passivation . Products suspected of embrittlement shall be tested according to the specification A 143/A 143M. This test involves placing drops of a lead acetate solution on the surface of the product. SamPlING methods sampling A sampling protocol has been adopted by ASTM to ensure high quality products because inspection of the coating thickness for every piece of material galvanized in a project would be practical. The inspection quantities are determined by the lot sizes and detailed in the ASTM specifications A 123/A 123M. For small objects such as nuts.
For best results. Inorganic binders are particularly suitable for paints applied in touch-up applications of undamaged hot-dip galvanized areas.REPaIR mEThOd SElECTIONS repair MeTHOD SelecTiOnS anD cOnSiDeraTiOnS If the galvanized product does not meet all of the requirements of the specification. thickness measurements for the metallized coating should be taken with either a magnetic or an electromagnetic gauge. which is also referred to as metallizing. depending on the binder they contain. Zinc-based solder products closely match the surrounding zinc and blend in well with the existing coating appearance. The coating thickness of the repaired area must match the coating thickness of the surrounding area. When repair of the product is allowed by the specification. The thickness shall be measured by any of the methods in A 123/A 123M that are non-destructive. Paints containing zinc dust are classified as organic or inorganic. zINC-BASED SOLDERS Soldering with zinc-based alloys is achieved by applying zinc alloy in either a stick or powder form. but not greater than 4. zINC-RICH PAINTS Zinc-rich paint is applied to a clean. The renovated area shall have a zinc coating thickness at least as thick as that specified in A 123/A 123M for the thickness grade required for the appropriate material category. dry steel surface by either a brush or spray. electromagnetic or eddy current gauge. The area being repaired needs to be preheated to approximately 600 F (315 C). the galvanizer is responsible for the repair unless directed otherwise by the purchaser. it must be repaired or rejected along with the lot it represents. and measurements should be taken with either a magnetic. The zinc used is nominally 99. The maximum sizes for allowable areas that can be repaired during in-plant production are defined in the specifications. is done by melting zinc powder or zinc wire in a flame or electric arc and projecting the molten zinc droplets by air or gas onto the surface to be coated.5% pure or better and the corrosion resistance of the coating produced by this technique is approximately equal to the hot-dip galvanized coating. Zinc-rich paints must contain either between 65% to 69% metallic zinc by weight or greater than 92% metallic zinc by weight in the dry film. .0 mils. The final coating thickness for this repair shall meet the specification requirement for the material category of the steel part being repaired. TOUCH-UP AND TOUCh-UP aNd REPAIR METHODS The repair methods for hot-dip galvanizing are listed in ASTM A 780 and include three accepted methods: zinc-based solders. zinc-rich paints. The acceptable material compositions of solders used for repair are included in the specification. zINC SPRAy Zinc spray. and zinc spray/ metallizing. The coating thickness for the paint must be 50% higher than the surrounding coating thickness.
RElaTEd aSTm RELATED ASTM SPECIFICATIONS • • • • • ASTM A 123/A 123M – Standard Specification for Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products ASTM A 153/A 153M – Standard Specification for Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Hardware ASTM A 767/A 767M – Standard Specification for Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement ASTM A 780 – Standard Practice for Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coatings ASTM A 143/A 143M – Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized Structural Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement ASTM A 384/A 384M – Standard Practice for Safeguarding Against Warpage and Distortion During Hot-Dip Galvanizing of Steel Assemblies ASTM A 385 – Standard Practice for Providing High-Quality Zinc Coatings (Hot-Dip) ASTM B 6 – Standard Specification for Zinc ASTM D 6386 – Standard Practice for Preparation of Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coated Iron and Steel Product and Hardware Surfaces for Paint ASTM E 376 – Standard Practice for Measuring Coating Thickness by Magnetic-Field or Eddy-Current (Electromagnetic) Examination Methods • • • • • AMERICAN GALVANIZERS ASSOCIATION .
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