2009; 17:320–326 Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI: 10.1002/pip.911



Solar Cell Efficiency Tables (Version 34)
Martin A. Green1*,y, Keith Emery2, Yoshihiro Hishikawa3 and Wilhelm Warta4
1 2 3

ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Australia National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, CO., 80401, USA National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPV), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8568, Japan 4 Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Department: Solar Cells—Materials and Technology, Heidenhofstr. 2; D-79110 Freiburg, Germany

Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined and new entries since January, 2009 are reviewed. Copyright # 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
key words: solar cell efficiency; photovoltaic efficiency; energy conversion efficiency Received 7 May 2009

Since January 1993, ‘Progress in Photovoltaics’ has published six monthly listings of the highest confirmed efficiencies for a range of photovoltaic cell and module technologies.1,2 By providing guidelines for the inclusion of results into these tables, this not only provides an authoritative summary of the current state of the art but also encourages researchers to seek independent confirmation of results and to report results on a standardised basis. In the previous version of these Tables (Version 33)2, results were updated to the new internationally accepted reference spectrum (IEC 60904-3, Ed. 2, 2008), where this was possible. The most important criterion for inclusion of results into the tables is that they must have been measured by a recognised test centre listed elsewhere.2 A distinction is made between three different eligible areas: total area; aperture area and designated illumination area1. ‘Active area’ efficiencies are not included. There are also certain minimum values of the area sought for the different device types (above 0Á05 cm2 for a concen-

trator cell, 1 cm2 for a one-sun cell, and 800 cm2 for a module)1. Results are reported for cells and modules made from different semiconductors and for sub-categories within each semiconductor grouping (e.g. crystalline, polycrystalline and thin film).


Highest confirmed cell and module results are reported in Tables I,II and IV. Any changes in the tables from those previously published2 are set in bold type. In most cases, a literature reference is provided that describes either the result reported or a similar result. Table I summarises the best measurements for cells and submodules, Table II shows the best results for modules and Table IV shows the best results for concentrator cells and concentrator modules. Table III contains what might be described as ‘notable exceptions’. While not conforming to the requirements to be recognised as a class record, the cells and modules in * Correspondence to: Martin A. Green, ARC Photovoltaics Centre of this Table have notable characteristics that will be of Excellence, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052, Ausinterest to sections of the photovoltaic community with tralia. y entries based on their significance and timeliness. E-mail:

Copyright # 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1: 1989 reference spectrum. Appl.1002/pip . Seven new results are reported in the present version of these Tables. 17:320–326 DOI: 10. 5 sun illumination at a sample temperature of 508C. JQA ¼ Japan Quality Assurance.SOLAR CELL EFFICIENCY TABLES 321 Table I. Ge substrate16 Spire. d FF ¼ fill factor. To ensure discrimination. AIST ¼ Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Readers who have suggestions of results for inclusion into this Table are welcome to contact any of the authors with full details. g Reported on a ‘per cell’ basis. epitaxial17 NREL. f Recalibrated from original measurement. Effic. Neuchatel21 Kaneka (2 mm on glass)22 Sharp23 Sony. Uppsala. Confirmed terrestrial cell and submodule efficiencies measured under the global AM1Á5 spectrum (1000 W/m2) at 258C (IEC 60904-3: 2008. mesa on glass20 U. a-Si ¼ amorphous silicon/hydrogen alloy. k Stability not investigated. CIGS on glass18 U. The first new result in Table I is the achievement of 8Á4% efficiency referenced to the new spectrum for a 17 cm2 dye-sensitised submodule fabricated by Sony3 and measured by the Japanese National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). h Not measured at an external laboratory. Ltd. Photovolt: Res. ¼ efficiency. l Stabilised by 174 h. (da) ¼ designated illumination area. 4 serial cells19 NREL. e ¨ FhG-ISE ¼ Fraunhofer Institut fur Solare Energiesysteme. 20 cells)14 Radboud U. Suggestions conforming to the guidelines will be included on the voting list for a future issue (a smaller number of ‘notable exceptions’ for concentrator cells and modules additionally is included in Table IV). Stuttgart (45 mm thick)13 CSG Solar (1–2 mm on glass. 1 sun AM1Á5 illumination at a cell temperature of 508C. 1 sun illumination after 20 h. Nijmegen15 RTI.25 Spectrolab (monolithic) Japan Energy (monolithic)26 Kopin/Boeing (4 terminal)27 Kaneka (thin film)28 26Á1 Æ 0Á8 18Á4 Æ 0Á5 22Á1 Æ 0Á7 19Á4 Æ 0Á6h 16Á7 Æ 0Á4 16Á7 Æ 0Á5h 9Á5 Æ 0Á3i 10Á1 Æ 0Á2j 10Á4 Æ 0Á3k 8Á4 W 0Á3k 5Á15 Æ 0Á3k 2Á05 W 0Á3k 32Á0 Æ 1Á5j 30Á3j 25Á8 Æ 1Á3j 11Á7 Æ 0Á4j. Table III is limited to nominally 10 entries with the present authors having voted for their preferences for inclusion.l 1Á001 (ap) 4Á011 (t) 4Á02 (t) 0Á994(ap) 16Á0 (ap) 1Á032 (ap) 1Á070 (ap) 1Á199 (ap) 1Á004(ap) 17Á11 (ap) 1Á021(ap) 223Á5 (ap) 3Á989(t) 4Á0 (t) 4Á00 (t) 14Á23(ap) 1Á045 0Á994 0Á878 0Á716 0Á661g 0Á845 0Á859 0Á539 0Á729 0Á693g 0Á876 6Á903 2Á622 2Á488 — 5Á462 29Á6 23Á2 29Á5 33Á7 33Á6g 26Á1 17Á5 24Á4 22Á0 18Á3g 9Á39 0Á502 14Á37 14Á22 — 2Á99 84Á6 79Á7 85Á4 80Á3 75Á1 75Á5 63Á0 76Á6 65Á2 65Á7 62Á5 59Á1 85Á0 85Á6 — 71Á3 FhG-ISE (7/08)f NREL (11/95)f NREL (4/90)f NREL (1/08)f FhG-ISE (3/00)f NREL (9/01)f NREL (4/03)f JQA (12/97) AIST (8/05)f AIST (4/09) NREL(12/06)f NREL (1/09) NREL (1/03) JQA (4/96) NREL (11/89) AIST (9/04) CIGS ¼ CuInGaSe2. c (ap) ¼ aperture area. i Stabilised by 800 h. 8 serial cells3 Konarka24 Plextronics4. Prog. Another new result in Table I is improvement in the efficiency to 2Á05% for an organic photovoltaic submodule (223Á5 cm2 in area) fabricated by Plextronics. 2009. j Measured under IEC 60904-3 Ed.l a b 25Á0 Æ 0Á5 20Á4 Æ 0Á5 16Á7 Æ 0Á4 10Á5 Æ 0Á3 4Á00 1Á002 4Á017 94Á0 (da) (ap) (ap) (ap) 0Á706 0Á664 0Á645 0Á492g 42Á7 38Á0 33Á0 29Á7g 82Á8 80Á9 78Á2 72Á1 UNSW PERL11 FhG-ISE12 U. ASTM G-173-03 global) Classificationa Efficb (%) Areac (cm2) Voc (V) Jsc (mA/cm2) FFd (%) Test centree (and date) Sandia (3/99)f NREL (5/04)f FhG-ISE (7/01)f FhG-ISE (8/07)f Description Silicon Si (crystalline) Si (multicrystalline) Si (thin film transfer) Si (thin film submodule) III-V Cells GaAs (thin film) GaAs (multicrystalline) InP (crystalline) Thin Film Chalcogenide CIGS (cell) CIGS (submodule) CdTe (cell) Amorphous/Nanocrystalline Si Si (amorphous) Si (nanocrystalline) Photochemical Dye sensitised Dye sensitised (submodule) Organic Organic polymer Organic (submodule) Multijunction Devices GaInP/GaAs/Ge GaInP/GaAs GaAs/CIS (thin film) a-Si/mc-Si (thin submodule)j. Copyright # 2009 John Wiley & Sons. (t) ¼ total area.

17:320–326 DOI: 10. h Stability not investigated.1002/pip . e Recalibrated from original measurement. i Light soaked under simulated AM1Á5 for about 140 hs prior to shipment to NREL. Another new result in Table III is the improvement of a small area (0Á27 cm2) stabilised amorphous silicon based tandem cell stack from 12Á1 to 12Á5% for a device fabricated by United Solar Ovonic and Table III. measured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in January 2009 and reported by Plextronics soon after4. d FF ¼ fill factor. g Light soaked at NREL for 1000 h at 508C. ‘Notable Exceptions’: ‘Top ten’ confirmed cell and module results. Effic. 1: 1989 reference spectrum. e Not measured at an external laboratory.b (%) Areac (cm2) Voc (V) Jsc FF Test centre (mA/cm2) (%) (and date) Sandia (7/99)d Sandia (8/96)d AIST (2/08) FhG-ISE (3/06)d AIST (2/08)d Description Cells (silicon) Si (MCZ crystalline) Si (moderate area) Si (large crystalline) Si (large crystalline) Si (large multicrystalline) Cells (other) GaInP/GaInAs/GaInAs (tandem) CIGS (thin film) a-Si/nc-Si/nc-Si (tandem) Dye-sensitised Organic a b 24Á7 Æ 0Á5 23Á9 Æ 0Á5 23Á0 W 0Á6 22Á0 Æ 0Á7 18Á7 Æ 0Á5 4Á0 (da) 22Á1(da) 100Á4(t) 147Á4(t) 217Á4(t) 0Á704 0Á704 0Á729 0Á677 0Á639 42Á0 41Á9 39Á6 40Á3 37Á7 13Á1 35Á7 9Á11 21Á0 16Á7 83Á5 81Á0 80Á0 80Á6 77Á6 UNSW PERL.i 0Á759(ap) 0Á585 86Á8 NREL (1/07) 81Á0 68Á4 72Á2 65Á5 NREL (10/07)d NREL (3/09) AIST (3/06)d NREL (12/08) CIGS ¼ CuInGaSe2. d Recalibrated from original measurement. nominally 1-sun illumination. Prog. a-Si ¼ amorphous silicon/hydrogen alloy. Table II. c (ap) ¼ aperture area. (da) ¼ designated illumination area. GREEN ET AL.1:1989 reference spectrum.b (%) 22Á9 Æ 0Á6 20Á3 Æ 0Á6 15Á5 Æ 0Á4f 8Á2 Æ 0Á2 13Á5 Æ 0Á7 10Á9 Æ 0Á5 10Á4 Æ 0Á5h Areac (cm2) 778 (da) 16300 (ap) 1017 (ap) 661(ap) 3459 (ap) 4874 (ap) 905 (ap) Voc (V) 5Á60 66Á1 14Á6 25Á0 31Á2 26Á21 4Á353 Isc (A) 3Á97 6Á35 1Á37 0Á320 2Á18 3Á24 3Á285 FFd (%) 80Á3 78Á7 78Á6 68Á0 68Á9 62Á3 66Á0 Test centre (and date) Sandia (9/96)e Sandia (8/07)e Sandia (10/94)e Sandia (7/02)e NREL (8/02)e NREL (4/00)e NREL (10/98)e Description UNSW/Gochermann29 SunPower30 Sandia/HEM31 Pacific Solar (1–2 mm on glass)32 Showa Shell (Cd free)33 BP Solarex34 USSC35 Si (crystalline) Si (large crystalline) Si (multicrystalline) Si (thin-film polycrystalline) CIGSS CdTe a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe (tandem)g a b CIGSS ¼ CuInGaSSe. a-SiGe ¼ amorphous silicon/germanium/hydrogen alloy. ASTM G-173-03 global) Classificationa Effic. ¼ efficiency.41 Sharp42 Konarka24 33Á8 Æ 1Á5e. Confirmed terrestrial module efficiencies measured under the global AM1Á5 spectrum (1000 W/m2) at a cell temperature of 258C (IEC 60904-3: 2008. A new result in Table III is achievement of 23Á0% efficiency in a large 100 cm2 crystalline silicon cell fabricated by Sanyo using the company’s HIT cell approach (amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunction)5 and measured by AIST. CIGS on glass40 United Solar stabilised6. (t) ¼ total area.322 M. c (ap) ¼ aperture area. not class records measured under the global AM1Á5 spectrum (1000 WmÀ2) at 258C (IEC 60904-3: 2008. ¼ efficiency. Copyright # 2009 John Wiley & Sons. f Measured under IEC 60904-3 Ed. f Not measured at an external laboratory. Ltd. Appl. (da) ¼ designated illumination area. A. n-type substrate5 Sunpower n-type substrate37 Mitsubishi Electric. monolithic39 NREL. SEH MCZ substrate36 UNSW PERL. Effic. ASTM G-173-03 global) Classificationa Effic. Photovolt: Res. h Measured under IEC 60904-3 Ed.f 0Á25 (ap) 2Á960 20Á0 Æ 0Á6e 0Á419(ap) 0Á692 12Á5 W 0Á7g 0Á27 (da) 2Á010 11Á2 Æ 0Á3h 0Á219(ap) 0Á736 6Á4 W 0Á3h. honeycomb38 NREL. g Light soaked under 100mW/cm2 white light at 508C for 1000 h. FZ substrate29 Sanyo HIT. 2009.

monolithic49 Fraunhofer. Progress also continues to be made with small-area organic bulk heterojunction solar cells with the energy conversion efficiency increased from 5Á4 to 6Á4% in three steps since the previous version of these Tables2. monolithic50 Varian51 UNSW laser grooved52 Effic. f Not measured at an external laboratory. 17:320–326 DOI: 10. measured at NREL. Appl. This triple junction a-Si:H/ncSi:H/nc-Si:H cell stack6 gave improved current compared to the previous record a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H/aSiGe:H device. However. suggest the use of appreciably smaller bandgap donor polymer. (da) ¼ designated illumination area. ¼ efficiency. polymer (PCDTBT) with PC70BM as the acceptor.a (%) 28Á8 W 1Á2f 27Á6 Æ 1Á0e 21Á8 Æ 1Á5f.f 41Á1 W 2Á5f 27Á0 Æ 1Á5g 20Á5 Æ 0. Given the relatively immature state of organic cell technology.SOLAR CELL EFFICIENCY TABLES 323 Table IV. Plextronics reports having a very small area cell (0Á04 cm2) of 6Á0% efficiency measured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in August 2008 (808 mV. In December 2008. Isc and FF. Ltd. supplementary information8 suggests the cell degraded 1–2% relative during the week after first measurement and 5% relative after 40 days. 10Á6 mA/cm2 and 64Á0% for Voc. measurement results for these cells are reported before stabilisation of cell performance. e Measured under a low aerosol optical depth spectrum similar to ASTM G-173-03 direct53. Isc and FF. together with a 10 nm thick TiO2 hole-blocking layer as an optical spacer8.1002/pip . The active layer consisted of a conjugated polymer/fullerene blend. NREL measured a larger area (0Á76 cm2) cell fabricated by Konarka with 6Á4% efficiency. respectively). inverted monolithic45 Fraunhofer. information has been published concerning the stability of one of the three 6% organic cells above. This was for a larger but still small (0Á13 cm2) bulk heterojunction cell fabricated by UCSB and measured by NREL in October 2008 (880 mV. The new feature of this cell was the use of a carbazole based donor Copyright # 2009 John Wiley & Sons. d Recalibrated from original measurement. g Measured under old ASTM E891-87 reference spectrum. in contrast to most other technologies listed. (ap) ¼ aperture area. Both components are proprietary materials. In a recent presentation4.g 40Á7 Æ 2Á4e 40Á8 Æ 2Á4e. The Prog. Photovolt: Res. together with a spectral response extending beyond 800 nm. c One sun corresponds to direct irradiance of 1000 WmÀ2. 2009. respectively). 10Á3 mA/cm2 and 71Á7% for Voc. For the carbazole-based cell. Santa ´ Barbara (UCSB) and Universite Laval7. Konarka announced achievement of the 6% milestone by the University of California. mechanical stack48 NREL. more than offsetting a slight reduction in voltage. Terrestrial concentrator cell and module efficiencies measured under the ASTM G-173-03 direct beam AM1Á5 spectrum at a cell temperature of 258C Classification Effic.ff 32Á6 Æ 1Á7g 31Á7 Æ 1Á6f 30Á2 Æ 1Á2g 26Á6 Æ 1Á0 21Á7 Æ 0Á7 Areab (cm2) Intensityc (suns) Test centre (and date) Description Single Cells GaAs Si CIGS (thin film) Multijunction cells GaInP/GaAs/Ge (2-terminal) GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs (2-terminal) GaInP/GaInAs/Ge (2-terminal) Submodules GaInP/GaAs/Ge Modules Si ‘Notable Exceptions’ GaAs/GaSb (4-terminal) InP/GaInAs (3-terminal) GaInP/GaInAs (2-terminal) GaAs (high concentration) Si (large area) a b 0Á0504 (da) 1Á00 (da) 0Á102 (da) 0Á267(da) 0Á0976 (da) 0Á0509 (da) 34 (ap) 1875 (ap) 0Á053 (da) 0Á063 (da) 0Á1330 (da) 0Á203 (da) 20Á0 (da) 232 92 14 240 140 454 10 79 100 50 300 1000 11 FhG-ISE (1/09) FhG-ISE (11/04) NREL (2/01)d NREL (9/06) NREL (7/08) FhG-ISE (1/09) NREL (5/00) Sandia (4/89)d Sandia (10/89)d NREL (8/90)d NREL/FhG-ISE (6/01) Sandia (8/88)d Sandia (9/90)d Fraunhofer ISE Amonix back-contact43 NREL Spectrolab. In December 2008. The smaller voltage and higher current density of this device as listed in Table III compared to the other 6% efficient devices above. metamorphic10 ENTECH46 Sandia/UNSW/ENTECH (12 cells)47 Boeing. lattice-mismatched44 NREL.

de/press-and-media/pressefficiency as fabricated by two other groups. cell was encapsulated using a glass front cover and a 3. S. Warrendale. Solar Energy Materials even at 880 suns concentration. a new overall record for cell performance under conYang. are other recent concentrator cells of comparable 10. Barcelona. Wang A.fraunhofer. February 3. Glunz SW. Emery K. Coates N. 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference. Sanyo’s increase in the efficiency of a GaAs concentrator cell to challenges to the development of high-efficiency HIT 28Á8% as measured under the new reference spectrum.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells. Baba T. Two new results are reported. 17: 85–94. Photovolt: Res. Leclerc M. Vol. O’Quinn BC. editors and publishers cannot accept direct responsibility for any errors or omissions. J. Hishikawa Y. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhGISE). Willeke now referenced against the direct normal spectrum Ritesh%20Tipnis%20Plextronics. 2009. 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