The electricity sector in India supplies the world's 6th largest energy consumer, accounting for 3.

4% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population. the Energy policy of India is predominantly controlled by the Government of India's, Ministry of Power, Ministry of Coal and Ministry of New Renewable Energy and administered locally by Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs). Ramagundam Thermal Power Station About 70% of the electricity consumed in India is generated by thermal power plants, 21% by hydroelectric power plants and 4% by nuclear power plants.[1] More than 50% of India's commercial energy demand is met through the country's vast coal reserves.[2] The country has also invested heavily in recent years in renewable energy utilization, especially wind energy.[3] In 2008, India's installed wind generated electric capacity was 9,655 MW.[4] Additionally, India has committed massive amount of funds for the construction of various nuclear reactors which would generate at least 30,000 MW.[5] In July 2009, India unveiled a $19 billion plan to produce 20,000 MW of solar power by 2020.[6] Due to the fast-paced growth of India's economy, the country's energy demand has grown an average of 3.6% per annum over the past 30 years.[2] In June 2010, the installed power generation capacity of India stood at 162,366 MW[7] and per capita energy consumption stood at 612 kWH.[8] The country's annual energy production increased from about 190 billion kWH in 1986 to more than 680 billion kWH in 2006.[9] The Indian government has set a modest target to add approximately 78,000 MW of installed generation capacity by 2012 which it is likely to miss.[10] The total demand for electricity in India is expected to cross 950,000 MW by 2030.[11]

The Ministry of Power is the apex body responsible for coordination administration of the electrical energy sector in India. This ministry started functioning independently from 2 July 1992; earlier, it was known as the Ministry of Energy. The Union Minister of Power at present is Sushilkumar Shinde of the Congress Party who took charge of the ministry on the 28th of May, 2009. Major PSUs involved in the generation of electricity include National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC),Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), National Hydroelectric Power Corporation (NHPC) and Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCI). Besides PSUs, several state-level corporations, such as Tamil Nadu Electricity Board(TNEB) in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra State Electricity Board(MSEB)in Maharashtra, Kerala State Electricity Board(KSEB) in Kerala, in Gujarat (MGVCL, PGVCL, DGVCL, UGVCL four distribution Companies and one controlling body GUVNL, and one generation company GSEC), are also involved in the generation and intrastate distribution of electricity. The PowerGrid Corporation of India is responsible for the inter-state transmission of electricity and the development of national grid.

just 52. is the distribution network of 11kV lines or feeders downstream of the 33kV substation. electricity was the main source of lighting for 53% of rural households compared to 36% in 1993. The power network. which generally concerns the common man.[18] some 400 million Indians lose electricity access during blackouts.882 households in 2002. To transmit over long distances. the access to electricity is 93. These lines terminate into a 33kV (or 66kV) substation. Each 11kV feeder . It is possible to bring down the distribution losses to a 6-8 % level in India with the help of newer technological options (including information technology) in the electrical power distribution sector which will enable better monitoring and control. Today over 21% (theft apart!!) of the total electrical energy generated in India is lost in transmission (4-6%) and distribution (15-18%).5% of the population still live without access to electricity. electricity demand outstripped supply by 7-11%.[16][17] Despite an ambitious rural electrification program. The electrical power deficit in the country is currently about 18%. In urban areas.[22] Generation Grand Total Installed Capacity (as on 30-09-2010) is 164.5% while 35. Usually. these lines run into hundreds of kilometres and deliver the power into a common power pool called the grid. where the voltage is stepped-down to 11kV for power distribution to load points through a distribution network of lines at 11kV and lower. power cuts are common throughout India and this has adversely effected the country's economic growth. Power is carried through a transmission network of high voltage lines. How does Power reach us? Electric power is normally generated at 11-25kV in a power station. Clearly.[12] In 2004-05.80 MW.5% of India's GDP. The overall electrification rate in India is 64.5% of rural households have access to electricity. The grid is connected to load centres (cities) through a sub-transmission network of normally 33kV (or sometimes 66kV) lines.1% in 2008. 220kV or 132kV as necessary. common in most parts of urban India.[19] While 80 percent of Indian villages have at least an electricity line.[20] According to a sample of 97. [13] Due to shortage of electricity.[21] Multi Commodity Exchange has sought permission to offer electricity future markets.835. it is then stepped-up to 400kV. reduction in distribution losses can reduce this deficit significantly.Demand Electricity losses in India during transmission and distribution are extremely high and vary between 30 to 45%. AUTOMATION IN POWER DISTRIBUTION The demand for electrical energy is ever increasing.[14][15] Theft of electricity. amounts to 1.

which results in low voltage at the customer end and increases the risk of frequent breakdowns of transformers and feeders. it is not possible to isolate certain loads for load shedding as and when required. A feeder could be either an overhead line or an underground cable. the circuit breaker at the 33kV substation trips (opens). In the absence of switches at different points in the distribution network. a transformer further reduces the voltage from 11kV to 415V to provide the last-mile connection through 415V feeders (also called as Low Tension (LT) feeders) to individual customers. in rural areas. Clearly. etc. there is a need to put in place a system that can achieve a finer resolution in load management. industrial areas. in contrast to less than 2% in some advanced countries. Due to absence of monitoring. the transformer breakdown rate in India is as high as around 20%.0 km. either at 240V (as single-phase supply) or at 415V (as three-phase supply).5-1. .. In the event of a fault on any feeder section downstream. there is a blackout over a large section of the distribution network. The only option available in the present distribution network is the circuit breaker (one each for every main 11kV feeder) at the 33kV substation. However. by re-routing the power to the healthy feeder segments through the operation of switches (of the same type as those for load management) placed at strategic locations in various feeder segments. On the other hand. these circuit breakers are actually provided as a means of protection to completely isolate the downstream network in the event of a fault. As a result. At these load points. Bottlenecks in Ensuring Reliable Power Lack of information at the base station (33kV sub-station) on the loading and health status of the 11kV/415V transformer and associated feeders is one primary cause of inefficient power distribution. Using this as a tool for load management is not desirable.which emanates from the 33kV substation branches further into several subsidiary 11kV feeders to carry power close to the load points (localities. the feeder length is much larger (up to 20 km). In urban areas. A 415V feeder should normally be restricted to about 0. overloading occurs. as it disconnects the power supply to a very large segment of consumers. Unduly long feeders lead to low voltage at the consumer end. villages. If the faulty feeder segment could be precisely identified. the length of an 11kV feeder is generally up to 3 km. In fact. owing to the density of customers. it would be possible to substantially reduce the blackout area.).

and oil level) are recorded in the field at the distribution transformers and feeders. voltage.Typical Power Transmission and Distribution Scenario with DA components The Technology Development Mission A Technology Development Mission on Communication. the various quantities (e. Networking and Intelligent Automation.. temperature. These system quantities are transmitted on-line to the base station (33kV .g. current. using a data acquisition device called Remote Terminal Units (RTU). While the mission focus at IIT Kharagpur is to develop technology for industrial automation. In a distribution automation (DA) system. switch status. IIT Kanpur embarked upon the development of an integrated technology for power distribution automation system. was jointly taken up by IIT Kharagpur and IIT Kanpur.

Hence. and pager) or wired (e. Hyderabad. the cost of importing a DA system technology is prohibitive. The media could be either wireless (e. are involved in these early experiments. Vadodara). (b) micro-controller based remote terminal unit (RTU). the main objective being the development of know-how and a better understanding of the issues involved in implementing DA systems indigenously. alarm generation and remote control. components and software. DataPro Electronics Private Limited. (e) DA software to enable remote monitoring. technological solutions available for DA in developed countries cannot be directly implanted in India. The desired switching action then takes place and the action is acknowledged back to operator for information. radio. an alarm is automatically generated for operator intervention.substation) through a variety of communication media. . Trivandrum. which are confining themselves initially to the automation of 33kV substations. primarily for reliability evaluation in a field environment. The utility environment in India is far different from that in most of the developed countries. Indian Telephone Industries. The measured field data are processed at the base station for display of any operator selected system quantity through Graphic User Interface (GUI). (d) application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for electrical instrumentation. and Computer Maintenance Corporation.. In the event of a system quantity crossing a pre-defined threshold. Pune. In India too. The Mission Activities at IIT Kanpur IIT Kanpur has embarked on an effort to develop indigenous technology for an integrated power distribution automation system in collaboration with four industry partners (Secure Meters Limited.g. Electronics Research and Development Centre. Kerala and Rajasthan). Raebareli. This effort includes development of (a) communication and networking technology using wired and wireless media..g. because of the existing social scenario. and (f) distribution network simulator (a scaled down model of a real-life distribution network) to provide a test bed for a comprehensive testing of the developed technology. Also. Udaipur. and Ethernet). RS-485 multi-drop. a small beginning has been made by a few state utilities (Andhra Pradesh. Assam. Dial-up telephone. Any control action (for opening or closing of the switch or circuit breaker) is initiated by the operator and transmitted from the 33kV base station through the communication channel to the remote terminal unit associated with the corresponding switch or circuit breaker. (c) remotely operable switch for 11kV and 415V feeders. and Danke Switchgears. DA systems are being adopted by utilities in some developed countries in a phased manner.

RS485. Unlike traditional communication solutions. . The acquired data (voltage and current) is processed for rms and power factor calculations. Remotely Operable Switch A load break switch (LBS) for 11kV operation and a moulded case circuit breaker (MCCB) unit for 415V operation have been developed and tested as per available specifications. monitoring and control system functions. The base station communication controller has cross-platform portability. Salient Contributions The technology development mission at the Institute has made the following contributions: Communication and Networking Technology This enables distributed data acquisition. and Intranet connectivity through Ethernet. This open approach facilitates cost effective implementation. Ethernet. on the other hand. Flexibility exists to choose the MCCB of appropriate rating corresponding to the rated feeder current.2 class accuracy with 16 bit A/D converter. and affords RS232 full duplex asynchronous communication. Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) ASIC supports up to four-phase analog inputs (four voltage and four current) for applications such as tri-vectormetre. All command communication functions are invoked through GUI of automation software. It has an option for frequency selection (50/60 Hz) and is of 0. The three-pole 11kV LBS opens in 80 milliseconds at the rated current of 80 A.Some of the developments noted above are being implemented in the IIT Kanpur distribution network as a pilot level installation for field reliability evaluation. it can sustain 16 kA of fault current for one second and can also close on fault. modularity at signal conditioning level. flexibility and expandability. The remote operation is through a three-phase induction motor coupled with gear mechanism. and radio). has an isolator on the incoming circuit and two MCCBs for two outgoing feeders. The remote operation is through solenoidplunger arrangement. and single-phase meter. supports functions for communications network management. While this switch is primarily meant for breaking load current. The 415V MCCB unit. and communication interface. the approach here is to have a core communication controller in the base station that can support diverse choices of communication media (dial-up. and permits LAN. RTU. Remote Terminal Unit The micro-controller based pole-top RTU has 32 analog and 16 digital channels. Internet. Some design goals focus at low cost. Data transfer from/to RTUs supports industry standard data links.

total harmonic distortion. Linux. the ASIC-based metering applications have been validated using the hardware behavioural simulation of ASIC. cross-platform portability (Windows NT. and energy. power. forty one circuit breakers represented by four-pole controllable relays (with selection for remote/local operation). system topological information. Implementation at five 11kV substations in IIT Kanpur is currently in progress. The simulator applications include testing of various communication systems and protocols. As the simulator provides a feel of actual physical system. will be marketed by the four industry partners. provides SQL interface for backup in standard databases for all off-line applications. . communication linkage (for Ethernet. cross-platform portability. DA software The DA software has the following components: (i) Distribution network software with attributes like graphical representation of network. dial-up. single generic RTU (96 digital and 128 analog channels) covering all transformers. and integration and testing of application software. editing features. not just within India. network validation. power factor. and is expected to be completed by the end of 1999.0 library format. switch control commands. It calculates quantities like rms values of voltage and current (both actual and fundamental). Closure Most of the developments undertaken as part of the mission have been completed over the last three years. Distribution Network Simulator It is a scaled-down model of the actual IIT Kanpur distribution network. frequency. it can serve as a training tool for operators of DA system. RS485 and radio). and fault detection and isolation. fine tuning of RTU and LBS control prior to field installation. permits sharing of data in multiple processes. and has registry access for security and RTU identification. and billboard printing. alarm generation (audio/video). equipment health and switch status). (ii) Set-up utilities for installation on different platforms. uses shared memory approach. It is expected that the technology for DA system developed through this mission. the necessary fine tuning of the technology will be done for increased reliability. Some of these developments have already been implemented in the 33kV substation of IIT Kanpur. (iv) Database with real-time attributes that conforms to DNP3. load shedding. (iii) Automation software having real-time features. Solaris). testing of DA software. control interlocks and event log report. having suitably scaled-down versions of fourteen transformers. customizing. The ASIC design is verified using Verilog HDL simulation. While the ASIC fabrication is being finalised. component specification. LT loads which can be varied from 0-150% in steps of 25%. system monitoring (of system quantities. and (v) Application software which includes packages for network re-configuration. but also in the other developing countries.Sampling rate is 5000 samples per second per channel. thirty 11 kV feeders. volt-var control through capacitor switching. Based on this field experience.

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