# MULTIPHASE FLOW

__ ' Successfully Specify

Three-Phase ron Separators

~AL ' PC.;

s, but if ! tillation

) III and t tn fact, ,I ularlon ,

means )r you.

: simuI-to-PC TS can neans 11 over

relied 1984.

dtions (arion lj223.) '11 find \0 III.

lOW!

B

~E PC ~

l-4099

77042

,b .'316

10789 Here is a stepwise procedure for

designing liquid/liquid/vapor

separators.

Wayne D. Monnery and William Y. Svrcek,

University of Calgary

It is often necessary t(l separate two immiscible liquids. the light and heavy phases. and a vapor. A typical example in petroleum I'd! ui ng is the separation of water, and a hydrocarbon liquid and vapor. Little has been published on three-phase (liquid/liquid/vapor) separation, with most information available only in

corporate design files. This article attempts to alleviate th is situation by coveri ng the basics of three-phase separator design. The authors provide a Step-by-Step proccdu rc and worked out examples, Further. the examples offer guidance on making assumptions for the calculations.

Selecting three-phase separators

As with two-phase designs, threephase units can be either vertical or horizontal, although they typically are horizontal (see Figures I and 2). The vcrtical orientation, Figure I, is only used if there is a large amount of vapor to be separated from a small amount of the light and heavy liquid « I 0-209'e by weight), Unfortunately, there are no simple rules for separator selection. Sometimes, both configurations should be evaluated to decide which is more economical. Further, the available plot space (footprint) may be a factor.

The design of three-phase separators is similar to their two-phase counterparts, except that the liquid section differs. For the vertical type, a baffle commonly keeps the liquid separation

section cal III III promote the scparution.

There are different variations of horizontal three-phase vapor-liquid separators, The liquid separation section is usually a variation of a device to prov ide i ntcrface level control. which III a \"

include a boot or a weir, A boot typically is speci tied when the volume of heavy liquid is not substantial « 15<WQ of total liquid by weight I. while a weir is used when the volume is substunrial, These horizontal separators are illustrated in Figure 2. The bucker-and-wei I' type design is used \\ hen interface level control may be difficult. such as with heavy oils or when large amounts of an emulsion or a paraffin are present ( 1 t.

Stokes' law applies

Separating a vapor from a light liquid (two-phase separation) has been covered in a previous article (] J and will not be discussed here. However, all necessary information for performing this part of the calculation is provided here. The tollowing discussion CO\HS the separation of light and heavy liquids.

The flow of rising I ighl droplets in the heavy liquid phase \11" settling heavy droplets in the light liquid phase is considered laminar and is governed by Stokes' law:

(I)

where 1,488 converts viscosity of the

• SEPTEMBER 1994 • 29

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l l MULTIPHASE FLOW

Baffle to provide calming zone is recommended

Sect jon A-A

Vapor nozzle T

vent

Feed nozzle

Maximum liquid level

H" Surge

1, Heavy liquid nozzle

iii Figure 1. Vertical three-phase separators are used with high vapor loadings.

continuous phase fromlb/(ft)(s) to cP Simplifying Eq. I and converting the units of the terminal settling velocity to in.lmin from ft/s results in:

(2) where D" is in microns (I micron = 3.28084 x 106 feet) and Up in.lmin.

Eq, 2 may be rewritten as:

where

ks == 2.06151 X 1O-5D~.

Values of ks are given for some systems in Table I.

From Eqs. 1-3, it can be seen that the settling velocity of a droplet is inversely proportional to the viscosity of the continuous phase. Hence, it

is more difficult (requires more time) to settle the droplets out of the continuous phase with the greater viscosity. since UT is lower. Practically speaking. UT is typically limited in c al cu l a t i o n s to 10 in./min maximum.

For vertical separators, the diameter required for vapor disengagement is calculated as in our previous article (2). In sizing a separator, the heights of the light and heavy liquids are assumed. and the settling velocities and settling times are then calculated.

The residence times of the light and heavy liquids are determined next. For the liquids to separate. the residence time of the light liquid must be greater than the time required for the heavy droplets to settle out of the light liquid phase; and the residence time of the heavy liquid must be greater than the time required for the light liquid droplets to rise out of the heavy liquid phase. If these conditions are not satisfied, then liquid separation is controlling and the vessel diameter must be increased.

Holdup time for liquids must be added to residence time. The height of the vertical three-phase separator is calculated in the same manner as for the twophase case.

For horizontal separators with . given diameter, the heights of the ligh~ and heavy liquids are assumed so that the cross-sectional area can be calcu_ luted, With the vapor disengagemem area set by guidelines, the length~ required by holdup requirements and vapor/liquid separation are calculated. Then. with the assumed heights of the light and heavy liquids and calculated values of settling velocities. the settling times are calculated.

The actual residence times for the light and heavy liquids are subsequently calculated and compared with the required settling times. as in the vertical case. If the residence times are not greater than the required settling times, then either the diameter should be increased or. for a given diameter, the length should be increased (liquid separation is controlling). In the subsequent design procedures, the latter approach is used. along with the procedures discussed in our previous paper for vapor/liquid separation (2).

The following design procedures and heuristics are a result of a review of literature sources and accepted industrial design guidelines. Horizontal design procedures are presented for the four separator types shown in Figure 2. The horizontal design procedures incorporate optimizing the diameter and length by minimizing the approximate weight of the shell and heads. To add a degree of conservatism to the design, the volume available in the heads is ignored.

Table 1. Typical values of ks for ;;;:7; liquid-liquid separations.

**Light Phase Heavy Phase Minimum ks
**

droelet dia., Jim

Hydrocarbons ,

Sa at 60°F < 0.85 Water or caustic 127 0.333

Sa at 60°F < 0.85 Water or caustic 89 0.163

Water Furfural 89 0.163

M ethylethyl ketone Water 89 0.163

sec-Butyl alcohol Water 89 0.163

Methyl isobutyl ketone Water 89 0.163

Nonyl alcohol Water 89 0.163 - .....

(3)

·S with a ,f the light cd so that be calcu_ !agemenl : lengths rents and dculated. Hs of the Ilculated the set-

i for the

subse-

red with

s III the

e times

red set-

rameter

; given

lid be

.s con-

deSign

ach is .,

es dis-

T for edures 'eview .epted 'lines. e pretypes rental

opti. .h by eight ~gree . vol.ired,

I

's

33 53 33 53 ;3 i3 i3

1. Interface control Feed

Min. 12in.!

Hv t

HLL Min. 12 in.

1---1--,-...,.LL Holdup/surge

Light liquid

Interface Heavy liquid

Ught liquid outlet

Heavy liquid outlet

I+-----~ 0 -----+1 N'!~

2, Interface control with boot Feed inlet --l NI<=-

-r

o

- HLL

-+~=-----l~:;::::-~~ - NLL

- LLL

3. Interface control with weir

Feed

(6)

If there is a mist eliminator, add 3-6 in. to D .. /o to accommodate a support ring and round up to the next 6-in, increment to obtain D: if there is no mist eliminator, D = D"'D'

4, Calculate the setting velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid using Stokes' law (the maximum is 10 in.lmin):

4. Bucket and weir

Feed

Heavy Light

liquid liquid

outlet outlet

-~I N -I N I+--

L) ..- L2-

Min. N + 6 in,

0.60

Heavy Light

liquid liquid

outlet outlet

t., L;1L;j~

Note: N = 1/2 dN + 6 in.

I 1-------- L ------ dN= Nozzle dia.

L_ ~~

Heavy liquid outlet

• Figure 2. Basic designs of horizontal three-phase separators.

Vertical design procedure Refer to Figure I for dimensions:

L Calculate the vertical terminal vapor velocity:

J

Ur=K(PL-PV)1/2 (4)

Pl'

Calculate the K value, using :,.n:: 'of the methods in Table 2 and set Uv = 0.75Ur for a conservative design.

2. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate:

Wv Qv = 3,600pv

3. Calculate the vessel internal

diameter, DVD:

_ (4Ql,,)'f2

DVD - 11

TCu\ .

U - ksCPH - PL) (7)

HI. - ~L

where ks is obtained from Table I or is calculated (see Eq. 3).

(5)

5. Similarly. calculate the rising velocity of the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase using Stokes' law:

U - kS<PH - PI) (8)

LIi - IlH

6. Calculate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rates, QLL and QHL:

WLL QLL = 60PL

WtL QHL = 60PH

7, Assume HI. = 1 ft (minimum) and calculate the settling time for the

(9)

(10)

____________________ -=:.CH..::E:.:.:.M:;.:IC:.:_:A::.L ::.EN.:_:G:..::IN.:_:E:..::E:_::RI.:..:.NG::.:PROGRESS • SEPTEMBER 1994 • 31

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MULTIPHASE FLOW

Table 2. Separator Kvalues.

York Demister

1 ~ P~ 15 K = 0.1821 + 0.0029P+ 0.0460 In(p)

15::;; P~ 40 K" 0.35

40 s P s 5,500 K = 0,430 - 0.023 In r P)

where P is in psia,

f

Gas Processors Suppliers' Association

0::;; es 1,500 K" 0.35 - 0,0001[p- 100)

A _ (7.48 gal)(60 min)(( Qu + QHL})

D- fe h G

• Equation 13

U - 0313 /53.95 - 0.6973 ? 74 fl

r -. V 0.6973 = _. t S

• Equation EJ

Q, = 415,000 Ib/h = 165.32 ftJ/s

~ 3,600 slh X 0.6973 Ib/fe

• Equation E2

n - J 4 X 16532 fp/s = 10 13 ft

'--'"V/J - rt 2.05 ftls .

• Equation E3

V" 8.411 - 2.243x + O.273xl - 1.865 X 101x3 + 5.201 X 10·4X<

Q = 16,50001blh = 5,10 ft3/min

u. 60 minlh X 53.95 Ib/fe

For most vapors under vacuum, K = 0.20

For glycol and amine solutions, multiply K by 0.6-0.8 For vertical vessels without dernisters. divide Kby 2

For compressor suction scrubbers, mote sieve scrubbers and expander inlet separators, multiply Kby 0.7-0.8 where P is in psiq,

where Op is in ft.

Note: I micron" 3.28084 x 106 ft

heavy liquid droplets to settle through this distance (I:?: is a conversion factor for ft to in.):

12HL tHL=-U HL

8. Assume HH "" I ft (minimum) and calculate the settling time for the light liquid droplets to rise through this distance:

(II )

," '" ~~ j

(12)

Q - 1,3001b/h _ 0 35 ft31 .

HL -. 1 -. mm

60 min/h X 62.11 lb/ft

• Equation E5

height) based on the required holdur time:

H - QUTH R- AL

Check this value with that assumed in Step 9b to ensure that the assumed value is reasonable. If surge is no! specified, calculate the surge heigh! based on surge time:

( 15

( 16)

Theoretical (nC) mist ellminater]

where Op is in ft.

CD = exp(y)

12HH tLH= ULH

9. If there is a baffle plate, calculate the area:

a. Calculate (PL· Pv)'

b. Assume HR (use 9 in, as a minimum) and calculate HL + HR'

c. Use Figure 3 to obtain G,

d. Calculate AD:

See Eq. (13) in the box, e. Assume W D = 4 in, r, Calculate W[; ID.

• Equation E4

g. Use Table 3 to determine AI) IA.

h. Calculate A~ (rr/4)DC,

i. Calculate Af).

j. Select the larger value of AD'

k, Calculate the area of the baffle plate = settling area for the light liquid; At. ~ A - AD'

10. Calculate the residence time of each phase based on the volumes occupied by the light and heavy phases:

Su = d~L (l4a)

SHL = HQHAH (l4b)

HL

If eLL < tHL or eHL < fut, increase the diameter and repeat the procedure from Step 7 (liquid separation is controlling). Note that AH = A.

11. Calculate the height of the light liquid above the outlet (holdup

The minimum is 6 in,

12. Calculate the vessel heigh! using the guidelines:

H~ = 6 in. minimum,

H8N = 1/2 d,v + greater of (2 ft or H; + 0.5 ft).

HD = O,SD or a minimum of:

36 in, + 1/2d,v (without mist eliminator), or

24 in, + 1/2dN (with mist eliminator):

32 • SEPTEMBER 1994. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

~--------------~ ... = ... ~ .. =- .. ~.~ .. = ... =.= .. ~.= .... = .... =.= .. -= ... ~.~~=---~~~~--~

)

4 ft/s

ft

.! 'ioldup

.issumed rssumed ~ is not : height

height 7

ft or Hs

f: -..-~

t mist

inator): ( 15)

( 16)

Table 3.·Cylindrlcal height and area conversions.

11,000

'" 10,000

~

Q_

OJ

:i

0 9,000

""

c

5

0

-0

Q)

15 8,000

'"

5

_Q

<0

t')'

7,000

6,000

15 High liquid level above interface

20

25

~30in.

27 in.

24 in.

a + ex + ex2 + gr + ix4 y == 1.0 + bx + dx' + tr + hx'

H/D to A/AT'" ,. 0: A/Ar xo:HID

a 0: -1.755930 x 10·j "'" 3.9~4091

c: '" 0.174875

d '" -6.358805

e '" 5.668973

I> 4.018448

s '" -I.9ItHll

Ir '" -1.801705

i '" -0.145348

AI.4rto HID* v '" lflD

x'" A/.-Ir

" = 0.0015.'756 ,,= ~6.7S7!OI r = J.299201

d = -22,l)~.-:'931 c = ~-.t35:'51 R

· '" -1-1 . .:\-11824

· = -36.9<)937(,

· = IIU:95n 1 = I.}_Xt)~;-;.51

'" Or equivalent cxprc-vion». such '" H,/l) [11,'\,1.·',.

Hr = HI/ '0 Ii, + HR + Hl + HIJ.\ +

H" (17)

If a mist climinaror pad is used, additional height is added as shown in Figure l.

Example 1

Size a \eni.:,,1 separator with a bafHe plate and \\ ire-mesh mist el iminator to separate tilt: mixture given in Tabl ... -L TIll' operating pressure is 165 psia, and it i, necessary to have a hydrocarbon liquid holdup time of 25 min and a surge ti me of only 5 rni n.

1. Calculate the vertical terminal velocity. Using Table 1. calculate K llsing the York Demister equations. see Eq. E I in the box.

and VI",,- 0.75 x 1.74""- 1.05 ft/s.

l8in.

2. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate. see Eq. E2 in the box.

3. Calculate the vessel inner diarneter. see Eq. E3 in the box.

Use /) = 10.5 ft.

4. Calculate the settling velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase. Using Table I. k\ :::: 0.163. Then:

Vif/. :::: 0.163(62.11 - 53.95 )10.630 :::: 2.11 in./mi n

5. Calculate the settling velocity of the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase:

V'I! = 0.163(62.11 -5~.Y5)/O.764 :::: ! .74 in/min

6. Calculate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rates. see Eq. E4 and E5 in the box.

7. Assume HI. :::: I ft and calculate the time for the heavy liquid to settle out of the light liquid phase:

till. :::: (11) (1.0) 12.11 = 5.7 min

8. Assume Hf[ :::: I ft and calculate

21 in.

30

35

40

45

50

• Figure 3. G is ./iJIIIIdjroIII tlu: downcouter allowable flow.

**Table 4. Data for Example 1.
**

Mass Flow, Ib/h p.lb/ttl ~, cP

Hydrocarbon Gas Wy= 415,000 py= 0.6973 -

Hydrocarbon Liquid W(l = 16,500 PL = 53.95 ~l = 0.630

Water W" = 1.300 PH = 62.11 )1_ = 0.764 the time for the I ight liquid to rise out of the heavy liquid phase: tll/=(12)(1.0) 11.74:::: 6.9 min 9. Calculate

the baffle pl.ue area:

P,. - PI :::: 53.95 - 0.6973 = 53.25 lb/ft'

• Assume H/( = 12 in .. H/_ + HI! = 24 in. Using Figure 3. G = 9.800 gph/ft-.

AI):::: (7,48 gal/tV)(60 min/h) (5.10 + 0.35)( ft' )/9.800 gph/ft ' = 0.25 ft:

• Assume Wf) '" 4 in.:

WilD = 4/( 12 x 10.5) = 0.0317

Table 5. Inlet nozzle sizing.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS • SEPTEMBER 1994 • 33

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MUlTIPHASE FLOW

Table 6, Liquid holdup and surge times,

Service

Holdup lime, min (NLL-LLL)

Surge time, min (NLL-HLLJ

A. Unit feed drum

10

5

B. Separators

I. Feed to column

2. Feed to other drum or tankage

a. With pump or through exchanger

b. Without pump

3, Feed to fired he arer

5

3

5 2 10

2 1 3

C. Reflux or product accumulator

I. Reflux only 3 2

2. Reflux and product 3+ 2t

(Based on reflux (3 min) plus appropriate holdup time of overhead

product (as per 8 1- 3)

O. Column bottoms

1, Feed to another column 5 2

2. Feed to other drum or tankage

a) With pump or through exchanger 5 2

bl Without pump 2 1

3. feed to fired reb oiler 5-8 2-4

(Based on reboiler vapor expressed as liquid (3 min) plus appropriate holdup

time torthe bottom product(as per 01,2)

E. Compressor suction/interstage scrubber

3 min between HLL (high liquid alarm) and high level shutdown 10 min from bottom tangent line to high liquid alarm

F. Fuel gas knock-out drum

20 ft. slug in the incoming fuel gas line between NLL and high 18vel shutdown

G. Flare Knock-out drum 20 to 30 min to HLL

Multiplv by the following factors (optional):

Personnel

Instrumentation

Factor

Factor

Experienced

Well Instrumented

1.0

1.0

Trained

Standard Instrumented

1.2

1.2

Inexperienced

Poorly Instrumented

1.5

1.5

16,500 . 1,300 6 4 lb e

PL;:: 17,800 X 53.95 + 17,800 X 2.1 I ;:: 5 .55 I t

• Equation E6

( lV)

d ~ 4 X 165.41 - :::: 1.73 ft

tV 60 rr/ ';0_730

• Equation E7

34 • SEPTEMBER 1994. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

sc » ;::,.t.t" I tMlSt:N 1~:;1q.· l".nl:.lYlIl".ofllL CUIUllvt:t:.nu"u r n~_~',l1 .. _~~

.. d. _~_ .. ~ '-"-' - __ . 7_'- __ C

-~---

• Using Table J_ At/A ::0 0_00\ A ::0 (rrf.il( 10_5 tW::o 86.59 tF AIJ =: (0_0095) (86_59 tF) ::0 0) • Use At) =: 0.82 ft'.

A{ '" 86.59 - 0.82 ::0 85,77 ft' 10. Calculate the residence tin

each phase:

eu =: t 1.0 ft) (85_77 ft2)/: ftJ/min = 16.8 min

BilL ::0 (1.0 ft) (86.59 rn/( f(.l/min =: 2-1.7A min

Ll. Calculate the height of the I liquid above the outlet, based holdup:

HR "" (SolO ftJ/min) (25 rnin)/85 ft~ = !.5 ft

Hs '" (5.10 + 0.35)(ft·'(min) min)/86,59 ftc = 0.31 ft

Use lis = 0.5 fL

12. Calculate _ d\. according Table 5:

A= QL'(Q{_ + Qr) = (5.10 0.35)/( 5.10 + 0.35 + 165.32 x 6(J, 0.0006

Use Eq. E6 (see box) to calcula

Pl.'

P.lI = PLA+ Pl{ I - l.j = (5-1..5, (0.0006) + (0.6973) (I - 0.0006) 0,7)0

Q.lf = 165.32 + (5. I 0 + 0.35)/60 165.41 f[l/s

Use Eq. E7 (see box) to calculate d d,v 2 2l in.: use d.\. = 2--1. il Calculate HI>:

HI) = 0.5 (10.5) = 5_25 ft or

HI) = 24 + 2-W ;::: 36 in, = 3_0 I (minimum)

Use HD = 5.5 ft. From Figure 1. HI = 1 ft and s = 0.5 ft. Calculate H BY:

HBx = 1/2 (2.0 ft) + 2 ft = 3 ft

Set H4 = 0.5 ft. Final dimensions:

D ;::: 10.5 ft, HH = La ft. HL ;::: 1.0 ft. HR = 1.5 ft. H,4 = 0.5 ft, HaN = },O ft. and Ho = 5_5 ft. Add 1.5 ft for the .nist eliminator.

Hr=14_0ft

H/D = 14_0/10.5 = 1.3

Add 2 ft to Hr (HR = 2.0 ft, HD ;::: 7.0 ft) so that HID = 1.52 (HID should be in the range of 1.5 to 6.0).

Horizontal design procedure: no boot or weir

1. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate, Qv' using Eq. 5.

= 0.0095: 1.59 n~

~) '" 0.82 ft2

77 ft~

nee time of

7 ft~)15.J()

ifthe li<Tht based ~11

nin)/85.77

'rding to

(5.10 + x 6() '"

calculate

(54.55) 00(6) =

15)/60 ==

ulate d,\ .. 24 In.

= 3.0 ft

'e 1, n, H8x:

t isions: 1.0 ft, 3.0 ft, ie mist

Ire:

tetric

2. CI;,ulate the light and heavy liquid \"Iunwtrie llow rates. Qu and QIII' u~illg Eqs.1.) and 10.

3. Culculatc the vertical terminal \t::'h,c:ily. C'p llsing Eq, 4. (select a K \,lIu,' [rom Tahle 2) and set UI == -,;Ur·

4. Select holdup and surge times rrorn Table 6 and calculate the holdup .uu] surge volumes, VII and V'i' (unless -urge is otherwise specified. such as a ~ll1g volume):

(19 )

5. Obtain an un from Table 7 ami

initiull , calculate the diameter

according to:

Calculate the total cross-sectional

IT.D~ Ar::::-~

~

(21 )

6. Set the vapor space height. H,. to the larger of 0.20 or 2 It: I ft if there is 110 mist eliminator. Using H/D in Table J, obtain A/AT and calculate AI'

7. Set the heights of the heavy and light liquids. Hili. and n.;

8. Find (Alii. + Au_)lAr. using (Hm. + Hu)lD in Table 3, and calculate Alii. + Au..

9. Calculate the minimum length to ncconunodate the liquid holdup/surge:

L:::: VII +Vs

~ Ar-A,.-(AfII+Au.) (22)

10. Calculate the liquid dropout time:

.(23)

,

1

L

11. Calcu late the actual vapor

O<P:5250 250 < P<500 500 < P

1.5-3.0 3.0-4.0 4.0-6.0

velocity:

12. Calculate the minimum length rcqui red for vapor/liquid separation:

L,II.\ '" Uu <jJ

13. If L < L,II\' then set L '" L'I/\ (here. vapor/liquid separation COIltrols). This simply results in some extra holdup and residence time. If 1_ « LI/I.\, then increase Hi" and recalculate A I" and repeat. starti ng from Step 9. [I' L > L11/.\' the design i, acceptable for vapor/liquid separation. If L » L'I/\ (liquid holdup controis). L can only be reduced and L'I/\ increased if H, is reduced. H\" ma~ only be reduced if it is greater than the minimum specified in Step 6. (With reduced HI' recalculate ,·1, and repeat the procedure from Step 9.) Note: For this and other calculations. "much greater than" (») and "much less than" «<) mean a variance of greater than 2()'It.

14. Calculate the settl ing velocities of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase and the light I iquid out of the heavy liquid phase, UN1. and UU/' using Eqs. 7 and 8 (find k~ from Table I J.

15. Calculate the settling times of the heavy liquid out of the light phase and the light liquid out of the heavy phase:

(27)

16. Calculate the residence times of the light and heavy liquids:

(28)

( A I - A, - A /I/)L t 2lJ I 8/1 = ----,::-----

. Qu

17. I I' 9/11 < t'li or 8, I. < till then increase the vessel length (I iquid <cparution controls):

L :::: mai lu:\QIII., [/lIQU

'III. (A - A - -\ )

I ,. III.

130)

IS. Calculate UD. If UD « 1.5. decrease [) (unlc-s it is already at i t~ miuimum i. and if llf) » 6.0 then increase D: repeat from Step 5.

19. Calculate the thickness of the shell and he-ads ,k'cording l,) Table X. 20. Culculate surface area of the shell and heads according to Table' X. 21. Calculate the approximate vessel weight according to Table 8.

22. Increase or decrease the \"6sel diameter by 6-in. increments and repeat the calculations until the Uf) ratio range, from 1.5-6.0.

23. Usillt" the optimum vessel ,i/.e (minimum weight i. calculate the 11\'1'mal and hit"h liquid levels:

(.II)

Obtain H \/.1. Llsing Table' .') with the val ue of A .\//..1 J"'

Horizontal design procedure: heavy liquid boot

1. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate, Q\ -, using Eq. 5.

2. Calculate the,jignt and heavy liquid volumetric m~w rates. Qu. and QIII.' per Eqs. 9 and 10.

3. Calculate the vertical terminal velocity, Ur. using Eq, 4 (the K value comes from Table 2) and set VI" = 0.75 UT.

4. Select holdup and surge times from Table 6 and calculate the holdup and surge volumes. VII and Vs' from Eqs. 18 and 19 (unless surge is other-

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS • SEPTEMBER 1994 • 35

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MULTIPHASE FLOW

------ ..

wise specified. such as slug volume). 5. Obtain un from Table 7 and initially set the diameter according to:

D J -+(~ + vn)II.1 ~ Q,6rr( L'D}

( 33)

Theil calculate the total cross-sectional area, ,-\ t , using Eq, 2 I.

6. Set the vapor space height. HI' to the larger of O.2D or 2 ft I I ft i r there is no mist eliminator). Using H/D in Table 3. obtain A/A/and calculate AI"

7. Set tile light liquid heights in the vessel and boot. HU.I' and H LIB'

8, Calculate the cross-sectional area of the light liquid above the bottom of the vessel, Aux. using HwlD in Table 3.

9. Calculate the minimum length to accommodate the liquid holdup/surge:

L = FH +V\. (34)

AT-'-\l-Aux

10. Calculate the liquid dropout time, $. using Eq. 23.

11. Calculate the actual vapor velocity, u.; using Eq. 24.

12. Calculate the mini mum length required for liquid/vapor separation, [\IIY' using Eq. 25,

13. If L < Llux' then set L = L,tll\' (vapor/liquid separation controls). This simply results in some extra holdup and residence time, If L «L,ll/x, then increase Hvand recalculate A r- then repeat from Step 9. If L > L,lllN' the design is acceptable for vapor/liquid separation. If L » Ll//y• liquid holdup controls. L c:th unly be reduced and L\fI.\' increased if HI' is reduced, HI' may only be reduced if it is greater than the minimum specified in Step 6.

With reduced Hv, recalculate A\, and repeat from Step 9.

14. Calculate the settling velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase, UHL, using Eq. 7 (obtain ks from Tab1e I),

15, Calculate the settling time of

Shell

PD

2SE - 1.2P +tc

ROL

PD

2:1 Elliptical Heads

2SE - 0.2P +tc

1.09 02

PD

Hemispherical Heads

4SE-OAP +tc

1.57101

Dished Heads

O.885PD +t SE-O.IP c

0,84202

Approximate Vessel Weight

tV - (490 Ib V ( V ?A) • - ~ f T2f\Ash,/I+ - HeM

Notes: The design pressure, P, is typically either the operating pressure with 15 to 30 psi adccd to it or the operating pressure + 10%, whichever is greater, For the allowable stress, S, see Reference (3). The ioint efficiency. E, ranges from 0.6 to I; use 0.85 for spot-examined joints, :nd 1 for 100% X-raved joints, The corrosion allowance, te, typically ranges from 1/,0 to ,;, in. The vs sssl thickness, t, is the larger of ts and IH up to the nearest It, in.

the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase:

16. Calculate the residence time of the light liquid:

(\6)

Note: This volume of light liquid ignores the light liquid volume in the boot.

17. If eLL < tHL then increase the vessel length (liquid separation C'Jntrols):

(37 )

18. Calculate .. UD. If UD « 1.5 then decrease D (unless it is already at a minimum) and if UD » 6.0 then increase D: repeat from Step 5.

36 • SEPTEMBER 1994. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

19. Calculate the thickness p:' the shell and heads according to Tab.", 8. 10. Calculate the surface area or the shell and heads according to Table 8.

2I. Calculate the approximate weight of rhe shell and heads according to Table 8.

12. Increase or decrease the vessel diameter by 6-in. increments and repeat the calculations until LID ranges from 1.5-6.0.

23. With the opti mum vessel size (minimum weight), calculate the normal and high liquid levels:

'311)

Avu =Aw'+ V,/L

139)

Determine H,vLL using Table 3 from A,w/AT

24. Design the heavy liquid boot:

Set the height of the heavy liquid. H HL; calculate the risi ng velocity of the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase, ULfI, using Eq. 8 (find ks from

si added to

e

lints, and 1 rhe vessel

-ss of the Table 8. : area of ! to Table

roximare s accord-

he vessel ents and ntil UD

ssel size the nor-

(38)

(39)

e 3 from

rid boot: i liquid, ocity of 'Y liquid

ks from

.'

ble II: sd ['I> '" 0.75 V,.If: calculate .e hcnv y liquid hoot diameter:

:iI calculate the settling time of the II;,ht liquid out of the heavy liquid phase:

(·H)

Calculate the residence ti me of the . .vy liquid:

rrD,~HIII. -l-QHI.

If 8m < till' then increase the boot diameter,

Horizontal design procedure:

weir

1. Calculate the vapor volumetric flow rate. QI' using Eq. 5.

2. Calculate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rates. QI.L and QII/ .. as per Eqs. 9 and 10.

3, Calculate the vertical terminal vapor velocity, VT. using Eq. 4 (find K from Table 2) and set VI'''' 0.75Vr-

4. Select holdup and surge times from Table 6. and calculate the holdup and surge volumes. VIf and Vs' from Eqs. 18 and 19 (unless surge is otherwise specified. such as a slug volume).

5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and initially calculate the diameter according to:

(43)

Then calculate the total cross-sectional area, AT' using Eq. 21.

6. Set the vapor space height, Hv, to the larger of 0.20 or 2 ft (I ft if there is no mist eliminator). Using H~/D in Table 3, obtain A/AT and calculate Av.

7. Calculate the low liquid level in

Table 9. Low liquid level height.

. . ~ ',-' , :~ '_ ... .-: " ..

< 300 psia > 300 psia

:>;4, 15 6

6 15 6

8 15 6

10 6 6

12 6 6

16 6 6

the light liquid compartment using Eq. 44 or read it from Table 9.

Hu.l. '" 0.5D + 7

(44)

where D is in feet and Hul. in inches (round up to nearest in.), If D -;; 4.0 ft. then HUt = 9 in. Using H,.u!D in Table .1" Calculate AU"

S. Calculate the weir height:

(45)

If HI\" < 2 rt, increase D. and repeat the calculations from Step 6.

9. Calculate the mini mum length of the light liquid compartment to accommodate holdup/surge. L~. in Figure J :

(46)

L, = VfI + V\

- Ar-A\.-Aul.

Round to the nearest I/~ 1'1. The minimum for L~ = d; + 12 in.

10. Set the interface at the height HI\/2, Obtaining the heights of the heavy and light liquids, HflL and Hu'

11. For the liquid settling compartment. calculate the cross-sectional area of the heavy liquid. using HHfID in Table 3 and calculate the cross-sectional area of the light liquid from:

12. Calculate the settling velocity of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase, U HL' and the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase, VUf' using Eqs 7 and 8 (find ks from Table I).

13. Calculate the settling times of the heavy liquid out of the light liquid phase and the light liquid out of the heavy liquid phase:

(Ht = I2HLIVHt (48)

9 10 11 12 13 15

14. Calculate minimum LI to facilitate liquid-liquid separation as the larger of:

Round to the nearest If: ft. 15. Find L:

16. Calculate (he liquid dropout time. <jJ. using Eq. ~J.

17. Calculate the actual vapor velocity, Un' lIsing Eq. ~.+.

18. Calculate the mini mum length required for vapor/zl iquid separation. LIII.\". using Eq. 25.

19. If L < LII/\' then set L = L"I\ (vapor/liquid separation controls i. This simply results in some extra holdup and residence time. If L « L\/,.\". then increase HI" recalculate AI" and repeat the calculations from S[~P 6. If L > LMI.\. the design is acceptable for vapor/liquid separation. If L » LII/.\" (liquid separation and holdup control). L can only be reduced and LII/.\" increased if HI' is reduced. HI may only be reduced if it is greater than the minimum specified in Step 9. With reduced HI" recalculate AI' and repeat from Step 9.

20. Calculate UD, If UD « 1.5. then decrease D (unless it is already at a minimum) and repeat from Step 6. If UD » 6.0, then increase D and repeat from Step 5.

21. Calculate the thickness of the shell and heads according to Table 8. 22. Calculate the surface area of the shell and heads according to Table 8.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS • SEPTEMBER 1994 • 37

r

M ULTIPHAS E FLOW

23. Caicul,Llc the approximate vessel wcight according to Tank X.

2-" Increase or decrease the diumcter by (i-jn. increments ami repeat the calculation» until VD ranges from 1.5-6.0.

25. With the optimum vessel size (minimum weight), calculate normal and high liquid levels:

Ontain If\U uSIng Table 3 with A,\/.J..l"

Horizontal design procedure: bucket and weir

I. Calculate the vapor volumetric flo«: rate. Qt' uxing Eq. 5.

2. Calculate the light and heavy liquid volumetric flow rates, Qr,l, and QfJ/ per Eqs. 9 and 10.

3. Calculate the vertical terminal vapor velocity. UI. using Eq. 4 (lind K from Table 21 and set U\, '" 0.75 Ur, 4. Select residence times for light and hear) liquids. 01.1. and 811/' For sour water stripper feed drums, Sill, '"

there is no mist climinutor. L, H//) in Table J. obtain AI/·I .md , culutc :11,

7. Calculate L1:

8. Calculate the I iqu ill l!mpl time. Q. using Eq. 2.1.

9. Calculate the actual vapor n:11 ity, o.; using Eq, n.

10. Calculate the minimum leng required for vupor/liqu«! sep.::·:Ltil' LI/f" using Eq. 25.

1 L If LI < /1111, tht'll ~ct l.. '" L; t vapor/Iiquid separ.uion cOI::!<)h This simply results ill SOIllC' c\t. holdup and residence rune. If C < L1//1• then increase HI" recalcul.ue.' and repeat the calculutiun-, Irom S1t 7, If LI > LIllI' the design is ~I(..:q)( able for vapor/liquid separation.

12. Calculate the light liquid !d:~' thickness bused on the heavy ;:'IUI, scaling out:

Literature Cited

1. Arnold, K., and' M. Stewart, "Surface Production Operations." Chapter 5. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, pp. 123-149 (1986).

2. Svrcek, W. Y., and W. D. Monnery, "Design • Two-PhaseSeparlltorS .Within the Right Limits," Chem. Eng. Progress. 89(i 0). pp. 53-60 (Oct.l993).

3. American SOCiety of Mechanical Engineers, "ASME Pressure Vessel Code." Sec. VIII, Div. I, Tabte UCS-23, ASME. New York. pp. 270·271 (1986).

60 min for refinery service, or 10-15 min for chemical-plant service. For amine regenerator feed drums, em = 10-15 min.

5. Obtain UD from Table 7 and initially set the diameter according to:

( )"1

D = 4( Qu8u. +QmSIII), 0.70rr(L /))

(5,,),)

Then calculate the tntu] crus .-xection,l! area. AI. using Eq. 21.

6. Set the \'apor space height. H". to the larger of O.2D or 2 It (I ft if

Q, =:; __ 235,000 lblh =:; 343.57 fe/s

~ 3,600 s/h X 0.190 Ib/ft3

• Equation E8

UJ = 0.175v' 4°·~.18.19 = 2.55 ft/s

• Equation £1 J

Q - 45,0001b/h - 18 52 fel .

LL - 60 min/h X 40.5 Ib/ftJ -. nun

• Equation E9

D =:; ( 4 X 277 .80 , )113 =:; 1l.15 ft use 11.0 ft

0.6n x 1.7 x [/-l '

• Equation EI2

Q - 7,5001b/h -202ft3/.

HL - 1 -. mIn

60 minlh X 62.0 lb/ft'

• Equation EIO

L2 =:; 95.03 !;i:g~ _ 4,85 =:; 14.54 ft

,:; Equarion E JJ

U. =: Qv == 343.57 refs = 4.83 ftls

v.~ A.. 71.08 ft2

• Equation E16

!.J/{QHL =:; 2.0 min x 2.0~ft J/min =:; 0.45 ft

AHL 8.93 fr-

• Equation E14

tHLQLL = 2.0 min X 18.5~ fe/min =: 2.47 ft

ALL 15.02 n-

• Equation £15

38 • SEPTEMBER 1994. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

. D. MONNERY is a Ph D candidate at the Unive,si" JI Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 1403,220·5542; fax: 4031282·3945). He is researching the prediction of physical properties. Previously, he worked as a process engi· neer for Colt Engineering Corp. and lavalin Inc. He holds BSc and MSc degrees in chemical engineering from Ihe University of Calgary.

)' . dJJlrll<llor). Us

lill III/I r ;lIld

Nomenclature

= vertical vessel cross-sectional area, IV Q

= volumetric How. IV/s or ftl/min

A

AD '" downcorner cross-sectional area, ft! AUY = area of light liquid above vessel bot-

tom, ft1

AT = total cross-sectional area, ft 1 Cv = drag coefficient, dimensionless

ell< = nozzle dia., in. (inlet or outlet

vapor/liquid as specified)

D = vessel diameter, ft or in.

DB = boot dia., ft

D p = droplet dia., ft, Or microns DVl) = vapor disengagement dia .. ft

E ::: welded joint efficiency, dimension-

less

s. = gravitational constant, 32. t7 ftlsl

G = baffle liquid load. gphlft!

H ::: height, ft

HA ::: liquid level above baffle, in. or ft

HBN ::: liquid height from above baftle to

feed nozzle, ft

HI) ::: disengagement height, ft

HH ::: holdup height, ft

H L ::: height from liquid interface to LL

nozzle, ft

HUN = HLL to inlet nozzle centerline height, ft HUB = light liquid height in boot, ft

HUT ::: light layer thickness, in.

Huv ::: light liquid height in vessel. ft

H.I/E = mist eliminator to top tan. height, ft

HR ::: height from light liquid nozzle to baf-

fle, ft

Hs = surge height, ft

H r = total vertical separator height, ft

H v ::: vapor disengagement area height, ft

Hw ::: weir height, ft

!!JI '" height difference between light and heavy liquid weirs, in.

. ks = Stokes' law terminal velocity con-

stant, (in.lmin)(cP)/(ib/ftJ)

K '" terminal velocity constant, ftls

L ::: vessel length, ft

L~IlN = vapor/liquid separation minimum length, ft

L1-1 '" as defined in Figure 2 P = pressure, psig or psia

S = vessel material stress value, psi

ASG = specific gravity difference between

light and heavy liquids

Ie ::: corrosion allowance. in.

II/ ::: head thickness. in.

's«. = settling time for heavy liquid droplets

out of light liquid. min

Iw ::: rise time for light liquid droplets out

of heavy liquid. min

1.1 ::: shell thickness. in.

7~, = holdup time. min

T~ ::: surge time, min.

~lH = allowable horizontal velocity, ftls V/iL ::: settling velocity of heavy liquid

droplets out of light liquid. in.lmin VU/ = rising velocity of light liquid droplets

out of heavy liquid. in.lmin VII ::: mixture velocity. ftts

Vp ::: boot velocity. in.fmin

VI' = terminal velocity, ftls or in.fmin

VI' ::: vapor velocity. ftls

V ~~ '" actual vapor velocity, ftls

V H ::: holdup volume. ft3

VLU ::: LLL volume, ft)

VI = surge volume. ftl

IV ::: vessel weight. lb

WI> = downcorner chord width. in.

,:leEK is a professor in the department of ." ,:Ii cal and petroleum engineering at the University of Calgary [41131220·5751; Fax: 403/282-39451. He previously wDrked as a senior systems engineer in the control systems group of Monsanto Co. Upon leaving Monsanto, he joined the University ot Western Ontario. He holds BSe and PhD degrees in .:remical engineering from the University of

.8ta, Edmonton.

liqUid

lIal vapor verol'

lin i Illllill lengn lilt! st'lxlration

n set LJ = Llf/ on conlror~) n some t'Xln nne. If L .,,~

J "

rt'calclll<ttt' 4

, . I

.ms ~rol1l Step rgn IS <lCcept)aratiotl.

It liquid layer heavy Jiq~lid

(56)

',\ht'C~ 01' is in microns.

I .. Calculate the difference in ilt'ight between the light and heavy liquid weirs:

(57)

t1H ;= H u{ 1 - ~ ~ )

; .!. Design the light liquid bucket:

Set the ["P of light liquid weir = D - H l': assume the bottom is at O.125D; assume a holdup/surge (typically, 5-15 min.): assume HLL is 6 in. below the weir height and LLL is 6 in. above the bottom of the bucket, Using Table -' with HfI/.L/D and HI.I.JD. calculate AHl.L and ALLL• Calculate L1:

Greek letrers

a liquid residence time, min

I.. mixture liquid fraction

/s

viscosity, cP density, lb/ft'

liquid dropout time, s

1.0 ft

Subscripts

H,HL heavy liquid

HLL high liquid level

L, LL light liquid

LLL low liquid level

M mixture

NLL normal liquid level

V vapor (T}f + r, )Q{L

L = (58)

- (AHLL -ALLf)

15. Assume L, is the larger of DIl2 or 12 in.

16. Design the heavy liquid compartment: Set the top of the heavy liq-

uid weir = D .- HI - fl.H; assume a holdup/surge (typically. 5-15 min); assume HLL is about 6 in. below the weir height and LLL is about 6 in. above the bottom of the vessel. Using Table 3 with HHL/D and Hw!D. calculate AHu. and Au.L'

I Calculate L~:

L

then decrease D and repeat from Step 5. If UD » 6.0, then increase D and repeat from Step 5.

19. Calculate the thickness of the shell and heads according to Table 8. 20. Calculate the surface area of

(TH + TS)QHL

L4 = (59)

(AH£'L - ALLL)

17. Calculate L = LI + ~ + L3 + L4· 18, Calculate UD. If UD « 1.5,

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS • SEPTEMBER 1994 • 39

---------:___~ ----_ .. _-.

i ,

I I

i I

. ~

I!

MULTIPHASE FLOW

Table 10. Data for Example 2.

Table 11. Selection of vessel heads.

**Component Mass Flow, Ib/h p, Ib/ft3 I1,CP
**

Hydrocarbon vapor Wv= 235,000 Pv,,0.190

Hydrocarbon liquid Wa = 45,000 P£ = 40.5 1-1£" 0.24

Water WH£" 7,500 PH = 62.0 .LlH = 0.682 <hell and heads according to Table 8. 2L Calculate the approximate ves,cI weight according to Table 8.

22. increase or decrease the diumctcr by 6-in. increments and repeat the calculations until UD ranges from 1.5-6.0.

ExaOlple 2

'Design a three-phase horizontal <cpnrator with a weir to separate the mixture ill Table 10. The operating pressure and temperature are 25 psig and 100. respectively. and it is neces\<try to have a liquid holdup and surge Ii me of 15 min.

I. Sec Eg. ElL box. p. 38

2. See Eqs. E9 and E I O. box. p. 38 J. K = 0.175 (the G[lS Processors

Suppliers' Association value in Table 2 was divided by 2 since there is no mi,t eliminator).

Scc Eq. Ell. h;)x. p. 38

U; = (US x 2.55 = 1.91 ft/s

4. Holdup + surge as specified", 15 uri n.

\Ill + V\ = (15 min) ( 18.52 tV/min) '" 277.80 ft'

Assume 10 min holdup. 5 min

\urge.

S. Assume un '" 1.7. See Eq. E 12. box. p. 38

1\.1' = rr/4 (11.0 n)~ = 95.03 ft!

6. Since the mass rate of vapor is

Conditions

Typical Heads Used

D c 15 ft and P c 100 psig 0<15 ft and P> 100 psig

0> 15 ft, regardless of pressure

Dished with knuckle radius = 0.06 2:1 Elliptical

Hemispherical

where: P ~ design pressure and 0 = drum dia.

about 82'7c of the loading. set HI' to be much greater than the minimum. Assume HI' = O.70n "" (0.70)( 11.0 rtf = 7.70 fl. Using Table 3. A/A, = 0.748. AI = 71.08 ftC

7. HILl. = (0.5)( I J.()) + 7 = 12.5 in ..

use 13 in.

Hu./fJ = 13/( 11.0 x 12) = 0.098 Using Table 3. AUf/Ar = 0.051 Al.I.l = (0.051 )(95.03 tn = 4.85 ftC

8. n; = 11.0 - 7.70 = 3.30 ft

9. See Eq. E13. box, p. 38 Use L, = 15.0 ft.

10. HHL = Hu = 3.3011 ;:: 1.65 ft

1 I. H H/ID = 1.65111.0 = 0.150 From Table 3. AH/4r = 0.094 AIII.:o: (0.094)(95.03 tF) = 8.93 tF Au = 95.03 - 71.08 - 8.93 = 15.02 ftc 12. From Table I. k., = 0.33:1

UI!l. '" (0.333 )(62.0 - 40,5 )/0.24 = 29.83 in.lmin

Use 10 in.zmin (maximum)

Uw = (0.333)(62.0 - 40.5)/0.682 = 10.50 in.lmin

Use 10 in.lrnin (maximum]

13. fill. '" (I 2 in.lft)( 1.65 ft )/10 in.lmin = 1.98 min. use 2.0 ruins

fUi = fl/(. = 2.0 min

14. See Eqs. EI4 and E15. box.

p. 38

Use LI '" 3.0 ft.

15. L = 3.0 + 15.0", 18.0 ft 16.$ = 7.70 ftll.91 ft/s = 4.03 s 17. See Eq. E 16. box. p. 38

55 X 132 ._ I - 0 307 .

ts = 2 X 17,500 X 0.85 ._ 1.2 X S5 + 1(, -. m.

• Equation E17

f - 0.885 X 55 X 132 I - 0 495 .

H - 2 X 17,500 X 0.85 _ 0.1 X 55 + 16 -. in.

• Equation E18

w = 490 Ib X 0.500 in'(673 87 ft~ + 2 X lOt 88 ft2) = 17920 Ib

ft' 12 in.lft· . ,

L~!:'qllalio~ R19

---------------------------------------------~

40 • SEPTEMBER 1994. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRESS

18. LIllY = (-Un ft/s H ·1-.03 ~ ) = 19.5 ft

19. Since L < LIII\. set L", 19.5 ft (set L~ = 16.0 ft. L = 3.5 rn

20.l.ID = 195/11.0 = 1.78

2l. Assume dished heads per Table II.

Assume E"" 0.85

Use SA-516 70 carbon <tee].

design temperature zr; 650'

s= 17.500 psi: from Ref I3/. Corrosion allowance = I ii, in. p", 25 + 30 = 55 psig

See Eq. E17. box on this page Use r~ ='., in.

See Eq. E 18. box on this page. Use fH = lie in.: use f = : : in. 22. As = rr( 11.0 ft) (19.5 fr .

673.87 ft~

All '" (O.8~2) ( I J .0 ftf = 101.88 tt'

23. See Eq. E 19. box 011 this pace.

24. In this example. calculationwerc performed for only one: diameter. However, nearly the minimum un corresponded [0 a diameter of 11.0 ft: therefore. the next diameter should be smaller. resulting in a larger VD. Also. calculations should be performed usi ng a diameter of I 1.5 ft.

25. For the light liquid compartment:

HW.i. = Hu'" .1.3 tt - 3 ft. ~ in. Am =4.85+ 185.~0/16.0= 16.43 itC Asu/A r = 16.+3/95.03 = 0.173 Using Table 3. H,,/D = 0.229 HWI = (0.22S') (11.0) = 2.52 ft - 2

ft. 6 in.

Hw. = 13 in.

Comment: Due to the small amount of heavy liquid and large amount of vapor, a better design would have used a boot. A vertical vessel should be compared. as well. lmI

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