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Unit Design

Waves
Ref. Sites - http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/BBoard.html#refrn
http://www.physicsclassroom.com
http://colorado.edu/physics/2000/

I. Course
12th grade general physics

II. Purpose, Overview & Rationale


When students are asked to explain what waves are, most draw immediate reference to water and the ocean.
They have seen what happens when a rock is thrown into a pond with ripples emanating outward in a circular
pattern from the point of impact. They have seen ocean waves or waves on a lake travel in “straight line”
fashion as they crash into the shoreline. But if asked to provide other examples of waves found in nature, most
would rely only on what is visible to them and would not recognize that many of the most important forms of
waves are either invisible or don’t look like waves. Once presented with examples such as radio, infrared,
ultraviolet, gamma, x-rays, and visible light, many students will admit witnessing their application (microwave
ovens, radio and TV reception, medical diagnostics, ROYGBIV, etc.) but without an understanding of how they
work in terms of energy transfer.

Realizing the experience base students bring to the classroom, it is tempting to begin the examination of wave
behavior through a fluid medium such as water. However the emphasis of this unit will not be to try to model
students’ understanding through observation of visible phenomena with which they are most familiar. Although
some elements will be employed beginning with simple harmonic motion and the use of springs to help students
visualize how wave energy is transferred, primary emphasis will be placed on the examination of invisible and
less obvious forms of waves so that their application may be understood.

The effect of wavelength on how waves interact with matter will be studied through intrinsically interesting
phenomena-such as the blueness of the sky and redness of sunsets (short wavelengths scattered by the
atmosphere) or the color of grass (absorbing light of both shorter and longer wavelengths while reflecting the
intermediate green). Young’s double-slit experiment will be examined to understand the wave nature of light
and its effects on physiological perception of color. Electromagnetic waves with different wavelengths have
different applications and effects ranging from radio waves (longer wavelengths – radio and TV applications) to
ultraviolet rays (relatively short wavelengths – harmful to skin passing through depleted ozone layer) to gamma
rays (extremely short wavelengths – nuclear medicine applications).

Students will become engaged in the topic through the use of a variety of student-centered learning tools.
Guided inquiry will be used to help students create “mental models” of wave behavior prior to receiving formal
instruction. They will be asked to predict the behavior of light waves as they reflect off of surfaces and travel
into different media before the theory and mathematical modeling stemming from these observations is covered.
Quick computer-based simulation demonstrations will be used during formal lecture periods to help students
“see” waves in action, even those whose wavelengths are too small to actually see. The value of these
demonstrations will be enhanced by their ability to change a variable at the click of a button and see immediate
results – something that is not as readily possible in a traditional lab setting. Students will also be introduced to
my website where they can “see” applications of wave forms and explore their application to real life in ways
that cannot be covered in a physical classroom setting. They will be assigned the task of searching the web
(using some of the links on the website as starters) for applications of interest and reporting their findings to the
class. The website may be updated with some interesting links from their findings for further learning and to
enhance future classrooms.

III. Learning Outcomes


1. Students will qualitatively and quantitatively describe how waves behave when they superpose on one
another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, and when they enter new materials.
2. Students will develop mental models of waves and apply those models to an understanding of the two
most common types of waves – sound waves and electromagnetic waves.
3. Students will understand the significance of waves to everyday life including recreation, medicine, and
nature.

IV. Links to Standards


• National Science Education Standards Ch.6. Science Content Standards. Grades 9-12: Science as
Inquiry. Students should be guided to reflect on the concepts that guide inquiry. Teachers help students
evaluate their own explanations.
• Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: 4F.3. Motion. Accelerating electric charges produce
electromagnetic waves around them. A great variety of radiations are electromagnetic waves: radio
waves, microwaves, radiant heat, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, x rays, and gamma rays. These
wavelengths vary from radio waves, the longest, to gamma rays, the shortest. In empty space, all
electromagnetic waves move at the same speed-the “speed of light”.
• Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: 4F.5. Motion. The observed wavelength of a wave
depends upon the relative motion of the source and the observer. If either is moving toward the other,
the wavelength is longer (check benchmark – should be shorter??). Because the light seen from almost
all distant galaxies has longer wavelengths than comparable light here on earth, astronomers believe that
the whole universe is expanding.
• Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: 4F.6. Motion. Waves can superpose on one another,
bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they enter, and change direction
when entering a new material. All these effects vary with wavelength. The energy of waves (like any
form of energy) can be changed into other forms of energy.
• Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: 11B.1 – Models. The basic idea of mathematical
modeling is to find a mathematical relationship that behaves in the same ways as the objects or
processes under investigation. A mathematical model gives insight about how something really works
or may fit observations very well without any intuitive meaning.

V. Assessment
• Summative
o Unit test – problem solving, multiple choice, corrective true/false, ray diagrams
o Inquiry labs on reflection and refraction (NESC Ch6. Science Content Standards)
o Electromagnetic waves worksheet (http://www.electro-optical.com/bb_rad/emspect.htm).
Focus on differentiation – wavelength, frequency, energy (Benchmarks 4F.3)
o Doppler Effect worksheet (Benchmarks 4F.5)
o Worksheets – reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference (Benchmarks 4F.6)
o Problem solving using wave equation, Law of Reflection & Snell’s Law – reflection (plane
mirrors), refraction, diffraction, interference (superposition). (Benchmarks 11B.1)
• Formative
o Daily feedback on homework
o In-class assistance on homework & labs
o Quick turnaround on lab grading – adjust instruction to address misconceptions & problem areas
o Seek out struggling learners
Students will be assessed in a variety of ways involving both formative and summative methods. Students learn
in different ways so they should be assessed in different ways as well. This should provide them with greater
opportunity to succeed than if only one form of assessment was used. It should also assist the teacher in
determining whether students understand the learning goals. The PowerPoint slides provided during the
November 14, 2005 Methods course summarized assessment as “collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting
information to help in decision-making”. The various forms to be used in this unit should help achieve that
purpose.

Everyday assessment will come in the form of a variety of questioning techniques and daily homework.
Students in my classroom receive a lot of homework in terms of quantity but not necessarily in terms of time
spent away from the classroom. They will be given ample time in class to work on it so that their take-home
portion will be kept to a goal of 30 minutes per night. While working on assignments in class, the teacher will
conduct formative assessment while providing assistance, gaining valuable insight into any areas with which
students are struggling. Grading daily homework occurs at the beginning of class the following day (or the day
that it is due) with a quick review for completeness and adherence to procedures (free body diagrams,
identifying positive direction, etc.). Satisfactory performance will result in award of two points. Completed
homework that does not follow procedures will result in the award of one point. Late, partially completed, or
no homework will result in zero points. Once homework is checked in, the teacher will review selected
examples on the board and provide answers to all other problems so that students will have the opportunity to
evaluate their own work.

Labs will be graded using rubrics, regardless of whether the labs are inquiry-based or procedural. Their value
ranges between 25 and 40 points depending on the scope. An example of a rubric accompanies the refraction
inquiry lab (Days 10 & 11). With quizzes (there are not “tests”) being worth 50 points, students quickly learn
that labs can significantly help their grade. Even homework, at two points per assignment, can assist in
bringing up a grade hurt by low quiz scores. Students will also learn that failure to put the requisite effort into
labs and homework can have the opposite effect as well.

The quiz, as already mentioned, will be worth 50 points. It will be heavily problem-based but several multiple
choice questions will test students on their understanding of important concepts. Short answer/essay questions
will not be used because they take too much time to complete and grade. Labs are a better avenue for this type
of assessment.

VI. Rough Sequence


• Day 1 - Intro to Waves (Simple Harmonic Motion; homework – worksheet)
• Day 2 – Finish Intro to Waves (demo, variables, longitudinal/transverse, earthquakes, homework –
worksheets)
• Day 3 – Doppler Effect (perceived sound frequency or pitch; homework – worksheet)
• Day 4 – Electromagnetic Waves – Day 1 (Short Day due to Assembly) (background, propagation)
• Day 5 – Electromagnetic Waves – Day 2 (applications)
• Day 6 – Reflection Inquiry Lab (discover Law of Reflection)
• Day 7 – Refraction Inquiry Lab (discover bending in different materials)
• Day 8 – Reflection Notes (mirrors, illumination, echoes; homework – worksheet/text)
• Day 9 – Refraction Notes (Snell’s Law, “wet spot” mirage; homework - text)
• Day 10 – Intro to diffraction/interference/superposition (homework – worksheet/text)
• Day 11 – Standing Waves (desirable/undesirable resonance; continue homework)
• Day 12 - Standing Waves/2-Source Interference (homework - worksheet)
• Day 13 – Review (Day 1, homework – worksheet/text)
• Day 14 – Review (Day 2)
• Day 15 – Quiz
Phase
Hooke’ Differenc
s Law Restorin
g Force e
Wave Theory Relatio
n Dampin
g
Periodi Simple
c Energy
Harmonic Transfe
Motion
Motion r
Speed
or Frequenc
Velocit Perio y (Hz)
Amplitud
y d
e (m)
(sec)

Radio
Waves Power Characteristic
Waves s Diffraction
Microwave Wavelengt
s h (m) Refraction

Wave Phenomen
Example: Motion
Infrared Electromagnetic a Reflection
Radiation

Type Interferenc
Gamma s
Visible Rays e
Light
Transvers Longitudina Destructive
e l
Ultraviolet X-rays Constructiv
Radiation e

Example: Sound Standing


(Mechanical Waves
Speed of Wave)
Sound
Resonance
Doppler
Effect
Coming Going
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 1

Topic: Intro to Waves (Simple Harmonic Motion – Sec. 13.1)

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Understand that waves permeate nature (sound, light, radio/TV, ocean, electromag.)
2. Hypothesize what causes waves
3. Test hypotheses by observing behavior of SHM (Hooke’s Law)
4. Describe PE and KE with respect to Hooke’s Law
5. Understand energy is conserved – transformed, not depleted
Activity Time
A. Announcements 5 min.

B. Background 5 min.
• Q: What are waves? What kinds can you think of?
• Waves permeate nature; virtually impossible to communicate (see, hear, speak) without them
• Q: What causes waves?
• A: Vibrations of particles such as molecules or charges (e.g. sound waves – vocal chords vibrate; water –
currents & wind)
• Pulse – one wavefront (e.g. rock in pond); series of waves – something has to be moving/vibrating
• Will explore in more detail the different kinds of waves later but want to understand what they
are and what properties they have

C. Intro to SHM 20 min.


• Most waves are periodic (vibration or motion repeats itself again & again along same path).
• Referred to as SHM – vibration of particle or molecule moves from one reference point to another without
any real loss of energy.
• Motion caused by what is called a restoring force
• If a molecule is disturbed, intermolecular restoring forces exerted by its neighbors tend to return it to its
original position
• Magnitude of restoring force proportional to distance from equilibrium
• Example – pendulum or mass on spring
• Demo – horizontal spring
http://www.warren-wilson.edu/%7Ephysics/Physlets/SimpleHarmMotion/shm8_7_1.html

FR FR

Equilibrium / FR=0
Hooke’s Law: FR = -kx

o k = spring constant (Note: different from Coulomb’s constant)


o k = constant for a particular spring
o (-) minus sign indicates restoring force always in opposite direction to displacement
(i.e. restoring force always tries to bring it back to equilibrium)
o Units: N/m (look at equation)
• 1st Definition of SHM – No loss of energy; obeys Hooke’s Law

D. Characteristics of SHM 5 min.


• Show overhead – horizontal spring system. Then complete diagram as shown below:

FR FR

x x
Note: Spring force is conservative
FRmax Equilibrium / FR=0 FRmax Therefore it will yield PE
amax a=0 amax For a closed system
PEmax PE=0 PEmax
KE=0 KEmax KE=0

E. Acceleration 5 min.
• Recall Newton’s 2nd Law

F=ma a = FR = -kx
m m

• Therefore accel. proportional to x; FR proportional to x


• But (-k/m) = constant
• Result – accel. & restoring force both proportional to displacement
• 2nd Definition of SHM – periodic motion - accel. of object is always proportional to displacement

F. Total Energy & Conservation of Energy 20 min.


• Derive potential energy with respect to Hooke’s Law

Avg. F = F0 + FR = FR = kx
2 2 2

Therefore Favg = -½ kx Note: negative sign dropped from FR = -kx due to Work Formula
(Takes into account direction of FR)
W = Fd cos ө = (½ kx)x = ½ kx2

PEspring = ½ kx2

KE = ½ mv2
Total Energy = PE + KE or PEmax = KEmax

Conservation of Energy: ΔPE = - ΔKE

• Overhead problem – “Captain Hooke’s Law”

G. Assign Homework - “Simple Harmonic Motion” worksheet 1 min


Captain Hooke’s Law
Peter Pan tricks Captain Hook into thinking he can fly and avoid his
deadly hook when in reality, he is cleverly making use of Hooke’s
Law. Tinker Bell assists Peter Pan (mass = 40 kg) by attaching him
to a vertical spring (with a little help of some fairy dust). The spring
stretches 2.0 meters establishing his equilibrium position.

(a) What is the spring constant of the spring?

(b) To outmaneuver Captain Hook, Tinker Bell displaces Peter Pan


from the equilibrium position 3.0 meters and lets him go. Find the
maximum restoring force.

(c) Find Peter’s maximum acceleration

(d) Determine the magnitude and position of Peter’s maximum PE

(e) Determine the magnitude and position of Peter’s maximum KE

(f) Find the Peter’s PE at 2.0 m

(g) Find Peter’s KE at 2.0 m

(h) Find Peter’s velocity at 2.0m


Captain Hooke’s Law
Captain Hook challenges Peter Pan to a sword fight. He is amazed at Peter’s
ability to outmaneuver him when when in reality, he is cleverly making use
of Hooke’s Law. Tinker Bell assists Peter (mass = 40 kg) by attaching him
to a horizontal spring (Spring constant = 196 N/m).

3.0 m

(a) To outmaneuver Captain Hook, Tinker Bell displaces Peter Pan from the
equilibrium position 3.0 meters and lets him go. Find the maximum
restoring force (magnitude & direction)

(b) Find Peter’s maximum acceleration

(c) Determine the magnitude and position of Peter’s maximum PE

(d) Determine the magnitude and position of Peter’s maximum KE

(e) Find Peter’s PE when he is 2.0 m from the equilibrium position

(f) Find Peter’s KE when he is 2.0 m from the equilibrium position

(g) Find Peter’s velocity when he is 2.0 m from the equilibrium position
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 2

Topic: Intro to Waves (Variables - Sec. 13.2)

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Understand the role of each wave variable (wavelength, period, frequency, velocity, amplitude)
2. Be able to relate variables using mathematical models
3. Explain the nature of and difference between longitudinal & transverse (mechanical) waves
Activity Time
A. Review Homework 10 min.

B. Stadium Wave Demo 5 min.


• Q: Do the people move with the wave?
• A: No – the wave moves but not the people
• Q: Describe the motion of each individual person
• A: SHM
• Q: What makes you decide to participate in the wave?
• A: Certain threshold of excitement (enough others joining in to activate it and sustain it)
• i.e. energy transfers from person to person (particle to particle)
• YOU are the medium (slower or faster wave effectively represents different media – see sec. D)

C. Demo – Wave Particle Tracer 5 min.


http://www.control.co.kr/java1/wave%20Trans/WaveTrans.html
• Particles interact with neighbors (energy transferred)
• Restoring forces cause them to oscillate when disturbed
• Continuous repetition of disturbance and energy transfer results in wave motion

D. Wave Equation 15 min.


• Sketch sign wave (snapshot in time). Show λ, A, νw
• Definition of variables (wavelength, period, frequency, velocity, amplitude)
o λ: wavelength (cycle) = shortest distance between points where pattern repeats itself (m)
o T: period = time for one cycle to pass a given point (sec/cycle).
 “Timer” – measures time between wave crests
o ƒ: frequency = number of waves (cycles) per second (cycles/sec = Hz)
 “Counter” – counts number of waves passing a point in a given amount of time
 Greater frequency implies greater energy
o ƒ = 1/T
o Amplitude (A) = max displ. of particle from equilibrium (height of crest or depth of trough)
 Greater energy implies greater amplitude
 e.g. talk louder – vocal chords vibrate at greater amplitude which takes more energy
 So wave with larger amplitude carries more energy
 Tie back to SHM (i.e. Particle tracer simulation – particle displacement is greater meaning
greater amplitude)
 This means x-greater so PE = 1/2 kx2 greater
o νw: velocity of wave with respect to medium
o Waves have constant speed in a given medium (e.g. speed of sound in air = 343 m/s; 1482 m/s in
water)

o x = νt (applies for constant velocity)

o wave equation (most have seen this in Chemistry)

λ = ν wT λ = νw/ƒ
o Therefore, λ proportional to T ; λ proportional to 1/ƒ

D. Demo - “Wave Upon Wave of Cars” 5 min.


• Ref. Long Form Lesson Plan (Cut down to keep within time limit)

E. Overhead Example – Students Do It (Choose One) 10 min.


• Worksheet – “Lightning Strike”
• Worksheet – “Herbert’s Vacation”

F. Demo – Transverse & Longitudinal Wave Simulation 5 min.


http://www.control.co.kr/java1/wave%20Trans/WaveTrans.html

• Transverse Waves (“Across”)


o Rule: Speed of wave often appx. same for wide range of amplitudes & frequencies
o Particle motion moves perpendicular to direction of wave velocity
o Travel only through solids (not liquids or gases)
o Examples
 Earthquake seismic S-waves (2nd waves to arrive at seismograph)
 Not detected on opposite side of Earth’s interior so scientists believe part of interior is a
viscous metallic liquid

• Longitudinal Waves (“Along”)


o Particle motion moves parallel to direction of wave velocity
 Referred to as alternating patterns of compressions and relaxations
o Travel through all media (solids, liquids, gases)
o Examples
 Sound (periodic disturbance produces compressions in the air)
 Earthquake seismic P-waves (arrive at distant seismic stations before S-waves)
 Detected on opposite side of Earth (travel through earth)

• Q: Water – transverse or longitudinal


• A: Both – combo of transverse & longitudinal motions (nearly circular at surface; more elliptical with
depth; longitudinal at 100 meters)
• Tsunami – no effect on boats or submarines in deep water; wave rises significantly in shallow water
because energy-carrying particles no longer able to complete their paths

F. Assign Homework 1 min.


• Text sec. 13.1 & 13.3 P. 440 #’s 2, 12, 53, 56
• “Herbert’s Vacation”

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 3

Topic: Doppler Effect (Sec. 14.5)

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Understand relationship between freq. of source & freq. of observer
2. Understand how pitch of source and pitch received are different depending on which is moving and in
what direction
3. Execute Doppler Effect equation and differentiate between contrasting frequency scenarios

Activity Time
A. Review Homework 15 min.

B. Intro to Sound 10 min.


• Nascar – what does car approaching and passing a stationary observer sound like?
o When car approaches, observer hears higher pitch than what source actually produces
o When car passes, observer hears lower pitch than what source actually produces
• Q: Why?
• 3 parts to transmission of a wave:
o Freq. of source
o transmission (λ, ν)
o Freq. of observer
• With sound wave, we “hear” the frequency which eardrum vibrates
• Depends on wavelength of wave reaching us
• Frequency observer “hears” is same as frequency emitted by source only when they are not moving relative
to each other
• Example: If observer moving toward source, observer hears higher pitch than what source actually
producing; lower if moving away (e.g. car horn)

C. Demo – Doppler Effect Simulation (pick one student to add sound effects)
www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/applets/doppler.html

D. Qualitative Explanation 15 min.


• λ = νw/ƒ ƒ = νw/λ
• Stationary source; time = T
λ

ƒobs = ƒs
ƒs wavelength = λ
• Source moving toward observer λ’
2 1

ƒobs > ƒs Higher Pitch


ƒs νs λ’ < λsta

• Source moving away from observer

2 1 λ’’

νs ƒs ƒobs < ƒs Lower Pitch


λ’’ > λsta

• Equation to determine freq. observer hears

ƒobs = ƒs νw – νobs Note: Positive direction is direction wave travels from source to observer

νw – νs

+ +
• Board Problem – racecar part
• In Class Problem – “Herbert’s Emergency”

E. Assign Homework 1 min.


• Doppler Effect worksheet (parts a,b,c,f)
Note – revise to include more -(-) = +
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 4

Topic: Electromagnetic Waves (Sec. 20.4)

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Describe what electromagnetic waves are and the various kinds on the electromagnetic spectrum
2. Identify the wavelength range for different types of electromagnetic waves
3. Illustrate how electromagnetic waves connect to everyday life

Activity Time
A. Review Homework 10 min.

B. Intro to Electromagnetic Waves 20 min.


• Mechanical waves cannot travel without a medium
• Electric charges create E-fields
• Moving charges create B-fields
• Changing B-fields create E-fields (known)
• Changing E-fields create B-fields (theory eventually proven)
• EM are variations in E & B fields which move through space at speed of light (c = 3x108 m/s)
• EM waves do not require a medium to travel through (can travel through empty space)
• Principle
o Whenever a charge undergoes acceleration, it radiates energy
o This energy is transmitted by E/M waves at speed of light, c = 3x108 m/s
λ = νw/ƒ λ = c/ƒ
• Discussion – what are they?
o E/M waves produced by accelerating electric charges such as e- oscillating in SHM
o Example – electrons in antenna of radio transmitter continually accelerate & decelerate due to AC
in radio transmitter produce E & B-fields.
o Demo – vibrating charges www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/applets_ST.html
o Both E & B-fields carry energy & propagate outward at speed of light (3x108 m/s)
o E & B fields perpendicular to each other & to direction of velocity of wave; vary sinusoidally with
time
o Demo – propagation www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/java/emWave/emWave.html
• Example – light
• Q: But doesn’t sound travel through empty space making it an electromagnetic wave?
• A: No – sound waves require some kind of material like air or water in order to move
• Q: How do we know all types of E/M waves can travel through empty space
• A: Visible light travels from sun & stars to earth through empty space. Now have instruments that detect
other types of radiation so that can see cosmos in other wavelengths such as x-ray, infrared, & gamma (e.g.
detect supernovae “bursts” using gamma rays providing insight into these events). Can’t detect them
unless they travel through space.
• All seem very different, but they are in fact variations of the same thing (vary only by λ, ƒ)
• Q: What other types can you think of that might be considered E/M waves
End Day 1 (2006 short day)
Begin Day 2 (2006 short day)

• Different names refer to different wavelengths


o Wavelengths vary from hundreds of meters to smaller than an atom
o Demo – http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/waves_particles/index.html (skip)
o Demo – http://www.electro-optical.com/bb_rad/emspect.htm

C. Electromagnetic Spectrum 10 min.


• Radio Waves
o λ = 1 cm – 3000 m
o AM: Amplitude Modulation 530 – 1605 kHz
o FM: Frequency Modulation 88 – 108 MHz
o Every station assigned a carrier frequency (e.g. 101 FM = 101 MHz)
o This is the basic frequency. Actual signal superimposed on carrier frequency.
o For AM, given frequency, amplitude changes (e.g. 1000 Hz – amplitude changes 1000x/sec)
o Discuss receiving antenna
o Potential application – airport luggage tracking “radio frequency tags”
 30 million bags misplaced each year; 200,000 never recovered
• Microwaves
o λ = 1 mm – 30 cm
o Cooks food internally due to natural frequency of water (i.e. resonance)
o Communications (garage door opener)
o Radar – transmit & receive reflected waves
o Detected by Wilson & Pazias with respect to Big Bang
• Infrared Waves
o λ = 7x10-7 m – 1 mm
o Produced by hot objects that radiate heat to surroundings
 Readily absorbed by water molecules present in most materials
 Increase vibrational energy of atoms – heating up surroundings
o EX: Heat lamps, heat from sun, infrared telescopes
• Visible Light
o Can be detected by eye
o Red ~ 7x10-7 m (lower energy)
o To Violet ~ 4x10-7 m (higher energy)
o ROY G BIV
• Ultraviolet Light
o 3.8x10-7 – 6x10-8 m
o Produced by sun
o O3 (ozone) transforms UV into Infrared which warms atmosphere (protects us from UV)
o Ozone depletion (“Green House Effect” . . . balance between solar radiation received & amount that
is re-radiated in the form of infrared radiation is disrupted; trapping more & raising temp)
o Tanning – body produces melanin (pigment) to protect itself from UV radiation.
o Can cause thickening of skin skin cancer
o Glass protects against UV
• X-rays
o 1x10-8 – 1x10-13 m
o Produced when beam of electrons abruptly decelerate after striking plate, releasing energy in form
of X-rays
o EX: X-rays, X-ray telescopes
• Gamma Rays
o 1x10-10 – 1x10-14 m
o Produced by radioactive decay
• Show examples by taking http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/waves_particles/index.html “astronomy
link” under the Einstein picture “How do we know this?”(skip)
• Scroll down and take Milky Way Galaxy Link
• Incredible link to Hubble site http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/ (skip)
• All travel at speed of light (otherwise stars, planets, galaxies would appear to be in different places
depending on which wavelength used to view them) so light, x-rays, microwaves, etc. are all forms of the
same thing (i.e. E/M waves)
• Radar example (???)

D. Assign Homework – each group investigates the assigned item and provides one other example they find
• Doppler Effect Worksheet (parts d,e)
• Electromagnetic Spectrum Worksheet
• Read sec. 20.4; Text p. 654 #’s 64, 66, 67, 68, 70 (skip)
Phyz Job Name ___________________
Hour _________

Electromagnetic Radiation
Instructions: Access the following website to answer the series of questions below:
http://www.electro-optical.com/bb_rad/emspect.htm. Not all answers will be found directly
in the text on the website but ALL answers can be derived from a basic understanding of the text.

Note: For electromagnetic waves, the wave equation is: λ = сT = c/ƒ where c=3x108 m/s (speed of light)

1. Which type of wave listed below travels with the greatest velocity?
(a) Radio (b) Ultraviolet (c) Sound (d) Gamma (e) None of the above

2. Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the highest energy level?
(a) Microwave (b) Ultraviolet (c) Gamma (d) Infrared (e) X-Rays

3. Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the shortest wavelength?


(a) Visible light (b) Gamma (c) X-Rays (d) Ultraviolet (e) Infrared

4. Identify the following in order of lowest to highest frequency (1-lowest; 5-highest):

_____Ultraviolet _____TV _____ X-Ray _____ Infrared _____ Visible Light

5. Which type of wave can be used with thermal imaging devices? __________________________

6. What is it about X-Rays that allows you to see your bones?

7. Based on the wave equation for electromagnetic waves λ = сT, how long is the wavelength for AM station
WWJ 950? Hint: A similar example can be found in the text.

8. How do microwave ovens cook your food?

9. It has been experimentally determined that plants grow faster when exposed to higher energy levels.
Which color in the visible light range would plants prefer if this was the only criteria?
(a) Red (b) Orange (c) Yellow (d) Green (e) Blue (f) Indigo (g) Violet
10. What is one probable negative side effect of ozone depletion in our atmosphere?

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 7 (3rd & 5th hours); Day 8 (4th & 6th hours) – MEAP Week (65 minute periods)

Topic: Reflection Inquiry Lab (Qualitative “discovery” of Law of Reflection)

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Infer how light waves reach our eyes by direct or reflected means
2. Understand how “rays” can be used to describe wave propagation
3. Be able to create a ray tracing by observations of an object in a mirror and label its terms (incident and
reflected rays, angles of incidence and reflection)
4. Be able to predict how angles will relate to one another and how they vary with distance from the
mirror
5. Understand the concepts of erect and inverted images and when they occur
6. Understand the concept of magnification and how to determine it

Activity Time
A. Reflection Inquiry Lab 55 min
• Ref. long form lesson plan (Appendices B & C)
• Students may choose their own lab partner. Check for evidence of gender
or race bias. If necessary, split groups up.
• Conduct lab and complete worksheet
• Rubric – 15 questions
o Completeness
o Diagrams – labels, normals, angles, lines to image (behind mirror), arrows, neatness
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 9 (3rd & 5th hours); Day 10 (4th & 6th hours) – MEAP Week (65 minute periods)

Topic: Refraction Inquiry Lab

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Students will be able to relate the angle of incidence with the angle of refraction at the boundaries (entering
and exiting) between two substances. They are not expected to discover Snell’s Law (n1sinө1 = n2sinө2)
through their inquiry but the basic relationships should be understood.
2. Students should be able to organize differences in refraction angles with varying substances (i.e. precursor
to “index of refraction”)
3. Students should be able to predict the behavior of waves as they travel from low index-to-high index media
and vice-versa.

Activity Time

A. Begin Refraction Inquiry Lab (will finish Day 11) 55 min


• Ref. long form lesson plan (Appendices D & E)
• Students may choose their own lab partner. Check for evidence of gender
or race bias. If necessary, split groups up.
• Conduct lab and complete worksheet
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 11

Topic: Reflection Notes

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Apply the mathematical model for the law of reflection to validate or refute their predictions from the
inquiry lab
2. Understand the different types of reflection

Activity Time

A. Reassign Homework – Answer questions (Due Tomorrow) 5 min.

B. Background 5 min.
• Wavefronts and rays – point source, ray always perpendicular to wavefront (e.g. crests or troughs)

ray

Note: wave front is spherical


*
Note: ray points in direction of propagation

ray

• All waves have certain common characteristics (properties)


o Reflection – light waves bounce off of an object and are directed to our eyes so that we can see the
object.
• What we see is either direct light or reflected light
• Without reflection, we wouldn’t see the object at all
o Refraction – change in direction of wave at a boundary where it passes from one medium into another
o Diffraction – bending of light as waves pass through small openings or around sharp edges or corners
o Interference – occurs when two or more waves pass through the same region of space

C. Recall from Lab 5 min.


• Normal – line perpendicular to reflecting surface
• Angle of incidence (θi) – light ray directed toward reflecting surface; measured relative to normal
• Angle of reflection (θr) – direction of light ray after reflecting off of object
• Q: What did we discover about the relationship between θi and θr from the lab?
A: Equal Law of Reflection: θi = θr Note: Emphasize angle of incidence & angle of refl.

θi θr

D. Types of Reflection 5 min.


• Specular (smooth surface - mirror, glass)
o Reflected rays are all parallel
o Will see an image

Example: wet concrete


θi θr (water fills in the crevices)
Night driving in rain - problem

• Diffuse (irregular surface – clouds, sheet of paper, moon)


o Reflected rays are not parallel (due to irregular nature of surface); they are scattered
o Note: Law of reflection still applies
o But diffuse reflection does not produce an image
o But at microscopic level, even a mirror is “rough”
o What determines specular versus diffuse behavior is wavelength
 If dimensions of surface irregularities greater than wavelength of light (appx. 10-7 m), then
diffuse

Example: Dry concrete

F. Images – Plane Mirror


• Light emanates from5an object in a variety of
min.
directions
• Some reaches mirror and reflects
• Reflected rays extended back intersect defining the
location of the image
• Every feature you see in mirror is “constructed” this
way
• Characteristics
o Virtual, Erect, Image distance = Object
distance, L/R Reversal, Magnification = 1
o Misconception – “objects in mirror may
appear smaller” NOT a straight mirror
G. Interesting Phenomena 5 min.
• Total Internal Reflection/Critical Angle
o Explains why some had trouble with refraction lab where ray bounced far away from the normal (TIR
before striking back surface and bouncing out at different point than if angle incidence was less severe)
o Diamond cut (light entering top facet undergoes TIR couple of times before finally exiting)
o Fiber Optics (transparent fibers transmit light = telephone signals, laser surgery)
F. Problems 25 min.
• Overhead – “Herb’s Reflection” (multiple mirrors)
• Practice – “Herbert’s Vanity”
• Sponge Activities
o Overhead – “Full Length View” Mirror

G. Assign Homework 1 min.


• Worksheet – “Reflecting on Reflections” (side 1) and “The Mysterious Mirror” (side 2)
• Text p. 696 - #2, 4, 6, 12
Phyz Prob

Herbert’s Vanity
Herbert is 5-feet tall. He has a mirror in his
bedroom wall with no ledge to put his comb on.
How tall does the mirror need to be for Herbert to
see his entire reflection? Show your work using a
ray diagram.
Mirror

•.

5 ft
Phyz Prob Name ______________________________
Hour _____________

Reflecting on Reflections
1. Superman is flying 220 m above a frozen lake. How far away does his image appear to be? Show your
work by making a ray diagram with a single incident & reflected ray and label the appropriate distances.

2. Looking in the mirror, you notice somebody standing 2.0 m behind you. If you are 1.5 m in front of the
mirror, how far away from you is their image in the mirror? Show your work by making a ray diagram
with a single incident and reflected ray and label the appropriate distances.

3. A ray of light is incident towards a plane mirror at an angle of 30-degrees with the mirror surface. What
will be the angle of reflection?

4. A

ray of light is approaching a set of three mirrors as shown in the diagram. The light ray is approaching the
first mirror at an angle of 45-degrees with the mirror surface. Trace the path of the light ray as it bounces
off the mirror; continue tracing the ray until it finally exits from the mirror system. How many times will
the ray reflect before it finally exits?
Phyz Prob Name ______________________________
Hour _____________

The Mysterious Mirror


Imagine you are looking at yourself in a mirror mounted on a wall with no obstructions below it (like a counter
top). From where you stand, you see your head and the top of your shoulders. Is there anything you can do, while
still standing vertically upright, to enable you to see more of yourself in the mirror?
If so, describe what you could do. Include a diagram in your explanation indicating what you would see in your
mirror. If not, explain why not. Include a diagram in your explanation.

Draw a ray diagram that shows how a person standing straight would see the reflection of themselves in a vertical
mirror. In your diagram, show the appropriate rays with direction arrows, the normal lines off the reflecting
surface and dimensions. If it helps, assume that your eyes are a certain distance below the top of your head
(approximately 6 inches). Hint: Your diagram should have two sets of rays.

What is the minimum size mirror needed by someone who is six feet tall to view herself or himself completely?

Does your answer depend on whether the person’s eyes are at the very top of the head or somewhere lower down?
How does the person’s distance from the mirror affect the image? Does moving closer or farther away from the
mirror change how much of the person is visible in the mirror? Does moving closer or farther away change the
apparent size of the image?

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 12

Topic: Refraction Notes

Instructional Objectives: Student should be able to:


1. Define refraction and the conditions under which it occurs
2. Be able to relate degree of refraction to the medium it passes through
3. Attribute changes in wave variables to changes in the media they pass through
4. Relate the angle of incidence with the angle of refraction at the boundaries (entering and exiting)
between two substances
5. Understand the behavior of waves as they travel from low index-to-high index media and vice-versa.
Activity Time
A. Review Reflection Homework 15 min.

B. Intro to Refraction 10 min.


• Q: “Wet Spot Mirrage” – Reflection or Refraction?
• A: Refraction
• Q: Why?
• A: Air density fluctuates near road surface on hot day. Index of refraction inversely proportional to temp.
• Recall Definition - change in direction of wave at a boundary where it passes from one medium into another
• To occur : i. media must be different densities
ii. ray must strike at angle other than 90-degrees
• Demo – simulation (wave traveling from less dense medium to more dense)
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/waves/ltm.html
o At boundary, some energy remains in less dense medium in form of reflected pulse
• Inverted for this situation
• Amplitude reduced-Q: why? A: Amplitude representative of energy carried by wave
• Velocity and wavelength are same
• Q: Why is velocity same? A: Velocity of wave constant for given medium
o Rest of energy (closed system = mechanical energy conserved), transmitted to denser medium
• Pulse not inverted
• Slower velocity (here, velocity can be different because it entered a new medium)
• Frequency
o Velocity and wavelength
remainsdecrease
constant (not evident inBeanimation).
able to sketch
Use “handshake principle” to explain . .
o Frequency . vibration of last particle in incident medium creates vibration on 1st particle in new medium
unchanged
• Therefore
o Direction wavelength
of light changes (i.e.decreases
refraction–=Q:bending)
Why? A: Recall wave equation (λ = νw/ƒ)
• Light o behaves same occurs
This change way at the boundary ! ! (just like the rope animation)
o Notice wavefronts travel in straight lines after boundary interface
o Perpendicular rays to wavefronts represent direction of wave travel
o Velocity and wavelength decrease
• Exception – no refraction occurs when boundary is perpendicular to wave velocity
o Story – “The Secret of the Archer Fish”

C. Snell’s Law 10 min.


• Index of Refraction (n)
o Speed of light in a medium depends on its optical density (not same as physical density)
o Optical density – sluggishness of atoms of a material to maintain absorbed energy (vibrating e-) from
EM wave before reemitting it as a new EM disturbance
o More optically dense – slower speed of light in that medium
o Index of refraction (n) – indicator of optical density; number indicates number of times slower light
travels in that medium than in vacuum Material n
o n = c Vacuum 1.0000
νw Air 1.0003
Water 1.3333
Oil (typical) 1.5000
Diamond 2.4170

• Direction of Bending
o FST = fast-to-slow, towards normal
“Freaky Science Teachers”
o SFA = slow-to-fast, away from normal
“Sammy Farts A Lot”

• Snell’s Law

n1sinθ1 = n2sinθ2 or sinθ1/sinθ2 = νw1/νw2

D. Problems 20 min.
• Homework from Friday – “Refracting Ray Diagrams”
• Overhead – “Herb’s Refraction”
• In-Class – “Herbert’s Fishing Trip” (Will not finish during class)

E. Assign Homework 1min.


• Finish Worksheet – “Herbert’s Fishing Trip”
• Worksheet – “Snell’s Law”

Phyz Prob Name ______________________________


Hour _____________

Herbert’s Fishing Trip


Herbert’s method of fishing involves spearing the fish while standing on the shore. The actual location of a
fish is shown in the diagram below. Because of the refraction of light, the observed location of the fish is
different than its actual location.

(a) Draw a single ray from the actual position of the fish to Herbert’s eye. Remember that light
refracts.
(b) Indicate on the diagram the approximate location where Herbert observes the fish to be.
(c) Must Herbert aim above or below where the fish appears to be in order to strike the fish?
Explain your answer.

Herbert hasn’t been having much success spear-fishing and is tired of jumping in the water to retrieve his spear.
He decides to use a high-powered laser instead. On his first attempt, he directs a beam of light at an angle of 40
degrees with respect to the water.

(d) Determine the velocity of the light through the water

40°

(e) Label on the diagram the direction of the refracted ray and
find the angle of refraction
An Archer Fish captures a fly on a branch by locating itself directly below it and while still under water,
launching a jet of water vertically up into the air – striking the fly after which it drops to the water for a nice meal.
Having missed the fish again, Herbert climbs back in the water in an effort and hovers directly over it. Not
knowing that he was dealing with an Archer Fish, he gets sprayed right in the eye by the fish and decides to call it
a day. How did the fish succeed in hitting Herbert with its jet of water? Explain using the principles of
refraction.

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 13

Topic: Interference & Diffraction

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Understand behavior of waves when diffraction occurs
2. Understand applications (radio) and challenges (microscopes)
3. Differentiate between wave behavior and particle behavior
Activity Time
A. Review Homework 15 min.

B. Background 5 min.
• Greek Philosophers (skip)
o Socrates & Plato (500 BC) – Believed “filaments” came from eyes in order to see objects
o Descarte (1500 AD?) –
o Pythagorus: Light must come from object to eyes
• Modern Theory (skip)
o Newton (1700s): Light behaves like particles
• Can’t be in same place at same time
• Analogy – baseball reflects but doesn’t refract, diffract, or interfere)
• Q: How are waves different from particles? (Ex: sound waves outdoors versus light)
o Christian Huygen (Contemporary of Newton): Light behaves like waves
o Einstein (1905) – Special Theory of Relativity
• Dual Nature of Light - light has properties of both waves and particles
• But not at the same time
• True for other EM waves but cannot observe them visually
C. Diffraction 10 min.
• Ability of waves to bend around corners and through small openings
o Note this type of bending is different from bending in refraction
o Ex: Can hear sound around corner in other room – not possible if waves traveled in straight line
o In order for diffraction to occur through opening, wavelength must be larger than opening
• Depends on wavelength and size of opening
o The larger the wavelength is relative to size of opening – the greater the diffraction

Finish sketch
o Radio: large λ = 30m much diffraction
o Light: small λ = 7x10-7 m little diffraction
o Therefore, sound bends around corners better than light
• Q: Sound – which will diffract more – high or low pitch?
• A: Low pitch has lower frequency larger λ so low pitch diffracts more
o Stereo (research) – tend to hear bass (longer wavelengths) more than treble (shorter) when go into
other room (try it at home) – longer wavelengths diffract more
• If wavelength much larger than object, then waves will pass around them almost as if they weren’t there
o e.g. - Radio waves – AM (longer wavelength – greater reception)

D. Huygen’s Principle (skip?) 10 min.


• Every point on any wave front may be regarded as a new point source (sketch below)

• Wave fronts made up of tinier wave fronts


• Waves bend in behind obstacles or obstructions
o Particles don’t do this (think back to particles in SHM)
• Application to reflection & refraction
• In order to detect objects with waves, wavelength must be less than or equal to size of object
• Demo – wave tank or website

E. Interference & Superposition 10 min.


• All waves have what can be termed as an “upside” & a “downside” (sketch transverse)
• Ex: water crest & trough, sound compressions & rarefactions (relaxations),
max amplitude of E/M waves
• Interference - two or more waves can occupy the same position in space at same time
o i.e. can cancel out or add together under given circumstances
o Note – for small amplitudes, waves can pass through each other and emerge unchanged
o Ex: Allows us to hear voices from 2 different people at same time (pass through each other)
• Principle of Superposition - The combined waveform of 2 or more interfering waves is the algebraic sum of
the individual disturbances due to each wave
o Demo – superposition simulation
http://www.matter.org.uk/Schools/Content/Interference/superpositionActive.html
o Note phase difference, total constructive/total destructive interference
• The combined waveform of 2 or more interfering waves is the algebraic sum of the individual disturbances
due to each wave
• Explanation of Demo (Skip)

(sketch) (sketch)

Total Constructive Interference Total Destructive Interference


(Reinforcement) (Cancellation)

• Demo – Laser with convex or concave mirror – show interference pattern on ceiling (skip)
• Shadows – total destructive interference? (current research topic) (skip)
o Sharp shadow - light passing through opening that is large compared to wavelength
o Fuzzy shadow – light passing through thin slit
• Demo - Stereo system example – “keeping the beat” (skip)
• Demo – wave tank, website, or speakers (skip)
F. Homework 1 min.
o Worksheet – “Herbert’s Super Position” http://www.physics.cornell.edu/p214/Superposition.pdf
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 14

Topic: Standing Waves

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Recall the principle of superposition
2. Explain how standing waves occur and their influence on music
3. Understand and construct harmonics

Activity Time
A. Recall Iterference & Principle of Superposition 1 min.
• Interference – Occurs when two waves occupy the same position in space
o Phase difference, constructive interference, destructive interference
• Superposition - When 2 or more same waves occupy same space, resulting wave is algebraic sum
of individual disturbances of interfering waves

B. Standing Waves 5 min.


• Special situation of interference
o Occurs when traveling wave is reflected at a boundary and reflected wave interferes with incident
wave so that wave appears to vibrate in place; appearing to neither move left or right

o Must be same type of wave (e.g. sound)


o Must have same wave velocity (goes with same type of wave)
• Occur only at specific frequencies of vibration (harmonic frequencies)
o Same frequency (and therefore same wavelength since both νw &ƒ constant)
o Same amplitude
• Complete constructive and destructive interference occurs
o Still must interfere at a certain position in space
• Note – standing waves are not actually waves.
o Represents a pattern resulting in presence of 2 or more waves of same frequency traveling in
different directions within same medium
Provide basis for understanding of musical instruments

C. Pattern of a Standing Wave 5 min.


Nodes – points of no displacement
(destructive interference)

No wave Antinodes – points that undergo


maximum displacement
(constructive interference)

D. Harmonics 15 min.
• Demo – Computer Simulations (1st – 5th harmonics)
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/waves/harm1.html (Backup – overhead)

1st Harmonic = ƒ1
(Fundamental Frequency) ½ wavelength

2nd Harmonic = ƒ2
(1st Overtone) full wavelength

3rd Harmonic = ƒ3
(2nd Overtone) 1.5 wavelengths

• Recall wave equation λ = ν /ƒ w


• Use it to solve variety of problems

E. Problems 25 min.
• Overhead – “Jumping Josie” (also find ƒ1, λ1)
• In-Class – Get started on homework

F. Assign Homework 1 min.


• Worksheet – “Herbert’s Harmony”
• Worksheet – “Standing Waves” (with additions shown on key)
Phyz Prob Name ______________________________
Hour _____________

Herbert’s Harmony

1. Herbert buys a guitar in hopes of romancing his girlfriend Josie. He plucks a 0.8 m long string and
watches it oscillate at its 2nd harmonic of 500 Hz.
a. What is the fundamental frequency? Include a sketch of the wave pattern.

b. What is the wavelength of the 1st harmonic?

c. What is the velocity of the 1st harmonic?

d. What is the wavelength of the 4th harmonic? Include a sketch of the wave pattern.

e. What is the frequency of the 4th harmonic?

f. What is the velocity of the 4th harmonic?

g. What is the wavelength of the 7th harmonic? Include a sketch of the wave pattern.
h. What is the frequency of the 7th harmonic?

i. How many wavelengths are in the 23rd harmonic?

j. What is the wavelength of the 23rd harmonic?

2. Switching to his violin, Herbert plucks a string creating a fundamental frequency of 570 Hz. The speed
of the wave is 600 m/sec. What is the length of the string?

Standing Waves
1. Suppose that there was a ride at an amusement park which was called “The Standing Wave”. Which
location – node or antinode – on the ride would give the greatest thrill? Why?

2. A standing wave is formed when


a. A wave refracts due to changes in the properties of the medium
b. A wave reflects off a canyon wall and is heard shortly after it is formed
c. Red, orange, and yellow wavelengths bend around suspended atmospheric particles
d. Two identical waves moving in different directions along the same medium interfere

3. For traveling waves to set up standing waves, it is necessary that the waves have the same:
a. Frequency
b. Amplitude
c. Velocity
d. All of the above

4. Consider the standing wave pattern shown in answering the following questions

a. Identify the number of nodes


b. Identify the number of antinodes
c. For the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where destructive interference occurs

5. When a stretched string or cord is oscillated at the third harmonic of its natural frequency, how many
wavelengths will the standing wave exhibit? Make a sketch of the wave pattern.
6. The fundamental frequency of a stretched string is 220 Hz. What is the frequency of:
a. The third harmonic

b. The fourth harmonic

7. A standing wave is formed in a stretched string that is 3.0 m long.


a. What is the wavelength of the first harmonic?

b. What is the wavelength of the fourth harmonic?

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 15

Topic: 2-Source Interference (Sound)

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Understand principle of superposition
2. Understand coherent source interference and be able to work with Braggs equations

Activity Time
A. Review Homework & do “Jumping Josie” worksheet 10 min.

B. Coherent Source Interference 30 min.


• Definition – same frequency, in-phase (same position of wave coming from
source)
• Total constructive interference (pathlengths same) – ask what observer will hear
• Total destructive interference (pathlengths differ by half wavelength) – ask what observer will hear
• Board example (dual speakers)
o Ask what would occur if observer moved perpendicular to sources
o Ask how you could create destructive interference without moving speakers
(hint: by moving observers)
• Braggs equations for fringing patterns - total constructive (“brights”) and
total destructive (“darks”) interference
• Board example

C. In-Class Problem 10 min.


• Worksheet – “Herbert’s (In)coherent Interference

D. Assign Homework 5 min.


• Worksheet – “Interference Problems”
• Due tomorrow (Day 16)
Phyz Prob Name ______________________________
Hour _____________

Herbert’s Harmony

3. Consider an 0.8 m long guitar string which has a fundamental frequency (1st harmonic) of 400 Hz.
a. When the string is plucked, what is the wavelength of the wave pattern? Include a sketch of
the wave pattern.

b. What is the velocity of the standing wave?

c. What is the velocity of the 2nd harmonic?

d. What is the wavelength of the 2nd harmonic? Include a sketch of the wave pattern.

e. What is the frequency of the 2nd harmonic?

f. What is the velocity of the 3rd harmonic?

g. What is the wavelength of the 3rd harmonic? Include a sketch of the wave pattern.
h. What is the frequency of the 3rd harmonic?

i. What is the velocity of the 7th harmonic?

j. What is the wavelength of the 7th harmonic? Include a sketch of the wave pattern.

k. What is the frequency of the 7th harmonic?

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 16

Topic: Finish 2-Source Interference (Sound)


2-Source Interference (Light)

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Be able to understand wave characteristics applied to sound system
2. Conclude that light has characteristics of waves

Activity Time
A. Review Homework 10 min.

B. Demo 2-Source Sound Interference – Amplifier/Speakers 15 min.


• Superposition (with music)
• Production of sound waves (with microphone)
• Sine wave with energy chimes (and superposition of diff. chimes)
• Beats (freq. appx. 200 Hz); also with energy chimes
• Low/high range (show displacement of speaker cone)
• 2-source interference

C. Background – Thomas Young’s Double Slit Experiment 5 min.


• Newton – considered light a particle
• Particle can reflect & possibly refract
• Criteria for waves – diffraction, interference
• Huygen proposed theory of light as a wave (rejected due to Newton’s stature and
wave needed medium to travel)
• Leonardo daVinci – thought waves
• Thomas Young – changed prevailing thought (should be able to achieve an
Interference pattern with light)

D. Laser Demo 25 min.


• Laser is monochromatic light (single color)
• When directed through two closely spaced slits, fringes of brightness and
darkness produced on screen behind
• Bright fringes due to constructive interference of light waves and darkness from
destructive interference
• Fringing pattern due to interference, omit diffraction, coherent sources
• Equations for distance from “center bright” to “nth-bright”

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 17

Topic: Thomas Young’s Experiment

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Recognize that light has characteristics of waves
2. Be able to work with Thomas Young’s theories to verify wavelike characteristics of light

Activity Time
A. Demo – Thomas Young Website Simulation 10 min.

B. Board Problems 15 min.

C. In-Class Problems 25 min.


• Worksheet – Thomas Young’s Experiment

D. Assign Homework 5 min.


• Worksheet – Thomas Young’s Experiment
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 18

Topic: Review – Day 1

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Work with problems and concepts related to reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, 2-source
coherent interference, wave behavior of light

Activity Time
A. Review Homework 10 min.

B. In-Class Work (due tomorrow) 25 min.


• Wave review worksheet #1

C. Quiz List (in preparation for quiz on Day 20) 20 min.


• Reflection
o Types
o Law of reflection
o Multiple mirror diagrams
o How to draw ray diagrams (rays have direction)
o Definition of angles of incidence & reflection with respect to normal
• Refraction
o What it is; what affects it (density, other properties)
o Snell’s Law
o Index of refraction
o Be able to draw ray diagrams (know direction rays will head – toward
or away from normal)
o Definition of angles of incidence and refraction
• Diffraction
o What it is; what affects it
o What type of waves diffract more/less
• Interference
o Principle of superposition
o Total constructive & total destructive interference & conditions in terms
of wavelength
• Standing Waves
o Conditions & what they generally are
o Nodes & antinodes – what is occurring
o Constructive & destructive interference
o How to determine frequency, wave velocity of harmonics
o Number of waves in a certain harmonic
• 2-Source Coherent Interference
o Fringing Patterns for Light
o Equation for distance from “center bright” to “nth-bright”

Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 19

Topic: Review – Day 2

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:


1. Work with problems and concepts related to reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, 2-source
coherent interference, wave behavior of light

Activity Time
A. Review Homework 25 min.
• Wave review worksheet #1
• Compile list of links from Day 6 assignment

B. In-Class Work 30 min.


• Wave review worksheet #2
Course: 12th Grade General Physics

Unit: Waves – Day 20

Topic: Quiz

Instructional Objectives: Students should be able to:

Activity Time
A. Quiz 55 min.

Note: Re-take policy in effect. After quizzes are returned, students with scores below 70 percent will be invited
and encouraged to re-take the quiz under the following conditions:
• Students will be required to participate in a one-hour review of the quiz during 7th hour to understand their
mistakes and receive further instruction.
• Students will be required to complete a full-length practice quiz and submit it as entrance to the re-take.
• Students will be given a new quiz during 7th hour on the day of the re-take.
• The maximum score that a student will receive on the re-take is 84 percent.
Appendix A – Demo Lesson Plan
“Wave Upon Wave of Cars”
Using a Simple Traffic Pattern Analogy
To Help Students Understand Wave Motion

I. Course
12th grade general physics

II. Lesson Overview – Building a Sense of Purpose


Some students have difficulties understanding the meaning behind the parameters of wave motion (speed,
wavelength, and frequency). In order to understand these characteristics as well as the physical nature of waves
that cannot be seen including sound waves, shock waves, light waves and its cousins (radio waves, infrared waves,
ultraviolet waves, X-rays, and gamma rays), students must first acquire foundational knowledge in mechanical
wave motion. Visual phenomena can greatly enhance the learning of these basic concepts. Therefore, a familiar
example that connects to their previous life experience should help. Nearly everyone has given thought at one time
or another to the nature of traffic patterns. During normal traffic flow, cars may move along uninhibited at the
speed limit with fairly even spacing between cars. As traffic increases (e.g. during rush hour), the spacing between
cars decreases although traffic may continue to proceed at the speed limit unless an impediment such as an
accident or lane reduction occurs. Assuming the pattern to continue uninhibited, students can visualize the nature
of wave motion through a simple demonstration using toy cars. The present lesson plan will make use of this
simple demonstration.

III. Common Student Conception


Students will have a good working knowledge of kinematics, specifically straight line motion described by the
equation: distance = rate x time. Their prior experience with wave motion is likely to be confined to observing
ocean waves. While they understand that waves move (for example as they approach and crash into the shoreline),
they will not likely understand the properties that define this movement, nor will they consider the similar behavior
of wave motion and straight line motion. If asked to explain how waves move, some will point to the gravitational
pull from the moon but they will not associate gravity with a disturbance that can result in wave formation and
propagation. They have used some of the terms in everyday conversation such as wave, frequency, speed, and
propagation, but never in relation to one another as they pertain to wave motion.
IV. Benchmarks

4. The Physical Setting; F. Motion


Waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they
enter, and change direction when entering a new material. All these effects vary with wavelength. The energy of
waves (like any form of energy), can be changed into other forms of energy.

11. Common Themes; B. Models


The basic idea of mathematical modeling is to find a mathematical relationship that behaves in the same ways as
the objects or processes under investigation. A mathematical model may give insight about how something really
works or may fit observations very well without any intuitive meaning.

V. Learning Outcomes
1. Given a traffic simulation of wave motion where speed is constant, define wavelength, frequency, and
period and describe the inverse relationship between wavelength and frequency under these circumstances.
2. Describe how wavelength and frequency affect speed of propagation and establish a mathematical model to
define all wave motion.

VI. Instructional Strategy


A. The lesson will begin with questions probing students’ prior conceptions of wave motion.
B. Then tell the students that you will be using an analogy to help them understand the relationships between wave
parameters.
C. Conclude the lesson by asking the students to formulate a relationship between speed, wavelength, and
frequency.

VII. Safety Precautions


None

VIII. Material Requirements


Six (6) matchbox cars, meter stick

IX. Time Requirements


A. 10 minutes
B. 15 minutes
C. 10 minutes

X. Instructional Sequence
A. Ask students to describe any experience they have had surfing. What was it like? Describe the motion.
Describe the differences between catching a small wave and a large one. What parameters would you use
to describe these differences (speed, force, power, impact of subsequent waves on top of you, etc.)? Ask
them where ocean waves come from. Where do they originate? How do they move? Why are there small
waves and large waves? How often do waves strike the shore? Does it vary with size of wave? Document
answers on blackboard (or projected class blog). Tell them that you’re going to switch gears for a while
but will revisit their answers at the end of the lesson.
B. Ask the students to tell you how many car lengths they think should be between cars traveling on the
expressway at 70 mph. Why? Document answers on blackboard or blog (label distance as “D1” and speed
as “V1”). Take out matchbox cars and meter stick. Space the cars at increments related to what was agreed
upon in class using the following scale: 1” = 1 car length = 15 feet. Ask students to recall kinematics
equation: displacement = rate x time. Ask each class member to calculate the time it takes a given car to
travel the distance between it and the next car. Ask for volunteer to share answer. Ask how many
agree/disagree with this answer. Upon agreement, document this time and label it as “T1”. Ask them to
calculate how many cars would pass a given point in 10 seconds. Label this number as “f1”. Ask them to
relate this number to the first calculation of seconds between cars and document it on the board or blog.
Introduce the unit of Hertz. Now ask the class to describe what happens to the spacing during rush hour
(assuming speed remains 70 mph with no disruptions)? Move cars closer together to agreed upon distance
and perform similar calculations. Document answers on blackboard or blog as D2, V2=V1, T2 and f2. Ask
students to identify what happened to the time increment as the spacing was decreased? How did the
number of cars passing a given point during the 10 second period change?
C. Using the kinematics equation as a starting point, ask the students to each take out a piece of paper and
construct a similar relationship for wave motion. Ask them to create a definition for each variable. Most
students will use the variables D, V, and T but many will wonder what to do with f. Randomly call on
students to share their answers beginning with definitions of the variables followed by the equation of wave
motion. Ask them what to do about the variable, f. Introduce the standard use of ƒ for frequency, λ for
wavelength, ν for wave speed, and T for period. Finalize the relationship as ν = λ/T = λƒ. Relate it to d =
vt. Conclude by informing them that subsequent lessons will explore different wave phenomena and their
effects on our lives such as earthquakes, tsunamis, ultraviolet waves, radio waves, and X-rays.

XI. Design Rationale


The general idea for my demonstration came from a discussion I had with my mentor teacher at Huron High
School, Don Yeatts. I told Don that I wanted to design a short demonstration that I could actually use with the unit
I will be responsible for on wave theory. Taking direction from our Methods class on September 26th, I asked Don
to help me identify any alternative conceptions (or misconceptions) that students might have regarding wave
behavior. I summarized some possible issues in section III.

Don then briefly described the “car wave” demonstration that he has used to introduce the topic of wave behavior.
I didn’t ask for the details of his instruction sequence because I wanted to design my own. I emailed my draft to
him and he stated that it looked like a useful representation of the ideas I wanted to convey as summarized in
section II.

In developing my lesson plan, I made frequent use of the Chiappetta and Koballa reading for our October 3rd class
entitled, “Planning to Teach Science” as well as the sample lesson plan handed out on October 10th entitled,
“Lesson 8: Does Acid Rain Make New Substances?”. I found these two articles particularly helpful as I
engineered a lesson plan structure that I believe fits my own style of thinking and organization. I consider this an
important first step in what I hope will eventually be a standard template that I can use for any lesson plan, whether
short-form or long-form. I also referenced the handout from October 10th entitled, “Essential Features of
Classroom Inquiry and Their Variations” in deciding to make this introductory topic teacher-directed yet engaging
to the students by drawing from their past experiences and conceptions.

References

Chiappetta, E. L. & Koballa, T. R. (n.d.). Science instruction in the middle and secondary
schools: Developing fundamental knowledge and skills for teaching (pp. 29-43). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wilson, J. D., & Buffa, A. J. (1997). Physics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Appendix B
Reflection Inquiry Lab
Introduction to the Law of Reflection

I. Course
12th grade general physics

II. Lesson Overview


This lesson will introduce students to the concept of reflection prior to presenting the Law of Reflection. In the
previous unit (Introduction to Waves), students learned that all waves behave according to the same laws. They
also learned about the vast array of wave forms, some visible and some not. In the present unit, students will look
into wave characteristics in detail. They will also explore the wave behavior of light and address their own
preconceptions as to its nature. By exposing students to a variety of phenomena involving reflection of light rays,
students will begin to see how the role of light reflection that they take for granted every day behaves according to
very predictable laws. In the following day’s lesson, we will return the predictions they made in this lab and
address any misconceptions they may have had.

III. Learning Outcomes


1. Qualitatively understand how light waves reach our eyes by direct or reflected means
2. Understand how “rays” can be used to describe wave propagation
3. Be able to create a ray tracing by observations of an object in a mirror and label its terms (incident
and reflected rays, angles of incidence and reflection)
4. Be able to predict how angles will relate to one another and how they vary with distance from the
mirror
5. Understand the concepts of erect and inverted images and when they occur
6. Understand the concept of magnification and how to determine it

IV. Links to Standards


• National Science Education Standards Ch.6. Science Content Standards. Grades 9-12: Science as Inquiry.
Students should be guided to reflect on the concepts that guide inquiry. Teachers help students evaluate
their own explanations.
• Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: 4F.6. Motion
Waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials
they enter, and change direction when entering a new material. All these effects vary with wavelength.
The energy of waves (like any form of energy) can be changed into other forms of energy.
• Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: 11B. Models
The basic idea of mathematical modeling is to find a mathematical relationship that behaves in the same
ways as the objects or processes under investigation. A mathematical model may give insight about how
something really works or may fit observations very well without any intuitive meaning.

V. Common Student Conception


Students will readily provide answers to the question, “what is reflection?” by providing everyday examples such
as reflection in a mirror. Some answers will be incorrect, for example as students mistakenly take the “wet spot
mirage” as a reflection phenomenon rather than refraction (which will be covered after reflection). Students may
also believe that if they can see a person in a mirror (such as at an odd angle), that the other person cannot see
them. In still other cases, students may not know why their image is inverted in some images (e.g. convex side of
spoon).

VI. Establishing Purpose


In a lab setting, students are accustomed to following a procedure towards formulating conclusions with
predictable outcomes. If given limited information, however, they will shape the way they engage in scientific
inquiry based on the concepts of the world that they bring to the classroom. This lesson seeks to have students
begin to take ownership of their own learning by forcing them to develop predictions about principles that have yet
to be taught. They will engage in a series of activities that explore different applications of the Law of Reflection
to build a foundation for further learning. They will not be left totally to their own means since this will be their
introduction to inquiry as a method of exploring nature. The format of inquiry will be guided by essential features
of classroom inquiry as summarized below:

• Each activity will engage students in questions that I will provide utilizing fixed apparatuses set up in
advance by me.
• Learners will be directed to collect certain data at each station.
• Learners will be guided in the process of formulating explanations from the evidence.
• Learners will be directed toward areas and sources of scientific knowledge.
• Learners will be given the steps and procedures for communications.

Upon completion of this lab, students are expected to have doubts regarding their ability to perform independent
investigations. Working in groups, however, they will participate in cooperative learning and learn the value of
teamwork where the “whole is greater than the sum of the parts”. They will also learn that scientific advancements
are only realized through exploration into what is unknown. They will be reassured that their grade will be based
on completion of the activity as opposed to whether they got the right answer. This should build a sense of
excitement as the following day’s lesson plan provides immediate feedback from which to assess their skills as
predictors of how nature works.

VII. Instructional Strategies


• Inquiry lab
• Written assessment (graded for completion only)

VIII. Material Requirements


• Mirrors, laser pointers, graph paper, cardboard, stick pins, colored pencils, straight-edge
IX. Safety Precautions
• Instruct students not to look directly at the laser beam
• Tell them to turn off the laser pointer when not using it
• Direct them to make a “block” out of poster board to block the laser beam before it leaves the lab table.

X. Time Requirements
• 55 minutes

XI. Instructional Sequence


Introduction to Scientific Inquiry (10 minutes): Overview of previous lab experiences where students are given a
procedure and asked to draw conclusions with predictable outcomes. Introduce concept of scientific inquiry where
the answers are not readily predictable. Relate inquiry to all great scientific advancements. Provide example
covered during free-fall (Galileo’s discovery that gravity is independent of mass when air resistance is neglected).
Students will work in groups of two and will submit a single group report. Inform students that they are expected
to share in the inquiry process by having one person manipulate the laser pen and while the other documents their
findings for part A. The roles will be reversed for Part B. Issue handouts explaining that they are to be completed
during the lab and will be collected at the end of the period. Advise students that lab will be worth 25 points and
that it will be graded on completeness, not on right or wrong answers.

Reflection Inquiry Lab (45 minutes):


Each person is required to hand in a separate worksheet but they may collaborate on answers. Clearly state that
the teacher will not answer questions during the course of the lab except where the worksheet states otherwise.
Inform them that papers will be returned the following day so that they can reference them and change answers
during the formal instruction period. Remind them to write in pencil for this purpose. Emphasize efficiency,
collaboration, and communication. Collect labs on the way out.

XII. Assessing Student Understanding


Informal assessment will be conducted during the course of the lab. Walk around and observe. Listen to how they
converse, formulate theories, collaborate on answers, and document conclusions. Conduct formal assessment by
reviewing completed worksheets and documenting areas of both understanding and confusion. Adjust following
day’s lesson plan based on levels of understanding.

XIII. Rationale
My mentor teacher has used this lab for years with good results in formulating “mental models” of the Law of
Reflection. Students have the opportunity to revisit their prior knowledge base from the lab and apply new
learning acquired during the following day’s instruction and in related topics to be covered later in the unit. I am
becoming a big fan of inquiry labs to introduce a topic. We introduced the unit on forces with an outstanding
inquiry lab that involved eight stations of various force configurations where students were asked to predict the
behavior of objects acted upon by various forces and create free body diagrams before receiving instruction.
Following this particular inquiry lab on reflection, another application will focus on refraction. I believe that
inquiry can foster enthusiasm for the subject of physics as students take on the role of a scientist.

Sources

The idea for this inquiry lab originated from Mr. Don Yeatts, Ann Arbor Huron High School Physics teacher and
science department head.

Handout – Essential features of classroom inquiry and their variations. Received October 10, 2005,
from EDUC 422 Teaching of Science in the Secondary School.

Student Resources

Wilson, J. D., & Buffa, A. J. (1997). Physics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Phyz Lab Name ________________________


Name ________________________
Hour __________
Reflection Lab

Introduction
In the following experiment, we will determine the location of an object and its image by a technique called ray
tracing. This technique is based on our model for the behavior of light in which we envision the source of
the light waves as coming to our eyes in one of two ways. One is that the light is emitted by an object such
as a light bulb, star, candle or other source and travels to us in waves. The second is that the light is reflected
off an object and the reflected light travels to our eyes. A line drawn perpendicular to a series of wave
fronts and pointing in the direction of propagation (or motion) is called a ray. Therefore, light
originating from and reflected by objects can be represented by rays.

Note: Please make your drawings neat and accurate (and fully labeled).
Label all terms which are bold faced in the text on your diagram.

Part A
1. Secure a mirror on edge between two pieces of puddy in approximately the center of a piece of graph paper
which is placed on cardboard. Stick a pin into the graph paper about 5 cm from the mirror. This will be the
object pin.
a. Draw a line on the paper at the base of the mirror (this is the reflecting surface) and mark where
the object pin is on the paper. Draw a straight line connecting the object location and any point on
the mirror (make it a minimum of 3 cm from a perpendicular line to the mirror). Draw an
arrowhead in the middle of this line pointing to the mirror. Label this the incident ray.
b. Draw a dashed line perpendicular to the mirror at the point where the incident ray meets the mirror.
This is also called a normal line (label on your drawing) to the mirror or reflecting surface.
c. Place your eyes near the surface of the table (to the left of the normal line) so that you can see the
image of the pin and the image of the incident ray in a straight line (using only one eye). Place a
second pin along this line of sight and make a pencil mark on the graph paper where this pin is
located.
d. Remove the mirror and both pins. Now draw a straight line connecting the location of the second
pin and the point where the incident ray intersects the mirror. Draw an appropriate arrowhead on
this line to indicate its direction of propagation and label it reflected ray. What does this line
represent?

2. Consider the angle formed by the incident ray and the normal to the mirror (the angle of incidence) and the
angle formed by the second ray and the normal (the angle of reflection).
a. Predict how these angles will compare. (Should be equal)

b. Now measure the angles and test your prediction. Write the measured angles on your drawing.
3. Extend the path of the second ray (the reflected ray) back behind the mirror as a dotted line.
a. What does the dotted line that you just drew represent with respect to the object pin (i.e. the first
pin)? (Hint: What does it show with respect to what you see?) (represents image of object pin)

b. Why wouldn’t it be appropriate to include an arrowhead on this line? (doesn’t represent a ray)

4. What you just completed drawing is called a ray diagram. From your ray diagram alone, without
measuring or drawing more lines, do you have enough information to determine the location of the image
of the object (not the actual object)? If not, what else do you need? (another incident ray)
Check with your facilitator

Part B
5. Repeat the procedure in Part A for at least one more incident ray (do this in a different color) while keeping
the object pin (the original pin) and the mirror in the same position as in Part A. Find the reflected ray.
a. Predict how the angles of incidence and the angles of reflection will compare for each case.
(same)

b. Measure the angles and test your predictions. Label the diagram as in Part A.

c. Write a summary of how the angle of incidence relates to the angle of reflection for a flat reflecting
surface. (equal)

6. Extend the path of the reflected rays back behind the mirror as before.
a. Do these dotted lines intersect behind the mirror? If they do, explain why. If they don’t, explain
why not. (represent location of actual image)
b. What is the least number of rays required to determine the location of an object using a ray
diagram? Explain your answer. (two)

The dotted lines represent the path that the reflected light appears to originate from. They converge at a point
behind the mirror. This point determines the location of the image. This image is called a virtual image since the
light rays appear to originate from this point but do not actually do so.

7. Now draw a perpendicular ray directly from the object to the mirror. Extend this line back behind the
mirror so that it meets the location of the image. Consider the triangles formed by the incident ray, the
normal from the object to the mirror and the mirror itself and the corresponding dotted lines and the mirror.
a. How do the corresponding angles and sides of these two triangles compare? Can the side/angle/side
or angle/side/angle rules for congruence be applied? If so, show this on your diagram.

b. What can you conclude about these two triangles?

c. Predict how the distance of the object from the mirror compares to the distance of the image from
the mirror. Explain.
d. Test your prediction.
e. Is the image of the object seen in the mirror erect (right side up) or inverted (upside down)? Is this
always true?

f. How does the size of the object compare to the size of the image?

The ratio of the size of the image to the size of the object is called magnification (M).

8. In the case of reflection from a plane mirror, what is the value of this magnification?
Check with your facilitator
Appendix D
Refraction Lesson Plan

I. Unpacking the Content Standard

Benchmarks for Science Literacy Grades 9-12: 4F.6. Motion


Waves can superpose on one another, bend around corners, reflect off surfaces, be absorbed by materials they
enter, and change direction when entering a new material. All these effects vary with wavelength. The energy of
waves (like any form of energy) can be changed into other forms of energy.

a. What does this standard mean?


Students should be able to describe what happens to waves when they superimpose on one another (for
example, when waves originating from two separate sources “collide”). They should also understand
what happens when waves bend around corners (for example, when they pass through a narrow
opening) or when they reflect off surfaces. They should be able to describe what happens when
they enter new materials (for example, when they pass from air to water or from air to oil).
Students should be able to understand how behavior varies with changing wavelength (for example,
speed of propagation). They should also be able to explain what happens to the energy of waves (for
example, transformation as it travels). Students should be able to use this knowledge to speculate how
light (whose wavelengths are too small to see) propagate under analogous circumstances.

b. What prior knowledge do students need?


Students should be familiar with the characteristics of waves (period, wavelength, frequency,
amplitude, velocity) from previous instruction in this waves unit. They should also understand the Law
of Reflection and its associated characteristics (incident and reflected angles at a normal to a surface)
from the inquiry lab and instruction that immediately precedes this lesson on refraction.

c. What misconceptions might students have?


1. All waves are visible and therefore light does not exhibit wave behavior.
2. Light waves do not propagate.
3. Light waves only reflect off of a surface such as a mirror – there is no refraction.
4. Waves passing through a medium do not bend.
5. Objects viewed in water appear closer than they actually are.

II. Unpack the Scientific Practice

Refraction Inquiry Lab


National Science Education Standards Ch.6. Science Content Standards. Grades 9-12: Science as Inquiry.
Students should be guided to reflect on the concepts that guide inquiry. Teachers help students evaluate their
own explanations.

a. What skills should the students acquire?


By participating in an active learning process, students should use this lab to further develop their critical
thinking skills. Since the formal instruction on this topic will follow the lab, students will be forced to
develop their own hypotheses and then validate or adjust those hypotheses after careful observation and
data analysis. In so doing, students will generate causal reasoning from observed behavior between waves
and matter. It is expected that they will be able to apply this knowledge to predict wave behavior between
media they haven’t observed or may have experienced but without understanding (e.g. how corrective
lenses work).

III. Create Learning Performance


7. Students will be able to relate the angle of incidence with the angle of refraction at the boundaries
(entering and exiting) between two substances. They are not expected to discover Snell’s Law
(n1sinө1 = n2sinө2) through their inquiry but the basic relationships should be understood.
8. Students should be able to develop a basic understanding of the differences in refraction angles with
varying substances (i.e. precursor to “index of refraction”)
9. Students should be able to predict the behavior of waves as they travel from low index-to-high
index media and vice-versa.

IV. Lesson Overview


This lesson will introduce students to the concept of refraction prior to presenting Snell’s Law in formal classroom
instruction. In prior lessons, students learned about the characteristics of waves (wavelength, frequency, etc.) and
the different kinds of waves and examples (longitudinal – e.g. sound; transverse – e.g. electromagnectic). They
will have also been exposed to the Law of Reflection through a separate inquiry lab and instruction period. It is
the lessons on reflection that should provide the greatest point of reference to make predictions on refraction but it
is expected that despite this knowledge, their misconceptions may prove stronger based on an experience-based
familiarity only with the term – reflection. Consequently, guidance will be provided in the refraction inquiry lab in
the form of predetermined questions rather than leaving it up to the students to entirely direct their own learning.
The essential features of classroom inquiry taken from our handout received on October 10, 2005 are summarized
below:

• Students will make predictions based on answers to predetermined questions provided on lab worksheet.
• Learners will be directed to collect certain data.
• Learners will be guided in the process of formulating explanations from the evidence.
• Learners will be directed toward areas and sources of scientific knowledge.
• Learners will be given the steps and procedures for communications.

V. Assessment Plan
a. Overview
Informal assessment will be conducted during the course of the lab. Walk around and
observe. Listen to how students converse, formulate theories, collaborate on answers, and
document conclusions. Conduct formal assessment by reviewing completed worksheets and
documenting areas of both understanding and confusion. Adjust subsequent formal
instruction on refraction based on levels of understanding.

b. Content: See Appendix E

VI. Rationale and Review of the Assessment Task


I selected this form of assessment after creating my unit plan lesson sequence with the assistance of my mentor
teacher, Don Yeatts. This lesson should effectively address each of the desired learning outcomes. In the course
of the exercise, student will progress from little-to-no understanding of the concept of refraction to be able form a
“mental model” of Snell’s Law prior to its introduction the following day. Covered in sequence, the students
should be sufficiently scaffolded in their learning so that they possess the necessary knowledge after each step to
move on to the next one. The conclusion of the lab should leave them in a position to understand the variables and
the relationships between the variables associated with Snell’s Law.

It is likely that the students will not have sufficient time to provide thorough answers to every question in the
course of the 50 minute period so they will be instructed to complete the worksheets as homework prior to the
following day’s instruction. After handing in the lab, the students will be given the opportunity to raise any
questions as a means of introduction to the formal lesson presentation of Snell’s Law.

Sources

The idea for this inquiry lab originated from Mr. Don Yeatts, Ann Arbor Huron High School Physics teacher and
science department head. Lab adjusted to accommodate additional learning outcomes that I desire of my students.

Handout – Essential features of classroom inquiry and their variations. Received October 10, 2005,
from EDUC 422 Teaching of Science in the Secondary School.

Rowan University Department of Physics and Astronomy


http://www.rowan.edu/colleges/las/physicsandastronomy/LabManual/labs/ReflectionRefraction.pdf

Student Resources

Wilson, J. D., & Buffa, A. J. (1997). Physics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Phyz Lab Names ___________________________________________________________
Hour ___________
Refraction
In this lab, you will be determining the path that a ray of light takes when it travels from one type of material into another by tracing the
path the light takes. Obtain a laser pointer with clay stand, a liter box, a note card screen and 4 different colored pencils.
I. Effect of medium on the path of light:
1. Secure a piece of paper (with the short side at the top) on your table with two pieces of tape. Place the liter
box approximately in the center of a piece of paper. Put the laser pointer at a corner of the paper and point it so
that the beam travels through opposite sides of the box (see diagram). Use a piece of modeling clay to hold the
laser pointer in place. Leave the laser pointer in this place until told to move. Place the screen on the opposite side
of the box in the path of the beam at the edge of the paper. Trace the outline of the box.
screen

Draw points where the ray leaves the laser


pointer, where it enters and leaves the box,
and where it hits the screen. Remove the
box and draw a straight ray through the
points with a colored pencil (they should
be linear). Label this ray AIR

2. If you filled the box with water, would the ray travel in the same direction? Explain your answer.

a. Fill the box with water about 1/3 of the way full.
b. With the laser pointer in its original position, mark the points where the beam leaves the pointer, enters the
box, exits the box (Hint: see where your pencil blocks the beam) and hits the screen with a different
color.
c. After removing the box, trace the path of the ray of light from the laser pointer to the screen drawing
arrows to show the direction the light is traveling. Label this WATER-1. Hint: there are three segments:
from laser to box, through the box and from box to screen.
d. Draw in the normal lines in each place that the laser hits the box. These are the interfaces (boundaries)
between the two different density materials.
e. Label each angle according to the diagram below using the protractor to measure the angles.
Note: The vertical lines represent the normal lines
ө4
(lines perpendicular to the surface)

ө 1 (angle of incidence) is the angle the incident ray makes with the

normal line at the boundary between air and water


ө3
ө 2 (angle of refraction) is the angle the refracted ray makes with the

ө2 normal line at the boundary between air and water

ө 3 (angle of incidence) is the angle the incident ray makes with the

normal line at the boundary between water and air


ө 1
ө 4 (angle of refraction) is the angle the refracted ray makes with the

normal line at the boundary between water and air

f. Compare θ 1 to θ 2. Explain what happens to light as it passes from air to water in terms of what occurs
to the angle of incidence and angle of refraction. Does the ray bend toward or away from the Normal
line?

g. Compare θ 3 to θ 4. Explain what happens to light as it passes from water to air in terms of what occurs
to the angle of incidence and angle of refraction. Does the ray bend toward or away from the Normal
line?

h. Explain what property of the two materials you think caused the refraction?
i. Write a general statement which explains how a ray will bend in relation to a Normal line for light
traveling from one density of material to another.

Check with your facilitator.

II. Effect of angle of incidence on the path of light:


3. Predict where the light would appear on the screen if you increased (or decreased) the angle of incidence
(θ 1) of the beam with the liter box, keeping the point of intersection the same. Explain your reasoning (how does
that effect θ 2, θ 3 and θ 4?).

ө4

ө 3

ө2

ө 1

a. Place the liter box with water in the same position as before. Choose a different angle of incidence (not 90
degrees) for the light beam. Make sure that the position where the beam enters the box does not change.
b. Mark the points where the beam enters the box, exits the box and hits the screen with a third color.
c. Trace the path of a ray of light from the laser pointer to the screen (three segments). Label this path
WATER-2.
d. Draw in the normal lines and label the angles as in step 2e for this new path.

i) How does the angle of incidence (θ 1) for path WATER-1 compare to the angle of incidence for path
WATER-2?

ii) How does the angle of refraction (θ 2) for path WATER-1 compare to the angle of refraction for path
WATER-2?

iii) How does the angle of incidence (θ 3) for path WATER-1 compare to the angle of incidence for path
WATER-2?

i) How does the angle of refraction (θ 4) for path WATER-1 compare to the angle of refraction for path
WATER-2?

Check with your facilitator.


4. If you filled the box with oil and kept the pointer in the same position (θ 1 would not change), predict what
would happen to the beam as it passes through the oil and out of the box. Be specific and explain your
reasoning.

a. Take the box with oil and position it in the same place as before on the paper.
b. With the laser pointer in the same position as the previous step, mark the points where the beam enters the
box, exits the box and hits the screen with a fourth color.
c. Trace the path of the ray of light from the laser pointer to the screen. (three segments) Label this Path D
d. Draw in the normal lines in each place that the laser hits the box.
e. Label the angles as in step 2e.

f. Compare your diagram to your prediction and explain any differences.

g. How does the angle of refraction (θ 2) of the beam in the oil compare to the angle of refraction for the
beam in the water when the laser pointer is in the same position (θ 2 from part 3).
h. You have seen that light bends when it travels from one medium to another. What factors determine how
much the light is bent?

Check with your facilitator.

Phyz Job Name ________________________


Hour ___________

Refraction Ray Diagrams


Obtain a piece of plexi-glass. Place your finger horizontally behind the plexi-glass and look at it through
the front side. Now rotate the plexi-glass up-and-down. Notice how your finger appears to dislocate itself
from the rest of your finger that is not behind the plexi-glass. Now rotate the plexi-glass from left-to-right.
Notice how your finger appears to become longer and then shorter.

Follow the instructions below to explain what happens to light to cause the “longer finger” illusion. You
will be asked to construct a top-down view of two refracted rays beginning at the object (your finger),
refracting through the plexi-glass, and refracting again to your eye.

i) Make a sketch of your finger toward the right side of the page below. In order to work from right-to-
left on your paper, the sketch of your finger should be vertically positioned on the paper.
ii) Make a sketch of the plexi-glass block in the center of the page. The block should be oriented to
represent its position relative to your finger (i.e. it should be tilted either toward or away from your
finger as opposed to being parallel to it). Note: Orient it at an angle of at least 30 degrees. This will
help later as you complete your diagram.
iii) Make a sketch of your eye toward the left side of the page.

With this layout, you are ready to identify the path that the light takes in traveling from your finger, through
the plexi-glass and into your eye.
iv) Sketch two rays emanating from two different points on your finger. Stop each ray at the edge of the
plexi-glass. Remember to label the direction of the rays.
v) Extend these rays as dotted lines (without arrows) part way into the plexi-glass.
vi) Draw dotted normal lines to each ray at the point of intersection with the plexi-glass.
vii) Draw solid lines (with arrows) to represent the rays as they travel to the other side of the plexi-glass.
Do NOT make them parallel to the sides of the plexi-glass. This will complicate things later.
Do rays traveling from air into plexi-glass bend toward or away from the normal lines? __________
viii) Extend these rays as dotted lines (without arrows) beyond the edge of the plexi-glass and out into air.
ix) Draw dotted normal lines to each ray at the point of intersection with the plexi-glass.
x) Draw solid lines (with arrows) to represent the rays as they exit the plexi-glass back out into air. Do
rays traveling from plexi-glass into air bend toward or away from the normal lines? _____________
xi) How do these rays compare to the incident rays? _________________________________________

Phyz Prob Name __________________

Snell’s Law
You have seen that the amount that the light bends when it travels from one medium to another is determined by
the type medium and by the angle at which it enters the second medium. This bending is called refraction and
occurs because light travels at different speeds in different media. There is a coefficient that is used to describe the
amount of bending that will occur when light enters a medium called the Index of Refraction. This index is a
number that is determined by comparing the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a particular medium
(n = speed of light in a vacuum divided by speed of light in a medium). The relationship between the incident
angle and the refracted angle is described by Snell’s Law:
n1 sin θ 1 = n2 sin θ 2

where n1 and n2 are the indices of refraction for medium 1 and medium 2, θ 1 is the angle of incidence and θ 2 is
the angle of refraction. Note that both of the angles are with respect to the normal.

1. What happens to light that travels from a medium with a low index of refraction to a medium with a high
index of refraction (is the light bent toward the normal or away from the normal)? Explain your reasoning and
draw a diagram.
2. What happens to light that travels from a medium with a high index of refraction to a medium with a low
index of refraction (is the light bent toward the normal or away from the normal)? Explain your reasoning and
draw a diagram.

3. What would the path of the light beam be if the beam were incident at 90 degrees with respect to the
surface of the box? Draw a diagram and explain your reasoning.

4. Imagine you are looking at a fish in a pond. As compared to the fish’s actual position, should the fish
appear to be closer to the surface or closer to the bottom of the pond? Explain your reasoning with a ray diagram.

References

The structure of this unit originated with Mr. Don Yeatts, Ann Arbor Huron High School Physics teacher and
science department head.

Chiappetta, E. L. & Koballa, T. R. (n.d.). Science instruction in the middle and secondary
schools: Developing fundamental knowledge and skills for teaching (pp. 29-43). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Handout – Assessment. PowerPoint slides received November 14, 2005, from EDUC 422 Teaching of Science
in the Secondary School.

Handout – Essential features of classroom inquiry and their variations. Received October 10, 2005,
from EDUC 422 Teaching of Science in the Secondary School.

The Physics Classroom website was used extensively in the creation of this unit design draft
(http://www.physicsclassroom.com).

Rowan University Department of Physics and Astronomy


http://www.rowan.edu/colleges/las/physicsandastronomy/LabManual/labs/ReflectionRefraction.pdf

Wilson, J. D., & Buffa, A. J. (1997). Physics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Topics for Review & Quiz

Quiz List
• Day 1 – SHM Understand situation & causes of energy
o Restoring force
o Spring PE
o Acceleration, velocity, PE, KE, total energy
o Find all values at min/max or inbetween
o Conservation of energy
• Day 2 – Intro to Waves
o Purpose of waves
o Transverse, longitudinal, diff. types of materials
o Vocabulary & units – wavelength, frequency, period, wave velocity, amplitude
o Waves have constant velocity (so x=vt)
o Wave equation and relations between variables
• Day 3 – Doppler Effect
o Qualitative understanding
o Why frequency of observer different from source (what happens to wavelength?)
o Frequency equation (observer/source relation)
o Know how to define positive direction; draw diagram
• Day 4 – Electromagnetic Waves
o What produces them (creates them)?
o What they are actually
o How the E-fields & B-fields are oriented with respect to direction of velocity (propagation)
o E/M Spectrum with respect to short/long wavelengths, high/low frequency, high/low energy

Test Bank

Simple Harmonic Motion

Provide a brief description of Simple Harmonic Motion. Include a sketch with your answer.

In Simple Harmonic Motion, the direction of the restoring force is _________________________________

In Simple Harmonic Motion, the magnitude of the restoring force is:


Never equal to zero
Proportional to the distance from equilibrium
Maximum at equilibrium
Both (a) and (b)

What is the significance of the minus (-) sign in Hooke’s Law?

A 3.5 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 240 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal surface.
The mass is displaced 1.2 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C
0.6 m 1.2 m

a) Identify the point(s) where each of the following occur:


_________ Minimum kinetic energy
_________ Maximum acceleration
_________ Maximum potential energy
_________ Maximum velocity
_________ Maximum and minimum restoring force

b) Determine the restoring force of the mass at point A


c) Determine the acceleration of the mass at point A
d) Determine the maximum potential energy
e) Determine the maximum kinetic energy
f) Determine the total energy of the mass at point D
g) Determine the velocity of the mass at point B
h) Determine the potential energy of the mass at point D
i) Determine the kinetic energy of the mass at point D

A 4.0 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 340 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal surface.
The mass is displaced 3.6 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C

1.8 m 3.6 m

_______ a) At which position(s) would the acceleration be a maximum?


_____________ b) Determine the maximum potential energy of the mass
_____________ c) Determine what the velocity of the mass would be at the equilibrium position

A 3.0 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 250 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal surface.
The mass is displaced 2.6 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C

1.3 m 2.6 m
_______ a) At which position(s) would the acceleration be a maximum?
_____________ b) Determine the maximum potential energy of the mass
_____________ c) Determine what the velocity of the mass would be at the equilibrium position

A 16 kg mass is suspended from a vertical spring. The spring stretches 1.2 meters establishing its equilibrium
position. What is the spring constant of the spring?

Herbert is pulling a slingshot with a force of 40N and the band stretches 0.8 meters. What is the spring constant of
the slingshot?

Wave Variables

Describe how waves propagate

The maximum displacement of a particle from the equilibrium position is referred to as the:
a) Restoring force
b) Period
c) Amplitude
d) Wavelength

The frequency of a wave:


a) Refers to the number of waves that pass a given point each second
b) Refers to the time it takes for one cycle to pass a given point
c) Is directly proportional to the wavelength
d) Both (b) and (c)

The wavelength of a wave:


a) Is inversely proportional to the period
b) Is inversely proportional to the frequency
c) Is constant in a given medium
d) Both (b) and (c)

If the frequency of a sound wave decreases, the velocity of the wave will:
a) Decrease
b) Stay the same
c) Increase
d) Equal zero

If the wavelength of a sound wave increases, the velocity of the wave will:
e) Decrease
f) Stay the same
g) Increase
h) Equal zero

__________ Transverse waves can travel only through solids


__________ With transverse waves, the particle motion moves parallel to the direction of the wave velocity

__________ Sound is an example of a transverse wave

__________ Doubling the frequency of a wave source doubles the velocity of the waves.

__________ If the period of a wave is increased 50 percent, the velocity of the wave will double

__________ If the period of a wave is decreased 50 percent, the velocity of the wave will double

The annoying sound from a mosquito is produced when it beats its wings an average of 600 times per second.
a) What is the frequency in Hertz of the sound wave?
b) Assuming the sound wave moves with a velocity of 340 m/s, what is the wavelength of the wave?

Herbert is at the beach watching Josie surf. He calculates that the wave Josie was riding traveled 9.0 meters in 3.4
seconds. A second surfer was on a wave 3.0 meters behind the wave Josie was riding. Determine how many
waves pass Herbert each second.

Josie is out hiking in Switzerland and yodels (i.e. yells) at a frequency of 1200 Hz after which she hears her echo
1.7 seconds later. The velocity of sound in air is 343 m/s.
a) Determine the wavelength of the sound wave which he created
b) Determine the period of the wave
c) Find the distance to the reflecting surface

An automatic focus camera is able to focus on objects by use of an ultrasonic sound wave. The camera sends out
sound waves which reflect off distant objects and return to the camera. A sensor detects the time it takes for the
waves to return and then determines the distance an object is from the camera. If a sound wave (speed = 343 m/s)
returns to the camera 0.150 seconds after leaving the camera, how far away is the object?

Playing middle C on the piano keyboard produces a sound with a frequency of 256 Hz. Assuming the speed of
sound in air is 345 m/s, determine the wavelength of the sound corresponding to the note of middle C.

Humans can detect frequencies as high as 20,000 Hz. Assuming the speed of sound in air is 345 m/s, determine the
wavelength of the sound corresponding to the upper range of audible hearing.

Herbert is on the golf course and sees a storm approaching. He sees a lightning flash and then hears the thunder
1.8 seconds later. The frequency of the thunder is 250 Hz. The wavelength of the lightning is 400 nm (1 nm =
1x10-9 m).
a) What is the wavelength of the thunder?
b) How far away is the lightning strike in miles?

Doppler Effect

The frequency an observer hears is the same as the frequency emitted by the source under two circumstances.
What are they?
__________ An observer is moving toward a stationary sound source. The frequency of the observer is lower than
the frequency of the source.

__________ An observer and a sound source are moving in the same direction but the observer is gaining on the
source. The frequency of the observer is lower than the frequency of the source.

__________ An observer and a sound source are moving in the same direction at the same velocity. The pitch that
the observer hears is the same as the pitch of the source.

If a sound source and an observer are moving in the same direction, the frequency heard by the observer will be:
a) Lower than the actual frequency of the source
b) Higher than the actual frequency of the source
c) Equal to the actual frequency of the source
d) Not enough information to tell

A fire truck has a siren that has a frequency of 1400 Hz. For the following situations, assume that the velocity of
sound in air is 343 m/s. In each case, show your work and include a sketch.

a) Determine the frequency that the observer detects if the truck (velocity = 20 m/s) and the observer (velocity
= 30 m/s) are moving toward each other.
b) Determine the frequency that the observer detects if the truck (velocity = 15 m/s) and the observer (velocity
= 10 m/s) are moving in the same direction.
c) Determine the frequency that the observer detects if the truck (velocity = 15 m/s) is moving away from the
stationary observer.

Josie is driving her Corvette at 45 m/s. She sees Herbert riding his moped toward her at 10 m/s so she sounds her
horn to get his attention before she blows by him. Her horn has 700 Hz.

a) Draw a diagram showing the source of the sound, the observer, and the positive direction
b) Determine the frequency that the Herbert detects

Josie is driving her Corvette at 55 m/s. She sees Herbert riding his moped toward her at 10 m/s so she sounds her
horn to get his attention before she blows by him. Her horn has 700 Hz.

c) Draw a diagram showing the source of the sound, the observer, and the positive direction
d) Determine the frequency that the Herbert detects

Suppose a train is approaching you as you stand on the loading platform at the railway station. As the train
approaches, it slows down. All the while, the engineer is sounding the horn at a constant frequency of 500 Hz.

a) Describe the pitch that you hear before the train begins to slow down
b) Describe the pitch that you hear while the train is slowing down

Electromagnetic Waves

How are electromagnetic waves created?

__________ Both mechanical and electromagnetic waves require a medium in order to travel
__________ Electromagnetic waves require a medium in order to travel

__________ Sound waves require a medium in order to travel

__________ Electromagnetic waves travel with the same velocity (3 x 108 m/s) in all media

A sound wave is different than a light wave in that a sound wave:


a) Is produced by particles oscillating in simple harmonic motion
b) Is not capable of traveling through a vacuum
c) Is not capable of diffracting
d) Always travels with the same velocity in a given medium

Which of the following is not true about electromagnetic waves?


a) They consist of disturbances in both the electric field and magnetic field
b) They need a medium to travel through
c) They are transverse waves
d) They are the result of accelerating electric charge

A human being gives off:


a) Electromagnetic waves
b) Ultraviolet radiation
c) Infrared waves
d) Both (a) and (c)

Make a diagram listing the electromagnetic spectrum from shortest wavelength to longest. Label the two
extremes. Also label the maximum and minimum energy and frequency locations.

Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the highest energy level?
(a) Microwave (b) Ultraviolet (c) Radio (d) Infrared (e) X-Rays

Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the shortest wavelength?


(a) Visible light (b) Microwave (c) X-Rays (d) Ultraviolet (e) Infrared

Identify the following in order of lowest to highest frequency (1-lowest; 5-highest):

_____Gamma _____TV _____ X-Ray _____ Infrared _____ Ultraviolet

Based on the wave equation for electromagnetic waves λ = с/ƒ, how long is the wavelength for AM 760?

Based on the wave equation for electromagnetic waves λ = с/ƒ, how long is the wavelength for FM 95.5?

Definitions & Terms

____________ The four characteristics of all waves are reflection, refraction, diffusion, and interference

Describe the difference between wavefronts and rays

A ray:
a) Is spherical
b) Is parallel to a wavefront
c) Points in the direction of wave propagation
d) Both (a) and (c)

Describe the following terms:


a) Reflection
b) The Law of Reflection
c) Refraction
d) The index of refraction
e) Diffraction
f) Interference
g) Total constructive interference (include a sketch of the wave pattern)
h) Total destructive interference (include a sketch of the wave pattern)
i) Principle of Superposition
j) Standing waves

Reflection

_________ Reflected rays represent actual wave travel

_________ With specular reflection, the reflected rays are not parallel

_________ With diffuse reflection, the reflected rays are not parallel

_________ The angle of incidence is the angle between the ray and the surface that it interacts with

Which of the following is true of diffuse reflection?


a) The reflected rays are not parallel
b) The reflected rays produce a sharp image
c) The Law of Reflection does not apply
d) None of the above

Which of the following is not true of specular reflection?


a) It produces a virtual image
b) It produces an erect image
c) The image distance = the object distance
d) They are all true

Looking in the mirror, you notice somebody standing 1.7 m in front of you. If you are 2.9 m in front of the mirror,
how far away from you is their image in the mirror? Show your work by making a ray diagram with a single
incident and reflected ray and label the appropriate distances.

A ray of light is incident towards a plane mirror at an angle of 30-degrees with the mirror surface. What will be the
angle of reflection?
A ray of
light is
approaching a set of three mirrors as shown in the diagram. The light ray is approaching the first mirror at an angle
of 25-degrees with the mirror surface. Trace the path of the light ray as it bounces off the mirror; continue tracing
the ray until it finally exits from the mirror system. How many times will the ray reflect before it finally exits?

35

30 50

Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 70 degrees with each other. If a beam of light is
directed so that it strikes one of the mirrors with an angle of incidence of 40 degrees, what is the angle of reflection
of the beam off of the second mirror? Finish the sketch to help find the answer

70
40

Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 115 degrees with each other.

a) If a beam of light is directed so that it strikes one of the


115 mirrors with an angle of incidence of 60 degrees, what is
60 the angle of reflection of the beam off of the second
mirror?

b) Finish the sketch to show how the beam reflects off of the
second mirror

Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 115 degrees with each other.

c) If a beam of light is directed so that it strikes one of the


115 mirrors with an angle of incidence of 75 degrees, what is
75 the angle of reflection of the beam off of the second
mirror?

d) Finish the sketch to show how the beam reflects off of the
second mirror

Frosty is admiring himself in a mirror (located outside so that he doesn’t melt). Draw a ray diagram that shows
how his image would appear. Choose three separate locations and construct the appropriate incident and reflected
rays for each. Make sure you include direction arrows and normal lines in your diagram.
Herbert is standing in front of a mirror practicing his baseball swing. Draw a ray diagram that shows how his
image would appear.

Refraction

Refraction occurs _______________________ where the wave passes from one medium into another

Light rays pass from water to oil at an angle of 35 degrees to the boundary between the two substances.

(a) Make a sketch showing how the light refracts


(b) Determine the angle of refraction
35°

(c) Determine the velocity of the light through the water

Light rays pass from air to water at an angle of incidence of 60 degrees.


Make a sketch showing how the light refracts
Determine the angle of refraction

Light rays pass from air to water at an angle of incidence of 45 degrees.


Make a sketch showing how the light refracts
Determine the angle of refraction
A ray of light traveling through air strikes the surface of another material forming an angle of incidence of 25
degrees.
(a) If the velocity of the light ray in the second medium is 2.28 x 108 m/s, what is the index of
refraction for the second medium?
Make a sketch showing how the light refracts.
(c) Determine the angle of refraction for the ray of light in the second medium.

Make a sketch depicting how light striking a glass of water at an angle other than 90 degrees travels through the
water and exiting back into air on the other side.

Which of the following must be true for refraction to occur?


a) The ray can pass from one medium to another at any angle
b) The ray must bend around a sharp corner or pass through a small opening
c) The ray must pass from a medium of one density to a medium of a different density
d) The angle of incidence must equal the angle of refraction

Which of the following is not true when a wave passes from a lower density medium to a higher density medium?
Explain your answer.
a) The velocity of light effectively decreases
b) The ray bends toward the normal
c) The wavelength decreases
d) The frequency increases

Which of the following is not true when a wave passes from a higher density medium to a lower density medium?
Explain your answer.
a) The velocity of light effectively decreases
b) The frequency remains constant
c) The wavelength increases
d) The ray bends away from the normal

Explain what happens to light as it travels from a medium with a low index of refraction to a medium with a high
index of refraction. Support your answer with a ray diagram.

Explain what happens to light as it travels from a medium with a high index of refraction to a medium with a low
index of refraction. Support your answer with a ray diagram.

Under what two circumstances will a wave fail to refract?

Describe one reason that diamonds shine so brilliantly.

Why does a fish appear to be closer to the surface of a pond from your vantage point on shore? Support your
answer with a ray diagram.

Diffraction & Interference


You and two of your friends are all talking at the same time while listening to the stereo. You can all hear each
other as well as the stereo. This is an example of:
a) Reflection
b) Diffraction
c) Interference
d) Refraction

When you hear the stereo in your living room while getting a snack in the kitchen, you are experiencing:
a) Refraction
b) Interference
c) Reflection
d) Diffraction

Why doesn’t light bend around corners as well as sound?

In order for diffraction through an opening to occur:


a) The angle of incidence must equal the angle of refraction
b) The frequency must change
c) The wavelength must be larger than the opening
d) The direction of wave propagation must be perpendicular to the opening

Diffraction:
a) Occurs when waves are reflected in a diffuse manner
b) Occurs when rays bend passing from one medium to another
c) Occurs when rays bend around sharp corners or through small openings
d) Only occurs with identical waves at special frequencies and results in harmonics

Standing Waves

Which of the following is not true regarding standing waves? (Choose from list – all answers shown are true)
a) It is a special case of interference
b) The waves must be the same type (e.g. sound)
c) The waves must have the same wave velocity
d) Occur only at specific frequencies
e) The waves must have the same wavelengths
f) The waves must have the same velocity
g) The waves must have the same amplitude
h) Standing waves are not actually waves
i) Both constructive and destructive interference occur
j) Nodes are points of no displacement
k) Nodes are points of destructive interference
l) Antinodes are points that undergo maximum displacement
m) Antinodes are points of constructive interference
n) The first harmonic represents one half of a wavelength with two nodes and two antinodes
o) The second harmonic represents a complete wavelength with three nodes and four antinodes
p) The second harmonic is referred to as the 1st overtone
q) The third harmonic is referred to as the 2nd overtone

The wave velocity of a guitar string is 425 m/s. The string is 0.75 m long.
a) What is the fundamental frequency?
b) What is another name for the fundamental frequency?
c) What is the wavelength of the 5th harmonic?
d) What is the velocity of the 3rd harmonic?
e) How many wavelengths are in the 13th harmonic?

The wave velocity of a guitar string is 330 m/s. The string is 1.1 m long.
a) What is the fundamental frequency?
b) What is the wavelength of the 5th harmonic?

The wave velocity of a guitar string is 370 m/s. The string is 1.2 m long.
a) What is the fundamental frequency?
b) What is the wavelength of the 3rd harmonic?

Determine the length of guitar string required to produce a fundamental frequency of 256 Hz. The velocity of the
waves is known to be 405 m/s.

A pitch of Middle D (first harmonic = 294 Hz) is sounded out by a vibrating guitar string. The length of the string
is 0.7 meters. Calculate the velocity of the standing wave in the guitar string.

Consider the standing wave pattern shown in answering the following questions

a. Identify the number of nodes


b. Identify the number of antinodes
c. For the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where constructive interference occurs

_________ a) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify nodes?

_________ b) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify antinodes?

_________ c) For the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where constructive interference occurs

_________ a) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify nodes?

_________ b) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify antinodes?


_________ c) For the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where destructive interference occurs

Quiz List
Waves Unit

Note: Focus on areas of potential confusion

Simple Harmonic Motion


• Know locations of max/min FR, PE, KE, a, ν
• Know Hooke’s Law and how to use it
• Be able to calculate velocity at a point that is not a maximum or minimum
• Calculate PE, KE, Total Energy, FR, a, ν
• Determine spring constant

Wave Variables
• Understand different variables λ, T, ƒ, A, ν
• Know wave equation
• Solve for λ, ν, ƒ, T
• Know relation between ƒ, T
• Know differences between transverse and longitudinal waves

Doppler Effect
• Know how frequency & pitch change as velocity observer and velocity source change relative to each other
• Be able to sketch relationships & identify positive direction
• Solve for frequency observer

Electromagnetic Spectrum
• Know how EM waves created
• Know how they’re different from mechanical waves (medium)
• Know how construct from low-to-high λ, ƒ, E (don’t forget which ends Red & Violet fall on in visible light
region)
• Know how calculate wavelength of AM (kHz) or FM (MHz) stations

Reflection
• Know what it is
• Know the difference between wavefronts and rays
• Know how sketch ray diagrams (include normals, arrows, correct use of Law)
• Know how angles of incidence and reflection identified with respect to normal
• Know the difference between specular and diffuse reflection
• Know how find angle of reflection in 2 or 3 mirror system given an incident ray on 1st mirror

Refraction
• Know what it is
• Be able to sketch ray diagrams showing refraction
• Know what index of refraction means
• Calculate angles of refraction (Snell’s Law)
• Know what index of refraction is for air, water, oil

Diffraction
• Know what it is
• Know that waves bend around sharp corners and through small openings
• Know wavelength must be larger than opening for refraction to occur

Interference
• Know what it is
• Constructive, Destructive, Total
• Principle of Superposition (algebraic sum of amplitudes)

Standing Waves
• Know what they are and what they aren’t (not actually waves)
• Know under what circumstances created
• Number & location of nodes/antinodes
• Find λ, ƒ, ν for various harmonics (with sketches)

Characteristics
• Distinguish between reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, standing waves

Equations
• Hooke’s Law
• PE, KE, Total Energy, acceleration
• Wave equation (both forms)
• Wave equation (EM spectrum)
• T=1/ƒ
• Doppler equation
• Law of Reflection
• Index of refraction
• Snell’s Law

Name ______________________________ Hour _________

Waves Review: Day 1


Instructions: For all multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, etc., include an explanation with your answer

1. Provide a brief description of Simple Harmonic Motion. Include a sketch with your answer.

2. A 3.5 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 240 N moves on a frictionless horizontal surface.
The mass is displaced 1.2 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C

0.6 m 1.2 m

3. Identify the point(s) where each of the following occur:


_________ Minimum kinetic energy
_________ Maximum acceleration
_________ Maximum potential energy
_________ Maximum velocity
_________ Maximum and minimum restoring force

4. A 16 kg mass is suspended from a vertical spring. The spring stretches 1.2 meters establishing its equilibrium
position. What is the spring constant of the spring? (Answer: 131 N/m)

5. The maximum displacement of a particle from the equilibrium position is referred to as the:
a) Restoring force
b) Period
c) Amplitude
d) Wavelength

6. Josie is out hiking in Switzerland and yodels (i.e. yells) at a frequency of 1200 Hz after which she hears her echo
1.7 seconds later. The velocity of sound in air is 343 m/s.
a) Determine the wavelength of the sound wave which he created (Answer: 0.286 m)

b) Determine the period of the wave (Answer: 8.33 x 10-4 sec)

7. The frequency an observer hears is the same as the frequency emitted by the source under two circumstances.
What are they?

8. A fire truck has a siren that has a frequency of 1400 Hz. Determine the frequency that the observer detects if the
truck (velocity = 20 m/s) and the observer (velocity = 30 m/s) are moving toward each other. Include a sketch with
your answer. (Answer: 1620 m/s)

9. Identify the following in order of lowest to highest frequency (1-lowest; 5-highest):


_____Gamma _____TV _____ X-Ray _____ Infrared _____ Ultraviolet

10. Describe the following terms:


a) Reflection

b) The Law of Reflection

c) Refraction

d) The index of refraction


11. Frosty is admiring himself in a mirror (located outside so that he doesn’t melt). Draw a ray diagram that shows
how his image would appear. Choose three separate locations and construct the appropriate incident and reflected
rays for each. Make sure you include direction arrows and normal lines in your diagram.

12. Make a sketch depicting how light striking a glass of water at an angle other than 90 degrees travels through
the water and exiting back into air on the other side.

13. Explain what happens to light as it travels from a medium with a low index of refraction to a medium with a
high index of refraction. Support your answer with a ray diagram.

14. Explain what happens to light as it travels from a medium with a high index of refraction to a medium with a
low index of refraction. Support your answer with a ray diagram.

15. In order for diffraction through an opening to occur:


a) The angle of incidence must equal the angle of refraction
b) The frequency must change
c) The wavelength must be larger than the opening
d) The direction of wave propagation must be perpendicular to the opening

16. A standing wave with 7 antinodes is created in a string that is 5.0 meters long. Determine the wavelength.
Make sketch of the wave pattern and identify one node and one antinode. (Answer: 1.43 m)
17. Which of the following is not true regarding standing waves?
a) Nodes are points of constructive interference
b) Antinodes are points that undergo maximum displacement
c) The first harmonic represents one half of a wavelength with two nodes and two antinodes
d) The second harmonic represents a complete wavelength with three nodes and four antinodes

18. The wave velocity of a guitar string is 425 m/s. The string is 0.75 m long.
a) What is the fundamental frequency? Include a sketch of the wave pattern with your answer.
(Answer: 283 Hz)

b) What is another name for the fundamental frequency?

c) What is the wavelength of the 5th harmonic? Include a sketch of the wave pattern with your answer.
(Answer: 0.3 m)

d) What is the velocity of the 3rd harmonic?

19. Which of the following is not true regarding standing waves?


a) Nodes are points of constructive interference
b) Antinodes are points that undergo maximum displacement
c) The first harmonic represents one half of a wavelength with two nodes and two antinodes
d) The second harmonic represents a complete wavelength with three nodes and four antinodes

Name ______________________________ Hour _________

Waves Review: Day 2


Instructions: For all multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, etc., include an explanation with your answer

1. In Simple Harmonic Motion, the direction of the restoring force is _________________________________

2. A 3.5 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 240 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal surface.
The mass is displaced 1.2 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C

0.6 m 1.2 m

a) Determine the restoring force of the mass at point A (Answer: 288 N)

b) Determine the acceleration of the mass at point A (Answer: 82.3 m/s2)


c) Determine the maximum potential energy (Answer: 172.8 J)

d) Determine the kinetic energy at point B (Answer: 172.8 J)

e) Determine the total energy of the mass at point D (Answer: 172.8 J)

f) Determine the velocity of the mass at point B (Answer: 9.94 m/s)

g) Determine the potential energy of the mass at point D (Answer: 43.2 J)

h) Determine the kinetic energy of the mass at point D (Answer: 129.6 J)

3. Herbert is at the beach watching Josie surf. He calculates that the wave Josie was riding traveled 9.0 meters in
3.4 seconds. A second surfer was on a wave 3.0 meters behind the wave Josie was riding. Determine how many
waves pass Herbert each second. (Answer: 0.882 waves/sec = 0.882 Hz)

4. An observer is moving toward a stationary sound source. The frequency of the observer is ___________ the
frequency of the source.

5. An observer and a sound source are moving in the same direction at the same velocity. The pitch that the
observer hears is ______________________ the pitch of the source.

6. A fire truck has a siren that has a frequency of 1400 Hz. Determine the frequency that the observer detects if the
truck (velocity = 15 m/s) and the observer (velocity = 10 m/s) are moving in the same direction. Include a sketch
along with your answer. (Answer: 1420 Hz)

7. Make a diagram listing the electromagnetic spectrum from shortest wavelength to longest. Label the two
extremes. Also label the maximum and minimum energy and frequency locations.

8. Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the shortest wavelength?


(a) Visible light (b) Microwave (c) X-Rays (d) Ultraviolet (e) Infrared

9. Describe the following terms:


a) Diffraction
b) Interference

c) Principle of Superposition

d) Standing waves

10. Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 70 degrees with each other. If a beam of light is
directed so that it strikes one of the mirrors with an angle of incidence of 40 degrees, what is the angle of reflection
of the beam off of the second mirror? Finish the sketch to help find the answer. (Answer: 30 degrees)

70
40

11. Light rays pass from water to oil at an angle of 35 degrees to the boundary between the two substances.

a) Make a sketch showing how the light refracts


b) Determine the angle of refraction (Answer: 46.6°)
35°

Phyz Quiz Name ______________________________


50 Points * Hour _________

Introduction & Characteristics of Waves


Instructions: Place your answers in the space provided. For problems requiring calculations, show diagrams,
equations used in variable form, and all work.
Velocity of sound in air = 343 m/s Speed of light in a vacuum = 3.0 x 108 m/s

1. _________ The frequency of a wave: (2)


a) Refers to the number of waves that pass a given point each second
b) Refers to the time it takes for one cycle to pass a given point
c) Is directly proportional to the wavelength
d) Is the inverse of the wavelength

2. _________ Which of the following is true regarding sound waves? (2)


a) They are transverse waves
b) They are not capable of traveling through a vacuum
c) They are not capable of diffracting
d) Higher frequency sound waves travel faster than lower frequency sound waves

3. _________ Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the highest energy level? (2)
(a) Microwave (b) Ultraviolet (c) Radio (d) Infrared (e) X-Rays

4. _________ Determine the wavelength for radio station AM 760? (2)


5. _________ Which of the following is false regarding specular reflection from a straight mirror? (2)
a) It produces a virtual image
b) The reflected rays are not parallel
c) The distance of the object from the mirror is equal to the distance of the image from the mirror
d) It produces an erect image (i.e. right side up)

6. _________ Which of the following is not true when a wave passes from a lower to a higher density medium? (2)
a) The velocity of light decreases
b) The ray bends toward the normal
c) The wave travels from a higher index of refraction to a lower one
d) The wave refracts at the boundary of the two materials

7. _________ You and two of your friends are all talking at the same time while listening to the stereo. You can
all hear each other as well as the stereo. This is an example of: (2)
a) Reflection
b) Standing waves
c) Interference
d) Refraction

8. _________ Which of the following is true regarding standing waves? (2)


a) It is a special case of interference
b) The waves may be of different types (e.g. sound and light)
c) The waves may have different velocities
d) The waves may have different wavelengths

9. Consider the standing wave pattern shown in answering the following questions

_________ a) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify nodes? (1)

_________ b) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify antinodes? (1)

_________ c) Of the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where constructive interference occurs (1)

10. The wave velocity of a guitar string is 330 m/s. The string is 1.1 m long.
_________ a) What is the fundamental frequency? (3)

_________ b) What is the wavelength of the 5th harmonic? (2)

11. Light rays pass from air to water at an angle of incidence of 60 degrees.
a) Make a sketch showing how the light refracts.
Include the normal line. Label the angle of incidence,
angle of refraction, air, and water (2)

_________ b) Determine the angle of refraction (3)

12. Herbert is standing in front of a mirror practicing his baseball swing. Draw a ray diagram that shows how his
image would appear. Select two locations on Herbert’s body and construct angles of incidence and reflection for
each. Include normal lines and arrows. (3)

True or False: Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If false, then please circle the
word or phrase you are changing and correct the statement in the space provided.

13. __________ If the period of a wave is increased 50 percent, the velocity of the wave will double (1)

14. __________ Electromagnetic waves require a medium in order to travel (1)

15. Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 115 degrees with each other.

_________ a) If a beam of light is directed so that it strikes one of the


115° mirrors with an angle of incidence of 60 degrees, what
60° is the angle of reflection of the beam off of the second
mirror? (2)

b) Finish the sketch to show how the beam reflects off of


the second mirror. Include the normal lines, arrows
and identify the values for the angles of incidence and
reflection. (2)

16. Josie is driving her Corvette at 45 m/s. She sees Herbert riding his moped toward her at 10 m/s so she sounds
her horn to get his attention before she blows by him. Her horn sounds at a frequency of 700 Hz.

a) Draw a diagram showing the source of the sound, the observer, and the positive direction (2)

_________ b) Determine the frequency that Herbert detects (3)


17. A 4.0 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 340 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal
surface. The mass is displaced 3.6 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C
equilibrium

1.8m 1.8 m 3.6 m

_____________ a) At which position(s) would the acceleration be a maximum? (1)

_____________ b) Determine the maximum potential energy of the mass (3)

_____________ c) Determine what the velocity of the mass would be at the equilibrium position (3)

Extra Credit: Good original test day only!

_____________ For the simple harmonic motion problem above, determine what the velocity of the mass would
be when it is at point D. (4)

Phyz Quiz Name ______________________________


50 Points ** Hour _________

Introduction & Characteristics of Waves


Instructions: Place your answers in the space provided. For problems requiring calculations, show diagrams,
equations used in variable form, and all work.
Velocity of sound in air = 343 m/s Speed of light in a vacuum = 3.0 x 108 m/s

1. _________ The wavelength of a wave: (2)


a) Is inversely proportional to the period
b) Is inversely proportional to the frequency
c) Is constant in a given medium
d) Is the inverse of the frequency

2. _________ Which of the following is not true about electromagnetic waves? (2)
a) They consist of disturbances in both the electric field and magnetic field
b) They need a medium to travel through
c) They are transverse waves
d) They are the result of accelerating electric charge

3. _________ Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the shortest wavelength? (2)
(a) Visible light (b) Microwave (c) X-Rays (d) Ultraviolet (e) Infrared
4. _________ Determine the wavelength for radio station FM 95.5? (2)

5. _________ Which of the following is true of diffuse reflection? (2)


a) The reflected rays are not parallel
b) The reflected rays produce a sharp image
c) The Law of Reflection does not apply
d) None of the above

6. _________ Which of the following is not true when a wave passes from a higher to a lower density medium? (2)
a) The velocity of light effectively decreases
b) The frequency remains constant
c) The wavelength increases
d) The ray bends away from the normal

7. _________ While in the kitchen, you can hear the stereo in your bedroom. You are experiencing: (2)
a) Refraction
b) Interference
c) Reflection
d) Diffraction

8. _________ Which of the following is not true regarding standing waves? (2)
a) The waves must have the same wavelengths
b) The waves must have the same velocity
c) The waves must have the different amplitudes
d) Standing waves are not actually waves

9. Consider the standing wave pattern shown in answering the following questions

_________ a) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify nodes? (1)

_________ b) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify antinodes? (1)

_________ c) Of the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where destructive interference occurs (1)

10. The wave velocity of a guitar string is 370 m/s. The string is 1.2 m long.

_________ a) What is the fundamental frequency? (3)

_________ b) What is the wavelength of the 3rd harmonic? (2)


11. Light rays pass from air to water at an angle of incidence of 45 degrees.
a) Make a sketch showing how the light refracts.
Include the normal line. Label the angle of incidence,
angle of refraction, air, and water (2)

_________ b) Determine the angle of refraction (3)

12. Herbert is standing in front of a mirror practicing his baseball swing. Draw a ray diagram that shows how his
image would appear. Select two locations on Herbert’s body and construct angles of incidence and reflection for
each. Include normal lines and arrows. (3)

True or False: Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If false, then please circle the
word or phrase you are changing and correct the statement in the space provided.

13. __________ If the period of a wave is reduced 50 percent, the velocity of the wave will double (1)

14. __________ Sound waves require a medium in order to travel (1)

15. Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 115 degrees with each other.

_________ a) If a beam of light is directed so that it strikes one of the


115° mirrors with an angle of incidence of 75 degrees, what
75° is the angle of reflection of the beam off of the second
mirror? (2)

b) Finish the sketch to show how the beam reflects off of


the second mirror. Include the normal lines, arrows,
and identify the magnitude of the angles of incidence
and reflection. (2)

16. Josie is driving her Corvette at 45 m/s. She sees Herbert riding his moped toward her at 10 m/s so she sounds
her horn to get his attention before she blows by him. Her horn sounds at a frequency of 700 Hz.

a) Draw a diagram showing the source of the sound, the observer, and the positive direction (2)

_________ b) Determine the frequency that Herbert detects (3)


17. A 3.0 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 250 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal
surface. The mass is displaced 2.6 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C
equilibrium

1.3m 1.3 m 2.6 m

_____________ a) At which position(s) would the acceleration be a maximum? (1)

_____________ b) Determine the maximum potential energy of the mass (3)

_____________ c) Determine what the velocity of the mass would be at the equilibrium position (3)

Extra Credit: Good original test day only!

_____________ For the simple harmonic motion problem above, determine what the velocity of the mass would
be when it is at point D. (4)

Phyz Quiz Name ______________________________


50 Points * Hour _________

Introduction & Characteristics of Waves


Instructions: Place your answers in the space provided. For problems requiring calculations, show diagrams,
equations used in variable form, and all work.
Velocity of sound in air = 343 m/s Speed of light in a vacuum = 3.0 x 108 m/s

1. _________ The frequency of a wave: (2)


e) Refers to the number of waves that pass a given point each second
f) Refers to the time it takes for one cycle to pass a given point
g) Is directly proportional to the wavelength
h) Is the inverse of the wavelength

2. _________ Which of the following is true regarding sound waves? (2)


e) They are transverse waves
f) They are not capable of traveling through a vacuum
g) They are not capable of diffracting
h) Higher frequency sound waves travel faster than lower frequency sound waves

3. _________ Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the highest energy level? (2)
(a) Microwave (b) Ultraviolet (c) Radio (d) Infrared (e) X-Rays

4. _________ Determine the wavelength for radio station AM 760? (2)

5. _________ Which of the following is false regarding specular reflection from a straight mirror? (2)
e) It produces a virtual image
f) The reflected rays are not parallel
g) The distance of the object from the mirror is equal to the distance of the image from the mirror
h) It produces an erect image (i.e. right side up)

6. _________ Which of the following is not true when a wave passes from a lower to a higher density medium? (2)
e) The velocity of light decreases
f) The ray bends toward the normal
g) The wave travels from a higher index of refraction to a lower one
h) The wave refracts at the boundary of the two materials

7. _________ You and two of your friends are all talking at the same time while listening to the stereo. You can
all hear each other as well as the stereo. This is an example of: (2)
e) Reflection
f) Standing waves
g) Interference
h) Refraction

8. _________ Which of the following is true regarding standing waves? (2)


e) It is a special case of interference
f) The waves may be of different types (e.g. sound and light)
g) The waves may have different velocities
h) The waves may have different wavelengths

9. Consider the standing wave pattern shown in answering the following questions

_________ a) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify nodes? (1)

_________ b) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify antinodes? (1)

_________ c) Of the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where constructive interference occurs (1)

10. The wave velocity of a guitar string is 330 m/s. The string is 1.1 m long.
_________ a) What is the fundamental frequency? (3)

_________ b) What is the wavelength of the 5th harmonic? (2)


11. Light rays pass from air to water at an angle of incidence of 60 degrees.
b) Make a sketch showing how the light refracts.
Include the normal line. Label the angle of incidence,
angle of refraction, air, and water (2)

_________ b) Determine the angle of refraction (3)

12. Herbert is standing in front of a mirror practicing his baseball swing. Draw a ray diagram that shows how his
image would appear. Select two locations on Herbert’s body and construct angles of incidence and reflection for
each. Include normal lines and arrows. (3)

True or False: Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If false, then please circle the
word or phrase you are changing and correct the statement in the space provided.

13. __________ If the period of a wave is increased 50 percent, the velocity of the wave will double (1)

14. __________ Electromagnetic waves require a medium in order to travel (1)

15. Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 115 degrees with each other.

_________ a) If a beam of light is directed so that it strikes one of the


115° mirrors with an angle of incidence of 60 degrees, what
60° is the angle of reflection of the beam off of the second
mirror? (2)

b) Finish the sketch to show how the beam reflects off of


the second mirror. Include the normal lines, arrows
and identify the values for the angles of incidence and
reflection. (2)

16. Josie is driving her Corvette at 45 m/s. She sees Herbert riding his moped toward her at 10 m/s so she sounds
her horn to get his attention before she blows by him. Her horn sounds at a frequency of 700 Hz.

b) Draw a diagram showing the source of the sound, the observer, and the positive direction (2)

_________ b) Determine the frequency that Herbert detects (3)


17. A 4.0 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 340 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal
surface. The mass is displaced 3.6 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C
equilibrium

1.8m 1.8 m 3.6 m

_____________ a) At which position(s) would the acceleration be a maximum? (1)

_____________ b) Determine the maximum potential energy of the mass (3)

_____________ c) Determine what the velocity of the mass would be at the equilibrium position (3)

Extra Credit: Good original test day only!

_____________ For the simple harmonic motion problem above, determine what the velocity of the mass would
be when it is at point D. (4)

Phyz Quiz Name ______________________________


50 Points ** Hour _________

Introduction & Characteristics of Waves


Instructions: Place your answers in the space provided. For problems requiring calculations, show diagrams,
equations used in variable form, and all work.
Velocity of sound in air = 343 m/s Speed of light in a vacuum = 3.0 x 108 m/s

1. _________ The wavelength of a wave: (2)


e) Is inversely proportional to the period
f) Is inversely proportional to the frequency
g) Is constant in a given medium
h) Is dependent on the wave velocity

2. _________ Which one of the following is not true about electromagnetic waves? (2)
e) They consist of disturbances in both the electric field and magnetic field
f) They need a medium to travel through
g) They are transverse waves
h) They are the result of accelerating electric charge
3. _________ Which of the following electromagnetic waves has the shortest wavelength? (2)
(a) Visible light (b) Microwave (c) X-Rays (d) Ultraviolet (e) Infrared

4. _________ Determine the wavelength for radio station FM 95.5? (2)

5. _________ Which one of the following is true of diffuse reflection? (2)


e) The reflected rays are not parallel
f) The reflected rays produce a sharp image
g) The Law of Reflection does not apply
h) Would necessarily only reflect certain wavelengths

6. _________ Which of the following is not true when a wave passes from a higher to a lower density medium? (2)
e) The wave refracts at the boundary between the two materials
f) The velocity of light decreases
g) The wave travels from a higher index of refraction to a lower one
h) The ray bends away from the normal

7. _________ While in the kitchen, you can hear the stereo in your bedroom. You are experiencing: (2)
e) Refraction
f) Interference
g) Reflection
h) Diffraction

8. _________ Which of the following is not true regarding standing waves? (2)
e) The waves must have the same wavelengths
f) The waves must have the same velocity
g) The waves must have different amplitudes
h) Standing waves are not actually waves

9. Consider the standing wave pattern shown in answering the following questions

_________ a) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify nodes? (1)

_________ b) Of the labeled points, which one(s) identify antinodes? (1)

_________ c) Of the labeled points on the diagram, identify the point(s) where destructive interference occurs (1)

10. The wave velocity of a guitar string is 370 m/s. The string is 1.2 m long.

_________ a) What is the fundamental frequency? (3)


_________ b) What is the wavelength of the 3rd harmonic? (2)

11. Light rays pass from air to water at an angle of incidence of 45 degrees.
b) Make a sketch showing how the light refracts.
Include the normal line. Label the angle of incidence,
angle of refraction, air, and water (2)

_________ b) Determine the angle of refraction (3)

12. Herbert is standing in front of a mirror practicing his baseball swing. Draw a ray diagram that shows how his
image would appear. Select two locations on Herbert’s body and construct angles of incidence and reflection for
each. Include normal lines and arrows. (3)

True or False: Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If false, then please circle the
word or phrase you are changing and correct the statement in the space provided.

13. __________ If the period of a wave is reduced 50 percent, the velocity of the wave will double (1)

14. __________ Sound waves require a medium in order to travel (1)

15. Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 115 degrees with each other.

_________ a) If a beam of light is directed so that it strikes one of the


115° mirrors with an angle of incidence of 75 degrees, what
75° is the angle of reflection of the beam off of the second
mirror? (2)

b) Finish the sketch to show how the beam reflects off of


the second mirror. Include the normal lines, arrows,
and identify the magnitude of the angles of incidence
and reflection. (2)

16. Josie is driving her Corvette at 50 m/s. She sees Herbert riding his moped toward her at 15 m/s so she sounds
her horn to get his attention before she blows by him. Her horn sounds at a frequency of 700 Hz.

b) Draw a diagram showing the source of the sound, the observer, and the positive direction (2)

_________ b) Determine the frequency that Herbert detects (3)


17. A 3.0 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 250 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal
surface. The mass is displaced 2.6 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C
equilibrium

1.3m 1.3 m 2.6 m

_____________ a) At which position(s) would the acceleration be a maximum? (1)

_____________ b) Determine the maximum potential energy of the mass (3)

_____________ c) Determine what the velocity of the mass would be at the equilibrium position (3)

Extra Credit: Good original test day only!

_____________ For the simple harmonic motion problem above, determine what the velocity of the mass would
be when it is at point D. (4)

Phyz Quiz Name:


50 Points ***
Hour: _____________________

Introduction to and Characteristics of Waves

Instructions: Place your answers in the space provided. In problems involving calculations, show diagrams, equations used in variable
form, and all other work.

Velocity of sound in air = 343 m/s Speed of light in vacuum = 3x108 m/s

) _______ Diffuse reflection… (2)


Occurs when the reflected rays are parallel
Results in you seeing an image
Occurs when there is an extremely smooth surface
Occurs with a white piece of paper

2) ________ The maximum displacement of a particle from the equilibrium position is referred to as the: (2)
Restoring Force
Period
Amplitude
Wavelength

) _________ If the period of a wave is doubled, the frequency of the wave will . . . (2)
Be reduced by half
Stay Constant
Be doubled
Equal the period

4) Identify the following in order of lowest to highest frequency (1-lowest; 5-highest): (2)

_____Gamma _____TV _____ X-Ray _____ Infrared _____ Ultraviolet

) A beam of light traveling through air strikes the surface of the water forming an angle of incidence of 35º.

a) Make a sketch showing how the light refracts. Identify “air” and “water”. Label the angle of incidence and the angle of
refraction. Include the normal line and arrows. (2)

b) Determine the angle of refraction (3)

) ________ If a sound source and an observer are moving in opposite directions, the frequency heard by the observer is: (2)
Higher than the actual frequency of the source
Equal to the actual frequency of the source
Lower than the actual frequency of the source
Not enough information to tell
) ____________ A standing wave which has 5 antinodes is formed in a stretched string that is 7.0 m long.

) ____________Which harmonic is this wave demonstrating? (1)

) ____________ Determine the wavelength of the wave. Hint: Draw a picture! (3)

) ____________ If this wave is oscillating at 6 Hz, what is the wave velocity? (2)

) ____________ What is the fundamental frequency for this string system? (3)

) _______ Which of the following electromagnetic waves would have the longest wavelength? (2)
Infrared radiation
Ultraviolet radiation
Radio waves
Visible light

) ___________ Josie, who is driving her Alfa Romeo at 35 m/s, whistles at Herbert, who is riding on his Moped towards her at 25
m/s (they are traveling toward each other). If the frequency of Josie’s whistle is 10,000 hz, what is the frequency that Herbert hears? Draw
a picture showing source, observer, and positive direction. (3)

10) Frosty is admiring himself in a mirror (located outside so that he doesn’t melt). Choose two locations on Frosty and construct a
ray diagram for each. Include the appropriate incident and reflected rays for each. Make sure you include direction arrows and
normal lines in your diagram. (3)

11) Two plane mirrors are set up such that they make an angle of 70 degrees with each other. If a beam of light is directed so that it
strikes one of the mirrors with an angle of incidence of 40 degrees, what is the angle of reflection of the beam off of the second
mirror? Finish the sketch to help find the answer. (3)

70
40

True or False: Please indicate whether the following statements are true or false. If false, then please circle the word or phrase you are
changing and correct the statement in the space provided.

2) ________________ Waves with longer wavelengths diffract more than waves with shorter wavelengths. (2)

3) ________________ The four characteristics of all waves are reflection, refraction, infusion, and interference. (2)
4) ________________ The law of reflection states that the angle between the incident ray and the reflecting surface is equal to the
angle between the reflected ray and the normal. (2)

5) ________________ Interference occurs when any waves interact with each other. (2)

16) A 10.0 kg mass attached to a spring with a spring constant of 400 N/m moves on a frictionless horizontal surface. The mass is
displaced 2.5 m from the equilibrium position and released.

A D B C
equilibrium

1.25m 1.25 m 2.5 m

_____________ a) At which position(s) would the restoring force be a maximum? (1)

_____________ b) Determine the maximum potential energy of the mass (3)

_____________ c) Determine what the velocity of the mass would be at the equilibrium position (3)

Extra Credit: Good original test day only!

____________ For the simple harmonic motion above, determine what the velocity of the mass would be when it is
at point D. (4)