Film

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Jump to: navigation, search This article is about Motion pictures or Movies. For Still photography film, see Photographic film. For Motion picture film, see Film stock. "Movie" and "Moving picture" redirect here. For other uses, see Movie (disambiguation), Moving Pictures (disambiguation) and Film (disambiguation).

A 16 mm spring-wound Bolex "H16" Reflex camera, a popular introductory camera in film schools

World cinema
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African cinema Asian cinema
East Asian cinema South Asian cinema Southeast Asian cinema West Asian cinema

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European cinema Latin American cinema North American cinema

Oceanian cinema

A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a story conveyed with moving images. It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras, or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating — or indoctrinating — citizens. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue into the language of the viewer. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. When these images are shown rapidly in succession, a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement. The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photo-play and flick. A common name for film in the United States is movie, while in Europe the term cinema or film is preferred. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the cinema and the movies.

Contents
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1 History 2 Theory o 2.1 Language o 2.2 Montage o 2.3 Criticism 3 Industry 4 Associated fields 5 Terminology used o 5.1 Preview o 5.2 Trailer o 5.3 Film, or other art form? 6 Education and Propaganda 7 Production o 7.1 Crew

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7.2 Technology 7.3 Independent 7.4 Open content film 7.5 Fan film 8 Distribution 9 Animation 10 Future state 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References
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14 External links

History
Main article: History of film

A clip from the Charlie Chaplin silent film The Bond (1918) Preceding film by thousands of years, plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards, and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied, such as mise en scene (roughly, the entire visual picture at any one time). Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021),[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600, it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside, and projected onto a surface or screen, creating a moving image, but it is not preserved in a recording. In the 1860s, mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope, mutoscope and praxinoscope. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving, a phenomenon called persistence of vision. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect, and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation.

A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902). films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives. commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century. by Louis Le Prince.With the development of celluloid film for still photography. These reels. By the early 1920s. is arguably the first "motion picture. An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse." though it was not called by this name. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose. Around the turn of the 20th century. depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. came to be known as "motion pictures". 1888 By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel. . an early narrative film.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. Rather than leave the audience in silence. the world's earliest film produced using a motion picture camera. so exhibited. Ignoring Dickson's early sound experiments (1894). but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. with complete film scores being composed for major productions. theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music fitting the mood of the film at any given moment. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene. and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second. it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time.

On the other hand. as it captures life as a reflection. In the 1920s. Language Film is considered to have its own language. and thus could be considered a valid fine art. Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo's The Birth of the Sixth Art. European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein. along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin. critics from the analytical philosophy tradition. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled "How to Read a Film". Formalist film theory. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said. W. life as a dream. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s.The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood. emphasized how film differed from reality. color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce "natural color" films. the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. influenced by Wittgenstein. Indian New Wave. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white. which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid-1960s. and this gave rise to realist theory.[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film. led by Rudolf Arnheim. Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century." Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one . quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium.in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith. However in the 1920s. more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II.W. "[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director]. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure's semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory. Murnau. music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen. Béla Balázs. and Siegfried Kracauer. or talkies. as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916) . Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave. the one who invented a new language. typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D. feminist film theory and others. try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film's vocabulary and its link to a form of life. structuralist film theory. The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called "natural" color. true to the nature of film. F. Buster Keaton and others. new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech. By the end of the 1960s. and Fritz Lang. color had become the norm for film makers. These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures". While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film's artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art.

Rumble Fish. there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. and what effect they have on people. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. In general. the influence of reviews is extremely important. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media. Montage Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. Conversely. critics have an important impact on films. Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection. especially those of certain genres. However. as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence.g. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work. Despite this. then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor. magazines. this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. For prestige films such as most dramas. followed by another actor’s right profile speaking.actor's left profile speaking. and broadcast media mainly review new releases. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on . However. extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing. which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. Film critics working for newspapers. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgment of a film. horror. and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. e. Mass marketed action. The impact of a reviewer on a given film's box office performance is a matter of debate. the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed. then a repetition of this. as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola’s film. as in a ballet or opera.. indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past.

found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph. the Indian film industry's Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world. Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. Upon seeing how successful their new invention. Product placement. The Academy Awards (also known as "the Oscars") are the most prominent film awards in the United States. Film theory. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced.[6] There is also another film industry name Lollywood based in Lahore. they would normally add new. Already by 1917. was in their native France. providing recognition each year to films. Associated fields Further information: Film history. recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. In each country. Film criticism. ostensibly based on their artistic merits. while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios. or sometimes in up-market magazines. the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. local scenes to their catalogue and. much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. and its product. Other pictures soon followed. In the United States today. such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood. Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films. quickly enough. their articles are published in scholarly journals. Profit is a key force in the industry. Industry Main article: Film industry The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented.television. export. due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking. many films have large cost overruns. a notorious example being Kevin Costner's Waterworld. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. and Propaganda . import and screen additional product commercially. From 1931 to 1956. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world.

or a two faced Janus image. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. as studies in a university class. compared to an earlier historic aspect ratios. "Talkies" refers to early movies or films having audible dialogue or analogue sound. such as product placement in advertising. "videotape". "Film" refers to the media onto which a visual art is shot. usually screened with other shorts.[7] A "feature length film". though they may have a musical soundtrack. not just a musical accompaniment. For example. "Film" is more often used when considering artistic. such as popcorn makers. means "film". divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments. both capitalized when referring to a category of art. and toys. "Silent films" need not be silent.Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking.a "candle and bell". Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. Sub. (December 2009) Most people use "film" and "movie" interchangeably[citation needed]. "Movies" more often refers to entertainment or commercial aspects. or preceding a feature length film. or is roughly synonymous with “Film”. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. as in the film journal of the same name. or technical aspects. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. as in the films Tarkovsky. . or a product with all of the elements of an analogue film but made in an electromagnetic storage medium. such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. as where to go for fun on a date. A "DVD"." and yet these terms are still used. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. not to contemporary films without color. Sub-industries can spin off from film. and an image of a movie camera in profile. An "independent" is a film made outside of the conventional film industry.[8] A "short" is a film that is not as long as a feature length film. "Widescreen" and "Cinemascope" refers to a larger width to height in the frame. a book titled "How to Read a Film" would be about the aesthetics or theory of film. film history. as in film theory and analysis. The following icons mean film . while "Lets Go to the Movies" would be about the history of entertaining movies. or "feature film". These fields may further create derivative fields. but are films and movies without an audible dialogue. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. and can commercially stand by itself without other films in a ticketed screening. usually 60 minutes or more. theoretical. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references. "Motion pictures” or "Moving pictures" are films and movies. The "silver screen" refers to classic black and white films before color. of a segment of film stock. The expression "Sight and Sound". is of a conventional full length. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film. such as film criticism. (July 2010) The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. and to this end it may seem improper for a digital originating work to be referred to as a "film" and the action of shooting as "filming. or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. "video" or "vid" is a digital reproduction of an analogue film.industries of preexisting industries may deal specifically with film. "Cinema" either broadly encompasses both films and movies.

as in "too Hollywood". but of a video or DVD when of sufficient projection quality. A "showing" is a screening or viewing on an electronic monitor. Ferris Bueller's Day Off has a postcredit scene in which Ferris tells the audience that the movie is over and they should go home. Previews are sometimes used to judge audience reaction. Bride of Frankenstein is an early example. or "cheese" for films that are light. but is released after that film. "Hollywood" may be used either as a pejorative adjective. the credits roll at the end of most films. feature films. or as a descriptive adjective to refer to a film originating with people who ordinarily work near Los Angeles. before the public film premiere itself. Expressions for Genres of film are sometimes used interchangeably for "film" in a specific context. Any film may also have a "sequel". A "double feature" is a screening of two independent. such as a "porn" for a film with explicit sexual content. or more currently. Trailer Main article: Film trailer Trailers or previews are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema. usually for the purposes of corporate promotions. A Post-credits scene is a scene shown after the end of the credits. Film. A film which portrays events that occur earlier than those in another film. we have a "series". is sometimes called a "Prequel". rights sold for individual showings. entertaining and not highbrow. Since then. or other art form? . That practice did not last long. Credits is a list of the people involved in making the film. Preview A preview performance refers to a showing of a movie to a select audience. may result in recutting or even refilming certain sections (Audience response).A "screening" or "projection" is the projection of a film or video on a screen at a public or private theater. A "viewing" is a watching of a film. such as the James Bond series. but the name has stuck. which if unexpectedly negative. Before the 1970s. an example being Butch and Sundance: The Early Days. A "release" is the distribution and often simultaneous screening of a film. stand-alone. because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended. shorthand for asserting an overly commercial rather than artistic intent or outcome. A "preview" is a screening in advance of the main release. The term "trailer" comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a film programme. which portrays events following those in the film. "Sales" refers to tickets sold at a theater. credits were usually at the beginning of a film. usually but not always of a film. on whose screen they are shown. Trailers are now shown before the film (or the A movie in a double feature program) begins. When there are a number of films with the same characters.

Performance art where film is incorporated as a component is usually not called film.Film may be combined with performance art and still be considered or referred to as a “film”. US war film trailers during World War II. The more involved the production. the means to produce a film depend on the content the filmmaker wishes to show. as in the subtleties within the films of Tarkovsky. as in the films of Werner Herzog. or more marginally. and the apparatus for displaying it: the zoetrope merely requires a series of images on a strip of paper. The act of making a film can. in whole or in part. a film is called an "educational film". For example. Examples are recordings of lectures and experiments. The same film may be considered educational by some. execution. the more significant each of the steps becomes. planning. where the audience dresses up in costume from the film and loudly does a karaoke-like reenactment along with the film. Education and Propaganda Main articles: Education and Propaganda Film is used for education and propaganda. Another example is audience participation films. extras and crewmembers for a live-action. or thousands of actors. In a typical production cycle of a Hollywood-style film. in and of itself. or more subtly. such as the films made by Leni Riefenstahl in Nazi Germany. be considered a work of art. and distribution. When the purpose is primarily educational. a film based on a classic novel. Film may be propaganda. A "road movie" can refer to a film put together from footage from a long road trip or vacation. on a different level from the film itself. Similarly. the films of Andrei Tarkovsky. the playing of a film can be considered to fall within the realm of political protest art. and propaganda by others. Film production can therefore take as little as one person with a camera (or without it. these main stages are defined as: 1. or artistic films made under Stalin by Eisenstein. but a film. which could stand-alone but is accompanied by a performance may still be referred to as a film. Development . Production Main article: Filmmaking At its core. They may also be works of political protest. The necessary steps for almost any film can be boiled down to conception. as at a midnight movies screening of The Rocky Horror Picture Show. as in the films of Wajda. when there is a live musical accompaniment to a silent film. such as Stan Brakhage's 1963 film Mothlight). revision. such as some of the films of Michael Moore. feature-length epic.

sound. but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. and the more important financing becomes. and the development of synchronized sound. electrics (i. but for-profit business entities. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures. The third year. acetate. Communication between production and crew generally passes through the director and his/her staff of assistants.e. for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. 4. research indicates most films were shot between 16 frame/s and 23 frame/s and projected from 18 frame/s on up (often reels included instructions on how fast each scene should be shown). The second year comprises preproduction and production.2. and those whose primary responsibility falls in pre-production or postproduction phases. Technology Film stock consists of transparent celluloid. 24 frames per second was chosen because it was the slowest (and thus cheapest) speed which allowed for sufficient sound quality. lights). post-production and distribution. sets. or polyester base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. The soundtrack can . most feature films are not only artistic works. a constant speed was required for the sound head. The first year is taken up with development. Crew are distinguished from cast. the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses. The bigger the production. Crew Main article: Film crew A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company. Caterers (known in the film industry as "craft services") are usually not considered part of the crew. allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action. and production special effects. shooting. quiet camera design — allowing sound recorded on-set to be usable without requiring large "blimps" to encase the camera. employed during the "production" or "photography" phase. 3. the more resources it takes. Medium-to-large crews are generally divided into departments with well defined hierarchies and standards for interaction and cooperation between the departments. the crew handles everything in the photography phase: props and costumes. The crew interacts with but is also distinct from the production staff. Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras — allowing them to record at a consistent speed.[9] When sound film was introduced in the late 1920s. Pre-production Production Post-production Distribution This production cycle usually takes three years. Originally moving picture film was shot and projected at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras and projectors. consisting of producers. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history. such as writers and editors. though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints. their assistants. though 1000 frames per minute (16⅔ frame/s) is generally cited as a standard silent speed. allowing directors to film in increasingly dim conditions. company representatives. Other than acting. managers.. the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. 5.

However. Preservation is generally a higher-concern for nitrate and single-strip color films. or other major studio systems. Some studios save color films through the use of separation masters — three B&W negatives each exposed through red. since the technology developed as the basis for photography. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. business. Film has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations. film is not limited to motion pictures. Yet the migration is gradual. and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations (and thereby increase revenue). black and white films on safety bases and color films preserved on Technicolor imbibition prints tend to keep up much better. green. and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on film. As a medium. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow. Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. Most movies on cellulose nitrate base have been copied onto modern safety films. but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously. although their continued obsolescence cycle makes them (as of 2006) a poor choice for long-term preservation. Independent Main article: Independent film Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood. or blue filters (essentially a reverse of the Technicolor process).be recorded separately from shooting the film. especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the film stock to be processed. Film preservation of decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians and archivists. Creative. and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century. assuming proper handling and storage. due to their high decay rates. and often has importance as primary historical documentation. historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage. These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers. . and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives. Digital methods have also been used to restore films.

the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce. Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution. created by fans rather than by the source's copyright holders or creators. the studios rarely produce films with unknown actors. Like independent filmmaking. Fan films vary tremendously in length. . the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. the means of production have become more democratized. direct. than a traditional copyright. the arrival of high-resolution digital video in the early 1990s. Technologies such as DVDs. Also. today. There is a trend in Hollywood towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros. distribution. But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985. and Microsoft's Windows Movie Maker make movie-making relatively inexpensive. Before the advent of digital alternatives.The Lumière Brothers On the business side. open source filmmaking takes place outside of Hollywood. particularly in lead roles. FireWire connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro. Since the introduction of DV technology. in 2000 were joint ventures. but some of the more notable films have actually been produced by professional filmmakers as film school class projects or as demonstration reels. and consumer level software such as Apple's Final Cut Express and iMovie. television program. but it is produced through open collaborations. Sony Vegas and Apple's Final Cut Pro. financing. Open content film Main article: Open content film An open content film is much like an independent film. However.[10] A hopeful director is almost never given the opportunity to get a job on a big-budget studio film unless he or she has significant industry experience in film or television. Fan film Main article: Fan film A fan film is a film or video inspired by a film. Fan filmmakers have traditionally been amateurs. and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. up from 10% in 1987). the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commodity-based personal computer. or other major studio systems. and mix the final cut on a home computer. and more importantly. while the means of production may be democratized. Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered. or star in a traditional studio film. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie. its source material is available under a license which is permissive enough to allow other parties to create fan fiction or derivative works. The arrival of internet-based video outlets such as YouTube and Veoh has further changed the film making landscape in ways that are still to be determined. create and edit the sound and music. from short faux-teaser trailers for non-existent motion pictures to rarer full-length motion pictures. comic book or a similar source. have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly.

established 1905. some films that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are distributed through these markets. these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons. and indeed. as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts.[11] and Pittsburgh's Nickelodeon. Typically. usually after the film is no longer being shown in theaters. Animation Main article: Animation . a feature film is often shown to audiences in a movie theater or cinema. typically. The production values on these films are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases in similar genres. Before the 1970s. VCD and SelectaVision — see also videodisc). According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO.[13] In the United States. because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents). The identity of the first theater designed specifically for cinema is a matter of debate. being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies. The development of television has allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences. one film is the featured presentation (or feature film).[14] This section requires expansion with: optical disc distribution. a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum.Distribution Main articles: Film distribution and Film release When it is initially produced. However. and 28% came from television (broadcast. The movie theater pays an average of about 50-55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio. and decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues. Historically. as film rental fees. and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film companies. all mass marketed feature films were made to be shown in movie theaters. about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule. 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers. the bulk of the material shown before the feature film consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty"). candidates include Tally's Electric Theatre. Some films are now made specifically for these other venues. established 1902 in Los Angeles.[14] The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that. often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. and pay-per-view). cable.[12] Thousands of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities within a few years. Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of films on VHS or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc. there were "double features". Today.

(April 2009) While motion picture films have been around for more than a century.[citation needed] In the 1990s and 2000s. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. when the widespread availability of inexpensive videocassette recorders enabled people to select films for home viewing. Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. the development of digital DVD players. home theater amplification systems with surround sound and subwoofers. These new technologies provided audio and visual that in the past only local cinemas had been able to provide: a large. Generating such a film is very labor intensive and tedious. motion picture cinemas continued. made famous by moviemakers like Norman McLaren. or by photographing a drawn image. However.Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually. there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). whether generated as a computer graphic. when television became widely available. Despite competition from television's increasing technological sophistication over the 1960s and 1970s[citation needed]such as the development of color television and large screens. clear widescreen . File formats like GIF. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. industry analysts again wrongly predicted the death of the local cinemas. industry analysts[who?] predicted the demise of local movie theaters[citation needed]. the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. there is a specific style of animation that depends on film. Len Lye and Stan Brakhage. is painted and drawn directly onto pieces of film. film began to become more respected as an artistic medium by contrast due the low general opinion of the quality of average television content[citation needed]In the 1980s. the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s. Shockwave and Flash allow animation to be viewed on a computer or over the Internet. In the 1950s. QuickTime. though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process. film is still a relative newcomer in the pantheon of fine arts.[15] Although most animation studios are now using digital technologies in their productions. and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized by Hanna-Barbera. Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry. or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion). When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second. In fact with the rise of television's predominance. and large LCD or plasma screens enabled people to select and view films at home with greatly improved audio and visual reproduction[citation needed]. and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. Future state This section does not cite any references or sources. Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce. Cameraless animation. and then run through a projector. with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person).

Ultra HD. Once again industry analysts predicted the demise of the local cinema. which can provide full HD 1080p video playback at near cinema quality Video formats are gradually catching up with the resolutions and quality that film offers. Despite the rise of all new technologies. 2007 was a record year in film that showed the highest ever box-office grosses. will offer a massive resolution of 7680×4320. The only viable competitor to these new innovations is IMAX which can play film content at an extreme 10000×7000 resolution[citation needed]. a future digital video format. a development which may give local theaters a reprieve from their predicted demise. the development of the home video market and a surge of online copyright infringement. Many expected film to suffer as a result of the effects listed above but it has flourished. strengthening film studio expectations for the future . 1080p in Blu-ray offers a pixel resolution of 1920×1080 a leap from the DVD offering of 720×480 and the paltry 330×480 offered by the first home video standard VHS[citation needed]The maximum resolutions that film currently offers are 2485×2970 or 1420×3390. surpassing all current film resolutions.presentation of a film with a full-range. high-quality multi-speaker sound system. a new approach which will allow for easier and quicker distribution of films (via satellite or hard disks). The cinema now faces a new challenge from home video by the likes of a new High Definition format. Blu-ray. Local cinemas will be changing in the 21st century and moving towards digital screens.

Television advertisement From Wikipedia. see Pictures of Starving Children Sell Records. advertisement or simply just ad (UK/US). such as France. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.[1] and some. but its future potential to sell goods was already in mind Contents . The vast majority of television advertisements today consist of brief advertising spots. Advertisements of this sort have been used to promote a wide variety of goods. Advertisement revenue provides a significant portion of the funding for most privately owned television networks. (March 2010) A television advertisement or television commercial–often just commercial or TV ad (US). it is considered[by whom?] impossible for a politician to wage a successful election campaign without the purchase of television advertising. In other countries. For the song by Chumbawamba. like Norway. services and ideas since the dawn of television. search "Commercial Break" redirects here. or advert. or ad-film (India)–is a span of television programming produced and paid for by an organization that conveys a message. commercial. political advertising in television is heavily restricted. The effect of commercial advertisements upon the viewing public has been so successful and so pervasive that in some countries. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. completely ban it Television was still in its experimental phase in 1928. ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes (as well as program-length infomercials). the United States in particular.

R Toothpaste.2.2.3." [2][3] The first TV ad broadcast in the UK was on ITV on 21 September 1955.5 Finland  3.4 Latin America  3. The 20-second spot displayed a picture of a clock superimposed on a map of the United States.2.4 New Zealand  3.6 Russia  3.4 Are advertisements also programming? o 3.1 United States of America  3.4.2 Europe  3. The watchmaker Bulova paid $9 for a placement on New York station WNBT before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and Philadelphia Phillies. 1941.3 France  3.1 Argentina 4 Use of popular music 5 Future of TV advertisements 6 See also 7 References 8 External links [edit] History The USA's first television advertisement was broadcast July 1. South o 3.3.7 Denmark o 3.[hide] • • • • • • • • 1 History 2 Characteristics 3 TV advertisements around the world o 3.3.2 The Philippines  3.1.1 Malaysia  3.4 Ireland  3.1.2 Popularity  3.2.3 Australia  3.1.2.2 Germany  3.3 Restrictions  3.1 Frequency  3.1 United Kingdom  3.3.1.5 Korea. [edit] Characteristics .3 Asia-Pacific  3.2.2. advertising Gibbs S. accompanied by the voice-over "America runs on Bulova time.3.

Notable examples are the series of advertisements for Kellogg's cereals. Other long-running ad campaigns catch people by surprise. which still appears occasionally. Crackle and Pop and also Tony the Tiger.. an advertisement may have a certain appeal that is difficult to achieve with actors or mere product displays. which grew so popular it was used in the 1984 presidential election by Walter Mondale. Some of these ad jingles or catch-phrases may take on lives of their own.. an animated advertisement (or a series of such advertisements) can be very long-running. Another is. such as the classic Smash and Creature Comforts advertisements. In fact. By using animated characters. where a room full of battery-operated bunnies was seen pounding their drums. such as comedy movies or television variety shows. spawning gags or "riffs" that may appear in other forms of hens . he "keeps going and going and going. several decades in many instances. decades after its first use. And yet another popular catch-phrase is "I've fallen and I can't get up". such as the Energizer Bunny advertisement series. or in written media. In any popular vote for the most memorable television advertisements in the UK (such as on ITV [4] or Channel 4 [5]) the top positions in the list invariably include animations. "Winston tastes good like a cigarette should".except one. Animated advertisements can achieve lasting popularity. This was followed by what appeared to be another advertisement: viewers were oblivious to the fact that the following "advertisement" was actually a parody of other well-known advertisements until the Energizer bunny suddenly intrudes on the situation.").. all slowing down. Animation also proofs the advertisement from changes in fashion that would date it. These long-lasting advertising elements may be said to have taken a place in the pop culture history of the demographic to whom they appeared. which may remain in the minds of television viewers long after the span of the advertising campaign. starring Snap. such as magazine comics or literature.. "Where's the Beef?". Years later. It started in the late 1980s as a simple comparison advertisement. The animation is often combined with real actors. a revised version of this seminal advertisement had the Energizer bunny escaping the stage and moving on (according to the announcer. Variations of this catchy dialogue and direct references to it appeared even as long as two decades after the ad campaign expired. or even tricking the viewer. with the Energizer battery. For this reason. An example is the enduring phrase. from the eighteen-year advertising campaign for Winston cigarettes from the 1950s to the 1970s. with the announcer saying . An animated TV advertisement Animation is often used in advertisements.Many television advertisements feature catchy jingles (songs or melodies) or catch-phrases(slogan) that generate sustained ideas. Advertising agencies often use humor as a tool in their creative marketing campaigns. many psychological studies have attempted to demonstrate the effects of humour and their relationship to empowering advertising persuasion. The pictures can vary from hand-drawn traditional animation to computer animation.

the average length shrank to 30 seconds (and often 10 seconds. but also interrupt them at intervals. via a Coors Light Beer advertisement. could. . instead. remote controls have now made it easier for audiences to "tune out" advertisements simply by allowing them to turn down the volume or even switch channels when the advertisement comes on. However. This method of screening advertisements is intended to capture or grab the attention of the audience. in motion pictures. television recording mechanisms such as DVR and TiVo have also allowed viewers to skip advertising completely during television programming. that number has grown by an average of two minutes. American viewers will see approximately three hours of advertisements.. while waiting for the program to resume. This ad campaign lasted for nearly fifteen years. Furthermore. The Nielsen ratings system exists as a way for stations to determine how successful their television shows are. and even by current advertisements by Geico Insurance. so that they can decide what rates to charge advertisers for their advertisements. Also people tend to do other things while the advertisements are on. As the years passed. a similar program would only be 42 minutes long. The Energizer Bunny series has itself been imitated by others. Today. only one or two advertisements would be shown at each break. However. Today. In more recent years. depending on the television station's purchase of ad time). today a majority of advertisements run in 15second increments (often known as "hooks"). Additionally."Still going. the average advertisement's length was one minute. a telecast of the same film would last approximately two hours and 15 minutes including commercials. over the course of 10 hours.. but more of them are now shown during the break. if a 1960s show is rerun today it may be cut by nine minutes to make room for the extra advertisements. keeping the viewers focused on the television show so that they will not want to change the channel. Some networks even use a 18 minutes of show/12 minutes of commercial split. take two hours even with commercials. In other words. In the 1950s and 1960s. Commercial breaks have also become longer. in the early to mid-1960s. Entire industries exist that focus solely on the task of keeping the viewing audience interested enough to sit through advertisements.[7] A television broadcast of the 101-minute film The Wizard of Oz (1939) for instance. they will (hopefully) watch the advertisements while waiting for the next segment of the show. while in the '60's. twice what they would have seen in the 1960s. a typical 30-minute block of time now includes 22 minutes [6] of programming with six minutes of national advertising and two minutes of local. [edit] TV advertisements around the world [edit] United States of America [edit] Frequency Television advertisements appear between shows. In the 1960s a typical hour-long American show would run for 51 minutes excluding advertisements." (the Energizer Battery Company's way of emphasizing that their battery lasts longer than other leading batteries). Advertisements take airtime away from programs.

airing a month before the Super Bowl so that the advertisement could be submitted to award ceremonies for that year). months. This vast expenditure has resulted in a number of high-quality advertisements with high production values.000 for an advertisement during CSI. Even though this advertisement was broadcast only once (aside from occasional appearances in television advertisement compilation specials and one 1 a.7 million (as of February 2008).[11] In the United Kingdom. shows that tend to target young women tend to be more profitable for advertisements than shows targeted to younger men. the most popular personalities. lower ad rates. many consider them to be an annoyance for a number of reasons. The main reason may be that the sound volume of advertisements tends to be higher (and in some .m.[9] Due to its demographic strength.[12] Because a single television advertisement can be broadcast repeatedly over the course of weeks. the latest in special effects technology. She Wrote. many film directors have directed television advertisements both as a way to gain exposure and to earn a paycheck. The annual Super Bowl American football game is known as much for its commercial advertisements as for the game itself. and the best music. and this is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. older viewers are of almost no interest to most advertisers due to their unwillingness to change their buying habits. One of film director Ridley Scott's most famous cinematic moments was a television advertisement he directed for the Apple Macintosh computer. and the average cost of a single 30-second TV spot during this game (seen by 90 million viewers) has reached US$2. this is due to the fact that younger men are watching TV less than their female counterparts. income level. it has become famous and well-known. [10] Also TV advertisers may also target certain audiences of the population such as certain races. indeed. that was broadcast in 1984. Friends was able to charge almost three times as much for an advertisement as Murder. resulting in aging of the live viewing audience and consequently.TV advertisements are identified by an ISCI code. to the point where it is considered a classic television moment. television advertisement production studios often spend enormous sums of money in the production of one single thirty-second television spot. A number of television advertisements are so elaborately produced that they can be considered miniature thirty-second movies.000 per advertisement. the TV advertisement is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format. According to Advertising Age.[8] Broadcast networks are concerned by the increasing use of DVRs by young viewers.[8] The number of viewers within the target demographic is more important to ad revenues than total viewers. Grey's Anatomy was able to charge $419. television advertising is considered to be considerably cheaper than in the United States of America. during the 2007-08 season. even though the two series had similar total viewer numbers during the seasons they were on the air together. [edit] Popularity In the United States. Despite the popularity of some advertisements.000 for a 30 second slot during the 2010 series of Britain's Got Talent.[8] In recent years. despite CSI having almost five million more viewers on average. and even years (the Tootsie Roll company has been broadcasting a famous advertisement that asks "How many licks does it take to get to the tootsie center of a Tootsie Pop?" for over three decades). The current record for an advertising slot on British terrestrial television is quoted at being £250. and gender. In general. compared to only $248. advertisers covet the 18-49 age demographic.

A typical viewer has seen enough advertisements to anticipate that most advertisements will be bothersome. Finally. there might be around 6 minutes every half hour. the FCC imposed a rule requiring networks that broadcast programming on Saturday morning and Sunday nights at 7 PM/6 PM Central air bumpers ("We'll return after these messages.. A third might be that television is currently the main medium to advertise.". instead of 3 minutes every 8 minutes. advertisements featuring cigarettes were banned from American TV. Conversely.[citation needed] [edit] Restrictions Beginning on January 2. prompting ad campaigns by everyone from cell-phone companies. '80s. The United States Congress passed a bill on September 30.. which many people find exciting or entertaining to watch. to local businesses. but less frequent advertising breaks. 2010. media critics have claimed that the boundaries between "programming" and "advertisements" have been eroded to the point where the line is blurred nearly as much as it was during the beginnings of the medium. For example. the Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice has a similar regulation. fast food restaurants. with a minimum segment length of 20 or 30 minutes. and '90s. prompting the viewer to be mercilessly selective in their viewing. perhaps even looking forward to viewing it again. when television shows were sponsored by corporations. are secondary annoyance factors. then viewers tend to stay with the advertisement. the core reason people find advertisements annoying is that the advertisement's offer is not of interest at that moment. Advertisements for alcohol products are allowed.[citation needed] and household products and foods that are not new are no longer generally advertised as they were in the mid to late 20th century. The increasing number of advertisements.[citation needed]Subliminal messaging has also been banned. or the presentation is unclear. these are maximum limits and so specific regulations differ widely from both within and outside .. European Union legislation limits the time taken by commercial breaks to 12 minutes per hour (20%). or has entertainment value beyond the basic message (such as the classic humorous spots for Wendy's "Where's the beef?" campaign). but the consumption of any alcohol product is not allowed in a television advertisement.now back to our programming" and variations thereof) to help younger audiences distinguish programs from advertisements.[13] However. to reduce the volume of commercials. In the UK. and small businesses. From a cognitive standpoint. The only programs that were exempt from this rule were news shows and information shows relating to news (such as 60 Minutes).[citation needed] [edit] Are advertisements also programming? Since the 1960s. depending on the program content. another reason is that advertisements often cut into certain parts in the regular programming that are either climaxes of the plot or a major turning point in the show. 1971. political campaigns. [edit] Europe In many European countries television advertisements appear in longer.. Conditions on children's programming have eased a bit since the period of the 1970s and 1980s.cases much higher) than that of regular programming. Since the late 1990s TV advertisements have become far more diverse. as well as overplaying of the same advertisement. called the CALM Act. if an advertisement strikes a chord with the viewer (such as an ad for debt relief shown to a viewer who has received a late notice in the mail). prompting longer commercial breaks. For much of the 1970s. ".

nearly one third of the slot is taken up by adverts or trailers for other programs. With 42-minute American exports to Britain.m. and indeed from network to network. frequency and restriction of adverts on television. Toothpaste on September 22. Live imported television programs such as WWE Raw show promotional material that is shown in place of US advert breaks. Their programming is funded by a licence fee as well as advertisements on specific hours of the day (5 p. which regulates the duration. Nick Illston. the British Broadcasting Corporation is funded by a licence fee and does not screen adverts apart from the promotion of its own future programming (either 'coming soon' or the day's later programming features). On the commercial channels. research conducted by PRS for Music revealed that Light & Day by The Polyphonic Spree is the most performed song in UK TV advertising. Motors TV or Real Estate TV for less than £500 per 30 seconds. public television stations own a major share of the market.m. Private stations are allowed to show up to 12 minutes of ads per hour with a minimum of 20 minutes of programming in between interruptions. The growth of multi-channel television has changed the face of TV advertising making the medium effective for companies with niche products and a targeted audience. such as Lost.[12] [edit] Germany As in Britain. being given a one hour slot. New TV channels are launching every week in the UK and advertising opportunities are plentiful.[15] Television advertising specialist. . In 2008. Ofcom announced a Review of television advertising and teleshopping regulation. Rules on the Amount and Distribution of Advertising (RADA). Infomercials (known as "admags") were originally a feature of the regional commercial ITV stations from launch in 1955 but were banned in 1963. with a view to possibly changing their code. In 2010. in Germany. in Europe the advertising agency name may appear at the beginning or at the end of the advert. Unlike in the United States.[14] Freeview has provided a cheap entry level alternative to satellite and cable subscription services and has taken the penetration of digital television to well over 80%.000 asking price for a 30 second slot during the 2010 series of Britain's Got Talent is currently the most expensive advertising slot on television.[12] states that ITV's £250. MTV or E4 can be bought for less than £500000 and adverts on more targeted channels like the Business Channel.the EU. the amount of airtime allowed by the UK broadcasting regulator Ofcom for advertising is an overall average of 7 minutes per hour. 1955 on the ITV network (its first day). The first advert to be shown in the UK was an advert for S.). [edit] United Kingdom In the UK.R. 30-second advertisements on digital channels such as Sky News. except on Sundays and holidays. to 8 p. with limits of 12 minutes for any particular clock hour (8 minutes per hour between 6pm and 11pm).

This effectively gives an average of either 6 minutes or 9 minutes an hour depending on the type of broadcaster. with YLE and the main broadcasters all adding new channels (including some subscription channels). These can take from 2 minutes to 10 minutes depending on the time to the next show. TV2 shows commercials only in blocks between the programs. In Denmark.[edit] France France is the only European country to not use the system clock time. that run advertisements only on very infrequent occasions. . [edit] Finland In Finland. the number of TV channels has grown. Since digital TV has been introduced. A typical break lasts about 4 minutes.m and will completely disappear in 2012. but nowadays they are rarely over one minute in length. the advertisements do not feature Swedish subtitles nor are any Swedish language advertisements shown with the infrequent exception of some political advertisements at the time of elections. The Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel allows up to 9 minutes of advertising per hour on average in a day. such as important sport events. English language advertisements are also uncommon. so they do not show any commercials at all. Broadcasters funded by a television licence fee. the advertising is forbidden after 8 p. Commercial broadcasters. The length of individual advertisements can vary from a few seconds (7. overall broadcast time. and Nelonen ("Number Four" in Finnish). 10 and 15 are common). The duration for each is 4 minutes and 15 minutes per hour respectively. are permitted to allocate 10% of their broadcast minutage to advertising. RTÉ and TG4. there are two mainstream non-commercial channels run by the state owned broadcasting company YLE. [edit] Russia The Russian advertising break consists of 2 parts: federal adverts and regional adverts. Analogue broadcasts ceased in August 2007 and the nation's TV services are now exclusively digital. The three main commercial channels MTV3. The other Danish television network. [edit] Denmark The Danish DR-channels are funded by a television licence. For public channels. [edit] Ireland In the Republic of Ireland. Sub (a subsidiary of MTV3). Private channels can only broadcast one commercial break if the show is less than an hour and two commercial break if the show is more than an hour.[16] Regarding overall advertising minutes there is a difference between the public funded TV broadcasters and commercial TV broadcasters. Although Swedish is the other official language of Finland. TV3 and 3e (formerly Channel 6) and Setanta Ireland are permitted a maximum of 15% advertising time vs. all run their advertisements during breaks approximately every 15 minutes. Many advertisements of supranational companies are dubbed from English language advertisements. the Broadcasting Commission of Ireland allows up to a maximum of 10 minutes of advertising minutage per hour for all broadcasters.

Astro is also known to delay incoming satellite feeds by two to five minutes from the actual time of the start and the end of program (for example program aired at 1:30 pm will be started at 1:33 pm) with broadcasting advertisements during in-between programs for its purpose of commercial replacement. with the exception of news programs. As of 2010. Malaysian television advertisements were at first identified by KP/YYYY/XXXX. In 1999. There are usually two commercial breaks in a half-hour program and three commercial breaks in an hour-long program. [edit] Asia-Pacific [edit] Malaysia All television stations and channels. such as TV3. such as Sony. The KP is the abbreviation of the Ministry of Information while the YYYY is the year the advertisement produced and the XXXX is the number of the advert permit. as well as produced from within the country itself. except those recognizing Malaysia's brands. Communications and Culture and it was shown in the beginning of the advertisement.15 advertisement per commercial break. and it was earlier was shown at the beginning or end of the advert. broadcast advertisements. advertisements are shown with the KPKK/XXXX/YYYY. which was has been used before 1995 and the JIRP (Pesticide Advertising Department) for pesticide advertisements. in which the KPKK is the abbreviation of the Ministry of Information. Malaysian television stations broadcast only around 15 minutes of television commercials per hour. the Medicine Advertising Authority) for medicinal advertisements. advertisements that use this code (which was broadcast prior to mid-late 2009) is still broadcasting on television. Panasonic. the nation's state broadcaster. the duration of a typical break differs between local and foreign programs. Channels like Kanal 5 and TV3 are allowed to interrupt programs. 8TV and TV9. It is common for advertisements shown on RTM and also common for some advertisements shown on Astro satellite television service and Media Prima-owned television stations. and some of the shorter commercials (less than 15 seconds) show this code for the whole duration of the advertisement. It was also used in advertisements on newspapers and magazines. All pesticide advertisement must show the word "INI IALAH IKLAN RACUN PEROSAK" (This is a pesticide advertisement) and JIRP advertising code at the beginning of the advertisement and the word "BACALAH LABEL KELUARAN SEBELUM MENGGUNAKANNYA" (Read the label before use) at the end of the advertisement. ntv7. Other advertising permits includes the KKLIU (Ministry of Health. whether government-owned or private.commercial breaks are strictly prohibited and advertising targeted to children is restricted. which was first introduced in circa 1995. while RTM. Nokia and LG. . In Malaysia. as these channels are being broadcast via satellite from the United Kingdom. Since mid-late 2009. as government laws forbid advertisements produced from overseas. Terrestrial television can only broadcast advertisements during the program that was currently aired except before announcing the breaking of fast in the month of Ramadan. usually has shorter commercial break. Now it had been increase to around 20 minutes with 10 .

product ads wrapped up in informational content are labeled "public service announcements" and not included in the time restrictions. Some advertisements were banned from RTM due to problems. English and Chinese programming. Malay or Chinese language advertisements can also be broadcast during an English program if the advertisement is not made in English. Private television stations (especially TV3) has sparked some controversies to Malaysian entertainment in the recent years. and station identifications. Finnish and Korean programs for example. advertising on Australian commercial television is restricted to a certain amount in a 24-hour period. RTM may not broadcast television commercials during late at night (after 12 midnight) but private television stations (including Astro) is allowed to broadcast television commercials anytime. while cigarette advertisements have been banned from showing cigarette packaging since 1995.[19] Australian television has one of the highest advertising content in the world. Prime-time can see 18 minutes or more of ads per hour. which lead to audience anger and causes many viewers prefer to watch foreign programs than the local ones. but the broadcast of these advertisements were allowed on Astro and Media Prima-owned television advertisement breaks. English and Chinese. As a result. during commercial break.. but there are no restrictions on how much advertising may appear in any particular hour. for instance. On Astro. a move taken to help "promote public interest."[17][18] [edit] Australia Similar to the European Union. Fast-food advertisements during children's programs are also banned in 2007. advertising is self-regulated by individual broadcasters. There are also restrictions on Malaysian television advertisements such as advertisement for 18rated movies.. Furthermore. respectively. is not allowed to be broadcast during children's programs. Australia is also one of the few countries in the world where advertisements may appear prior . shown commercial in Malay. Like some other South East Asian countries. Lingerie advertisements are prohibited in Malaysian television. English and Chinese language. Television stations are allowed to broadcast promotion of television programs before the end of the commercial break. Consequently Australian viewers might see less than 40 minutes of actual program time per hour. Malaysian television advertisements were broadcast in Malay. but allowed in non-Malay magazines published in Malaysia. and lottery advertising. Foreign. Non-Malay. with the excessive advertisement space." announcements. comedy shows often return from an ad break into laughter. which is prohibited during Malay programs. The Association of Broadcasters of the Philippines. [edit] The Philippines In the Philippines. all Malaysian television stations has to remove the television channel's logo before a commercial break. respectively. and complete ban since 2003. feminine care products and unhealthy foods. the typical duration of a local half-hour and hour-long programs lasts only 20 and 40 minutes of the whole program excluding advertisements. a self-regulatory organization representing most television and radio broadcasters in the country.Liquor advertisements shown after 10:00 pm during non-Malay programs have been banned in the country since 1995. limit advertising to 18 minutes per hour. similarly with "this program brought to you by. such as Hindi. Tamillanguage advertisements are also shown. older television programs and movies are noticeably shortened.

and deals with advertisement complaints (except for election advertising.g. screen advertisements. but is restricted to approximately five minutes per hour. tobacco). and also on Sunday mornings before midday (although TV3 did broadcast adverts on Sunday mornings during the 2007 Rugby World Cup). Non-South Korean channels are not subject to these regulations. such as a complete ban on advertising for cigarettes. are forced to separate advertising from the rest of the programming using bumpers with the text "Espacio publicitario" ("Advertising space"). advertising of certain products is restricted (e. the commercials are usually put between the intro and the start of a program. Terrestrial channels often divide some longer-length films like The Ten Commandments into parts and consider each part as an individual program. but counted toward the 12 minute quota. in which the Broadcasting Standards Authority is responsible). Regulations for commercials on terrestrial channels are more strict than those for pay channels. . There are some restrictions on television advertising in Australia. The Advertising Standards Authority is responsible for advertisement compliance. the nation's public broadcaster. and over the top of. Television adverts are banned on Christmas Day. unhealthy foods) or banned (e. That means that if a 60 minute show has 2 minutes of in-program advertising. the closing credits of a program. as well as advertising during programs intended for young children[citation needed]. Tobacco advertisements are prohibited. There are usually two advert breaks in a half-hour program. In-program advertising is allowed. The ABC. South Under the current rules. broadcasts no external advertisements. [edit] New Zealand All major New Zealand television channels.g. the commercial breaks have to be limited to 10 minutes for that specific hour. Commercial advertising is limited to 12 minutes per hour. with adverts on average taking up 15 minutes of each hour. and between the end credits and the end of the program. but between programs will broadcast promotions for its own programs and merchandise. [edit] Latin America [edit] Argentina Since late 2010. when it began airing external ads as per the commercial stations. whether state-owned or private. terrestrial channels cannot take in-program commercial breaks. Pay-television channels can take in-program commercial breaks. Good Friday.to. SBS had similar restrictions on advertising until 2005. So. [edit] Korea. and four advert breaks in an hour-long program. all Argentine television channels (including cable channels operated from the country itself). Terrestrial channels can take commercial breaks during breaks in action during sporting events. Otherwise the station might face a fine. alcohol. Also. Easter Sunday. although some pay channels schedule advertisement in the same way that terrestrial channels do.

's use of U2's "Vertigo" became a source of publicity in themselves. the music of Beatles being perhaps the most well-known case. Some pop and rock songs were re-recorded by cover bands for use in advertisements. This also occurred in 1987 when Nike used the original recording of The Beatles' song "Revolution" in an advertisement for athletic shoes.[20] and later for other technological and business products such as computers and financial services. songs were often used over the objections of the original artists[citation needed]. with some advertisements displaying artist and song information onscreen at the beginning or end.[citation needed] In 1971 the converse occurred when a song written for a Coca-Cola advertisement was re-recorded as the pop single "I'd Like to Teach the World to Sing" by the New Seekers. more recently artists have actively solicited use of their music in advertisements and songs have gained popularity and sales after being used in advertisements. for example Iggy Pop's "Lust for Life". In early instances. For example Sly and the Family Stone's anti-racism song. who had lost control of their music publishing. "Everyday People". has been used to advertise Royal Caribbean International. but the cost of licensing original recordings for this purpose remained prohibitive until the late 1980s. [edit] Future of TV advertisements . which angered among people. many classic popular songs have been used in similar fashion. Often the trouble has been that people do not like the idea of using songs that promote values important for them in advertisements. "Spaceman".[citation needed] The use of previously-recorded popular songs in television advertisements began in earnest in 1985 when Burger King used the original recording of Aretha Franklin's song "Freeway of Love" in a television advertisement for the restaurant. In some cases the original meaning of the song can be totally irrelevant or even completely opposite to the implication of the use in advertising.[edit] Use of popular music Prior to the 1980s music in television advertisements was generally limited to jingles and incidental music. saxophones. Television advertising has become a popular outlet for new artists to gain an audience for their work. Songs can be used to concretely illustrate a point about the product being sold (such as Bob Seger's "Like a Rock" used for Chevy trucks). Sometimes a controversial reaction has followed the use of some particular song on an advertisement. Music-licensing agreements with major artists. which has used several one hit wonders in their advertisements (songs such as "Inside". a cruise ship line. especially those that had not previously allowed their recordings to be used for this purpose. A famous case is Levi's company. such as Microsoft's use of "Start Me Up" by the Rolling Stones and Apple Inc. but more often are simply used to associate the good feelings listeners had for the song to the product on display. In the late 1990s and early 2000s. a song about heroin use addiction. and "Flat Beat"). electronica music was increasingly used as background scores for television advertisements. on some occasions lyrics to a popular song would be changed to create a theme song or a jingle for a particular product.[who?][citation needed] Generic scores for advertisements often feature clarinets. or various strings (such as the acoustic/electric guitars and violins) as the primary instruments. initially for automobiles. Since then. and became a hit. was used in a car advertisement.

Incidentally. Television programs delivered through new mediums such as streaming online video also bring different possibilities to the traditional methods of generating revenue from television advertising. advertisements can still occur by the broadcast of race events. in North America at least. but in the extreme. only these happen more frequently. which blocks out some of the picture.000) shows that. not watched as live broadcast). race cars are frequently covered in advertisements. which allow the recording of television programs onto a hard drive.[22] Another type of advertisement shown more and more. However evidence from the UK shows that this is so far not the case. 82 percent of their viewing is to normal. Overall. and some sports events like the Sprint Cup of NASCAR are named after sponsors. they can take up as much as 25 percent of the viewing area. The majority of these households had Sky+ and data from these homes (collected via the SkyView[21] panel of more than 33. At the end of 2008 22 percent of UK households had a DTR. Other forms of TV advertising include Product placement advertising in the TV shows themselves. are named for commercial companies. For example. or "Logo Bugs".e. The SkyView evidence is reinforced by studies on actual DTR behaviour by the Broadcasters' Audience Research Board (BARB) and the London Business School. mostly for advertising TV shows on the same channel. broadcast TV without fast-forwarding the ads. such as TiVo. they may sometimes take up only 5 to 10 percent of the screen. the extra viewing encouraged by owning a DTR results in viewers watching 2 percent more ads at normal speed than they did before the DTR was installed. are referred to by media companies as Secondary Events (2E). The introduction of digital video recorders (also known as digital television recorders or DTRs). This is done in much the same way as a severe weather warning is done. Subtitles that are part of the program content can be completely obscured . also enabled viewers to fast-forward or automatically skip through advertisements of recorded programs. Dish Network and Astro MAX. "Banners". viewers still watch 30 percent of the ads at normal speed. as they are called. they watch 17 percent more television. Extreme Makeover: Home Edition advertises Sears.Though advertisements for cigarettes are banned in many countries. Kenmore. many major sporting venues. There is speculation that television advertisements are threatened by digital video recorders as viewers choose not to watch them. and services like Sky+. linear. is an ad overlay at the bottom of the TV screen. In the 18 percent of TV viewing that is time-shifted (i. and Home Depot by specifically using products from these companies. and of course. once a household gets a DTR. dating back as far as Wrigley Field.

as well as reducing channel surfing and fast-forwarding past the ads. Google's Eric Schmidt has announced plans to enter the television ad delivery and optimization business. One example is the 2E ads for Three Moons Over Milford. four to six minutes fewer than other hour-long programs. During the 2008-09 TV season. which help in recalling and responding to advertising produced primarily for television. which was broadcast in the months before the TV show's premiere. but some have speculated that they will use a similar model to that of their business strategy directed at radio broadcast. which included the acquisition of operations system support provider. A video taking up approximately 25 percent of the bottom-left portion of the screen would show a comet impacting into the moon with an accompanying explosion. Some even make noise or move across the screen. However. These directories also have the potential to offer other value-added services.by banners.[23][24] Online video directories are an emerging form of interactive advertising. . Fox stated that shorter commercial breaks keep viewers more engaged and improve brand recall for advertisers. which greatly enhance the scope of the interaction with the brand. This is despite the fact that Google lacks an immediate video production and network placement foothold. such as response sheets and click-to-call. which the network dubbed "Remote-Free TV". Episodes of Fringe and Dollhouse contained approximately ten minutes of advertisements. the strategy was not as successful as the network had hoped and it is unclear whether it will be continued into the next season. There are few details in place about how this may occur. during another television program. Fox experimented with a new strategy.

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