This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
! Cropping - Do this with the camera first. Capture the most important part of the picture the part that makes the story. Your pictures need to have a variety of types of cropping. Perspective - Try to get interesting perspective that other photographers have not tried, or that you have not often seen. Bend your knees, and tippy-toe whenever necessary. Standing on a bench, chair, ladder, etc. can be an excellent helper. Lighting - Use natural lighting whenever you can. You want to create a mood with your lighting. Watch where you have shadows. Any indoor picture may need a flash. Action - Place yourself close to the action. Try to get people in action. Capture their daily activities. Sports scenes lend themselves to fast action. When photographing sports, try to get as many faces as you can. Contrast - Try to get your blacks as black as possible and your whites as white as possible. Contrast small shapes with large shapes. Creativity - Create a new view of a common picture. See things in a way that you never noticed before. Crop your center of interest so that it is telling the whole story - showing faces, expressions, moods, movements, stances, situations, and experiences that we all share at one time or another. Find our likenesses and differences. Consistency - Be as consistent as you can. At first this will be difficult, but it will slowly start to make an impression on you when you do certain things the same that give you good pictures. Follow that, so your pictures are the best possible. Balance - Each picture has its own balance and should be pleasing to look at. It can be formally balanced or informally balanced, but the basic principles of design apply here too. Try not to make something look like it is falling off the page, etc. Aperture The aperture is a mechanism inside the lens of your SLR camera that alters the size of the hole into which light passes through to record an image on film. The aperture controls how much light moves through the lens to react with the chemicals on your film when you are taking a picture.
Using small apertures to maximize depth can also be desirable from a creative standpoint. f/8. f/4. Objects outside a specific range are not thought of as being within an acceptable level of focus. average light has a color temperature of around 5500 degrees Kelvin.6. result in more depth being recorded in your image than if you are using a small f / number (large aperture). and the bluer the light is the warmer its color temperature. Daylight film is manufactured to record light that measures 5500 degrees Kelvin correctly on film. the level of sharpness of an image can measure depth of field. such as f/2. f/5. The most common aperture settings that are available for use on most brands SLR cameras are f/2. your lens focal length and the distance between your camera and your subject. If you stop your lens down whilst shooting on sunny days and the sun is included in your composition. to avoid both gross exposure problems and the discomfort of peering at the sun through your viewfinder. Small apertures (large f / numbers). one example is the creation of sun stars when shooting at f/22. sharply and with definition in your final image. while light that is warmer will create a blue cast. A small f / number produces an image in which the central subject on which you have focused will be recorded in sharp detail by letting a large amount of light pass through the lens. Depth of field range is dependent on your aperture setting. thus in your final image they will lack definition and clarity. Light that is cooler than 5500 degrees Kelvin will create an orange or yellow cast in your image. f/11. the redder the light is. The light around midday on a clear day is understood to be average.8. such as a tree or a statue. the more depth of field you will have recorded in your final image.The size of the opening is measured using f / numbers (field number). everything else will be out of focus. It is a good idea to hide the sun behind a solid object. Objects within a certain range of sharpness are thought of as being within an acceptable level of focus. f/16 and f/22. rays of light will shoot out from the sun. . such as f/22.8. Depth of field In a nutshell. Basically. the cooler its color temperature. The larger the f / number. Color temperature of light The color temperature of light is measured in degrees Kelvin. Each of these settings increase exposure (if you use an f / number that is larger than the previous) or decrease exposure (if you use an f / number that is smaller than the previous) by one stop. subjects within this acceptable range will be recorded clearly. A large f / number has the effect of producing a pin sharp image in which an acceptable level of focus is maintained from the foreground through to the background by letting only a small amount of light through the lens.
the more depth that you will have recorded in your image.As with anything in life there is a trade off when it comes to using very small apertures. this determination is realized by using the through the lens (TTL) metering system that is built into your SLR camera. Once you have decided on including the depth of field effect in your image. Zoom lenses suffer more from refraction when pushed to their extremes than prime (fixed focal length) lenses. The further away your subject is that you are shooting. this technique is commonly known as adding a framing object. Exposure The fundamentals of exposure. If you are using very small apertures. compose your shot as close to your foreground object as is possible. line up your middle ground and background subjects and take the shot. which emphasizes depth by including both a close foreground and a distant background subject. it is time to plan your composition. By adding a framing object you create an entry point into your image for the viewer. The best lens choice you can make to exaggerate depth of field is to attach your wide angle lens. This technique can be used to exclude a dull and boring skyline from your composition. one in middle ground and one in the background. This rule states that to gain a correct exposure in bright sunlight you need to shoot at the reciprocal of the speed of the film you are using (1/ISO film speed) at f/16. If you are shooting on ISO 100 speed film for example. It is a good idea to include three feature subjects in your image. Another technique that is frequently adopted to increase depth of field is to add a subject around the top and/or sides of your composition. This is known as the hyper focal effect. set your shutter speed to the closest . you may notice that the quality of your prints diminish somewhat. Zoom lenses exhibit optimal performance when using apertures of between f/8 and f/11. although overlooked and ignored by the point and shoot snapshot photographer. such as f/22. Using a wide-angle lens and an aperture of f/22. Cameras are not designed to produce their best results when pushed to the extreme. are very important to understand if your goal is to produce dramatic and correctly exposed images Exposure is determined by the relationship between shutter speed and aperture. a 20-28 mm wide angle lens will provide you with pin sharp clarity from the immediate foreground through to the background of your composition. One quick and easy way to determine correct exposure is to use the sunny f/16 rule. this is due to a phenomenon known as refraction. a 300 mm lens will make your three dimensional images appear flat and compact in your final image. one in the foreground. Telephoto lenses do the opposite and compress perspective. It is the responsibility of the photographer to determine the correct shutter speed and aperture settings that will produce an image that is correctly exposed.
On a bright cloudy day set your aperture to f/8. the recommendation is based on the 18 percent grey rule. Using a through the lens metering system is very advantageous when taking photographs because the system measures elements of light that are reflected off your subject and back through your lens and onto your film. . this metering system determines the exposure that is necessary by reading light levels in an area around the middle of your composition or view finder. Matrix metering This system uses a complicated algorithm to correctly expose an image.available shutter speed. matrix metering and spot metering. Center weighted metering As the name suggests.6 and if you are shooting in dark overcast conditions use an aperture of f/4. It should be noted though that relying on your TTL metering system and taking the recommendation by your meter as a given might leave you with disappointing results. if you are shooting a snow covered landscape. The color of an object has no relevance as to whether it is medium grey or not. The shutter speed and aperture that the meter suggests is calibrated in such a way so that a specific amount of light passes through the lens onto the film with each frame you shoot. if you are shooting in a forest that is very poorly lit because the canopy of tree cover is prohibiting penetration from sunlight. The most common metering systems on the market are center weighted metering. you are probably going to end up with an overexposed image because your meter will recommend a shutter speed and aperture combination that will increase the amount of light hitting the film to achieve the 18 percent grey standard. Making these changes compensates for decreased light levels. simply change the aperture you are using. The term medium grey refers to a tonal value. There are different types of metering systems available. The idea is that measuring light levels in certain parts of the frame allows the metering system to suggest a correct shutter speed and aperture combination that should be used. this rule tells the meter that it must suggest a shutter speed and aperture that will result in the production of an image that is a medium grey tone. it is important to make adjustments when shooting in different lighting conditions. in this case 1/125 of a second. if you are shooting in the shade set it to f/5. Conversely. The disappointing results come where the scene that you are shooting has lighting conditions that are either lighter or darker than this average shade of grey. the metering system is going to suggest an exposure that will result in the production of an underexposed image because the meter will effectively decrease the amount of light being reflected off the snow to bring light levels down to the 18 percent grey tone that it is programmed to deliver. If you incorporate this philosophy into your photography. Basically. successful spot meter readings can be obtained by metering off an object which is a medium tone of blue or brown for example. Bracketing is essential to ensure that you come away with a selection of correctly exposed images. For example. To do this.
the chemicals on a film that has a rating that is half of another react twice as slowly when exposed to light. visit your local camera retailer and buy a grey card. The chemicals on a film rated ISO 200 react twice as quickly when exposed to light as those on an ISO 100 speed film. It is very important that the part of the scene that you isolate is as close as possible in color to a medium grey tone. it means that its chemicals react twice as quickly when exposed to light. There are a few different spot metering techniques to consider. The rating system works by branding a film with a number based on how quickly the chemicals on its surface react when exposed to light. recompose your subject and fully depress the shutter release button to take the shot. If you are correct in your spot metering technique. Once you have your composition determined. medium grey subjects will be recorded on your film as a medium tone. to take a basic spot meter reading simply isolate a part of your scene that is close to 18% grey that you want to include in your composition by using a zoom lens or by getting closer to your subject and half depress your shutter release button to lock the exposure in place. in situations like this it is a good idea to use your built in spot metering facility. A spot meter measures the light levels in a very small portion of your composition to come up with a combination of shutter speed and aperture that will result in a correctly exposed image. It is a good idea to do this in aperture priority mode after you have decided on the amount of depth you want recorded in your image and set the f / number accordingly. An object that is lighter will underexpose your image. Secondly. including every subject that you desire within your view finder. while a darker object will overexpose your image. Once you have your suggested spot metered exposure locked in place. Firstly. fully depress the shutter release button to take the shot. chemicals on an ISO 400 speed film react twice as quickly when exposed to light as those on an ISO 200 speed film . Keeping the exposure locked in place. If one film has a rating that is twice as high as another. Speed is expressed as an ISO (International Standards Organization) rating. bright areas will be recorded as highlights and the darker regions of your composition will be recorded as tones that are darker than 18% medium grey. recompose your shot. Place your grey card in the same light as the composition that you are shooting and take a spot meter reading off it by isolating an area of the card with your zoom lens and half depress the shutter release button to lock your exposure in place. Bracket to ensure that you come away with a couple of great images. Film The speed at which the chemicals on the surface of film react when exposed to light is known as its speed. again in aperture priority mode so that you can control depth of field. Using a grey card to spot meter off is safer than metering off objects that you think are close to an 18 percent grey tone.Spot metering When the scene that you are photographing contains both illuminated and unlit areas it can be difficult to correctly expose your composition.
you should consider shooting with ISO 400 or ISO 800 speed film. this exposure error can be corrected in the photo lab at the printing stage of the cycle. Fast film should be used in situations where light levels are too low to shoot with slow speed film. This is because every time you double your film speed you halve your exposure time. Negative film has wide exposure latitude.You might be tempted at this point to race out and buy the fastest film you can get hold of so that you can avoid using a tripod and hand hold your camera instead. and/or when freezing a subject in its tracks is important to the success of the image. Subjects or objects in contrasting lighting conditions can be recorded in one composition without the image looking underexposed or overexposed. then do yourself a favor and shoot with the slowest speed film you can get your hands on. . however. If you do manage to under or overexpose your image. this means that light with different color temperatures can be recorded accurately in the same frame. Alternatively you could shoot at an f / number that is 4 stops larger (an aperture that is four stops smaller). this type of film is relatively cheap and is developed in photo laboratories to produce prints. it is highly suggested that you shoot with the slowest film possible. the faster the film that you use the grainier your final image will be. Because routine changes are made at the printing stage of the cycle. ISO 50 or ISO 100 speed film. The fact that major film companies produce fast film indicates to us that indeed they do have a purpose in life. There is a direct relationship between film speed and image quality. If convenience is important to you. There are two primary types of film available in the SLR camera photography market. such as the use of filters. these are namely negative film and slide film. Negative film Negative film is usually used by snapshot photographers. To eliminate the chance of camera shake when using the long exposures that are necessary when shooting with slow speed film. the better quality images you will produce. As a general rule. If you shoot with ISO 800 speed film instead of ISO 50 speed film. it is difficult to control the outcome of your final image. and you want to be able to take your camera out of your bag and shoot while hand holding your camera. than what is convenient. mount your camera on a tripod and use a cable release attachment. the slower the film you use. Creative techniques. basically. If your attitude towards photography has more to do with the production of high quality results. The benefit of using fast films is that they allow you to dramatically shorten your exposure time and use smaller apertures (larger f / numbers) than slow speed film. If you want to produce pin sharp images with an unnoticeable grain. such as ISO 25. you can shorten your exposure by four stops. there is a catch.
bracketing is essential to ensure that you walk away with at least a few acceptable results. in some cases the bright light sources will burn out. unlike negative film. it produces colors which are deeper. or two and a half stops either side of an 18% grey medium toned object in your composition. Exposure latitude is the ability of film to properly record both highlights and shadows in the same frame. This makes accurate exposure mandatory. Slide film is more saturated than negative film. If it is your goal to experiment with any number of creative techniques to better your photography. slide film is for you. At its limit slide film can record light sources that are five stops worth of exposure apart. unlike negative film. If you attach a polarizing filter you will notice it in your print. Black and white film is ideal when shooting human subjects indoors. more vibrant and detailed. artificial light sources will leave skin tones looking off color and unnatural. shooting on slide film should be your number one priority. thus if you are new to shooting with slide film. Slide film. Slide film can only accurately record a small range of light sources with different color temperatures in one frame. When making prints from slide film. If you shoot a composition in which you have light sources with contrasting intensity. Slide Film If you are looking to produce high quality prints that can be dramatically enlarged. the quality or nature of your efforts cannot be changed in any way at the photo lab. Underexposure or overexposure is much more difficult to control when shooting with slide film. Unless you are using tungsten balanced film. Narrow exposure latitude makes gaining a correct exposure paramountly important. The quality and nature of the final image that you will end up with is determined the minute you depress your shutter activation button when shooting with slide film in your camera. while the darker areas of your composition will lack sufficient detail to be considered acceptable. You have to be really careful with your metering technique to gain correct exposure. The image is first generation. Black and white film The use of black and white film is perfect in situations where multiple light sources that create ugly and noisy color casts in your final image are present in your composition. it cannot be altered. the same as you would if you increased or decreased your exposure by a stop. these light sources might include sodium vapor or mercury bulbs that are used to illuminate buildings at night. shooting in mono eliminates this problem by not recording color.can be visually impossible to distinguish in your final image when shooting with negative film. that is. what you see on your slide is what you will get on your print. . By shooting in mono (black and white) you no longer have to decide whether or not to use filters to correct these color casts. has narrow exposure latitude.
Tungsten film Tungsten film is manufactured to balance tungsten light. Tungsten film is designed to record accurate color rendition when the color temperature of light equals 3200 degrees kelvin. this tells you the appropriate f / number that you should be using. The calculation involves dividing the guide number of your manual flashgun by the distance between the flash and your subject in meters. the evening sky however will take on a strange and dramatic deep blue color cast. while your camera will determine the correct shutter speed. Switch your camera to aperture priority mode and set your calculated aperture. or to use a large f / number (small aperture) to record depth of field. Basically. and vice versa if you want to record your subject in low light. This technique gives you complete control. When using a manual flash gun you need to do a quick calculation in your mind to determine the aperture that you will need to use to gain a correct exposure. this technique involves setting your camera to its bulb setting. It then provides the correct amount of light during exposure to produce an acceptable final image. deactivate your shutter to stop the exposure. Your flash uses an electronic sensor. . simply switch your SLR camera to one of any of its automatic modes and fire away. A tripod and cable release is essential due to the diminished light levels requiring you to use a long exposure. then walking around the scene with an independent flash gun and pushing the test button to light your subjects. activating the shutter. you can use a technique known as open flash. artificial light sources will be balanced and be recorded as white in your final image. thus you will face no surprises. or light that has a low color temperature. Tungsten film can also be used for creative effects. If you persevere enough you will learn to control this effect and produce dramatic images. or sometimes infrared technology in modern SLR cameras to gauge the light that is being reflected off your subject. which is common when you are shooting a foreground subject as well as a subject that is in the background. Flash The use of a flash gun is necessary when you find yourself photographing compositions in a situation where there is not enough natural light to use your desired shutter speed to freeze your moving subject. the variables to consider are the flash`s guide number and your subjects distance from the flash. Using a dedicated or an automatic flashgun is fairly easy. If you shoot outside in the low light of the after light period with tungsten film. Use slow speed ISO 64 tungsten slide film as opposed to fast tungsten ISO 320 speed film to create mind boggling pictures with pin sharp clarity. to brighten your final image simply fire the flash more times. If you still do not have enough light to shoot your desired composition when you are using your flash. By shooting in aperture priority mode you can set the aperture to obtain optimum results with the flash. when shooting indoors. Once you have fired your flash off enough times to provide the necessary amount of illumination. Experimentation is required to find the right time during the sundown period to shoot in order to gain acceptable results. Use a manual flash gun as this will provide you with the same amount of light every time you push the test button.
you are utilizing side lighting. either front or side lighting is favorable. the almost non existent light levels that you are shooting in should prevent this. this is a truly amazing effect. simply divide your flash`s guide number by the distance in meters between the flash and your subject to calculate the aperture that will provide you with a correct exposure. Do not worry about yourself being recorded in your image as you walk around firing off your flash gun.Using the right aperture is very important when using this technique. Finally. back lighting should be utilized as you can mute any detailed features of your subject by photographing it against a bright background to record it as a solid black object in your composition. If you are using a different speed film you will have to adjust your aperture accordingly. Depending on the light in which you are shooting and the way that you use the available light. the quality of your images will differ immensely. When shooting silhouettes. To maximize depth of field in your image. Depending on the situation. If you want to photograph a scene that is been bathed in light by the deep orange glow of a stunning sunset. you are utilizing front lighting. If you position the sun behind a tree and tightly crop a few of the leaves with your telephoto lens. when photographed properly. Side lighting will also accentuate texture and form in your final print. if you fail to do this the intense light can distract your viewer and take the emphasis away from your primary subject. these techniques differ depending on where the sun is in relation to the subject you are shooting. When shooting landscapes. Lighting Conceptually. There are three different lighting techniques that you can incorporate into your photography. Back lighting is ideal for shooting translucent objects. if you are shooting into the sun. use side lighting to throw long shadows across your landscape to visually elevate the distance between objects. This calculation provides a suggested aperture for use with ISO 100 speed film. As long as you do not get between the flash gun and your subject. you can record the illumination of the sun piercing through the leaves. . front lighting is sufficient. the use of any of these techniques can be favorable. If you are shooting a subject with the sun at your back. When utilizing back lighting it is a good idea to hide the sun behind an object in your composition. lighting is one of the most important variables to take control of in your quest to improve your photography. you are using back lighting. if the sun is at a 90 degree angle to you at your side.
you are on the path to producing great images. Film. During the golden light period there is less contrast between subjects included in your composition and shadows appear less harshly on film. If you use this facility. light will be recorded as steely blue in your frame due to its high color temperature. by locking your mirror up before you take a photograph you eliminate vibration that is caused when the mirror in your camera makes contact with your focussing screen during exposure. along with a solid photography technique that includes proper use of a sturdy tripod and cable release. or grossly underexpose the darker areas of your composition if you expose for the highlights in your composition. The orange glow around sunset tends to be warmer than the light of sunrise because the atmosphere is clogged with pollution that is . Shooting around sunrise or sunset helps to eliminate problems associated with shooting in high contrast lighting situations. The small exposure latitude of slide film becomes a problem when shooting in high contrast lighting conditions because in most cases you will grossly overexpose the highlights in a scene if you correctly expose the shadowed areas of your composition. Sunrise is known for giving your images a beautiful yellow glow. or what have come to be known as the golden hours in photography circles.Mirror lock-up facility For ultimate image clarity and sharpness. if you arrive at your pre-scouted location an hour before. especially slide film. Dawn is recognized for the purple skies it produces as night slowly progresses into early morning. Arriving at a location a decent amount of time before sunrise or after sunset when there is still a little light in the sky is the best way to improve the quality of your images. use your mirror lock up facility on your SLR camera. the bright lights in your composition will burn out on film. you should look to shoot around sunset. Generally speaking. you should produce professional pin sharp pictures every time. Optimal shooting hours If you are serious about photography. When looking to produce an image in which your subject is bathed in beautiful orange light. while subjects that are shadowed will lack an acceptable level of detail in your final image. If your exposure produces anything other than a balance of these extreme lighting conditions. and stay until two hours after sunrise or sunset. as well as for enhancing depth of field because of the long shadows that the early morning low angled sun cast across your composition. is not designed to record bright light and dark shadows in the same frame. Basically. it fundamental that you take advantage of the optimal shooting hours.
By composing your shot so that you have a foreground subject. a middle ground subject and a background subject. this pollution holds back blue wavelengths. one creative technique to consider is including it as a sun star. such as f/22. If you want to include the golden orb of the sun in your composition. The low raking sunlight also produces a catch light effect in your subjects eyes. When shooting on slide film this will be beneficial as variance in color temperature will not be so high and thus not create problems associated with burn out of bright subjects or lack of definition in shaded subjects in your frame. eyes are recorded as big and bold in your image as opposed to sunken and hidden. When shooting with the sun on your back or to your side. A sun star requires the use of no filters or other tools. simply set your wide angle lens to a small aperture. Consider placing the sun behind another subject you are photographing to dramatize the beauty of the setting sun and its effect on your subject. you can really accentuate feelings of depth in your image. Cloud cover causes more even distribution of the suns rays of light. Front lighting and side lighting are useful techniques to adopt when shooting in the hours around sunrise or sunset. and fire away. The orange cast in your final image will in most cases be stronger than what you saw with your eyes at the time you shot the frame because the color temperature of the light at sunset is lower than the 5500 degrees kelvin day light level at which film is manufactured to produce accurate results.produced during the day. while having your aperture set to f/16 or f/22. you take the edge off unflattering light to create an image in which there is balanced lighting. and tones down the harsh shadows that exist on bright sunny days. the long shadows that are cast by the setting sun turn what would otherwise be an average composition into a dramatic one. . Shooting during the golden hours of the day is ideal for photographing wildlife subjects. Basically. consider venturing out on cloudy days instead. The low angled light that you get at sunrise and sunset is perfect for emphasizing texture. but lets the red wave lengths pass through to rake across landscapes and other subjects which you want to shoot. The lack of contrast between bright and dark areas of your subjects body means that its fur or hair is recorded beautifully with regards to color and texture. If you cannot get outside during the hours surrounding sunrise or sunset. When shooting on cloudy days you achieve the same effect as a studio photographer who uses an umbrella to deal with contrast between the highlights and shadows created when shooting with a flash.
Fujichrome Provia ISO 1600 for example. Each time that film speed is doubled it is necessary to push process your roll of film by one extra stop. but some are specially designed to be up-rated. the film is thus underexposed. Up-rating and push processing film has the same effect on your final image as when using a faster speed film. It is important to remember that this technique must be applied to your entire roll of film. . The more you push process a film. In general. You can use this handy technique to avoid having to pack up your gear and go home. Any film can be up-rated. up-rating is fooling your camera into thinking that you are using film that is faster than it actually is. Processing time must be lengthened to ensure that your film is correctly exposed. photographers who use this technique usually double or quadruple the film speed setting manually on their SLR camera. as at the processing stage this entire roll will be processed for longer to ensure correct exposure of film and also prints at a later stage. it is thus important to let your photo lab know the details of your uprating activities to avoid confusion concerning the quality of your images. the more grain that will be noticeable in your final image. for example. would thus be up-rated to ISO 200 or ISO 400. ISO 100 film. Basically. can be rated anywhere between ISO 400 and ISO 3200. Getting a roll full of underexposed prints back is something that no one wants.Up-rating film Up-rating film is great when you find yourself in a situation where the film you are using is simply not fast enough to allow you to gain an acceptable exposure.