Book-Data Communication | Network Topology | Radio Propagation

Da t a Communication Simplified

(Devender Mahajan)

Table of Contents
CHAPTER-01 DATA COMMUNICATION ____________________________________________________4 CLASSIFICATION OF DATA ___________________________________________________________________4 DATA REPRESENTATION ____________________________________________________________________4 DATA COMMUNICATION ____________________________________________________________________5 COMMUNICATION CHANNEL _________________________________________________________________5 MODES OF DATA TRANSMISSION _____________________________________________________________5 TRANSMISSION MODES _____________________________________________________________________6 CHAPTER-02 TRANSMISSION MEDIA ______________________________________________________7 FACTOR RELATING TRANSMISSION MEDIA ______________________________________________________7 TRANSMISSION IMPAIRMENTS ________________________________________________________________7 GUIDED MEDIA ___________________________________________________________________________7 FIBER OPTICS _____________________________________________________________________________9 OPTICAL MODES _________________________________________________________________________10 UNGUIDED TRANSMISSION MEDIA ___________________________________________________________11 WAVE PROPAGATION _____________________________________________________________________11 CHAPTER-03 NETWORK CONCEPTS AND TOPOLOGY ____________________________________15 WHAT IS NETWORK? ______________________________________________________________________15 NETWORK ARCHITECTURE _________________________________________________________________15 OBJECTIVES OF GOOD NETWORK ____________________________________________________________16 TOPOLOGY ______________________________________________________________________________16 APPLICATION OF NETWORKING ______________________________________________________________18 CHAPTER-04 MULTI-CHANNEL DATA COMMUNICATION _________________________________19 MODULATION ___________________________________________________________________________19 MODEMS ______________________________________________________________________________20 TYPE OF MODEMS ________________________________________________________________________21 MULTIPLEXING __________________________________________________________________________21 TYPE OF MULTIPLEXING ___________________________________________________________________22 PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM) ___________________________________________________________22 CHAPTER-05 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE COMPONENTS _______________________________24 NETWORK INTERFACE CARD ________________________________________________________________24 REPEATERS _____________________________________________________________________________25 BRIDGES ________________________________________________________________________________25 ROUTERS _______________________________________________________________________________26 SWITCHES ______________________________________________________________________________27 CHAPTER-06 SWITCHED NETWORK _____________________________________________________29 SWITCHED DATA SUB-NETWORK ____________________________________________________________29 TYPES OF SWITCHED DATA NETWORK ________________________________________________________29 ROUTING OF DATA PACKETS ________________________________________________________________30 CHAPTER-07 NETWORK PROTOCOLS ____________________________________________________31 WHAT IS A PROTOCOL? ____________________________________________________________________31 ELEMENTS OF A PROTOCOL _________________________________________________________________31 CHARACTERISTICS OF PROTOCOLS ___________________________________________________________31 FUNCTIONS OF A PROTOCOL ________________________________________________________________32 CHAPTER-08 ISO/OSI LAYERED NETWORK ARCHITECTURE _____________________________33 COMMUNICATION CATEGORIES ______________________________________________________________33 OSI TERMS ____________________________________________________________________________33 ISO/OSI REFERENCE MODEL _______________________________________________________________34 PHYSICAL LAYER _________________________________________________________________________34 DATA LINK LAYER ________________________________________________________________________35 NETWORK LAYER ________________________________________________________________________36 SUB-LAYERING OF NETWORK LAYER _________________________________________________________37 TRANSPORT LAYER _______________________________________________________________________37 SESSION LAYER __________________________________________________________________________37

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PRESENTATION LAYER ____________________________________________________________________38 APPLICATION LAYER ______________________________________________________________________38 CHAPTER-09 DATA LINK PROTOCOLS ___________________________________________________40 FRAME DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ____________________________________________________________40 TYPES OF FRAME FORMATS_________________________________________________________________40 TYPE OF DATA LINK PROTOCOLS ____________________________________________________________41 BINARY SYNCHRONOUS DATA LINK PROTOCOL (BISYNC) _______________________________________41 HDLC (HIGH LEVEL DATA LINK CONTROL) ___________________________________________________41 CHAPTER-10 LOCAL AREA NETWORK ___________________________________________________43 LAN ATTRIBUTES ________________________________________________________________________43 ARCHITECTURE OF LAN ___________________________________________________________________43 ETHERNET PROTOCOL _____________________________________________________________________44 ETHERNET AND TOKEN RINGS_______________________________________________________________45 CHAPTER-11 X.25 INTERFACE ___________________________________________________________47 X.25 ARCHITECTURE ______________________________________________________________________47 X.25 SERVICES _________________________________________________________________________48 X.25 PACKET FORMATS____________________________________________________________________48 LOGICAL CHANNELS ______________________________________________________________________48 CHAPTER-12 ISDN (INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK) ________________________49 ISDN CHANNELS _________________________________________________________________________49 ISDN ACCESS RATES _____________________________________________________________________49 ISDN SERVICES __________________________________________________________________________49 ISDN ARCHITECTURE _____________________________________________________________________49 ISDN ADVANTAGES ______________________________________________________________________50 ISDN DISADVANTAGES ____________________________________________________________________50 CHAPTER-13 TCP/IP SUITE _______________________________________________________________52 TCP/IP APPROACH _______________________________________________________________________52 ARCHITECTURE OF TCP/IP PROTOCOL SUITE ___________________________________________________52 IP PROTOCOL __________________________________________________________________________53 IP ADDRESSES ___________________________________________________________________________53 ARP ___________________________________________________________________________________55 ICMP __________________________________________________________________________________55 TCP PROTOCOL __________________________________________________________________________55 UDP PROTOCOL__________________________________________________________________________55 SNMP _________________________________________________________________________________55 CHAPTER-14 FDDI (FIBRE DISTRIBUTED DATA INTERFACE) ______________________________57 TYPE OF SERVICES ________________________________________________________________________57 TRAFFIC CONTROL________________________________________________________________________57 PRIORITY MANAGEMENT ___________________________________________________________________57 RING MANAGEMENT ______________________________________________________________________57 FDDI PHYSICAL LAYER SPECIFICATION _______________________________________________________57

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Chapter-01 Data Communication
Communication stands for exchange of information between two parties via some media. The development in the field of communication techniques is spread over the history of human civilization. Early men used pictures and sign language to express their views, feelings to each other. With the spread of human race, new methods for communicating were introduced such as smoke signals and carrier pigeons. Existence of postal services was also found and was treated as much efficient way of communication. In modern world, the communication system underwent a total change with the discovery of Telegraph System in which electricity was used for sending and receiving messages. After this invention of telephone system, facsimile facilities improved the quality and scope of communication system. Introduction of computer system in this field further enhanced not only the capabilities of the communication system but also introduced the era of electronic communication. The blend of telecommunication features and computer technology provided more diversified communication system that can transmit any form of information
Message

Source

Transmitter

Transmission System

Receiver

Destination

Source: The originator of the message. Transmitter: Converts incoming digital signals from source into terms of transmission media. Transmission System: Communication system that provides backbone for data communication. Receiver: Converts incoming signals from Transmission System back to digital format. Destination: Receiver of the message transmitted by Source. Message: Content transmitted from Source to Destination.

Classification of Data
Analog Data: It is a kind of data that is treated as physical quantities in continuous form. For example voice, voltage. Digital Data: It is a kind of data that is treated as discrete values and is represented as the string of zeros’ and ones’.

Data Representation
A code set is the set of code representing the symbols that could be used to make up meaningful data. There are several code set used in data communication, some are used for specific purposes while other are proprietary code set of computer manufacturers. The following two code set are used commonly:

ANSI’s 7-bit American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
ASCII is developed and defined by American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It is 7-bit code and contains 128 codes. The code set consists of the following symbols: 96 graphic symbols, comprising of 94 printable characters, SPACE and Delete characters 32 control symbols. Some important symbols are: CR (Carriage Return) LF (Line Feed) ACK (Acknowledgement) NAK (Negative Acknowledgement) STX (Start of Text) ETX (End of Text) ASCII is often used with an eighth bit call the parity bit. This bit is used for detecting transmission errors.

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IBM’s 8-bit Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)
It is developed and defined by International Business Machines (IBM). It is 8-bit code set and contains 256 codes; but all the codes are not used and even not yet defined.

Data Communication
Data communication refers to the electronic transmission data over communication channels. Communication is simple concept that involves transmitter or sender, a medium of transmission and the receiver. In case of data communication, the sender could be an electronic sensor or a computer, which transmits the data electronically over a predefined medium. The receiver again could be a computer. Data communication through computer involves: The physical medium The hardware and software supporting data communication functions Procedures for detecting and recovering from errors Rules and protocols to ensure the discipline exchange of information In case of data communication, the sender could be an electronic sensor or a computer that transmits the data electronically. The receiver end again could be a computer.

Communication Channel
A communication channels transport the electrical signals from the transmitter to the receiver. In other words, communication channels are the ‘Data Highways’ carrying signals from sending end to the receiving station. It is categorized by two basic parameters – bandwidth and signal to noise ratio. These parameters determine the information carrying capacity of the channel.

Data Rates
Bit Rate: Baud Rate: Bit rate can be defined as number of bits transmitted per second (bps). If t is the duration of a bit, then bit rate is 1/t. It measurement unit for number of time signal changes its value over a unit time. There is one-to-one correspondence between bits and electrical signals.

Modes of Data Transmission
Data transmission can be defined as the movement of bits on some physical medium connecting two digital devices. The modes of data transmission are the methods of timing control for reception of bits.

Asynchronous Transmission
It is also known as start-stop transmission. In this kind of transmission sender can transmit a character at any instant and the receiver will accept it. The terminals are the best examples of this kind of transmission. In asynchronous transmission data is transmitted character-by-character at unequal interval.
Stop Bits Data Bits Start Bit

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

Line is quiet

Direction of data -----------------------> Data: 01001010 In order to enable the receiver to understand the character when it arrives, the sender encloses each character by stat and stop bits. The preceding the character is start bit and the following is stop bit (may be of 1, 1½ or 2 bits duration). Sending end can commence transmission of bytes at any instant of time. Only one byte is sent at a time but there is no time relation between consecutive bytes. That is there could be arbitrary delay between the transmissions of two bytes. • In idle state, the polarity of electrical signal corresponds to 1. • Receiving end needs to be synchronized repeatedly for each byte. This can be achieved by using two extra bits a start bit and a stop bit. Start bit is prefixed to each byte and is always 0, i.e. before transmission of a byte, it ensures that the electrical signal changes for 1 to 0. Stop bit is used to ensure that the transition for 1 to 0 is always present at the beginning of a byte. It is necessary that the electrical signal should correspond to 1. But if the last bit of the byte is 0, transition never occurs. Stop bit is suffixed to each byte and it is always 1 and its duration is usually 1, 1.5 or 2 bits. Advantages: • •

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Synchronous Transmission In this kind of transmission messages are sent into a block (group of characters) which is further framed with the header and trailer information. instead of transmitting single character at one time as in asynchronous method a complete block of characters framed and transmitted together. Each person takes turns talking. check character for error detection. If both talk at once – nothing occurs! Bidirectional but only 1 direction at a time! Full-Duplex In full-duplex mode. Half-Duplex In half duplex mode. data flows in both directions but only one direction at a time on the data communication line. data flows in both directions simultaneously. Bits are always synchronized to the reference clock irrespective of the byte they belong to.i) There no need of synchronized clocks ii) Each character can be transmitted independently iii) Less Expensive Disadvantages: i) Transmission line is idle during the time interval between transmitting characters. Following the header is the block of characters that contains the actual message to be transmitted. The header usually contains synchronizing information which is used by the receiving end to set its clock in accordance with sending end clock. Examples are radio and television broadcasts. The direction of the data flow can be described as: Simplex Transmission In simplex mode data flows in only one direction on the data communication line (medium). • A unique sequence of fixed number of bits called flag is prefixed to each block to identify bytes’ boundaries Advantages: i) Efficient use of transmission line ii) High data transmission rates Disadvantages: i) Requires local buffered storage at the two ends. The header also contains the information identifying the sender and receiver. The block of the message is terminated by a trailer which contains end-of-message flag. Inter-block idle time is filled with idle character. Bi-directional both directions simultaneously! 6 . This type of transmission is best suitable for remote communication. a conversation on walkie-talkies is a half-duplex data flow. Bytes are transmitted as block in a continuous stream. Modems are configured to flow data in both directions. iii) More expensive • • • Transmission Modes Transmission mode specifies data flow between two points. For example. Hence. ii) Requires accurately synchronized clock. computer and printer and buffered storage media Transmission is carried out under the control of a time source. They go from the TV station to your home television.

transmission capacity is measured in term of either data rates or bandwidth. Guided Media The signal are guided alone a solid medium. 2. Factor relating transmission media 1. The three guided media commonly used are Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber 7 . a) To provide strength to electronics to detect and intercepts the signals b) Level of signal must be high than that of noise c) Attenuation is an increasing function of frequency Delay Distortion This impairment is introduced due to variations in velocity of propagation of a signal through a guided media as for varying frequency Noise Undesired signals that travel along with transmitted signal is referred as noise. limit the distance. i. 3. Bandwidth: Bandwidth can be defined as the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies available for transmission in any given range. receiver or intervening transmission system.. It cannot be eliminated. Guided media is also known as bound media. impairments introduce various random changes that degrade the signal quality. Guided transmission media uses a cabling system that guides the data signals along a specific path. Greater the bandwidth of the signal. No of Receivers: In guided media a link is shared with multiple attachments. In this case some attenuation and distortion of line is possible. It is also called as white noise b) Intermodulation Noise: This is produced when there is some non-linearity in the transmitter. Types of Impairments Attenuation and Attenuation Distortion Attenuation stands for reduction in the strength of a signal. The transmission capacity solely depends upon the distance between two nodes and nature of network. bit errors are found. Transmission Impairments: Impairment implies the way signal may lose its strength. 4. c) Cross Talks d) Impulse Noise: It is a minor noise annoyance for analog data such as short clicks and crackles experienced while voice transmission. point-to-point or multi-point network. There are 2 basic categories of transmission media: guided and unguided. such as attenuation. Following are the common type of noises exist in transmission a) Thermal Noise: This is caused by agitation of electrons in a conductor. smoother the transmission. interchange of 0 and 1 while transmission. i. Digital signals.Chapter-02 Transmission Media The transmission media is the physical path between the transmitter and receiver in the data transmission system. higher the data rates. Transmission Impairments For analog signals. The data signals are bound by the cabling system. The data signals are not bound to a cabling media and are therefore often called unbound media. It is particularly related with unguided media.e.e. In this case. Unguided transmission media consists of a means for the data signals to travel but nothing to guide them along a specific path. Least the impairments. This may also occur in case of guide media when cables are closely placed. It poses three problems before concerned personnel. Interference: Interference means the overlapping of frequency band that can distort or wipe out a signal..

For analog signal amplifier is required about every 5-6 KM. A central copper core is wrapped by an insulator which is again wrapped by an outer conductor. STP is provide better protection from external interference and is comparatively more expensive. It is commonly used in telecommunication. Physical Description • • • • Consists of two insulated copper wires arranged in regular spiral pattern The twisting tends to decrease the crosstalk interference between adjacent pair in a cable The twist length typically varies from two to six inches Wires in pair have thickness of from 0.Twisted Pair It is also abbreviated as TP.a wire braid which is surrounded by insulation cover. Moreover. It covers very short distance data communication Coaxial or Co-ax Cable Physical Description Coaxial cable is a two element cable. • Commonly used within building for local area networks providing digital signaling Transmission Characteristics • • • • Data rate varies from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps. UTP is commonly used form of TP whether its telephone communication or digital LAN. It eradicates the problem of problems of mixing signals and thus compensates the loss of information. The difference between both is that the STP has a foil around individual wires whereas in UTP it is not present. For analog transmission. amplifiers are required about 5 to 6 KM. bandwidth and data rate Types TP comes in two flavors: Shielded TP (STP) and Unshielded TP (UTP). A pair of TP consists of two insulated copper wires used for both analog and digital. repeaters are required every 2-3 KM. Advantages: Cheaper Installation Disadvantage: Requires specialized hardware called hubs to connect more than two computers. Category 3 and 5 UTP In 1991. The data is carried by 8 . Electronic Industries Association published standard EIA-568 specifying the use of voice grade UTP and STP for in-building application and it was revised in 1995 with improved standard with respect to cable and connector design (EIA-568-A) Features Frequency: Data Rate: Twists: CAT-3 16 MHz 16 Mbps 3-4 per foot CAT-5 100 MHz 100 Mbps 3-4 per inches Difference between Category 3 and Category 5 UTP/STP It is popular due to its low cost and moderate performance. For long distance application 14 Mbps data rate could be achieved.016 to 0. but is constructed to differently to permit it to operate over a wider range of frequencies.036 inches Applications • Commonly used in telephone network. For digital transmission. • TP is limited in distance. For digital signals repeater are required about every 2-3 KM.

the absence of a pulse signal a 0 bit the absence of a pulse signals a 0 bit. plastic or superfine fused silica is use to make fibre It has three concentric section: the core. But exiting broadband channels are very expensive. Using frequency division multiplexing over 10. crushing and other environmental dangers. Fiber Optics Board band channel are required when large volume of data has to transmit at high speeds. Coaxial Cable has higher frequency characteristic then TP and. High frequency spectrum allows higher data rate. The cost of manufacturing the cable is very high due to cost sophistication and specialization required while handling the production process. It can be used over longer distances and support more stations on a shared line than twisted pair. Applications • • • • to 10 15 Hz covering portions of Long haul trunk: 900 miles coverage with 20000 to 60000 voice channels Metropolitan trunk: 7.8 miles coverage with 100. Physical Description • • • • • • • A thin (2 to 125 m). A light pulse can be used to signal 1 bit. The cable is made of stand glass as thin as a human hair each surround by a protective coating. For analog signal amplifier is required about every few KM. flexible media capable of conducting an optical ray Glass. It can be used for both analog and digital signals. Applications • • • Television Distribution Long Distance Telephone Transmission Short-run computer system links • Local Area Network Transmission Characteristics • • • It is used for both analog and digital signal. It requires expensive.000 voice channels could be transmitted on single cable simultaneously. the cladding and the jacket Core consists of one or more very thin strands or fibre Each fibre is surrounded by it own cladding (a glass or plastic coating) Jacket covers one or more bundles of clad fibre. Through expensive it can be viewed as of future. Advantages of this cable are that it is highly resistant to noise the transmission errors are reduced to negligible probability. The coaxial cable is resistant to noise and transmit data at higher rates. Instead of using electromagnetic ways. thermal noise and intermodulation noise Advantages: It is resistant to electrical and magnetic interface. Disadvantages: It is thick and relatively stiff. For digital signals repeater are required about every KM.the copper core and the copper mesh acts as a shielded against external electrical interface. 14 Optical Fibre system operates in the range of about 10 infrared and visible spectrum. specialized connectors and trained professional for its installation. abrasion. It gives protection against moisture. The light pulse is transmitted over the channel and a processing device at the receiver and reconverts. A new technology for data transmission is in developing to maturing stage. hence effectively used for higher frequencies and data rates. it uses light as a source to transmit data. It also allows data transmission over long distances without regeneration by high which means the capacity to size per unit of data transmission. • Performance is affected be attenuation.000 voice channels Rural exchange truck Subscriber loop • Local Area Network Advantage over TP and Coaxial Cable 9 .

Smaller size and lighter weight Lower attenuation: 0. They are: Step Index Graded Index Single Mode Step Index Step index has a large core. reflecting off the cladding. For example. This causes some rays to take a longer or shorter path through the core. This is known as multimode where variety of angles are reflected When the fibre core radius is reduced to the order of wavelength. such that only a single angle can pass that is the axial ray.2 dB Electromagnetic isolation • Greater repeater spacing Transmission Characteristics • Light beam from the source enters the core. other rays are absorbed by the surrounding material. LED (Light Emitting Diode) and ILD (Injection Laser Diode) LED Stands for Light Emitting Diode Cost effective Can operate on wide range of temperature. Longer operational life ILD Stands for Injection Laser Diode Operates upon laser principle More efficient Greater data rate Transmission Media: An ultra-thin wire of glass fibre or fused silica. This is known as single mode • An optical transmission system mainly consists of the components: Light Source: It is used to emit light whenever an electric pulse is applied. Light Detector: It is a function to generate electric push when light falls on it. Some take the direct path with hardly any reflections while others bounce back and forth taking a longer path. The 10 . rays at shallow angles are reflected and propagated along the fibre. Rays at shallow angle are reflected and propagate along the fibre.• • • • Greater Capacity: Data rate of 2 Gbps over 10 KM as compare to 100 Mbps/KM for coaxial and 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps per 10 KM for TP. so the light rays tend to bounce around inside the core. This kind of propagation is called multimode. For example. There are three primary types of transmission modes using optical fiber. other rays are absorbed by the surrounding cladding. photo-diode Optical Modes As the light enters the core.

It is suitable for point-to-point communication and satellite communication. These are highly directional beams. Bend it too much and it will break! Difficult to splice The cost of optical fiber is a trade-off between capacity and cost. EMI Electromagnetic Interference) Security: cannot tap into cable. Graded Index Graded index has a gradual change in the core's refractive index. It requires a laser and the core is very small: 9 microns. Large Capacity due to BW (bandwidth) No corrosion Longer distances than copper wire Smaller and lighter than copper wire Faster transmission rate Disadvantages Physical vibration will show up as signal noise! Limited physical arc of cable. At higher transmission capacity. Configurations Unguided transmission works on the two type of configurations: Directional: Transmitting and receiving antenna must be perfectly aligned. It is suitable for point-topoint and multipoint application within confined area. it is more expensive. Infrared Frequencies fall in the range of 3 X 1011 Hz to 2 X 1014 Hz. Omni Directional: Transmitted signal spreads out in all directions and can be received by many antennas. At lower transmission capacity. The signal becomes longer than the original signal. Transmission (electromagnetic radiations released in the air) and reception (picking electromagnetic radiations from the environment) take place by the means of antenna. it is cheaper than copper. These are suitable for omni-directional applications. They are not guided or bound to a channel to follow.5 microns. This causes the light rays to be gradually bent back into the core path. Typical Core: 62.5 microns. Unguided Transmission Media Unguided transmission media is data signals that flow through the air. Wave Propagation 11 . LED light sources are used. LED light sources are used. Typical Core: 62. The light ray passes through the core with relatively few reflections off the cladding. Broadcast Radio Frequencies fall in the range of 30 MHz to 1 GHz. Frequencies Microwave Frequencies fall in the range of 20GHz to 40 GHz. Single Mode Single mode has separate distinct refractive indexes for the cladding and core. The result is a better receive signal than with step index. This is represented by a curved reflective path in the attached drawing.Radio Frequency Interference. Advantages Noise immunity: RFI and EMI immune (RFI .result is that the light rays arrive at the receiver at different times. Single mode is used for a single source of light (one color) operation.

some use infrared technology. It is limited by the curvature of the Earth for ground based stations (100 km.RF Propagation There are three types of RF (radio frequency) propagation: Ground Wave Ionospheric Line of Sight (LOS) Ground wave propagation It follows the curvature of the Earth. Ionospheric propagation It bounces off of the Earth's ionospheric layer in the upper atmosphere. microwave and satellite. 12 . Reflected waves can cause problems. Ham radios operate in this range. We are seeing an emerging technology called wireless LANs. Examples of line of sight propagation are: FM radio. AM radio is an example of ground wave propagation. Radio Frequencies These are in the range of 300 kHz to 10 GHz. Line of sight propagation It transmits exactly in the line of sight. It is sometimes called space waves or tropospheric propagation.85 MHz. It operates in the frequency range of 30 . Some use radio frequencies to connect the workstations together. The receive station must be in the view of the transmit station. The frequency spectrum operates from 0 Hz (DC) to gamma rays (1019 Hz). Ground waves have carrier frequencies up to 2 MHz. from horizon to horizon). The signal bounces off of the ionosphere and back to earth. it changes with the weather and time of day. It is sometimes called double hop propagation. Because it depends on the Earth's ionosphere.

This allows them to carry large quantities of data due to their large bandwidth. Therefore. High frequency/short wavelength signals require small antennae. assignment of frequencies band has to be strictly adhered.4 GHz to 6 GHz: Long haul telecommunication .Higher frequencies such as 22 GHz are used for point-to-point communication Microwaves operate at high operating frequencies of 3 to 10 GHz. The transmit station must be in visible contact with the receive station. Refracted by atmosphere. rain. Typical size is of 10 feet in diameter.14 √K. Low cost land purchase: each tower occupies only a small area. thus causing beam to be projected away from receiver. Reflected from flat surfaces like water and metal. This sets a limit on the distance between stations depending on the local geography. Diffracted (split) around solid objects. skip and jump across the country. They can carry high quantities of information due to their high operating frequencies. snow and fog. 13 .Terrestrial Microwave Microwave transmission is line of sight transmission. Physical Description • • • • Parabolic dish type microwave antenna. Fixed and focused a narrow beam to achieve line of sight transmission. Disadvantages: Attenuation by solid objects: birds. Advantages: They require no right of way acquisition between towers. Band Assignment . Maximum distance between antennas should confirm to: D = 7.h Where K is adjustment factor usually 4/3 and h is the height of antenna in meters • Microwaves bent with the curvature of earth Applications • • Long haul telecommunication Television transmission • Short point-to-point links between links between buildings Transmission Characteristics • • • Fewer amplifiers or repeaters Require line of sight transmission Attenuation can be expressed as • • • Attenuation increases with rainfall Interference is another source of impairment. Typically the line of sight due to the Earth's curvature is only 50 km to the horizon! Repeater stations must be placed so the data signal can hop.12 GHz: Cable television .

Application • Cover VHF and a part of the UHF: 30 MHz to 1 GHz • Cover FM radio and UHF and VHF television Transmission Characteristics • Main source of impairment is multipath 14 . At this point. Uplink is receiving signal from one station Downlink is amplifying and transmitting signal to other station Satellite operates on numerous frequency bands known as transponder channels or simply transponders Supports point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication It must be stationary with respect to its position in order to be aligned with the line of sight of its earth stations. For 4/6 GHz band. These geostationary orbits are 36. VHF is widely used for high quality voice transmission. the gravitational pull of the Earth and the centrifugal force of Earth's rotation are balanced and cancel each other out. Satellite work as a switch to the earth stations Features It is a microwave relay station It is used to convert two or more ground-base microwaves transmitters/receivers. It is also used in police wireless transmission.000 km from the Earth's surface. video transmission. angular displacement from the earth must be 3 degrees. Does not require disc-shape antenna and any precise alignment. angular displacement from the earth must of 4 degrees and 12/14 GHz band. Centrifugal force is the rotational force placed on the satellite that wants to fling it out into space. Two satellites working on same frequency band must be properly spaced. Application Television Distribution Long distance telephone transmission Private business network Broadcast Radio Physical Description • • • Radio waves with frequency in range of 3 KHz to 300 GHz come under this category.Satellite Communication Satellites are transponders (units that receive on one frequency and retransmit on another) that are set in geostationary orbits directly over the equator.

MAN often enables users in several local geographical locations to use the shared network resources as if they were all part of the same local network. Network Architecture The design of the network including the hardware. This is analogous to traditional postal system. countries. A MAN a smaller than a wide area network but larger than a local area network (LAN). then feed it into the fax machine. operating at 100 megabits per second. however. A network can range from peer-to-peer networks connecting a small number of users in office or department. thus leading to less wasted time and hence greater productivity. and continents. Connection-Less: A connection-less is one in which there is not physical connection between the two entities. Wide Area Network (WAN) WAN are those which may span over entire cities. Networks are an interconnection of computers. and for a wide variety of different purposes. data transfer (speech). they do not necessarily have to use routers (devices responsible for figuring out which data should says inside the local network and which data should stay inside the local network and which data should stay inside the local network and which data should be passed on to other network). eliminating the need of costly. This is analogous to traditional telephone system. cities or even countries around the world. Imagine the benefits of a user being able to directly fax the Word document they are working on. These computers can be linked together using a wide variety of different cabling types. files and printer on every PC can be available to every other PC on the network. Moreover LANs typically comprise only one transmission media type: Coaxial cable or twisted pair but not both. or less. Connection-oriented: A connection-oriented is one in which there is a physical connection between two terminals and fixed sequences of event-initializations. Local Area Network LAN is a group of computers and associated peripherals connected by a communication channel capable of sharing files and others resources between several users. schedule meetings. The high speeds are possible because of usage of one type of cable and distance limitation which is generally 10 Km. Local area networks are characterized by comparatively high speed communication.Chapter-03 Network Concepts and Topology What is network? Network is a group of computer and associated peripherals connected by communication channel capable of sharing files and other resources between several users. WANs consist of interconnected LANs that may be in different buildings. exchange mail. 15 . rather. rather than print it out. Take for example a typical office scenario where a number of users in a small business require access to common information. the most importing thing about LANs is that they must successfully balance network hardware and software. to local area network connection many users over permanently installed cables and dialup line or to a wide area network connecting users on several networks spread over a wide range of geographic area. access method and protocols in use. each user could access all the information they require. It would not be necessary for users to transfer files via electronic mail or floppy disk. A wide area network is a LAN of many LANs. More then any of the network model. is called Network Architecture Peer-to-Peer Networking Network architecture in which drives. and hang-up (disconnect). MAN are all local network. The LANs hardware gives the system its processing Metropolitan Area Network MAN is a public high speed network. A WAN network may use two types connectivity: Connection-oriented and Connection-less. where a connection involves initialization (dialing). dial the number etc. dedicated server. data transfer and disconnection are performed for each transmission. they can share their files. Such huge connection calls for different protocols connection-less. The data contents with it all the addressing information required to reach the destination. send faxes and print documents all from any point of the network. As long as all user computers are connected via a network. capable of voice and data transmission over a distances of up 50 miles. software.

g. Integrated Services Digital network (ISDN)is one such new coming technology which promise to after amazingly efficient transmission of voice. A network failure can be caused by a problem with the hardware. WANS have two standards namely CCITT X. Recovery is based on having back-up files. all in one integrated transmission system.25 and ISDN CCIIT X. An Enterprise WAN connects all the LANs situated at different physical locations but belonging to same organization. or fast ones such as Pentiums Consistency: Consistency is the predictability of response time and accuracy of data. Reliability: Reliability is the measure of how often a network is usable. All the LANs of Enterprise WAN may be in different parts of country or even world but must be belongs to a single company or institution. e. graphics video and other digital services. Users prefer to have consistent response times. software and data from unauthorized access. the data carrying medium. government or multination companies come under category of Enterprise WAN. Physical layers deals with the routines to initialize. WAN consisting of LANs belonging to widespread organization like corporations universals. This level is where the amount of lost data is nonexistent or at a minimum. ISDN Digital data communication is all set to revolutionize the way information was been transmitted across a network specially WANS due to their unprecedented of unparalleled reliability. The packet level is responsible for the routing of data switching of circuits and communication between the user and the network system. data .25 CCIIT X. Objectives of Good Network The major criteria that a data communication network must meet are: Performance: Performance is the defined as the rate of transference of error-free data. It is measured by the response time. and is normally provided by the manufacturer. we know that there is a problem in the system! Accuracy of data determines if the network is reliable! If a system loses data. Factors that affect response time are: Number of Users: The more users are on a network. Topology can be classified as physical topology and logical topology: Physical Topology describes where the cables are run and the terminals or nodes are located. Restricted physical access to computers. then the users will not have confidence in the information and will often not use the system. they develop a feel for normal operating conditions. requesting a file transfer and starting the file transfer. limiting user privileges and data encryption are common security methods. There are two type of WAN called Enterprise WAN and Global WAN respectively. Logical Topology refers to the path that the messages take to get from one user to another user. MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) is a measure of the average time a component is expected to operate between failures. For example. Topology Topology refers to the way in which the network of computers is connected. maintain & disconnect a physical connection . Recovery: Recovery is the network's ability to return to a prescribed level of operation after a network failure.25 forms the basic of all packet switching networks & uncompress the tower there layers of OSI model. Security: Security is the protection of hardware. the slower the network will run Transmission Speed: The speed that the data will be transmitted at measured in bits per second (bps) Media Type: The type of physical connection used to connect nodes together Hardware Type: Slow computers such as XT. The link layer is responsible for the efficient data transfer over the physical over the physical link. Each topology is suited to specific tasks and has its own advantages and disadvantages. password protection. Response time is the elapsed time between the end of an inquiry and the beginning of a response. or the Network Operating System. if the "normal" response time is 3 seconds for printing to a network printer but a response time of over 30 seconds occurs.Since WAN were initially developed on packet-switched data network they mostly connection-less in contrast to LAN which are connection-oriented. Anti-virus monitoring programs to defend against computer viruses are also a security measure. 16 .

the workstation processes the message. The bus cable carries the transmitted message along the cable. Advantages a) Easy to implement b) Low Cost Disadvantages a) Limits on cable length and Workstation numbers b) Difficult to isolate network faults c) A cable fault affects all workstations d) As the number of workstations increase. If the workstations address matches that contained in the message. Main features of ring topology: Uni-directional transmission Each RIU receives the signal and forward it after regeneration Previous RIU station retains the copy of the data until it is received by next RIU station or the recipient completely Advantages a) Cable failures affect limited users b) Equal access for all users c) Each workstation has full access speed to the ring Disadvantages a) Costly Wiring b) Difficult Connections c) Expensive Adaptor Cards 17 .Bus Topology In this kind of topology all workstations connect to the same cable segment commonly used cable is terminated at each end wiring is normally done point to point a faulty cable or workstation will take the entire LAN down. the speed of the network slows down Ring Topology In ring topology workstations connected through repeaters called Ring Interface Unit (RIU) to form the ring. As the message arrives at each workstation. the workstation computer checks the destination address contained in the message to see if it matches it's own. The message is transmitted along the cable and is visible to all computers connected to that cable.

Prodigy. 2. X. Examples are CompuServe. 7. etc. Electronic Mail (e-mail or Email) replaces snail mail. Lotus Notes) 5. usually a hub. etc. there are dedicated links from the station to the central controller. Advantages a) Easy to add new workstations b) Centralized control c) Centralized network/hub monitoring Disadvantages a) Single point of network failure b) No sharing of transmission media Application of Networking 1.Bulletin Board Services) are dialup connections (using a modem and phone lines) that offer a range of services for a fee. The leased line is the Value Added Network.d) As workstation numbers increase performance diminishes slightly Star Topology In this type of topology. Electronic Bulletin Boards (BBS . 4. schedules databases. ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). etc. The central controller acts as a switch to route the data from the source to destination. 9. These can be Frame Relay. Automated Banking Machines allow banking transactions to be performed everywhere: at grocery stores. drive-in machines etc. Value Added Networks are common carriers such as AGT. 10. Telecommuting allows employees to perform office work at home by "Remote Access" to the network. Bell Canada. (ex. etc. 6.25. Teleconferencing allows people in different regions to "attend" meetings using telephone lines. Groupware is the latest network application. Scheduling Programs allow people across the network to schedule appointments directly by calling up their fellow worker's schedule and selecting a time! 3. Games like doom and Hearts. use video text. America online (AOL). E-mail is the forwarding of electronic files to an electronic post office for the recipient to pick up. Information Service Providers provide connections to the Internet and other information services. Genie. Each interconnection supports two-way communication. It allows user groups to share documents. (they can be private or public companies) who provide additional leased line connections to their customers. 18 . distance education lectures. Videotext is the capability of having a two-way transmission of picture and sound. 8. etc.

i. modulation is done to convert signals according to the transmission media. Basically. Frequency: The frequency of a signal is the number of times the same form of signal is repeated.e. Binary 1 is represented by one amplitude and binary 0 is represented by the another amplitude. Thus. multiplexing is implemented to properly consume the transmission capacity of the media. Circuit can be defined as physical or virtual connection between two communicating devices. the frequency of the carrier is shifted between two 19 . The carrier signal is called sinusoidal signal. That is no of repetitions in wave like periodic process per unit time 3. Channel can be defined as single route (slot) availed of the circuit to transmit/receive the data.Chapter-04 Multi-channel Data Communication The common problem that is faced in long haul communication is the convergence of signals that could be efficiently transmitted over the network. And each band can accommodate a range of frequency on a transmission media. In other words. This quality is known as bandwidth. It is used at very low bit rate of less than 100 bps. a transmission media is usually divided into different independent data paths called bands. frequency and phase Amplitude Shift Key (ASK) This is the simplest form of the digital modulation. ASK is very sensitive to noise and finds limited application in data transmission. 2. detecting point of failure and recovering from it will be difficult. on the single wired circuit or non-physical circuit. It is not feasible to have every machine connected physically to the other machine in the network. relative position of the two waves having same frequency. This method allows medium speed transmission. or 0. This conversion is called modulation and demodulation. there can exist more than one channel. Moreover. there is a requirement of a device that converts constant level direct current of the sender equipment into signals suitable for transmission media and performs reverse process for the receiving end. This helps two different types of devices to accomplish data communication task. In modulation. In this method the carries amplitude is multiplied by the binary 1. Phase: Points having similar locations on the time amplitude wave form are said to be in the same phase. It would be unrealistic approach to implement data communication. When bands are used. Amplitude: It can be defined a maximum value of a varying quantity from the BASE value. That is in FSK. The data transmitted by an electrical pulse or wave form which possess following properties: 1. The transmission media can either physical connection such as wires or virtual connection such as microwaves. the solution lies in the using existing transmission technique and media. there are three techniques by which the digital signals can be converted and transmitted on the transmission. On the other hand. These techniques are based upon the three characteristics of the sinusoidal wave viz. Modulation Modulation can be defined as technique by which a digital signal is converted into its analog form for transmission over analog facility. Frequency Shift Key (FSK) In FSK one frequency of the carrier signal during bit time represents a binary one and another frequency represents a binary zero. amplitude. Firstly. To solve this problem.

Phase Shift Key (PSK) PSK is the most efficient of the three modulation methods and is used for high bit rates. It is relatively simple to implement. This method is known as differential PSK. If ¬T-1 is the pervious state and ¬T is the new phase state carrier.¬ t-1 ¬ For demodulating the DPSK signal. In the FSK carrier amplitude does not change. one represents binary one and other binary zero. Differential PSK (DPSK) The problem of generating the carrier with a fixed absolute phase can be overcome by encoding the digital information as the phase change rather than the absolute phase. The Line Interface To Telephone 20 . it is merely necessary to detect the carrier phase variation MODEMS The term modem has been derived from the words Modulator and Demodulator. FSK is not very efficient in its use of available transmission channel bandwidth. The phase shift indicates a binary 0. the phase change is defined as ∆¬ = ¬t . It used extensively in low speed modems having bit rate below 1200 bps. Its basic function is Transmitter (Modulator) To Other Modem Digital Interface To DTE Receiver (Demodulator) Block Diagram of MODEM to prepare digital data for transmission over analog voice band services offered by the telecommunication network. A binary 1 is assumed until a phase shift occurs.direct values. Binary states 0 and 1 are represented by the negative and positive polarities of the signal. when the data bit modulate the carrier.

There is separate clock for transmitting and receiving data. These are asynchronous and employ FSK modulation of carrier. Hence it comprises two carriers on the line: one outgoing (transmitter) and other incoming (receiver). Full Duplex Modem: These types of modems allow simultaneous transmission in either directions. High Speed Modems: These modems operate at 9600 bps or above. Thus. but require a clock signal. Medium Speed Modems: These modems operate within the range of 2400 bps to 4800 bps. These are synchronous and employ QAM modulation of carrier. all the terminals will be cut of the host. Advantage: Economical and efficient use of available communication channel Multiplexer can be equipped with the diagnostic hardware and software for monitoring the performance of individual data channel Disadvantage The major drawback of this technique is. Multiplexing It is the method of breaking single physical channel into several logical sub-channels. Thus. it indicates the DTE about incoming single and does not let the DTE to transmit until the incoming data bits are not received completely. Multiplexer Another data transmission intermediary device which allows sharing the transmission medium called multiplexer is feasible and best suited. Synchronous Modem: These types of modems handle a continuous stream of data bytes. That is. These are synchronous and employ differential PSK modulation of carrier. Data Rate Wise Low Speed Modems: These modems operate on bit rate up to 1200 bps. single byte at a time which is framed with start and stop bits. if any of the multiplexer or leased lines fails.transmission media between two modems is always a dedicated lease circuit or a switched telephone network Acoustic Coupler: A special type of modem will allows an ordinary telephone to be used within in the computer for data transmission Type of Modems Directional Capability wise Half Duplex Modem: These types of modems allow transmission only in one direction at a time. But. A modem is an intermediary device that interconnects two DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) at larger distance. External Modems: These types of modems are like other peripherals to the system. with multiplexing it is possible to use single transmission line to concurrently transmit data between several transmitters and receivers. if the modem detects a carrier on the line. Transmission Wise Asynchronous Modem: These types of modems transmit or receive data bit-wise. Interconnection with computer Internal Modems: These types of modems are installed within the computer system like card devices. Demultiplexer Demultiplexing involves separating the samples from the 21 . A multiplexer takes several data communication channels and converts them into one single data communication channel at the sending end. in case there are many applications in which several terminals are interconnected it is not feasible to install modems twice the number of the terminals for data communication. so that number of independent signal may be transmitted simultaneously on it. They are connected to the system via a external port. The data bits are always synchronized to the clock signal. This technique is called multiplexing.

Does not allow different bit rates of sub-channels. Newer STDM units provide additional capabilities: data compression. the demultiplexer utilize the flag (special symbol identifier for each data channel) with sample to identify the corresponding channel Type of Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) The lease line is usually provides speech channel with bandwidth of 300-3400 Hz. Since aggregate of all sub-channels ranges within the speech channel bandwidth and is an analog signal. all the time slots are of uniform length. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) In TDM two or more signals are transmitted as single composite signal by using time sharing technique. They allocate time only to lines when required. if the set consists of discrete levels. network port control. FEATURE: TDM allows the mixing of bit rates Better utilization of line capacity A better bit rate of 9600 bps is possible Statistical Time Division Multiplexing Statistical Time Division Multiplexing uses intelligent devices that are capable of identifying when a terminal is idle. Small variation requires complete hardware reconfiguration. mixed speed lines. Otherwise. automatic speed detection and much more. One complete cycle of time slot is called frame and the beginning of a frame is marked by a synchronized word which help the demultiplexer to identify the time slot and their boundaries. For converting these analog samples to digital form. the multiplexer does not requires any modem to connect it to the line. All sub-channels use FSK modulation of the carrier. TDM uses fixed allocation of time slots to the sub-channels.2 volts is approximated with a discrete level of 3 volt. the multiplexed signal consists of series of interleaved character (byte) of the successive channels. If all the sub-channels have same bit rate. Frequency transmission is done by employing a carrier which is modulated by the speech signal using suppressed amplitude modulation.different channels. 0 to 7 volts and the sample level of 3. rather than assigning them different frequencies as in FDM. Each channel is translated to different band and then all the channels are combined to form a FDM signal. Usually. the speech channels are stacked at the interval of 4 kHz to provide a guard band between the adjacent channels. Since multiplexing is done sequentially. In FDM. Most of multiplexers take advantage of this band. Bandwidth of sub-channels depends upon the baud rates. In the FDM. The process involves two stage Quantization It is the approximation of the level of sample by the nearest value drawn from assortment of the discrete values. each time-slot is one byte long. For example. Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) TDM signal although being in pulse form remains in analog samples and sample levels can have infinite possible values. FDM provides baud rates from 50 to 600 bauds Advantages: Failure of on channel does not effects other channels Disadvantages: High production cost due to analog components Total capacity is limited to 2400 bps due to large bandwidth is wasted in the guard band. This is known as PCM. each time-slot is one bit long. if multiplexer permits speed flexibility the higher speed sub-channel have longer time slot. Hence. the frequency band is sub-divided into several subchannels separated by guard bands. a) Bit Interleaved TDM: In this type of TDM. user data streams are interleaved taking one bit from each stream b) Byte Interleaved TDM: In this type of TDM. Hence. This means that more lines can be connected to a transmission medium because this device statistically compensates for normal idle time (in data communication lines). line priority. Coding 22 . There are two types of TDM. host port sharing. another form of modulation is applied.

23 .This refers to the conversion of discrete level of the sample after quantization to binary code of fixed length. 256 discrete levels are used. For example. 3 volts may be coded as 011. The number of bits in the code is determined by the total number of discrete levels. In telephony. therefore number of bits per code is 8.

ini or . When talking to another computer. which automatically configure their resources when installed in the computer. On power-up. Direct Memory Request Line: The DMA request line is used to transfer data between the peripheral card and the computers memory at high speed.Chapter-05 Hardware and Software components Network Interface Card A network adapter card plugs into the workstation. the computer detects the new network card. PCI. read responses. This number uniquely identifies the computer. and perform data transfer). making the services provided by the card available to the user. DMA channel 0 cannot be used. the port numbers used by peripheral cards range from 200h to 3FFh. and then installs the networking software required for connection to the network. Some cards may only use one (a port location(s)). configuration and control 24 . A PCMCIA adapter card. Peripheral cards associated with EISA and MCA are normally self configuring. or a separate file (like . Procedures for status. simplifying installation. as it is reserved for system use. This is done by a configuration utility. New cards are software configurable. auto-detection of new hardware makes network connections simple and quick. Initialization routine b. Adapter cards come from many different manufacturers. and stored either in the executable file. there are four resources which are user configurable for peripheral cards. and support a wide variety of cable media and bus types [ISA. EISA. The software driver is normally configured to match the resource settings of the card. This software driver provides the interface between the card and the operating system. using a software program to configure the resources used by the card. Interrupt Request Line: The interrupt request line is used by the card to signal the processor that the card requires the processors attention. Other cards are PNP [plug and Play]. For Ethernet or 10BaseT cards. A typical adapter card looks like. These network card numbers are used in the Medium Access (MAC) Layer to identify the destination for the data. The I/O port address is used by the PC to communicate with the peripheral card (issue commands. the data you send to that computer is prefixed with the number of the card you are sending the data to. Procedures to transmit and receive data d. Buffer Memory Address: Some peripheral cards prefer to use memory space rather than an I/O port address to transfer data to the processor. I/O Port Address: In the PC. All the user need do is assigned the network details like computer name. Interrupt service routine c. providing the connection to the network. others may require all four. This allows intermediate devices in the network to decide in which direction the data should go.cfg). It is obviously important for the configuration settings in the software driver to match those configured on the peripheral card. MCA. This memory space occupied by the peripheral card appears in the main system memory RAM area available to the processor (usually between C0000h to EFFFFh). looks like. So How Do Peripheral Cards Work? Peripheral cards require a software driver to function. and PCMCIA. each card is identified by a twelve digit hexadecimal number.. Resources Used By Peripheral Cards Essentially. suitable for connecting to a portable laptop computer to a network. The software driver provides the follow functions: a. With an operating system like Windows 95. in order to transport the data to its correct destination. assigns the correct resources to it.

Using repeaters simply allows you to extend your network distance limitations. Card receives data Card generates interrupt by asserting interrupt request line Processor responds to interrupt request and jumps to service routine Service routine instructs processor to read data from port location Interrupt service routine releases processor to continue previous work Repeaters Repeaters EXTEND network segments. Packets are passed onto other network segments based on the MAC layer. They amplify the incoming signal received from one segment and send it on to all other attached segments. The bridge builds up a table which identifies the segment to which the device is located on. It does not give you any more bandwidth or allow you to transmit data faster. h. This internal table is then used to determine which segment incoming frames should be forwarded to. they are transparent to higher level protocols 4. By subdividing the LAN into smaller segments. the bridge learns about the network and the routes. j. especially if the network has a large number of workstations/servers. This allows the distance limitations of network cabling to be extended. the source address is stored. it is possible to interconnect different segments which use different MAC protocols 3. Most bridges today support filtering and forwarding. Advantages 1. as well as Spanning Tree Algorithm. A repeater works at the Physical Layer by simply repeating all data from one segment to another. f. Since bridges buffer frames. The IEEE 802. Increase the number of attached workstations and network segments 2. Since bridges work at the MAC layer. g. Each time the bridge is presented with a frame. Disconnecting one side of a repeater effectively isolates the associated segments from the network. Used for non routable protocols like NETBEUI which must be bridged 25 . i. The repeater counts as a single node in the maximum node count associated with the Ethernet standard [30 for thin coax].e. The size of this table is important. The basic operation looks something like. During initialization.1D specification is the standard for bridges. Repeaters also allow isolation of segments in the event of failures or fault conditions. overall reliability is increased and the network becomes easier to maintain 5. There are limits on the number of repeaters which can be used. Features of repeater Increase traffic on segments Have distance limitations Limitations on the number that can be used Propagate errors in the network Cannot be administered or controlled via remote access Cannot loop back to itself (must be unique single paths) No traffic isolation or filtering Bridges Bridges interconnect Ethernet segments.

A bridge works at the MAC Layer by looking at the destination address and forwarding the frame to the appropriate segment upon which the destination computer resides. giving rise to broadcast storms on the network Bridges are ideally used in environments where there a number of well defined workgroups. also known as level 3 switching) will take longer than that of a bridge or switch which only looks at the MAC layer. which prevents unwanted packets either entering or leaving designated areas of the network. data may be sent over redundant paths. Router features use dynamic routing operate at the protocol level remote administration and configuration via SNMP support complex networks 26 . This is essentially a barrier. like a TCP/IP address. Filtering at this level (on TCP/IP addresses. and avoids the delay incurred by the bridge. The buffering of frames introduces network delays 2.6. as this minimizes traffic on the other segment. is to act as a firewall. Help localize network traffic by only forwarding data onto other segments as required (unlike repeaters) Disadvantages 1. if workstations on network segment A needed access to a server. A major feature of routers. A router works at the Network Layer or higher. with occasional access to servers outside of their localized workgroup or network segment. each operating more or less independent of each other. because they can filter packets at a protocol level. then forwards the frame to the appropriate segment upon which the destination computer resides. where the majority of access occurs outside of the local segment. the best place to locate that server is on the same segment as the workstations. This causes delays 4. Features of Bridge Operate at the MAC layer (layer 2 of the OSI model) Can reduce traffic on other segments Broadcasts are forwarded to every segment Most allow remote access and configuration Often SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) enabled Loops can be used (redundant paths) if using spanning tree algorithm Small delays introduced Fault tolerant by isolating fault segments and reconfiguring paths in the event of failure Not efficient with complex networks Redundant paths to other networks are not used (would be useful if the major path being used was overloaded) Shortest path is not always chosen by spanning tree algorithm Routers Routers were devised in order to separate networks logically. and the shortest path is not always taken 5. by looking at information embedded within the data field. In complex networks. Ideally. Bridges pass on broadcasts. Bridges may overload during periods of high traffic 3. Bridges which combine different MAC protocols require the frames to be modified before transmission onto the new segment. Most routers can also perform bridging functions. Bridges do not offer performance improvements when used in diverse or scattered workgroups.

usually only read the destination address in the frame before retransmitting it to the correct segment. Ports can also be buffered. IGRP. Ethernet is a widely used standard 27 . which are logically. and decides which segment to forward the packet to. combined using a single backplane. Passive hubs are simple splitters or combiners that group workstations into a single segment. so are invisible to the switch. They also filter packets a bit like a router does. Ethernet switches work and function like bridges at the MAC layer. Hub options also include an SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent. Nodes which inter-communicate frequently should be placed on the same segment. This allows the use of network management software to remotely administer and configure the hub. Switches work at the MAC layer level. Each segment into the switch has its own collision domain (where the bandwidth is competed for by workstations in that segment). 10BaseT Hubs dedicate the entire bandwidth to each port (workstation). Advantages Existing cabling structure and network adapters is preserved Switches can be used to segment overloaded networks Switches can be used to create server farms or implement backbones Technology is proven. Higher protocols like IPX and TCP/IP are buried deep inside the packet. and all stations share the available bandwidth. OSPF] HUBS There are many types of hubs. it looks at the MAC address in the header. hence better performance. The hub provides a number of ports. Once the destination segment has been determined. Advantages Each port has exclusive access to its bandwidth (no CSMA/CD) Hubs may be cascaded to add additional ports SNMP managed hubs offer good management tools and statistics Utilize existing cabling and other network components Becoming a low cost solution Switches Ethernet switches increase network performance by decreasing the amount of extraneous traffic on individual network segments attached to the switch. Detailed statistics related to port usage and bandwidths are often available.the more filtering done. switches forward frames faster than bridges. offering fewer delays through the network. The workstations attach to the hub using UTP. which often runs at a much higher data rate than that of the ports. Traffic on the bus is controlled using the CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) protocol. As packets arrive at the switch. to allow packets to be held in case the hub or port is busy. whereas active hubs include a repeater function and are thus capable of supporting many more connections. the lower the performance provides security segment networks logically broadcast storms can be isolated often provide bridge functions also more complex routing protocols used [such as RIP. having the entire bandwidth available for it's exclusive use. In addition. because each workstation has it's own port. Switches divide the network into smaller collision domains [a collision domain is a group of workstations that contend for the same bandwidth]. the packet is forwarded without delay. but instead of reading the entire incoming Ethernet frame before forwarding it to the destination segment. In this way. In standard Ethernet. it does not contend with other workstations for access. allowing informed decisions to be made concerning the state of the network. all stations are connected to the same network segment in bus configuration. And.

Improved efficiency and faster performance due to low latency switching times Each port does not contend with other ports. each having their own full bandwidth (there is no contention like there is on Ethernet) 28 .

Following of switching are Flexible Topology: One access point to number of destination Resource Sharing Switched data network is made up of an interconnected collection of node and interconnected links are known as trunks Types of Switched Data Network Circuit Switched Network Communication using Circuit Switched Network means that there is a dedicated path between two stations. This limits the utility of the network in interconnecting variety of most computers and terminals. and passed on to the next node till destination. Data transfer 3. Data entering network from a station routed to a destination by being switched from node to node. To transmit data beyond a local area. it is required to take services of intermediary switching nodes. It was appreciated for its advantages: flexibility. Advantages: Greater line efficiency Varying data rate Properties can be used Varying delivery delay Reduced processing time at the node Reduced end-to-end message transmission 29 .Chapter-06 Switched Network Switched Data Sub-Network LAN has its own boundaries and limitation with respect to performance and area coverage. resource sharing. There three phases in Circuit Switched Network 1. this technique came into existence as a efficient method for data communication over long distances. Switching devices that rend their services are known as switching node or simply nodes. This is a distributed collection of packet switching nodes. The end devices involved in data communication are known as stations. Circuit Switched Nodes carry out cross connection between incoming trunk circuit and outgoing circuit and create transmission path. This was originally developed to handle voice traffic. stored briefly. Circuit Switched Network consists of Circuit Switched Nodes. Switching is the selection and establishment of path from the source to a destination through subnet. The job of switching node is to carry data from source end to receiver end through following nodes. They could be terminals. Release Features Destination address is fixed once Delivery delay is minimal Data rates are same at both ends Data transmission is bi-directional No error control No data storage in sub-network Packet Switched Network In 1970. telephone or any other communicating device. A logical channel on every physical link is dedicated to the connection. At each node en route packet is received. This path is a connected sequence of links between network nodes. The Public Telephone Network is the best example. robustness and responsiveness. And collection of such nodes is referred as a communication network. but is now used for data traffic. The control information includes routing information. the massage is broken into a series of the packet. Circuit Switched Network suffers two main shortcomings: Under utilization of line capacity in user host connection. Advantage of packet switched network over Circuit Switched Network is if source has a longer massage. Connection Establishment 2. The connection path is made dedicated (established) before any data transmission begins. Each packet contains a portion (or all for a short message) of the user data plus some control information. Constant rate of data transmission. computers.

The Virtual circuit is accepted with a call accept packet. Features: No connection establishment and release phase Finite and fluctuating delivery delay Finite error rate due to lost and duplicate packets Disordering the packets Source and destination data rates can differ Destination and source addresses are specified on each packets Non-reliable service as there is no acknowledgement Virtual Circuit Routing Virtual circuit routing appear quiet similar to circuit switching. Features: Connection establishment and release phase Destination and source address specified only once Sequences delivery of packets Source and destination data rate may differ Finite and almost constant delivery delay Delivery assured using acknowledgement 30 . Following methodologies could be use to decide the route of datagram: Send datagram on one trunk circuit at random. A Virtual circuit routing is requested using a call request packet which incurs a delay at each node. Once the virtual circuit route is established. A routing table is maintained at each node. In contrast to circuit switching case the call acceptance also experiences node delays even through Virtual circuit route is now established. the reason is that this packet is queued at each node and must wait for its turn of re-transmission. the message is transmitted in packets. each packet is treated independently with no reference to packets that have gone before. For comparable networks. this delay could be variable and increased with the load. Send datagram on the trunk which has the shortest queue irrespective of destination Brute Force Approach: Send datagram in all the outgoing trunks except in the direction from which the datagram came. This is used for looking up and decides the next node. It should be clear that this phase of operation can be no faster than circuit switching. In this approach. this is because circuit switching is an essentially transparent process providing a constant data rate across network.Routing of Data Packets Datagram Routing A datagram is a packet of data with complete address of destination. Packet switching involves delay at each node in the path.

if systems are connected through switched network. Moreover.Chapter-07 Network Protocols What is a Protocol? A protocol is used for communication coordination between two stations. These set of conventions is referred as a protocol. 2. Symmetric or Asymmetric: Symmetric protocols define and control communication between peer entities. But. Elements of a Protocol Syntax: This part of protocol is concerned with the data format and the signal level Semantic: This part of protocol includes control information and error-handling code Timing: This part of protocol deals with speed matching and sequencing of data transfer TCP/IP is an example of protocol that is widely used in internet connectivity. which may be defined as set of rules governing the exchange of data. these system may communicate directly without requiring any intervening active agent. What is communicated. Monolithic or Structured: To be completely monolithic. 31 . This refers to indirect protocol. direct protocol no longer has any meaning. In structured protocol design. they must speak the same language. Here two systems depend on the functioning of other entities to exchange information. debugging is not also easy-to-do task. Characteristics of Protocols A protocol can display any of the following characteristics Point-to-point Multi-point Broadcast Network Switched Network Internet 1. Standard protocol refers to protocol architecture that enjoys world wide acceptance for communication functions. Direct or Indirect: If two stations are working in point-to-point or multi-point broadcast configuration. protocol has to be implemented as single package including all of the functions. For two systems to communicate successfully. 3. whereas asymmetric protocol controls hierarchical communication Standard or Non-standard: A non-standard protocol in one that is built for a specific communication situation or a particular model of computer. Major disadvantage of this kind of protocol is a small change in any part will be done by designing of entire package. how is it communicated and when it is communicated must abide to some acceptable norms between systems involved. 4. design refers to the hardware and software that regulates the communication function.

The simplest form of flow control is a stop-and-wait procedure. . error-detecting code and protocol information. Error Control This refers to the techniques that are required to prevent loss or damage data and control information. On the receiving end it is required that the segmented data must reassembled into original. logical unit of data is referred as a message.broadcast in which address refers to multiple recipients in domain . This also known as Network level address Addressing Scope: This refers to the applicability of the address in global space of network Connection Identifier: In case of connection oriented communication. Addressing is an complex issue in which following point are of paramount importance: Addressing Levels: These refer to the level in the communication architecture at which entity is named.unicast in which address refers to single system or port. Addressing There must be a unique. Specifically it means the inclusion of control information with the data to be transmitted such as address. An address refers to a signal system or a port. For better management and control. Otherwise . Flow Control It is a function performed by the receiving entity to limit the amount or rate of data that is sent by the transmitting entity. Generally all the methods involve error-detection based on frame check sequence and retransmission of the faulty frame. Segmentation and Reassembly At the application level. message is broken into blocks of pre-defined small-sized packets. This process is called segmentation or fragmentation. A unique address is associated with each system and intermediary system in a communication configuration. standard and simple-to-use method of address assigning and address resolving method with the protocol. the connection identifier is used to uniquely identify each service access point. Encapsulation This refers to the methodology of compartmentalization of all required logic for handling data communication in a single package. as it induces the risk of losing data packets in the route. Connection control This function specifies how the communication link has to be managed during the data transmission from source to destination.multicast in which address refers to specific subset of entities 32 . A data block that is transmitted between two entities is technically known as Protocol Data Unit (PDU). in which each data packet must be acknowledged before the next can be sent. This becomes more important in when two communicating entities are in different hosts connected by a network. A logical association or connection is established between communicating entities.Functions of a Protocol A protocol is concerned with exchanging stream of data between two entities. Three phases occur during communication: Connection Establishment Data Transfer Connection termination Ordered Delivery The protocol must ensure that data packets should be delivered to the destination station in the same sequence in which they were accept from the sending station. Following are the major functions that are carried out by most of protocols. Addressing Mode: It refers to implement the address onto the system. Reassembling is just opposite of segmentation.

The messages which are exchanged between the peer layers are called Protocol Control Information (PCI) Since there is no direct path between the peer layers Protocol Control Information is exchanged using the service by the lower layer OSI TERMS Connection Service Access Point (SAP) SAP-Address Connection End Point Identifier A connection is logical association of peer entities to provide services to next higher layer For hierarchical communication. Protocol Data Unit (PDU): (N)-PDU is the combination of (N)-PCI and (N)-SDU. Hence to make the different type of machines communicated with each other there was a need for standardization of network architecture.Chapter-08 ISO/OSI Layered Network Architecture It is not necessary that network systems used all over the world are working the same architecture. which at the interface between the layers (N)-SAP address or (N)-address identifies the SAP located between (N+1)-layer and (N)-layer A SAP path can support multiple connections on its communication path. Interface Data Unit (IDU): (N)-IDU is total data transfer across the SAP between (N+1)-entity and (N)-entity. the adjacent layer entities interact through a service access point. (N)-connection end point identifier uniquely identifies a connection. It consists of two parts (N)-address of (N)-SAP A suffix which is uniquely within the scope of (N)-SAP Protocol Control Information (PCI): (N)-PCI is the protocol control information exchanged between (N)-entities to coordinated their functions Service Data Unit (SDU): (N)-SDU is the data transferred between the (N)-connection and whose identity is preserved during transmission. Data Units 33 . Communication Categories Hierarchical Communication The messages exchanged between the adjacent layers during the Hierarchical Communication are called Interface Control Information (ICI) Peer-to-peer Communication Peer-to-peer Communication is between the peer layers for carrying out an assigned set of functions. Interface Control Information (ICI): (N)-ICI is the information exchanged (N+1)-entity and (N)-entity to coordinate their function.

For example. Application Presentation Session Transport Relay System Network Data Link Physical Physical Network Data Link Physical Medium Peer Protocol Application Presentation Session Transport In the OSI Reference Model. Each layer handles certain specific predefined function. In this approach the communication has been divided into hierarchical functional layers. Each layer has a specific function. Physical Connection is different from Physical transmission path in the sense that it works at bit-level where as latter works at the electrical signal level. The application of the ISO/OSI model has allowed the modern multi-protocol networks that exist today. The Physical layer carries out the following functions: Conversion of bits into electrical signals having characteristics suitable for the transmission media a) Signal Encoding b) Relaying of digital signals using intermediary devices such as modems c) The rules and procedures for interaction between Physical layer entities are called Physical layer Protocols. Services to Data Link layer 34 . OSI Reference Model represents generalization of concepts regarding inter-process communication. the communication function is divided into the hierarchy of seven layers Physical Layer Physical layer is basically concerned with the transmission of the raw bits over the transmission media. The Physical layer provides its services to the Data Link Layer and receives services of the physical interconnection channel for transmitting electrical signals. It modularizes a set of system interconnection rule in a particular way by defining a series of layer functions. Physical Connection: The Physical layer at the two ends provides a transport service from Data Link layer on one end to Data Link layer on the other end over a physical connection activated by them to transmit data.(N+1)-PDU (N)-ICI (N+1)-Layer (N)-IDU (N)-Layer (N)-ICI (N)-SDU (N)-ICI DATA UNITS IN THE OSI REFERENCE MODEL (N)-SDU ISO/OSI Reference Model The International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) is a standard set of rules describing the transfer of data between each layer in a network operating system. the physical layer deals with the electrical and cable specifications. The OSI Model clearly defines the interfaces between each layer.

The Data Link layer is the second layer of OSI Reference Model. The control bits includes error check bit addresses sequence numbers etc. At the receiving end. The process to activate and deactivate the relay is done by Physical layer c) The physical transmission of bits may be synchronous or asynchronous d) If the signal encoding is required. the additional bits usually enable error control. It receives the data from the higher layer and blocks them along with certain control bits. 3. This layer shields upper layers from the characteristics of the physical transmission and provides a reliable and error-free Data Link Connection. physical dimensions. • Data Link Connection end point identifier: to identify the individual Data Link connection. this function is carried out by the Physical Layer Physical Layer Standards a) Mechanical Specifications: This deals with type of connectors. c) Functional Specifications: These deals with the meaning of voltage levels on the certain pins of the connectors.g. Following service are provided by the Data Link layer to the Network Layer • Data Link Connection: Provides one or more Data Link connections between two network entities. This data block along with control bits is called frames. • Flow Control: The Network Layer can control the rate at which it receives data from Data Link layer and Data Link layer will accepts data from Network Layer Services within the Data Link layer 1. • Error notification: Data Link layer informs Network Layer about unrecoverable error. d) Procedural Specifications: The procedural specification define the rules applying to various functions. Framing function organizes bits into frames 35 . the physical layer converts the incoming electrical signals back to bits and the frame is handed over to the Data Link Layer. it includes mechanical design of the connectors which are used on the equipment and the interconnecting cables and pin assignment of the connectors b) Electrical Specifications: This is concerned with the electrical characteristics e. Physical Service Data Units (Ph-SDU): Ph-SDU received from Data Link layer consists of 1 bit in serial transmission or ‘n’ bits in parallel transmission. Splitting of one data link connection onto several physical connection 3. In other words. • Sequencing: Maintain the integrity of the data Sequence. This frame is transmitted to the physical layer which converted bits into electrical signals which are transmitted over the physical transmission media. flow control and link managements. Services to Network Layer The Data Link Layer receives the services from the Physical Layer and provides service to the Network Layer. voltage level impedance. Setups and releases the data link connections 2. These all features are implemented in Data Link layer for error-free transmission.. Functions within the Physical layer a) Setup and release of the physical connection between entities in the Data Link layer b) A physical connection may use a relay at on intermediary point to regenerate the electrical signal. 2. allocation of pins and so-on.1. the sequence in which certain events may occur Data Link layer The Physical Layer lack certain features such as: • • It does not have any function to control error induced if the electric signal gets impaired due to disturbances encountered while transmission It does not supports any data flow control mechanism which could be implemented in case of error induced if the receiving device is not ready to receive the incoming signal. The Data Link Layer removes the control bits and check for errors. Sequence Delivery: The Physical layer delivers bits in the same order in which they were submitted by the Data Link layer. Activation/Deactivation of the Physical Connection: The Physical layer activates/deactivates the physical connection on the request of Data Link layer for transmission of bits. Fault Condition Notification: The Data Link layer is notified in the case of error detection. 4.

Network connections are provided by network entities in end systems but there may involve intermediary system that provides relaying. in order to better utilization of data link connection Segmenting and Blocking: This function is performed by network layer over data packets to get a data packet of required size for the purpose of data transmission. CONS are a reliable service because it has built-in error recovery procedures. 7. 2. Residual Error rate. The network services can be categories in two classes: Connection Mode Network Services (CONS): In CONS a network connection is first established between the communicating transport entities and then data unit received from transport layer are transported over the connection.213 specifies CONS Connection-Less Mode Network Services (CLNS): In CLNS. The network services proving transparent transfer of data units to the Transport entities and data units are received and delivered from Network Service Access Point (N-SAP). 6. 6. That is the Network Layer of the nodes makes the routing decisions independently for each data packet. Multiplexing: The network entity may multiplex several network connections on a single data link connection. 5. The data units are always delivery in same sequence in which they were received. Controls the sequence of the frames transmitted over the data link Error detection and error-recovery Flow control Identification and parameter exchange Link management Network Layer It is the third layer of OSI Reference Model. 4. 3. 5. It result into following faults: Some data packets may be lost Some data packets may delivered out of sequence Duplication of some data packets CLNS can’t be categorized as reliable because there is no guarantee that the data packets will be correctly delivered. connection delay. And in case of network failure. CCITT X.4. It consumes the services provided by Data Link Layer and provides services to Transport Layer. Network Services The services provided by the Network Layer to the Transport Layer are called network services. each data unit carries the destination and source addresses and is delivered independently than other data units. service availability and reliability Un-recoverable errors are notified to the transport entities Controlled flow of data Sequenced delivery of data Connection termination. The Network Layer decides how to pass the data frames over the sub-net so that they reach their destination. 8. 7. throughput. Transport entities have to make their own effort to collect the delivery of data packets. transit delay. The basic purpose of the Network Layer is provides mean to access the sub-net for routing the data to the destination end system. making use of Data Link connection provided by Data Link Routing and Relaying: Routing function helps in selecting appropriate route between two systems for data transmission. it implements error-recovery mechanism 36 . Services to Transport Layer 1. Function of Network Layer Network Connection: This function provides a network connection between transport entities. transport entities are informed. Unique addresses are provided to identify transport entities Point-to-point Network Connection is established Quality of service is provided that includes parameters such as. Error Detection and Recovery: The error detection is used to check the quality of the service provided by the Network Layer over the network connection. In case of error detection.

The Transport Layer provides the functions necessary to bridge the gap between the services available from the Network Layer and those required by the layers above..Sub-layering of Network Layer This function is required due to the following reasons: Difference in the operational functions of various subnetworks. it results into complexity of the Network Layer function. Transport connection establishment and release 2. Relaying function which involves forwarding of the N-SDU by the SNIC entity of intermediary OSI system from the SNIC entity of one end system to the SNIC entity of another system. The Session Layer controls and structures the interaction between different application entities. In case the Transport connection fails.25 (Packet Switched Data Network) and X. Routing function which decide over which of the possible many subnetworks particular information will travel Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Function Sub-layer (SNDC) It includes functions required to convert the subnet into a well defined service expected by the SNIC sub-layer. Eg. This could be two way simultaneously . Hence. Hence it becomes necessary to specify the internal architecture of the Network Layer so that the functioning of the entities can be simplified. The Transport Service like other layers of OSI model.21 (Circuit Switched Data Network) Transport Layer The Network Layer and other lower layers are the part of all the end systems and intermediary systems. That is. maintain and manage dialogue between different use entities. Since. It ensure data delivery before any further data transmission Session Layer It is fifth layer of the ISO Reference model which rends its services to its upper layer i. hence the Session Layer does not supports multiplexing. the Transport Layer is only implemented at the end systems. use and disconnect a connection between them called a session. But currently. emerges the need different set of protocols to be implemented in the end systems according to the type of subnet Since the network layer has to interact with the subnet access mode and intermediary system. ISO defines a connectionless mode and connection mode transport service. the main function of this layer establishes. This protocol is used for the following functions: Add to. Relate the services provided by the subnetwork to the provisions of the Network services Subnetwork Access Control Function Sub-layer (SNAC) SNAC sub-layer performs all the functions and protocols with the corresponding layer of subnetworking. most of the applications are based on Connection mode transport service. The Transport Layer provides transparent. Allows two applications to establish. reliable and cost effective transfer of data between user entities in the Session Layer. correct or mute function provided by the sub-network so that. X. Services to Session Layer The Transport Layer uniquely each session entity by its transport addresses.e. But. The Network Layer is sub-divided into three sub-layers: Subnetwork Independent Convergence Function Sub-layer (SNIC) The convergence means bringing together into a common interpretation. Session Connection are mapped onto the Transport connection on the one-to-one basis. an uniform basic network service boundary is provided. Presentation Layer using the services of Transport Layer. Network layer has to take case of the differences and provide uniform network services. a new connection is established without the session use intervention or knowledge. 37 . Data Transfer .Expedited Data Transfer: Number of octets is restricted to 16. This layer includes following functions: SNIC entity provides CONS or CLNS in the system as requested by the Transport entity. Subnetwork may operate on different Subnetwork access protocols.Normal Data Transfer: Data can be transfer in any integral number of octets. 1.

Its architecture is totally different from that of other layers. 38 .User Abort . data is treated as the string bits. Data type The term data types visualize the data values to be operated upon and the subsequent result.Provider Abort . The Presentation Layer only deals with the concepts of external data representation irrespective of the methodology employed by the end user to represent data internally. The Presentation Layer deals only with the representation of data (syntax) and the data structures employed in the representation and not with the meaning of the data (semantics).Orderly Release .Services to Presentation Layer • • Session Connection Establishment Session Connection Release . Application Layer It is the topmost layer of the OSI Reference model. date 6. Constructed Type are the derived data type based upon primitive type such as record Data Syntax Presentation Layer and Application Layer use types of data syntax: Abstract Syntax: It is not concerned with the representation of data.Negotiate Release Normal Data Transfer Session Connection Synchronization: Synchronization refers to assuring the same state of dialog between the session service user at any point of time Resynchronization: It is the process of restoring the state of dialog to a previous state. . The basic purpose of this layer is to provide a interface for corresponding application processes to communicate via OSI environment. As the application entities exchange the Application Layer data units between themselves using the underlying services of the Presentation Layer. Hence. The data types are classified into two classes: 5.Abandon: Cancel the current dialog . The sending presentation entity encodes the data values of its local concrete system into the common transfer syntax and the receiving presentation entity and performs the reverse process Service to Application Layer Transformation of syntax Selection of syntax Function within the Presentation Layer Session establishment request Data Transfer Negotiation and re-negotiation of syntax Transformation of syntax Session Termination request. An application process can be defined as set of resources that can be used to generate some useful information for a user. character. These may varies from system to system. Common Transfer Syntax: This syntax is used for encoding the information to be exchanged between two presentation entities. Primitive Type are basic and elementary data type such as integer. Computer system may employ different representation of data such as ACSII or EBCDIC etc. This type of syntax is used to define the structure of Application Layer data unit Local Concrete Syntax: This syntax specifies the format is used for the representation of data by an end system. Up to Session Layer. the Presentation Layer provides common representation between applications/ system making them independent of syntax.Set: Re-agreeing the condition of dialog • • • Presentation Layer This layer is concerned about the way information is to be presented to the end user.Restart: Return to previous state of dialog .

Thus this layer provides a platform for exchanging data units between two processes via application entities. Access and Management (FTAM): This ASE provides a reliable file operation between two communication stations irrespective of the fact that both may be using different file management system. The OSI file service is based upon concept of a virtual file store. ASEs are used to carry out different function. Virtual Terminal (VT): An OSI virtual terminal is a service provide for accessing communication between two human terminal users. The virtual file store technique gives the FTAM service independence from specific implementation of the local system. The virtual file store is an abstract description of real file store which exists in the local system environment. updating multiple copies of a specific database. Concurrency and Recovery (CCR): This ASE provides the capability to perform distributed processing transactions such as. ASE can be classified into two classes: Core/Common Application Service Entity (CASE) Association Control Service Element (ACSE): This ASE controls and manages the relationship between the application entities. Hence ACSE establishes and releases the association between application entities Reliable Transfer Service Element (RTSE): This ASE with association of ACSE provides a facility for recovering from the lost connection between application entities. An application entity could be further partitioned into collection of several Application Service Element (ASE). 39 . This operation includes a invoker which sends request for remote operation and a performer which returns the response. between two computer systems. This could be only possible by local installation of virtual terminal interface and protocols. where as today computer can be linked to any kind of network and access any resource on the network. This is the vital ASE because every service that is enjoyed by application entity is at connection-mode. In yester years. it maintains data integrity and consistency in spite of outrage in communication system. or a human terminal and a computer system. an ASE may call Presentation Layer services or set communication path with other ASEs. the human terminal was connected to the host via a dedicated link. For example. Specific Application Service Element (SASE) File Transfer. application protocols and Presentation Layer services. During updating. For this purpose it makes use of Session Layer synchronization service which is mapped by the Presentation Layer for it Remote Operation Service Element (ROSE): This ASE gives authority to application entity to associate with other application entity to which there is no direct access. Commitment.

frame is basic unit transmitted by the Data Link layer. A frame consists of user data and control fields. The general format has three components: a) Header b) Data c) Trailer Header Data <------------FRAME------------> Trailer Types of Frame Formats The frame format is so designed that the receiver is always able to locate the beginning of the frame and its various fields so that it could separate data fields. To identify a frame and its various fields. If a field exists. its size is variable. These specified set of rules and procedures for carrying out data link control function is called data link protocol. The requirement of field delimiters is determined by the frame structure.Chapter-09 Data Link Protocols The Data Link layers should also agree on set of regulations o be adapted to exchange of control information. Each frame is processed as a single entity for error and flow control. All specification about the frame is known to the receiver in advance X X – Start of Frame Figure: Fixed Format – Fixed Length Frame Fixed Format – Variable length 40 . all fields are always present in all the frames. In fixed format the length of a frame may also be fixed or variable. In this format. X X A B C Y – – – – – A Start of Frame Start of First Field Start of Second Field Start of Third Field End of Frame B C Y Figure: Variable Format– Variable Length Frame Fixed Format – Fixed Length In this type of format of frame the design of the frame is decided once for all and the field size is also fixed in all frames. A data link protocol can adopt fixed or variable format of the frame. but the following two types of protocols are preferred and commonly implemented: i) Binary Synchronous Data Link Control (BISYNC) ii) High Level Data Link Control (HDLC) Frame Design Considerations As earlier discussed. A data link protocol takes care of following elements: Format of the frame (Location and size) Content of various fields Sequence of message to be exchanged to carry out the error control. the presence of any field is optional. It requires only one identifier at the beginning of the frame. field delimiters are used. the presence of each field is indicated by a field identifier with symbols signifying the start and end of the frame. Variable Format – Variable Length All the fields in this format are optional. In the fixed format. In variable format. flow control and link management These are numerous types of data link protocols being used.

there is only one host and several tributary stations.g. Point-to-point Communication This kind of communication exists between two hosts. The host decides who can send or receive message. Related ISO standards are ISO-1745.g. EBCDIC and Transcode Support synchronous two-way alternate communication Application for point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication Relationship between stations There is master (originator of message) and slave (recipient of message) between stations. For this two techniques are used. Byte Oriented Data Link Protocol In this protocol. Transmission Frames BISYNC employs variable format and variable size frame. other fields require separate identifier/delimiters X X A B C Y – – – – – Start of Frame Start of First Field Start of Second Field Start of Third Field End of Frame B C Y Figure: Fixed Format – Variable Length Frame Type of Data Link Protocols Bit Oriented Data Link Protocol In this protocol. The select station then takes over slave status. Binary Synchronous Data Link Protocol (BISYNC) BISYNC protocol is used for communication between IBM computers and terminals. ISO-2628 and ISO-2629. Point-to-multipoint Communication In this kind of communication. ISO-2111. Bit level implies that the length of control symbol needs not to be one full byte e. all control symbols should be at least one byte long. the control is returned back to the Host.In this type of format start and end identifiers are required. After job completion. e. HDLC protocol. control information is coded in bit level and the length of the data field may not be a multiple of bytes. The length of data field can be a multiple of byte. BISYNC makes use of two types of frames: Supervisory Frames are used for sending control information and are not protected against the content errors Data Frames are used to send user data and also contains error detection code. Host Tributary Stations Polling: Host selects a station which will act as master next to it and control further communication. BISYNC protocol. HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) 41 . Features Byte-oriented data protocol Supports three data code sets – ASCII.. Except first field. These two stations contend for master status when they want to transmit a message. Selecting: This is the process in which the host decides about the station to which it will transmit data.

This process can also be requested by the secondary station. And the frames sent by the secondary stations are called response. It is characterized by high flexibility. In NRM. operational parameters are exchanged. Combined Station: This system can operate as both primary as well as secondary station. reliability and efficiency of operation for present and future synchronous data communication. Asynchronous Response Mode (ARM) is similar to NRM.HDLC is developed by ISO and is the most widely implemented Data Link protocol. It is a synchronous mode of communication. HDLC is a bit-oriented protocol. But in multipoint environment only one secondary station can be active at a time keeping other station in disconnect mode Asynchronous Balance Mode (ABM) is applicable to point-to-point communication between two combined stations. It can be designated as host or master station Secondary Station: It operates under the control of primary station. primary station controls the overall link management function. 42 . In this mode secondary station is activated by mode-setting command for NRM from the primary station Asynchronous Disconnect Mode (ADM): In ADM. Initialization Mode (IM): In this mode. It is equivalent to tributary or slave station. adaptability. Frames All the frames sent by the primary station are called commands. It satisfies following data link requirements: Point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication Two-way simultaneously communication over full duplex circuits Two-way alternate communication over full duplex circuits Communication between equal stations and host and remote station Full data transparency Type of stations Primary Station: It has responsibility of data link management. It is good for polled multipoint operation where ordered interaction between host and number of secondary station is required. the stations enter in either ARM or ABM when the corresponding mode-setting command is exchanged. A secondary in ADM can request modesetting command from the primary station in order to establish data transfer mode. Mode of Data transfer Normal Response Mode (NRM) provides unequal type of data transfer capabilities between logically unequal stations. Both stations are capable of link management Normal Disconnect Mode (NDM): All stations are logically disconnected. The secondary station can send a frame only after receiving permission from the primary station. It is invoked when primary station senses the malfunctioning of secondary station and its operational parameter to be corrected.

Chapter-10 Local Area Network It is a kind of broadcast network where each station is attached to a transmission media shared by other stations. In this section you will learn about LAN architecture that is widely implemented. MAC sub layer provides connectionless mode services to LLC (Logical Link Control Layer). This layer includes following functions: On transmission. shared medium nature of the link 43 . You will also learn medium access control (MAC) and Logical Link Control (LLC) and medium access control techniques. LAN Attributes Geographic coverage local area network is limited to less that 5 KM Data rate exceeds 1 Mbps The physical interconnecting media is privately owned Shared physical interconnecting media Architecture of LAN The standardized protocol architecture includes physical. error detection and station addressing. perform address recognition and error-detection Govern access to the LAN transmission medium Provide an interface to higher layer and perform flow and error control The data link layer in the LAN is divide into two sub-layers: MAC (Medium Access Control) MAC sub layer provides the medium access control. assemble data into frames with address and error-detection field On reception. That means one station broadcasts transmission and other stations receive it. medium access and logical link control layers Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Logical Link Layer Data Link Layer Medium Access Control Physical Layer Medium Upper Layer Protocols Physical Layer Medium Physical Layer This layer defines the specification of the transmission medium and the topology.Request for transmission . The MAC sub layer service primitives: .Indication of availability of service . Moreover being packet switched transmission is in form of packets.Confirm the transmission completion LLC (Logical Link Control) LLC is concern with the transmission of link level protocol data unit between two station without using intermediary switching node(s). LLC has two following characteristics that make it different from the other link layers: Must support multiple access. disassemble frame..

Gateways. This is the Multiple Access portion of CSMA / CD. Concentrators. IEEE 802. listen for the carrier signal. 4 and 5 cables 44 . In CSMA / CD. If 2 stations should attempt to talk at the same time. Bus arbitration is another way of discussing how to control who is allowed to talk on the medium (and when).3i 10BaseT Twisted Pair 10Mps Baseband 100m IEEE 802. TCP/IP Ethernet-SNAP Frame type used on Appletalk (SubNet Access Protocol) The Source and Destination must have the same Ethernet Frame type in order to communicate. and can talk on it similar to a party line.Datagram based .3a 10Base2 Thin Coax 10Mbps Baseband 185m IEEE803b 10Broad36 Broadband 10 Mbps Broadband 3600m IEEE802.Error control . All stations share the same segment of cable. Hubs. This is the Collision Detect portion of CSMA/CD.Guaranteed delivery • • Ethernet Protocol The IEEE-802.3 Ethernet Types shown below: IEEE 802. Cabling Standards Cat 3.x & 2. If they don't hear carrier then they know that they can talk. a collision is detected. Put simply.Logical Connection .3 10Base5 Thick Coax 10Mbps Baseband 500m IEEE 802.3 10Base5 (Thick Coax) is used only as backbones to networks.01 Ethernet-802. on the same segment of cable.3e 1Base5 Star-LAN 1 Mbps Baseband 500m IEEE 802.12 & 4. Routers.Flow control .3 Frame type used on Netware 3.3 Protocol is based on the Xerox Network Standard (XNS) called Ethernet.Guaranteed delivery Acknowledged Connectionless Service .Error control .No guaranteed delivery Connection mode services . all stations. and both stations back off--for a random amount of time--before they try again. CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detect) Bus arbitration is performed on all versions of Ethernet using the CSMA / CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detect) protocol.No Error control . Backbones are lines that connect buildings & network equipment together (such as Bridges. etc. B-router.3 defines five media types of IEEE 802. then they know that someone else it talking on the wire. This is called the Carrier Sense portion of CSMA / CD.Flow control . 10Base5 is now being replaced by either Thin Coax or fibre optics. The IEEE802. Three types of services are provided by LLC: • Unacknowledged Connectionless Service . If they hear the carrier.3 Ethernet Media Types IEEE 802.No flow control .Datagram based .It is relieved for some details of link access by the MAC Layer LLC Services LLC handles methods of addressing across the medium and controlling data exchanged between two users.x (raw) Ethernet-II Frame type used on DEC.).3 Protocol is commonly called Ethernet but it is just one version. These are the four versions of the Ethernet frame: Ethernet-802.2 Frame type used on Netware 3. it is used to determine who's turn it is to talk.

Control Access Units (CAUs) and Lobe Access Modules (LAMs) Bridges. There are two channel. The system provide better efficiency in case of high load as compare 45 . the device must check for any such collision and by any detected (Collision detection). IEEE 802. Ethernet 802. All devices are equal status and can start transmitting any instant.4 (Token Bus) A combination of the Ethernet and touching system all the terminals are connected using one co-axial cable. must want.2. Ethernet 802. RJ11. The token passing makes a bus structure from a logical ring. Another advantage over Ethernet is the use of twisted pair which are cheaper than Co-axial. If the line is idle. Fiber Distributed Data Interchange (FDDI) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Ethernet and Token Rings Ethernet –CSMA/CD-IEEE8021. Only one signal may travel over the channel CBaseband communication) Speed-10 Mbps. waking it more cost effective. A double ring structure i.IBM Type 1-9 cabling standards EIA568A and 568B Ethernet cabling standards: IEEE 802. Hence is named as CSMA/CD. also known as DIX (DECIntel and DEC). IEEE 802. Routers. RS-232.e. forward and reverse. Switches LAN Protocols Ethernet frame types: Ethernet II. Therefore. The maximum data transmission rate would be as high as 16 Mbps.5 Token Ring The LAN structure in an improvement over CSMA/CD in case of heavy load as the reduction in performance is not as low as in the former. the terminal cannot transmit derives to arrive. Another limitation is the maximum distance between terminals is only 100 meter. of terminals. Gateways. a single cable connecting all devices in the network.2 TCP/IP. IPX/SPX. Hermaphroditic connectors. All terminals are connected in the ring like structure. SMB.3 (10Base5). re monitor and retransmit.3 standard equivalents to the ISO 8802/3 standards.3i (10BaseT) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Connectors: RJ45. there could be interference or mixing or collision of the data bits of one terminal with others. two concentric rings may be used to buffer the effect at some additional cost. The signal is reflected from one end and is re modulated and retransmitted over the channel. Print servers.e. If another device starts transmission at the same instance (Multiple Access).e. Unlike CSMA/CD. NetBIOS and NETBEUI. Broadband communication channel is used to facilitate transmission of different signals over the channel using varying frequency.5 Logical Link Control Layer (LLC) IEEE 802. Ethernet SNAP. there is a certain measure of chances which data is being transmitted regarding the actual transmission which depends on the availability of the time. The degradation in performance would be liner function of the no. resulting into much better length load efficiency then the IEEE 802.3a (10Base2). This type of access is called probabilistic on non-deterministic i.IEEE 802. a closed loop. i.3 Media Access Control layer (MAC layer) Token Ring: IBM and IEEE 802. 802. Brouters.BNC. TEE Hardware Devices Network Interface Cards (NICs) Repeaters Ethernet Hubs or multi port repeaters Token Ring Multi Station Access Units (MSAUs). A token which is a special bit sequence looping around the loop. The token is received and sent to the terminal on the network to it is addressed.3 the major drawback is in case any terminal fails the entire network breakdowns. The device continuously senses the channel (carrier sense).3-ISO 8802/3 & 7425 Created by Xerox and later developed in collaboration with Intel and DEC. it starts transmitting the data bits. It was later modified by IEEE to be known as IEEE. The maximum length of the connecting segment between two terminals could be 500 meters and each segment can support as much 100 terminals IEEE 802. It uses a Bus structure. This concludes there could be never be any collision and therefore incase of heavy traffic. DB-25. File servers.

However. 46 .to Ethernet and the wiring is easier than in ring. the signaling routines are more complicated and therefore are more expensive.

6kbps (unbalance). a public offering of X. Truck B is a smaller truck.25. There is a world-wide set of Public X. The transfer speeds are typically 56 kbps to 2.25 is an over 20 year old. the main X. Truck B makes better use of its weight when crossing the bridge (i. 64Kbps (balanced) X. X. established technology.21bis Leased Line Analog Interface V. it is more efficient). This means that it can carry up to 3 tons of cargo (data) across the bridge (medium).25.25 consists of the following layers: Data Link Layer Physical Layer Medium X.Chapter-11 X.25 Architecture OSI MODEL Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer SNIC Network Layer SNDC SNAC Data Link Layer Physical Layer Medium X. bandwidth File Server: large amount of data & real-time traffic (doesn't work well) Databases: usually large databases. X. It has a heavy "empty" weight of 5 tons (overhead). The Bridge (medium) only allows 6 tons of weight.25 Model Physical Layer Physical media specification Translation of bits to signal levels and vice versa Four type of specifications: X. This means that Truck A can only carry 1 Ton of cargo (i.25 INTERFACE X. it’s not as efficient). X. and weighs 3 tons empty. but queries are small inbound and medium size outbound.25 Networks. In Canada.25 has a high protocol overhead compared to other networks. it's possible for an organization to have its own private X.21 Sync Digital Interface 9.25 network is called Datapac. Thinnet and Thicknet). Overhead Example Truck A represents X.e.24 RS232 Leased Lines V.25 packet is carried on serial data lines. it utilizes its bandwidth better. Data Link Layer Framing of data bits Link Management 47 .08 Mbps. The X.e.25 is used to connect LANs together.25 network. data). X.25 network. This reduces the Transfer speed and bandwidth utilization (i. it is used for the following: Host terminal emulations: low data Client/Server applications such as E-mail: small files.e. There are many multi-vendor solutions: dissimilar technologies in an organization are allowed to access the X. You pay either a flat rate or by the packet. Due to its slow transfer speed.35 RS232 Duplex operation over Leased Lines It uses four flavors of medium (similar to the multiple Ethernet flavors: 10BaseT.25 is an analog packet switching network and it can be considered Slow Packet Switching.

The X.25 has a high overhead because it provides extensive error checking.096 Logical Channels available on a single physical connection to an X. Call Request . which can be terminals or LANs).096 logical channels to be connected on one physical connection. X.25 was first introduced.29 standard defines the End-to-End communications.25 packet is carried within the LAPB frame's info field: this is similar to how the LLC packet is carried within the MAC frame's info field Network Layer Subnet access Station addressing Address resolution Routing Protocols implemented PLP (Packet Layer Protocol). and uses up available bandwidth.096. or SNDCF (Sub network Dependant Convergence Function) X. X. Both are similar to IEEE-802. This slows down the transfer of information. There are two types of connection: SVC (Switched Virtual Circuit) Established on the request of DTE Terminate at the end of the call Resource available only for direction of call PVC (Permanent Virtual Circuit) Permanent logical connection between two DTE No need for connection establishment X.25 Network. 48 . The Logical Channel Numbers (LCN) is used to identify the connections to the Network.25 connects to the network using either a DCE modem or DSU/CSU (Data Service Unit/Channel Service Unit).25 provides a virtual circuit connection mode service by establishing end-to-end logical path using subnet.both sides communicating at the same time). the quality of the analog phone lines required this extensive error checking. LAPB is considered a subset of HDLC.25 network acknowledges every packet that's sent. The Packet Assembler/Disassembler (PAD) connects the DSU/CSU to the DTEs (user devices. Each device in the X.3 standard governs the operation of the PAD and the X.25 Packet Formats There are three X.Data control Data Packet .28 standard governs the operation of the PAD-to-terminal connection. The X. 16 x 256 = 4. from DTE-to-DTE through the X. When X.2 LLC (Logical Link Control).Call connection/disconnection Control Packet . The Logical Channels are divided into Groups and Channels. X. and provide 2-way communications.Information transfer Logical Channels There are 4.25 allows 4.Error-detection and recovery Protocols implemented LAPB (Link Access Procedure Balanced) HDLC (High Level Data Link Control) It uses HDLC & LAPB for the Data Link layer. The X. X.25 packet formats.25 network.25 uses IP network addresses and it's one of the reasons for the high overhead. There can be 16 groups (4 bits) of 256 channels (8 bits).25 SERVICES X. The B in LAPB stands for balanced communications (another way of saying Full-Duplex .

Facsimile Supplementary Services are options that are available with both bearer services and Teleservices. text or image on any of the user 64 kbps channels. The application of digital technology to the telephone of the world has yielded significant benefits by way of increased reliability and reduced operating cost. to any destination. Primary Rate Interface (PRI) consists of 23B + D channels. called the D-channel. ISDN is not concerned with user layers 4-7. Functions that are included in the physical layer are as follow: Channel management Frame structure Frame alignment 49 . Tele-service is composed higher layer function (Layer 4-7) and usually operates the standard Bearer services. which is known as ISDN.g. can be achieved by over the D-channel. or they can be dial on demand (DOD) lines. These are end-to-end layers employed by the user for exchange of information. has been the subject of standard work by CCITT and has the commitment of major Public Telecommunication authorities worldwide.5 second or so. so no new cabling is required. These channels are referred as B-Channels. computer data and other form digitized information.Chapter-12 ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) The Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a method used to bridge "the last mile" between the Central Office and the premise connection (home). and not when it is sitting idle. image or the mixture of these three. The Bearer channels can be bonded in any combination as required. Calls over these channels can be made simultaneously to different destinations and used for the transmission voice. text. This can result in a substantial cost saving if used over long distance (or paying by the minute). these standards apply to both types of channels. For example. ISDN Services There three types of telecommunication services are available to the ISDN user: Bearer Service is the network service (lower three layers). When the line is required. Because B and D channels are multiplexed over the same Physical Interface. which is used to set up and tear of call. the connection is dialed up and made. as available in Basic (B) or Primary (P) bundles from the major telecommunication authorities of the world. The 2B channels can be bonded together for a single data channel with a 128 kbps transfer rate. and is what the user encounters when attaching to ISDN at the plug-in-the-wall level. This stands for 23 Bearer channels of 64 kbps each for data and one D channel of 64 kbps for handshaking and control. This stands for 2 Bearer channels of 64 kbps each for data and one D channel of 16 kbps for handshaking and control. This class of telecommunication. E. As a network. with no restrictions on the traffic type.431. Types of call can be either circuit switched or packet switched. a 64 kbps circuit switched B-channel. Having a separate channel for handshaking and control is called "out of band" signaling. ISDN Channels ISDN supports user call of voice. ISDN uses the existing wiring. The connection time for an ISDN line is very quick. Furthermore these digital networks has enable the development of public services which can offer end-to-end switched transmission of integrated voice. For example. display of the calling party’s number on the incoming call. ISDN Physical Layer Physical Layer is defined in I. ISDN lines can be dedicated lines that are always up and connected. but the lower three OSI layers are applicable to ISDN. The network access is concerned only with layer 1 to 3. The line charges are only for when data is being transferred. ISDN Access Rates Basic Rate Interface (BRI) consists of 2B + D channels. The higher layers are covered by CCITT standards for other types of telecommunication services. ISDN Architecture The architecture of ISDN follows the OSI closely. Beside B-channel. there is another type of channel. in the order of 0.430 and I. specifies the Physical Interface for the both basic and primary access.

The standard is based on HDLC.identify type of connection Connection management .930 and the layer protocol is specified in Q.maintain connection . LAPD (Link Access Protocol D-Channel) has been defined and is specified by CCITT in Q.430 Basic Interface – I. It is has been tried.identify calling party . ISDN Disadvantages 50 . It has consistent transfer rates. modified to meet the ISDN requirements. tested and works It is governed by a world-wide set of standards It provides symmetrical transfer rates: the transmit rate is the same as the receive rate.921. If you have a 64kbps bearer channel then that's the speed that you transfer at.identify called party .25 Call Control Packet Level LAPD (Q.initiate connection .920 and Q.921) For Further Study Frame Relay X.release connection • ISDN Advantages ISDN is a mature technology. This layer performs following functions: Logical establishment of a link Detection of transmission error Error recovery Flow Control ISDN Network Layer The Network layer of ISDN is described in Q.Bit stream control Bit and octet timing D-Channel Connection Power transfer Bit transmission Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Q.25 Packet Level LAPB End-to-end User Signalling I. This protocol is meant to define.931. maintain and terminate network connections across an ISDN between communication entities. establish.431 Primary Interface Control Signalling Packet Telemetry Circuit Switched SemiPermanent B and H Channels Packet Switched D-Channel ISDN Data Link Layer For D-Channel a new Data Link Layer standard. All transmission on the D-Channel is form of LAPB frames that are exchanged between the subscriber equipment and an ISDN switching element. it has been around since the late 1980s. Following function are performed by this layer: • Signaling .931 X. It is competitive priced compared to other technologies.

51 .An external power supply is required. If the power fails. Special digital phones are required or a Terminal Adapter to talk to the existing POTS devices. It is very expensive to upgrade a central office switch. the phones won't work.

ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol. 52 . This protocol is implemented not only in the end system but also in the router. the suite can be broken into five relative layers: Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical Host-to-Host Internet Network Physical ICMP Application (PORT) HTTP (80) SNMP (161 162) TCP IP ARP Network Devices FTP (20 21) TFTP (69) SMTP (25 Telnet (23 NNTP (119) UDP OSI Reference Model and DoD TCP/IP Model Physical Layer This layer is concerned with the physical interface between DTE and the physical transmission media. This layer simply manages access and routing data across a network for two end systems connected to the same network IP Layer This layer manages data communication between two end systems attached to different networks. This is needed because the Network layer is not aware of the Data Link layer's addresses and vice versa. Its main job is to find the best route through the Internet to the destination.Chapter-13 TCP/IP Suite TCP/IP is one of the most commonly used network protocols. ping and traceroute. TCP/IP has become de-facto standard protocol architecture. Advantages if TCP/IP Lower technical risk and cost in case of migration Provided foundation stone for wide spread development of Internet. It also defines characteristics of transmission media such as signal level. Two common programs. IP (Internet Protocol) is used for this task. Thus divides the entire job broadly into to sections: First section IP deals with addressing aspect of network and station Second section TCP controls and provides reliable and error free transportation service. It was developed in 1970 by Department of Defense (DoD) as a strategy for connecting dissimilar networks. This layer provides the routing function across multiple networks. and is used mainly for troubleshooting TCP/IP network connections. It could be broken to two parts: ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol and it is used to map IP addresses to MAC addresses. It is specified in MILSTD-1777 document. Network Layer This layer controls the exchange of data packets between an end system and the network to which it is connected. Architecture of TCP/IP protocol suite Although there is no official TCP/IP architecture. on the basis of services provide by it. data rate etc. TCP/IP was an outcome of an experimental project over packet switched network research work named as ARPANET TCP/IP Approach The TCP/IP protocol suite sees that the job of communication is too complicate and diverse to be completed as single unit. Network Devices are network interface cards (NIC) and their software drivers are place in this layer. are part of ICMP.

the services provided by this layer are independent of nature of the application. shown in brackets next to the protocols. safer and error-free data transmission between source and destination stations. TFTP (69): Trivial File Transfer Protocol. Not present in Deliver primitive. Data Length: Length of the data that is transmitted Option data: Option flags such as security. Telnet (23): An application for remotely logging into a server across the network. SMTP (25): Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The Application layer includes many hundreds of network-aware programs and services such as the following: HTTP (80): HyperText Transport Protocol. Not present in Deliver primitive. IP address consists of a 32-bit global internet number. and the destination is considered unreachable. Application Layer This layer encapsulate the logic to support various user application such as file transfer. it is similar as OSI connectionless network protocol (CLNP). and is used to guarantee end to end delivery of segments of data. TCP and UDP use these port numbers to indicate where the segments should be sent. It uses IP addresses and the subnet mask to determine if the datagram is on a local or remote network. SNMP (161/162): Simple Network Management Protocol. to put out of order segments in order. This layer ensures complete. Data: User data to be transmitted IP Addresses The source and destination address field contains IP addresses. To accomplish this job it uses following protocols: TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. TCP is a connection-oriented service. the datagram is forwarded to the default gateway (which is a router that links to another network). Moreover. and the remaining portion the host (or local) computer’s address. source routing. Time to Live: Network hops count. which is used for transferring web pages. Functionally. NNTP (119): Network News Transfer Protocol. IP Services IP provides limited set services to TCP namely send and receive.Host-to-Host Layer It is also known as TCP Layer. FTP (20/21): File Transfer Protocol. UDP stands for User Datagram Protocol. It is used for reassembly and error-reporting. If the hop count exceeds 255 hops. Each transverse is called a hop. Both use following parameters: Source address: Address of the sender Destination Address: Address of the recipient Service Indicators: Flag indicating the treatment of data packet in its transmission through subnet Identifier: Unique identity to each data packet. The numbers. which is used for transferring email across the Internet. route recording. This results in a low overhead and fast transfer service (relies on the upper layer protocols to provide error checking and delivery of data). which is used for transferring news. which is a low overhead fast transfer FTP protocol. are called the well-known Port Numbers or Socket. 53 . Send primitive is use to transmit user data packets Deliver primitive is used to notify the arrival of data packet to the user. which is used for managing network devices. the datagram is removed. and is represented by the dot-decimal format. A portion of an IP address represents the network address. electronic mail etc. and is a connectionless service. which is used for transferring files across the network. timestamping. IP's name for the hop count is called Time to Live (TTL). If it is on the remote network. IP PROTOCOL The Network Layer protocol for TCP/IP is the Internet Protocol (IP). and to check for transmission errors. IP keeps track of the number of transverses through each router (that the datagram goes through to reach its destination).

54 .C. This encoding provided flexibility in assigning address to hosts and decides the network sizes on an internet. US Dept of Defense and AT&T. such as IBM. 142.0.0. An A class address.0. Each digit is allowed the range of 0 to 255. bits 1-7 are used as the network ID. Bits 16-31 are used as the host ID.237.0.0.0.0.0 to 255.237. Class C network addresses are assigned to small companies and local Internet providers. It refers to the same machine on which it is implemented. Reserved IP Addresses Name Loopback Subnet Mask IP Address 127.0.1 is an IP address of a computer.1 A. Class C addresses Class C addresses always have bits 0-2 set to 110.0. The host address of the firewall is 0.0. Class E Addresses IP addresses range from 240.110. This range corresponds to 8 bits (one byte) of information.0 to 239. Class D Addresses IP address range 224.1 Description This IP address is reserved for Loopback testing. different parts of the address show the network portion of address and the host address. Multicasting is a method of reducing network traffic (rather than send a separate datagram to each host if multiple hosts require the same information). bits 431 are used as the Multicast address. There are 4 decimal digits separated by three dots.The address is coded to allow variable allocation of bits to specify network and host. bits 8-31 are used as the host ID.110. Class A networks are used by very large companies. Class B addresses Class B addresses always have bit 0 and 1 set to 10. 0 10 Network (7-bits) Network (14-bits) Network (21-bits) Host (24 bits) Host (16 bits) Host (8 bits) Class A Class B Class C Class D 110 1110 Multicast Address (31-bits) For example.0. Bits 2-15 are used as the network ID. Following table lists the three classes of IP addresses. Depending upon the class.0 (Note: IP addresses that end in a 0 represent network addresses). Bits 25-31 are used as the host ID.0. Each host on the network and Internet must have a unique IP address. Class D network addresses are used by multicasting. Class B networks are assigned to large companies and universities. Class D addresses always have bits 0-3 set to 1110.1 (Note: the network portion of the IP address is represented by 0s).0. as shown in following diagram. It is the first address of the network and is typically used for the router address.0. number of networks and host that are available on each class Network Class Address in First Field Number of Networks Number of Hosts A 1-126 B 128-191 C 192-223 D 224-239 E 240-255 There are several classifications of IP addresses: they purpose addresses. Bits 3-24 are used as the network ID. It is reserved by the Internet for its own use. 126 16777214 16384 65534 2097152 254 include network addresses and special Class A addresses Class A addresses always have bit 0 set to 0.B. There are three main class of IP address. The network that the computer resides on is 142.

255. The destination TCP layer keeps track of the received segments and places them in the proper order (re-sequences).255.B. UDP relies on the upper layer protocol for both error correction and reliable service. Segment is the term that is used to describe the data that is transmitted and received at the Transport level of the OSI model (i. ICMP is an integral part of IP and its messages are encapsulated within an IP datagram. UDP hosts service that operates at the Transport layer of the OSI model.200. 55 . UDP routes the datagram to the correct application. For example.B.255.0 A.Network Number IP Broadcast A. Error checking Segments are checked for data integrity when received using a 32 bit CRC check. 192. TCP also redirects the data to the appropriate port (upper level service) that is required.C.100 is the host address. UDP Protocol The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a connectionless host. The reliable end-to-end delivery of data is accomplished by the following: Connection-oriented service Segments are acknowledged to the source when received by the destination. the following subnet masks are applied: Class A Class B Class C 255. Agents and Managers. ICMP The job of the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is to report errors that may have occurred in processing IP datagrams. ARP provides the mechanism to map MAC addresses to IP addresses in a temporary memory space called the ARP cache.B. you may have many users (clients) connected to a single web server (http is normally port 80). For example.255.0. The ARP cache is a dynamic cache and the information is stored only for 120 seconds (then it is discarded).0. ARP Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) resides in the bottom half of the Network layer. Each client will have a unique Port number assigned (typically above 8000) but the web server will only use Port 80.0 255. UDP has a small header and for all intents and purposes it adds Port addressing to the IP header.200 is the network address and 102. The destination will timeout and request that all segments starting at the lost segment be retransmitted. The redirection of data to the upper level service is accomplished by using Source and Destination Port numbers.100 with the subnet mask 255. Multiple connections to the same service are allowed.0. A sliding window is used to enable unacknowledged segments on the "wire" in order to speed up transmission rates Sequencing of segments Data is broken up into segments that are numbered (sequenced) when transmitted. user selects the octet or octets to identify the network address.0 to A. The IP header routes datagrams to the correct host on the network. using Ports 161(SNMP) and 162 (SNMPTRAP). where TCP resides). SNMP SNMP is not actually a protocol: it's a client server application that runs on the UDP (User Datagram Protocol) service of the TCP/IP protocol suite.255 This is used for broadcasting purposes. Requesting retransmission of lost data If a segment is lost in transmission (missing sequence number). It can be considered a mechanism for mapping addresses between the Network logical addresses and MAC (Media Access Control) layer physical addresses.0.e.0 By using 255. SNMP consists of three parts: Messages. By default.C. It was developed to be an efficient means of sending network management information over UDP.0 255.B. The protocol is transaction oriented and delivery and duplicate protection are not guaranteed. TCP Protocol The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is responsible for reliable end-to-end delivery (segments of information).C. The major uses of this protocol are DNS and TFTP.255 This address is used to define the range of network to the router starting from A.102. in the Class B IP network address 192.C.0. It is a C class address SUBNET MASK The subnet mask is used to specify which part of the IP address is the network address and which part is the host address.

SNMP Managers asks the questions (polls) and manages the Agents approximately every 15 minutes to see if anything has changed. hubs.. servers. 56 .SNMP Messages (such as Get and GetResponse) communicate the management information. SNMP Agents are resources to be managed such as hosts. etc.. routers..

All the stations maintain two timers: Token Rotation Timer (TRT) and Token Holding Timer (THT). Priority Management The synchronous data gets the top priority. ring monitoring. Optical fibre as transmission media in a LAN enjoys several advantages over copper media. It is thinner. Ring Management The Ring Management function includes ring initialization.Chapter-14 FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) The Fibre Distributed Data Interface is the LAN based on the optical fibre as the transmission media. the synchronous data us transmitted up to the allotted time and then asynchronous data is transmitted till expiry of THT. Traffic Control FDDI controls the traffic in such a way that the token is rotated round the ring once in the Target Token Rotation Time (TTRT). The station send claim token frames indicating the required TTRT values. These functions are also implemented in FDDI ring. and token monitoring.2 LLC sublayer allowing to be integrated easily with other LAN standards. total time for transmitting synchronous and some asynchronous data by all the station is less than TTRT. The allocation of ring bandwidth for synchronous transmissions is done mutually by all stations Asynchronous services This type of service provides dynamic bandwidth and is suitable for heavy traffic and interactive application. The ring initialization function also involves allocation of synchronous bandwidth to each station FDDI Physical Layer Specification The FDDI standard specifies a ring topology operating at 100 Mbps. Unused synchronous bandwidth is transferred for asynchronous transmissions. Two media are as given below: Transmission Medium Data Rates (Mbps): Max of No. It has ring topology and 1000 stations can be connected on the ring. It operates under IEEE 802. FDDI was originally developed as back-end network interconnecting several hosts and high speed peripherals. only the synchronous data is transmitted for the allotted time and the token is released thereafter. First. For the asynchronous data. The maximum token rotation time can be 2 X TTRT beyond which a corrective action is required. If the token arrives late. Its potential bandwidth is immense. lighter in weight It is immune to electromagnetic interface Type of Services FDDI LANs provides two types of services: Synchronous services These type of services is for real time application in which bandwidth and response time are critical parameter and predictable. an optional priority scheme with eight levels of priorities is implemented. If the token arrives earlier than TTRT at a station. In other words. of Repeaters: Max length between Repeaters: Optical Fibre 100 100 2 KM Twisted Pair 100 100 100 M 57 . This standard is developed by ANSI. The station with the lowest TTRT wins and claims the token. The token is released immediately thereafter for the next station. It can also be used as a backbone network interconnecting several front-end LANs. the left over time is transferred to the THT.

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