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Non-conventional energy sources are the energy sources which gives renewable energy.
Non-renewable energy are the energies which are not replaced by new identical one in the place of the used ones. Best example for the non-conventional energy source is fossil fuels. We cannot replace the used fuels by new one in the same source. Consider the sources to a pencil, if we sharpens it, the size reduces, we cannot increase the size of used(sharpened) pencil. Similarly we cannot refill the source, if we take the fuel the amount of fuel decreases, one day it will be completely exhausted. Some other examples for the non-conventional energy sources tar sands, heavy oil, oil shale, bio-fuels
Energy is the key input to drive and improve the life cycle. Primarily, it is the gift of the nature to the mankind in various forms. the consumption of the energy is directly proportional to the progress of the mankind with ever growing population, improvement in the living standard of the humanity, induatrialization of the developing countries, the global demand for energy is expected to increase rather significantly in the near future. Environmental degradation caused by their widespread use, particularly gloabal warming, urban air pollution and acid rain, strongly suggest thet harnessing of non-conventional, renewable and environment friendly energy resources is vital for steering the global energy supplies towards a sustainable path The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century ushered in new technologies. Some of these inventions involved use of natural resources like coal and oil. The thought of exhaustible nature of these resources and the environmental damage from the use of these resources never occurred either to the inventors or the subsequent generations. In the quest to sustain galloping economic activity, the dependence on coal and oil has soared at a phenomenal rate over the years. The burnt fuels result in the release of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmosphere causing environmental damage. It has become imperative to look at energy technology with a new perspective
The sources of energy which are being produced continuously in nature and are in exhaustible are called renewable sources of energy (or)non-conventional energy
The energy system is unstable because the total energy available on earth is limited and man has exploited the conventional technologies to meet his needs. Consumption of energy by man increased gradually as his wants also increased. Also, increase in energy consumption did not result in equivalent increase or growth in industrial production. As a result, new options had to be looked at. One of them was to look at non-conventional and new sources, preferably renewable and develop technologies to utilize them. The other was to look at energy consumption and introduce energy Conservation. Few forms of energy generated by a source outside and renewed continuously are solar energy (by direct conversion through photovoltaic cells/solar collectors and via photosynthesis), hydro electric energy, tidal energy, wind energy, energy from wastes, geothermal energy. These non-conventional resources have various uses other than energy generation. Although these resources have some disadvantages like large variations in intensity of available energy, they are highly advantageous. Minimizing intermediate conversions increase total utilization efficiency. Also, losses in transport and distribution are not there. Hence, proper recovery methods will not only reduce energy consumption for industrial processes, but also generate additional energy and by-products.
To meet the future energy demands and to give quality and pollution free supply to the growing and today’s environment burning of fossil Intensive conscious population, the present world attention is to go in for natural, clean and renewable energy → Larger percentage of carbon sources. These energy sources capture their energy from on-going natural processes, such as geothermal heat flows, fuels dioxide in the atmosphere sunshine, wind, flowing water and biological processes. Most renewable forms of energy, other than geothermal and tidal power ultimately come from the Sun. Some forms of energy, such as rainfall and wind power are considered short-term energy storage, whereas the energy in biomass is accumulated over a period of months, as in straw, and through many years as in wood. Fossil fuels too are theoretically renewable but on a very long time-scale and if continued to be exploited at present rates then these resources may deplete in the near future. Therefore, in reality, Renewable energy is energy from a source that is replaced rapidly by a natural process and is not subject to depletion in a human timescale. Renewable energy resources may be used directly, such as solar ovens, geothermal heating, and water and windmills or indirectly by transforming to other more convenient forms of energy such as electricity generation through wind turbines or photovoltaic cells, or production of fuels (ethanol etc.) from biomass
82% of energy is from non-renewable resources – 76% from fossil fuels – 6% from nuclear – 18% from renewable sources 50% of people in developing countries use wood and charcoal for heat and cooking
hough. and natural gases. we can use such as heat or electricity. solar energy. wind. When solar radiation enters the earth’s atmosphere. Kinetic energy in the wind can be used to run wind turbines but the output power depends on the wind speed. When sun rays fall on the earth. most of the world's energy sources are derived from conventional sources-fossil fuels such as coal. oil. stocks of energy Solar energy Wind energy Bio energy Hydro energy Geothermal energy Wave and tidal energy ious forms of renewable energy (a) Wind energy Winds are caused because of two factors.bio-fuels wn sustain ably). different regions of the atmosphere are heated to different degrees because of earth curvature.ncept of Renewable Energy ewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy. Turbines generally require a wind in the range 5. Most of the wable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted. wind energy. are sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes.. this causes what we call winds. and therefore they are called renewable. the available quantity of these fuels are extremely large. Since air tends to flow from warmer to cooler regions. and it is these airflows that are harnessed in windmills and wind turbines to produce power The origin of Wind energy is sun. The absorption of solar energy on the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere. geothermal heat. The rotation of the earth about its axis and its motion around the Sun. sea-waves.5 m/s. whereas the fossil and nuclear fuels are. The kinetic energy of the wind is converted to electrical energy. A wind mill converts the kinetic energy of moving air into Mechanical energy that can be either used directly to run the Machine or to run the generator to produce electricity. This heating is higher at the equator and lowest at the poles. are some of the examples of renewable energy sources enewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight. 1. These fuels are often termed non-renewable energy sources. 2. in essence. bio-energy . For example. its surface gets heated up and as a consequence uneven winds are formed. Wind energy Wind energy is basically harnessing of wind power to produce electricity. . falling-water. hydropower etc. or biomass into a form. wever. they are nevertheless finite and so will in principle ‘run out’ at some time in the future ewable energy sources are essentially flows of energy.
of 359 5 MW. A solar power plant offers good option for electrification in areas of disadvantageous locations such as hilly regions. • Solar electricity. In the picture on the right. The transmission is attached to a high speed shaft which turns a generator that makes electricity. Solar heating is to capture/concentrate sun’s energy for heating buildings and for cooking/heating foodstuffs etc. Therefore.just like a large toy pinwheel. the turbine has a brake that will keep the blades from turning too fast and being damaged. Solar electricity is mainly produced by using photovoltaic solar cells which are made of semi-conducting materials that directly convert sunlight into electricity. The shaft goes through a gear transmission box where the turning speed is increased. Obviously the sun does not provide constant energy to any spot on the Earth. If the wind gets too high. This device is called a wind turbine The blades of the turbine are attached to a hub that is mounted on a turning shaft. A small turbine makes enough energy for a house. often Solar cells are used to charge batteries which are used either as secondary energy source or for other applications of intermittent use such as night lighting or water pumping etc. India now has the 5th largest wind power installed capacity. so its use is limited. the children at this school are playing beneath a wind turbine that makes enough electricity to power their entire school. 3 . in th e world SOLAR ENERGY STORAGE CHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE STORAGE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE SENSIBLE HEAT LATENT HEAT CHEMICAL THERMOCHEMICAL ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE MECHANICAL ENERGY STORAGE PUMPED HYDROELECTRIC STORAGE CAPACITOR INDUCTOR BATTERY FLYWHEEL COMPRESSED AIR Solar energy can be used in two ways: • Solar heating.Blowing wind spins the blades on a wind turbine -. You can use a single smaller wind turbine to power a home or a school.
Obviously the sun does not provide constant energy to any spot on the Earth. Solar energy is some times called radiant energy. Diffuse radiation is that Solar Radiation received from the sun after its direction has been changed by reflection and scattering by the atmosphere. These are different kinds of radiant energy emitted by sun. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. so its use is limited. The sum of the beam and diffuse radiation flux is referred to as total or global radiation. The most important are light infrared rays. In addition. especially by clouds. • Solar electricity Solar electricity is mainly produced by using photovoltaic solar cells which are made of semi-conducting materials that directly convert sunlight into electricity. part of the solar radiation is scattered (i. The energy from these reactions flow out from the sun and escape into space. Solar electricity. forests. Further more. and X.3 Solar Radiation at the Earth’s Surface The solar radiation that penetrates the earth’s atmosphere and reaches the surface differs in both amount and character from the radiation at the top of the atmosphere. 2.e. : • . diffuses radiation comes to the earth from all parts of the sky. Ultra violet rays. Solar Radiation that has not been absorbed or scattered and reaches the ground directly from the sun is called “Direct Radiation” or Beam Radiation. and by dust particles. 000 such villages to be electrified through non-conventional sources Brief history of solar energy (or) Importance of solar energy: Energy from the sun is called solar energy. and water vapour and carbon dioxide absorb some of the energy in the infrared range. A solar power plant offers good option for electrification in areas of disadvantageous locations such as hilly regions. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus. Therefore. Solar energy can be used in two ways: • Solar heating. absorb nearly all the Ultraviolet radiation. MNES has identified 18. Solar heating. the radiation entering the od opti partly absorbed by molecules in the air. its direction has been changed) by droplets in clouds by atmosphere molecules. Part of the radiation is reflected back in to the space. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that take place deep in the Sun. . In the first place. THERMAL and islands where other resources are neither available nor exploitable in techno economically viable manner. Energy from the sun is called solar energy..Rays. deserts. often Solar cells are used to charge batteries which are used either as secondary energy source or for other applications of intermittent use such as night lighting or water pumping etc. Because of the Solar Radiation is cattered in all directions in the atmosphere. The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion reaction that takes place deep in the sun. • . Oxygen and Ozone atmosphere is (o3). formed from oxygen. Hydrogen nucleus fuse into helium nucleus.
including the by-products from the wood industry. pyrolysis. Plants use photosynthesis to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy. Its advantage is that it can be used to generate electricity with the same equipment that is now being used for burning fossil fuels. is expected to become one of the key energy resources for global sustainable development. Biomass is used as a fertilizer. It can be used as an additive to reduce vehicle emissions (typically 20%) or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines. When any organic matter. A cheap way to produce cooking gas is by installing a Biogas plant. and motive power. which is derived from biomass. or celluloses) through a process similar to brewing beer. It is derived from numerous sources. similar to that used in beer and wine. crop residue and kitchen waste is fermented in the absence of oxygen. Biomass is an important source of energy and the most important fuel worldwide after coal. airplanes.10. the steam is also used in manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. household wastes etc. in the form of biogas. Flexible-fuel vehicles. Biodiesel can also made by combining alcohol with vegetable oil.12. or recycled cooking greases. Solid biomass such as firewood or comb ustible field crops including dried manure is actually burnt to heat water and to drive turbines Biomass does not add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere as it absorbs the same amount of carbon in growing as it releases when consumed as a fuel. and small . produced by plants such as rapeseed (canola). The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. with huge quantity of biomass available in the form of husk. Bio fuels Unlike other renewable energy sources. shells of coconuts wild bushes etc. In some industries. such as cowdung. Cofiring involves using bio energy feedstock as a supplementary fuel source in high efficiency boilers. Biomass is yet another important source of energy with potential to generate power to the extent of more than 50% of the country’s requirements.modular. cofiring. and trains). lighting. oil and natural gas. which can be burned in diesel engines and buses. There are six major types of biopower systems: direct-fired. . such as cooking. buses. The easiest way to release this energy is by burning the dried up plants. Biomass offers higher energy efficiency through form of Biogas than by direct burning The exhaustibility of LPG & other conventional sources has made these resources very costly. especially sulfur dioxide emissions. sunflowers and soybeans. gasification. biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels— biofuels— for our transportation needs (cars. Most of the biopower plants in the world use direct-fired systems. Biopower Biopower. biogas is generated which contains combustible methane (around 60% ) along with carbon dioxide. Many coal-fired power plants use cofiring systems to significantly reduce emissions. For example. They burn bioenergy feedstocks directly in boiler to produce steam. and traces of other gases. raw material from the forest. wood waste is often used to produce both electricity and steam at paper mills. agricultural crops. These are known as combined heat and power facilities. See Figure 12. India is predominantly an agricultural economy. straw. sugars. is the use of biomass to generate electricity. Bio-energy. It is made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates (starches. Ethanol is an alcohol. anaerobic digestion. trucks. can be extracted and refined into fuel.4 Bio Energy Biomass is a renewable energy resource derived from the carbonaceous waste of various human and natural activities. which run on mixtures of gasoline and up to 85% ethanol are now available Biodiesel. This steam drives the turbo-generator. It is the slurry produced from the Biogas plant. Ethanol is mostly used as a fuel additive to cut down a vehicle's carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions. or biomass power. This gas can serve as a convenient fuel that can be used for a variety of applications.
rivers and streams were dammed and mills were built. Tides co me in. Indian sugar mills are rapidly turning to bagasse. Methane can also be used as the "fuel" in a fuel cell. Water under pressure flows through a turbine causing it to spin. In landfills –scientific waste disposal site . However. the leftover of cane after it is crushed and its juice extracted. raise water levels in a basin. Pyrolysis occurs when biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen. The gas fuels a gas turbine. Methane can be used as an energy source in many ways. Several biopower technologies can be used in small. captured and converted to mechanical energy by waterwheels. • Tidal power. which uses the energy in waves. liquid fuels can be produced from biomass through a process called pyrolysis. they also help farmers meet environmental regulations. cut down power costs and earn additional revenue. About the size of a refrigerator. which can be used as an energy source. On the other side. Power generation through this method has a varying degree of success. or change in elevation. they can be used where there are space limitations for power production. According to current estimates.11). The wave power is also hard to tap. Microturbines have outputs of 25 to 500 kilowatts. In order to produce enough electricity. The Turbine is connected to a generator. . • Wave power. about 3500 MW of power can be generated from bagasse in the existing 430 sugar mills in the country. which captures energy from the tides in horizontal direction. This system is designed for use at the small town level or even at the consumer level. Wherever sufficient head. even probably this option is also not there with the developed nations for future energy production. For example. Not only do these systems provide renewable energy. Around 270 MW of power has already been commissioned and more is under construction. A biopower system that uses pyrolysis oil is being commercialized.wells can be drilled to release the methane from the decaying organic matter. which produces electricity (see Figure 12. Since water is about a thousand times heavier than air is. The pipes from each well carry the gas to a central point where it is filtered and cleaned before burning. which runs an electric generator for producing power. 12. Anaerobic digestion involves using bacteria to decompose organic matter in the absence of oxygen. and methane). but never need recharging. The water is made to pass through a turbine to get out of the basin. modular systems.Gasification systems use high temperatures and an oxygen-starved environment to convert biomass into a gas (a mixture of hydrogen. could be found. Methane can be produced from biomass through a process called anaerobic digestion. some farmers use the waste from their livestock to provide their farms with electricity. Hydroelectric energy is therefore the only viable option. even a slow flowing stream of water can yield great amounts of energy. A small. carbon monoxide. The decay of biomass produces methane gas. In addition to gas. producing electricity as long as there is fuel. This is mainly being done to clean up the environment. There are many forms: • Hydroelectric energy. The biomass then turns into liquid called pyrolysis oil. The waves will usually make large pontoons go up and down in the water. large hydro potential of millions of megawatts is available with the dev eloping countries of the world but major bottleneck in the way o f development of these large Hydro projects is that each site calls for huge investment. which can be burned like petroleum to generate electricity. and tides roll out. to generate electricity.5 Hydro Energy Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Biomass Cogeneration Cogeneration improves viability and profitability of sugar industries. The potential energy of falling water. Fuel cells work much like batteries. powered the start of the industrial revolution. a term usually reserved for hydroelectric dams. Most facilities burn it in a boiler to produce steam for electricity generation or for industrial processes. Two new ways include the use of microturbines and fuel cells. 100 feet head @ 20 gal/min gives the same output. in the form of motive energy or temperature differences. modular system generates electricity at a capacity of 5 megawatts or less. a hydroelectric system requires a location with the following features: Change in elevation or head: 20 feet @ 100 gal/min = 200 Watts. because most major sites within these nations with the potential for harnessing gravity in this way are either already being exploited or are unavailable for other reasons such as environmental considerations.
utilization of solar thermal and solar photo voltaic systems • Wind energy setting up grid connected Wind farm projects • Small hydro setting up small. energy from waste and briquetting projects • Hybrid systems • Energy efficiency and conservation The estimated potential of various Renewable Energy technologies in India by IREDA are given below.In India the potential of small hydro power is estimated about 10. There are three types of electricity conversion systems: closed-cycle. This produces steam that passes through a turbine / generator. IREDA covers a wide spectrum of financing activities including those that are connected to energy conservation and energy efficiency. tides are driven primarily by the gravitational pull of the moon. Energy in water can be harnessed & used. or flood side. A tidal range of at least 7 m is required for economical operation and for sufficient head of water for the turbines. or both. which has a low boiling point. in the form of motive energy or temperature differences.000 MW. Several renewable energy technologies have been developed and deployed in villages and cities of India. Since water is about thousand times heavier than air is.45 MW small Hydro project have been installed in India by the end of March 1999.5-12. The sun warms the surface water a lot more than the deep ocean water. biomass gasification. Even though the sun affects all ocean activity. open cycle. Small Hydro Power projects of 3 MW capacity have been also installed individually and 148 MW projeconstruction. such as ammonia. Ocean mechanical energy is quite different from ocean thermal energy. A total of 183. The vapour expands and turns a turbine. and waves are driven primarily by the winds. even a slow flowing stream of water can yield great amounts of energy. Government of India also created Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) to assist and provide financial assistance in the form of subsidy and low interest loan for renewable energy projects. . or on the thermal energy (heat) stored in the ocean. and hybrid. India has the World's largest programmes for renewable energy. and this temperature difference stores thermal energy. including electricity generation. A barrage (dam) is typically used to convert tidal energy into electricity by forcing the water through turbines. A Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) created in 1992 for all matters relating to Non-Conventional / Renewable Energy. The hybrid systems combine both closed-cycle and open-cycle systems. Ocean thermal energy is used for many applications. biomass based co-generation projects. activating a generator. E 12. Ocean energy draws on the energy of ocean waves. The head of water is then used to drive turbines to generate electricity from the elevated water in the basin as in hydroelectric dams. IREDA's lending is mainly in the following areas: • Solar energy technologies. mini and micro hydel projects • Bio-energy technologies. Ocean Energy Oceans cover more than 70% of Earth’s surface. Closed cycle systems use the ocean’s warm surface water to vaporize a working fluid. Open-cycle systems actually boil the seawater by operating at low pressures.4 m) from site to site. Tidal range may vary over a wide range (4. The ocean contains two types of energy: thermal energy from the sun’s heat. making them the world’s largest solar collectors. The turbine then activates a generator to produce electricity. At present. tides. Barrages can be designed to generate electricity on the ebb side. and mechanical energy from the tides and waves.6 Tidal and Ocean Energy Tidal Energy Tidal electricity generation involves the construction of a barrage across an estuary to block the incoming and outgoing tide.
This requires that the hot rock be relatively shallow. Such potential problems can be normally overcome by a combination of utilising corrosion resistant materials. there are issues in geothermal utilisation that often have technical implications. The result is that there is a mean heat flux at the earth's surface of around 16 kilowatts of heat energy per square kilometre which is dissipated to the atmosphere and space. there are a number of technological solutions available. It comes from radioactive decay in the core of the Earth. especially blades can suffer damage leading to higher maintenance costs and reduced power output. so a liquid can be pre-heated or precooled in underground pipelines. on most of the globe. Heat energy continuously flows from this hot core by means of conductive heat flow and convective flows of L molten mantle beneath the crust. and turbines. so it is site . the geothermal energy from the core of the Earth is closer to the surface in some areas than in others. the temperature of the crust a few feet below the surface is buffered to a constant 714 degree Celsius. Geothermal fluids often contain significant quantities of gases such as hydrogen sulphide as well as dissolved chemicals and can sometimes be acidic. However. Only a small fraction of the molten rock feeding volcanoes actually reaches the surface. which heats the Earth from the inside out and thus energy/power can be extracted owing to the temperature difference between hot rock deep in the earth and relatively cool surface air and water. Whether geothermal energy is utilised for power production or for direct use applications.Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is a very clean source of power. the use of steam . which require attention at the design stage and during operation of the geothermal project. Where hot underground steam or water can be tapped and brought to the surface it may be used directly to heat and cool buildings or indirectly it can be used to generate electricity by running the steam/gas turb ines. Because of this. Most is left at depths of 5-20 km beneath the surface. This heat flux is not uniformly distributed over the earth's surface but tends to be strongest along tectonic plate boundaries where volcanic activity transports high temperature material to near the surface. careful control of brine temperatures. Even otherwise. Well casings and pipelines can suffer corrosion and /or scale deposition.specific and can only be applied in geologically active areas. corrosion. provided careful consideration of such potential problems is made at the design stage. erosion and chemical deposition may be issues. providing free cooling in the summer and heating in the winter by using a heat pump The gradual radioactive decay of elements within the earth maintains the earth's core at temperatures in excess of 5000°C. It can be used in two ways: • Geothermal heating • Geothermal electricity As stated above. where it releases heat that can drive hydrological convection that forms high temperature geothermal systems at shallower depths of 500-3000m.
which will cause a upsurge in the sea water levels drowning all lands at low elevation along the coastal lines.scrubbers and occasionally using corrosion inhibitors. where a lot of new energy production . these fuels are likely to dominate the world primary energy supply for another decade but environmental scientists have warned that if the present trend is not checked then by 2100.8 degrees Celsius. Provided such readily available solutions are employed. So th e world has already made a beginning to bring about the infrastructural changes in the energy sector so as to be able to choose the renewable energy development trajectory. the average temperature around the globe will rise by 1.4 to 5. geothermal projects generally have a very good history of operational reliability. can boast of high capacity factors (typically 85-95%) 10. In developing countries. Geothermal power plants for example. CONCLUSION Keeping in view the reserves of the fo ssil fuels and the economy concerns.
N. in principle. Electrical45 No 11. vol. pp. It is also clear that two or more renewable energy sources has the advantage andstability.10. India must give more thrust development inand field of non-conventional energy sources not only to mitigate to the research the greenhouse effect but also to import. developing countries could have the competitive advantage for driving the world market. Nov. 14. pp. .sector in energy for “Photovoltaic and 10 Bhattacharjee. Dr.”RenewableIndia. “Wanted an aggressiveIndiaCore. which consumes major chunk of foreign lessen dependence on oil/gas an integrated en ergy system consisting exchange reserve.” 1) Kadambini Sharma. the rapid increase of renewables is. easier than in existing capacity would need the industrial countries whereto be converted if a rapid change were to take place. Last but not the least. 2002 33-35.R Bhattacharjee. and understand its necessity and importance. 20-21. 147-150. CONCLUSION Keeping in view the reserves of the fo ssil fuels and the economy concerns. P. Nevertheless.Hrishikesh.” 4) Pradeep K Katti. In developing countries. where a lot of new energy production capacity is to be added. which sea water levels drowning all lands at low elevation along the coastal lines. However. 151-155. Nov. these fuels world primary energy the are likely to dominate supply for another decade but environmental scientists have warned that if theby 2100. 2002. That is. Jul.Mohan India 2005 – The wayBaidwan. No vol.4 to will cause a upsurge in the 5. to believe in power of References: 5) H Ravishankar Kamath. reliability of are economically v iable. 2) Overview of powerof biogasK.8 degrees Celsius. “Application “Renewable Energy: Outlook on Electrical Energy. Sobeginning to bring about the infrastructural changes in the energy has already made a th e world choose the to be able to sector so asrenewable energy development trajectory. P.trend is not checked then present the average temperature around the globe will rise by 1. 2005.N. it is for the citizens also renewable energy sources. strong countries is needed since majority of energy technologies in use in developing participation of developed countries have been developed and commercialized in developed countries first. Sandeep to Sustainable Development.com Wind SreedharC. pp.” 3) C. 42 vol.rural lighting. India. 42 No 21. Energy.R. Khedkar.
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