Are you sure?
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Fatigue Behaviour and Analysis
81 pages, 56 figures
Advanced Level
prepared by Dimitris Kosteas, Technische Universität München
Objectives:
− To understand why, when and where fatigue problems may arise and the special
significance to aluminium as structural material
− To understand the effects of material and loading parameters on fatigue
− To appreciate the statistical nature of fatigue and its importance in data analysis,
evaluation and use
− To estimate fatigue life under service conditions of timedependent, variable
amplitude loading
− To estimate stresses acting in notches and welds with conceptual approaches other
than nominal stress
− To provide qualitative and quantitative information on the classification of welded
details and allow for more sophisticated design procedures
Prerequisites:
− Background in materials engineering, design and fatigue
Date of Issue: 1994
© EAA  European Al umi ni um Associ at i on
TALAT 2401 2
2401 Fatigue Behaviour and Analysis
Table of Contents
2401.01 Introduction............................................................................................... 4
Significance of the Fatigue Problem and its Influence on Design...........................4
Significance of Fatigue for Aluminium Structures ..................................................5
Potential Sites for Fatigue Cracks............................................................................5
Conditions for Susceptibility ...................................................................................6
Definitions ...............................................................................................................9
Symbols..................................................................................................................16
2401.02 Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters ...................................... 17
Response of Material to Cyclic Loading................................................................18
Generation of Fatigue Cracks ................................................................................20
Fatigue Crack Growth............................................................................................23
Crack Growth Mechanisms....................................................................................26
Effect of other Parameters on Crack Propagation Rate .........................................28
Endurance Limit.....................................................................................................29
Predictive Theories of Fatigue ...............................................................................29
Damage Accumulation Theories............................................................................30
MansonCoffin Law...............................................................................................30
Crack Growth Laws ...............................................................................................32
Ideal Cumulative Damage Theory .........................................................................32
2401.03 Fatigue Data Analysis and Evaluation.................................................. 34
Analysis of Data.....................................................................................................35
Analysis in the MiddleCycle Fatigue Range ........................................................36
Analysis in the HighCycle Fatigue Range............................................................38
Fatigue Diagrams ...................................................................................................39
Linear PSN Curves..............................................................................................41
NonLinear PSN Curves......................................................................................42
Some Problems of Data Analysis in Practice.........................................................43
TALAT 2401 3
2401.04 Load Spectra and Damage Accumulation............................................ 46
Service Behaviour..................................................................................................46
Time Dependent Loads ..........................................................................................47
Spectrum Definition and Cycle Counting..............................................................47
The RainFlow Cycle Counting Method................................................................50
The Service Behaviour Fatigue Test ......................................................................51
Analytical Life Estimation and Damage Accumulation ........................................54
The PalmgrenMiner Linear Damage Accumulation Hypothesis..........................55
Service Behaviour Assessment ..............................................................................58
Literature................................................................................................................60
2401.05 Local Stress Concepts and Fatigue........................................................ 61
Analytical Relationship between Strain and Fatigue Life......................................61
Notch Theory Concept ...........................................................................................62
The StrainLife Diagram........................................................................................63
References..............................................................................................................65
Remarks .................................................................................................................65
2401.06 Effects of Weld Imperfections on Fatigue ............................................ 66
Types of Imperfections ..........................................................................................67
Influence of Imperfections on Static Strength .......................................................69
Influence of Imperfections on Fatigue Strength.....................................................71
Cracks ............................................................................................................... 72
Porosity............................................................................................................. 72
Inclusions, Oxides............................................................................................. 74
Lack of Penetration  Lack of Fusion ............................................................... 74
Weld Shape........................................................................................................ 76
Geometric Misalignment................................................................................... 76
Arc Strike, Spatter............................................................................................. 77
PostWeld Mechanical Imperfections ............................................................... 77
2401.07 Literature/References ............................................................................... 79
2401.08 List of Figures............................................................................................ 80
TALAT 2401 4
2401.01 Introduction
• Significance of the fatigue problem and its influence on design
• Significance of fatigue for aluminium structures
• Potential sites for fatigue cracks
• Conditions for susceptibility
• Definitions
• Symbols
Significance of the Fatigue Problem and its Influence on Design
Structures subjected to fluctuating service loads in sufficient numbers are liable to fail
by fatigue. Although the number of structures that have failed by fatigue under service
conditions is low the consequences can be costly in terms of human life and/or property
damage. Consequences may be catastrophic especially when no appropriate inspection
intervals are observed and fatigue damage can grow and accumulate during service life.
Today's understanding of fatigue mechanisms, the experimental data available, in many
cases the manufacturing process of constructional components, and the analytical
methods applied offer a high degree of sophistication in the design procedures.
However, currently the most important task is educational. It must be granted that all
aspects of the fatigue problem and of fracture control are not yet universally available
during engineering education. The following chapters try to give an overall outline of
mechanisms, influencing parameters, analytical methods, and suggestions for better
design. Beyond this the engineer must deal with actual problems. Experience is the best
teacher, and so calculation examples have been added to the theoretical information.
For structures under fatigue loads the degree of compliance with the static limit state
criteria given in other sections of these design rules may not serve as any useful guide to
the risk of fatigue failure.
It is necessary therefore to establish as early as possible the extent to which fatigue is
likely to control the design. In doing this the following factors are important.
a) an accurate prediction of the complete loading sequence throughout the design life
should be available.
b) the elastic response of the structure under these loads should be accurately
assessed
c) detail design, methods of manufacture and degree of quality control can have a
major influence on fatigue strength, and should be defined more precisely than for
statically controlled members. This can have a significant influence on design and
construction cost.
TALAT 2401 5
Significance of Fatigue for Aluminium Structures
Aluminium due to its physical and mechanical properties often finds application in areas
where the ratio of dead weight of the structure to the total weight is significantly lower
than in structures with steel or concrete. This implies that structural applications will be
governed by a different ratio of minimum to maximum stresses. Such applications may
also be frequently found in areas of severe environmental exposure. Because of
applications in transportation area there is also a pressure on the design engineer to
choose a lightweight, but then damageprone, structure.
A great deal can be accomplished in terms of complementary methods of analysis
utilising recent developments in fracture mechanics and respective data for aluminium
alloys and joints in aluminium structures. It is only but recently that such methods and
data have been systematically documented and are now been made available to practical
design.
It should be kept in mind that rules and design values stated for steel structures cannot in
every case be assumed for or adapted to respective problems in aluminium.
Potential Sites for Fatigue Cracks
Most common initiation sites for fatigue cracks are as follows:
a) toes and roots of fusion welds
b) machined corners and drilled holes
c) surfaces under high contact pressure (fretting)
d) roots of fastener threads
In a typical structural component designed statically the fatigue assessment will not
normally present a more severe demand to be fulfilled. Only in cases of respective
applications with frequent and significant load variations fatigue will be the governing
criterion.
In a comparative study (Kosteas/Ondra: "Abgrenzung der Festigkeitsnachweise im
Leichtmetallbau. Research report 235/91, Munich 01.10.1992) for an aluminium column
for which both a static and a fatigue assessment were performed, it can be demonstrated
that the static limit state assessment (ultimate limit state, flexural/torsional buckling,
local buckling, deflection) limits the applicability range of the fatigue design SN curves
to approx. above 10
5
cycles. An extrapolation of design SN curves down to 10
4
will
rarely have any practical meaning. Bearing in mind that with a variation or enhancement
of the geometrical dimensions of the calculated case the relative static limit state
assessments will have a more pronounced influence, the applicability range of fatigue
design moves to even higher cycle numbers.
TALAT 2401 6
Conditions for Susceptibility
The main conditions affecting fatigue performance are as follows:
a) high ratio of dynamic to static load. Moving or lifting structures, such as land or
sea transport vehicles, cranes, etc. are more likely to be prone to fatigue problems
than fixed structures unless the latter are predominately carrying moving loads as
in the case of bridges.
b) frequent applications of load. This results in a high number of cycles in the design
life. Slender structures or members with low natural frequencies are particularly
prone to resonance and enhance magnification of dynamic stress, even though the
static design stresses are low. Structures subjected predominantly to fluid loading,
such as wind and structures supporting machinery, should be carefully checked for
resonance effects.
c) use of welding. Some commonly used welded details have low fatigue strength.
This applies not only to joints between members, but also to any attachment to a
loaded member, whether or not the resulting connection is considered to be
'structural'.
d) complexity of joint detail. Complex joints frequently result in high stress concen
trations due to local variations in stiffness of the load path. While these may have
little effect on the ultimate static capacity of the joint, they can have a severe effect
on fatigue resistance. If fatigue is dominant, the member crosssectional shape
should be selected to ensure smoothness and simplicity of joint design, so that
stresses can be calculated and adequate standards of fabrication and inspection can
be assured.
e) environment. In certain thermal and chemical environments fatigue strength may
be reduced.
Figure 2401.01.01 Fatigue  Where?
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.01.01
Fatigue  Where?
bridges
highwaysignbridges
parts of buildings
cranes, machinery
offshore components
components of land or
sea vehicles
Fatigue  Where?
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
TALAT 2401 7
Figure 2401.01.02 Fatigue  Location
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Fatigue  Location
Fastener threads
2401.01.02
Frequent Fatigue Location Sites
Toes and roots of
fusion welds
Surfaces under high
contact pressure
Machined corners
and drilled holes
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Figure 2401.01.03 Fatigue  When and What?
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Fatigue  When and What?
2401.01.03
Fatigue  When and What?
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
subjected to fluctuating service loads in
sufficient numbers
cracks initiate + propagate to final failure
consequences are costly in terms of
human life and property damage
When:
What:
TALAT 2401 8
Figure 2401.01.04 Fatigue  The Remedy
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Fatigue  The Remedy
2401.01.04 Fatigue  The Remedy
educate for good design + fracture control
predict service load history, assess damage
Bear in mind:
! design,
! manufacturing and
! degree of quality control have major
influence on fatigue strength, and influence
! design and construction costs significantly
#
#
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Figure 2401.01.05 Fatigue  Significance for Aluminium
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Fatigue  Significance for Al
! severe environmental exposure
2401.01.05
Due to its physical and mechanical properties
(low specific weight, low modulus of elasticity,
corrosion resistance) aluminium is found frequently
in applications with:
! ratio σ
min
/σ
max
different from steel or concrete
! lightweight transportation, # damageprone
Fatigue  Significance for Al
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
TALAT 2401 9
Definitions
Block a specified number of constant amplitude loading cy
cles applied consecutively, or a spectrum loading se
quence of finite length that is repeated identically
Confidence Interval an interval estimate of a population parameter com
puted so that the statement 'the population parameter
included in this interval will be true, on the average,
in a stated portion of the times such computations
are made based on different samples from the
population.
Confidence Level the stated proportion of the times the confidence in
terval is expected to include the population
parameter
Confidence Limits the two statistics that define a confidence interval
Constant Amplitude Loading a loading in which all of the peak loads are equal and
all of the valley loads are equal
Constant Life Diagram a plot (usually on rectangular coordinates) of a
family of curves each of which is for a single fatigue
life, N, relating stress amplitude ∆σ, to mean stress
σ
m
or maximum stress σ
max
, or to minimum stress,
σ
min
.
Corrosion Fatigue synergistic effect of fatigue and aggressive environ
ment acting simultaneously, which leads to a degra
dation in fatigue behaviour.
Counting Method a method of counting the occurrences and defining
the magnitude of various loading parameters from a
loadtime history; (some of the counting methods
are: level crossing count, peak count, mean crossing
peak count, range count, rangepair count, rainflow
count, racetrack count).
Crack Size a a lineal measure of a principal planar dimension of a
crack, commonly used in the calculation of
quantities descriptive of the stress and displacement
fields, and often also termed 'crack length'.
CutOff Limit the fatigue strength at 1*10
8
cycles corresponding to
the SN curve. All stresses below this limit may be
ignored
TALAT 2401 10
Cycle one complete sequence of values of load that is
repeated under constant amplitude loading. The
symbol n or N is used to indicate the number of
cycles (see definition of fatigue life).
Cycles Endured the number of cycles of specified character (that pro
duce fluctuating load) which a specimen has endured
at any time in its load history
Cycle Ratio the ratio of cycles endured, n, to the estimated
fatigue life (SN) or the strain versus fatigue life (ε
N) diagram for cycles of the same character, that is,
C=n/N
Design Life the period during which the structure is required to
perform without repair
Design Spectrum the total of all stress spectra, caused by all loading
events during design life, to be used in the fatigue
assessment
Discontinuity an absence of material causing stress concentration.
Typical discontinuities are cracks, scratches, corro
sion pits, lack of penetration, porosity or undercut
Environment the aggregate of chemical species and energy that
surrounds the test specimen
Estimation a procedure for making a statistical inference about
the numerical values of one or more unknown popu
lation parameters from observed values in sample
FailSafe fatigue limit state assessing the gradual, stable crack
propagation
Fatigue the process of progressive localised permanent struc
tural change occurring in a material subjected to con
ditions that produce fluctuating stresses and strains
at some point or points and that may culminate in
cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number
of fluctuations
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate the rate of crack extension caused by constant ampli
tude fatigue loading, expressed in terms of crack ex
tension per cycle of fatigue (da/dN)
Fatigue Life N the number of loading cycles of a specified character
that a given specimen sustains before failure of a
specified nature occurs
TALAT 2401 11
Fatigue Limit σ
f
theoretically the fatigue strength for N→∞, or the
limiting value of the median fatigue strength as the
fatigue life, N, becomes very large. When all stresses
are less than the fatigue limit, no fatigue assessment
is required. In most cases the fatigue limit is given at
2*10
6
or 5*10
6
cycles.
Fatigue Loading periodic or nonperiodic fluctuation loading applied
to a test specimen or experienced by a structure in
service (also known as cyclic loading).
Fatigue Notch Factor K
f
the ratio of the fatigue strength of a specimen with
no stress concentration to the fatigue strength of a
specimen with a stress concentration for the same
percent survival at N cycles and for the same
conditions
Fatigue Notch Sensitivity a measure of the degree of agreement between
fatigue notch factor K
f
and the theoretical stress
concentration factor K
t
Fatigue Strength a value of stress for failure at exactly N cycles as de
termined from a SN diagram. The value of S
N
thus
determined is subject to the same conditions as those
which applied to the SN diagram
Group the specimens of the same type tested at one time, or
consecutively, at one stress level. A group may com
prise one or more specimens
Hysteresis the stressstrain path during the cycle
Loading Amplitude one half of the range of a cycle
Loading Event a well defined loading sequence on the entire struc
ture caused by the occurrence of a loading. This may
be the approach, passage and departure of a vehicle
or device on the structure
Loading (Unloading) Rate the time rate of change in the monotonic increasing
(decreasing) portion of the load time function
Load Stress Ratio R the algebraic ratio of the two loading parameters of a
cycle; the most widely used ratio is
R = P
min
/P
max
= σ
min
/σ
max
Maximum Load P
max
the load having the highest algebraic value
TALAT 2401 12
Maximum Stress σ
max
the stress having the highest algebraic value
Mean Load P
m
the algebraic average of the maximum and minimum
loads in constant amplitude loading, or of individual
cycles in spectrum loading, or the integral average of
the instantaneous load values of a spectrum loading
history
Mean Stress σ
m
the algebraic average of the maximum and minimum
stresses in constant amplitude loading, or of
individual cycles in spectrum loading, or the integral
average of the instantaneous stress values of a
spectrum loading history
Miner's Summation a linear damage accumulation calculation
(PalmgrenMiner rule)
Minimum Load P
min
load having the lowest algebraic value
Minimum Stress σ
min
stress having the lowest algebraic value
Nominal Stress the applied stress calculated on the area of the net
section of the structural component by simple theory
ignoring stress raisers and disregarding plastic flow
Parameter a constant (usually to be estimated) defining some
property of the frequency distribution of the popula
tion, such as a population median or a population of
a standard deviation
Peak the occurrence where the fatigue derivative of the
load time history changes from positive to negative
sign; the point of maximum load in constant
amplitude loading
Population the totality of set of test specimens, real or
conceptual, that could prepared in the specified way
from the material under consideration
Probability of Failure P the ratio of the number of observations failing in
fatigue to the total number of observations
Probability of Survival Q it follows that P + Q = 1
Random Loading a spectrum load where the peak and valley loads and
their sequence result of a random process; the
loading is usually described in terms of its statistical
properties, such as the probability density function,
TALAT 2401 13
the mean, the root mean square, the irregularity
factor, and others as appropriate
Range ∆P, ∆σ, ∆ε the algebraic difference between successive valley
and peak loads (positive range or increasing load
range) or between successive peak and valley loads
(negative range or decreasing load range).
Reversal the occurrence where the first derivative of the load
time history changes sign
RunOut the piece at a number of cycles at which no apparent
fatigue damage has been observed and test is
continued
Sample the specimens selected from the population for test
purposes
Significance an effect or difference between populations is said to
be present if the value of a teststatistic is significant,
that is, lies outside of selected limits
Survival Limit p% a curve fitted to the fatigue life for p% survival va
lues of each several stress levels. It is an estimate of
the relationship between stress and the number of
cycles to failure that p% of the population would
survive, p may be any percent (in most cases p is set
equal 97.5%)
SN Diagram a plot of stresses against the number of cycles to
failure. The stress can be the maximum stress σ
max
,
the minimum stress σ
min
, or stress range ∆σ. The
diagram indicates the SN relationship for a
specified value of σ
m
or R and a specified
probability of survival. For N a log scale is almost
always used. For σ a linear scale or log scale is used
in most cases.
Spectrum Loading a loading in which all of the peak loads are not equal
or all of the valley loads are not equal (also known
as variable amplitude loading)
Statistic a summary value calculated from the observed
values in a sample
Stress Level the pair of stress (or strain) components necessary to
define the applied cycle
TALAT 2401 14
Stress Ratio R the algebraic ratio of the minimum stress to the
maximum stress in one cycle, R = σ
min
/σ
max
Stress Intensity Factor K the magnitude of the idealcracktip stress field (a
stressfield singularity) for a particular mode in a
homogeneous, linear elastic body
Stress Concentration Factor K
t
the ratio of the greatest stress in the region of a notch
as determined by advanced theory to the
corresponding stress
Test of Significance a statistical test that purports to provide a test of a
null hypothesis, for example, that an imposed
treatment in the experiment is without effect
Tolerance Interval an interval computed so that it will include at least a
stated percentage of the population with stated prob
ability
Tolerance Limit the two statistics that define a tolerance interval
Truncation the exclusion of cycles with values above, or the ex
clusion of cycles with values below a specified level
(referred to as truncation level) of a loading para
meter
Valley The occurrence where the first derivative of the lad
time history changes from negative to positive sign;
the point of minimum load in constant amplitude
loading
Variable Amplitude Loading see spectrum loading
TALAT 2401 15
Figure 2401.01.06 Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading
range
L
o
a
d
Time
cycle
maximum, P
max
amplitude, P
a
mean, P
m
minimum, P
min
amplitude, P
a
2401.01.06
Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading
Figure 2401.01.07 Definitions: Spectrum Loading
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Definitions: Spectrum Loading
Definitions: Spectrum Loading
2401.01.07
L
o
a
d
Time
peak
reversal
reversal
mean
valley
mean crossing
(+) range
() range
TALAT 2401 16
Symbols
a crack length
e eccentricity
E modulus of elasticity
G shear modulus
K stress intensity factor
l length of attachments
m slope constant in fatigue strength equation
n
i
number of cycles corresponding to specified stresses σ
i
N number of cycles corresponding to a particular fatigue strength
N
c
cutofflimit
R stress ratio R = σ
min
/σ
max
t plate thickness
R
m
ultimate tensile strength
R
p,0.2
tensile strength at ε = 0.2 %
ε
max
maximum strain
ε
min
minimum strain
∆ε strain range
σ
max
maximum stress
σ
min
minimum stress
σ
res
residual stress
∆σ stress range ∆σ = σ
max
 σ
min
∆σ
e
equivalent constant amplitude stress calculated from the respective
stress range spectrum for a particular value for m
τ shear stress
TALAT 2401 17
2401.02 Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters
• Response of material to cyclic loading
• Generation of fatigue cracks
• Fatigue crack growth
• Crack growth mechanism
• Effect of other parameters on crack propagation rate
• Endurance limit
• Predictive theories of fatigue
• Damage accumulation theories
• MansonCoffin law
• Crack growth laws
• Ideal cumulative damage theory
Fatigue damage occurs in metals due to local concentrations of plastic strain.
Consequently minimising these strain concentrations must be the first rule for avoiding
fatigue failure. As an alternative or complementary method a material must be chosen
which best resists the mechanisms which lead to cracks and their growth.
It is important to understand these mechanisms and the influence of them on material
properties, load amplitudes and their sequence, temperature and environment. We treat
the problem in a simplified view recognising the fact that real structures contain discon
tinuities which may develop into cracks with applications of stress, progressive crack
extension following up to final failure. We study thus the material response to cyclic
loading at temperatures in the subcreep range. Procedures for minimising, repairing and
detecting fatigue damage can be thus applied intelligently.
By far the most common mode of fatigue failure consists simply of initiation and propa
gation of cracks to the point of static failure. A degradation of material properties during
fatigue is not normally observed.
Superimposed on the general response of the material to cyclic loading, i.e. hardening or
softening depending on the material, the load amplitude and the temperature, localised
plastic deformation develops at stress concentration points. This repeated, localised
plastic deformation leads to crack initiation. Provided the local stress concentration ex
ceeds a certain threshold, a fatigue crack, once initiated, continues to grow a finite
amount during each cycle.
Crack propagation occupies a major portion of fatigue life, especially at high load am
plitudes. Final failure may be the result of the growth of one crack, or of many small
cracks coalescing into a final crack. The higher the load amplitude, the more likely the
production of multiple cracks. Corrosive environment also produces multiple cracking
and accelerates failure.
TALAT 2401 18
Final catastrophic failure occurs when a crack has grown to a critical length such that
the next application of load produces static failure of the remaining net section. Under
service conditions of variable amplitude loading, the critical crack length must be
defined of course, in terms of the highest expected load and the total load spectrum.
Redundant structures, i.e. structures designed with 'crack arrestors' stopping the rapid
growth of critical cracks before they weaken the integrity of the total structure, represent
an important advance in fatigue design based on the previously described crack growth
mechanisms.
Response of Material to Cyclic Loading
The familiar stressstrain relation and work hardening under static, tensile loading con
dition forms practically the first quartercycle of an extended fatigue test. The fatigue
test itself can be performed in a stress or straincontrolled manner. The stress amplitude
σ or strain amplitude ε, the mean stress or strain, and the number of cycles N
characterise the usual fatigue test. For straincontrolled tests one has to distinguish
between control of either the total or the plastic strain amplitude.
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
∆σ
σ
$
σ
σp
∆
t
p
σp
N
σs
(a) Stresscontrolled stress strain loops
(b) Straincontrolled stressstrain loops
Stress or Strain Control
2401.02.01
StressStrain Loops:
(a) Stress Control, (b) Strain Control
$
(c) Straincontrolled hardening
(d) Straincontrolled softening (initially
cold worked metal)
N
σp
σs
Source: J. C. Grosskreutz, 1970
If the stress range ∆σ is controlled and maintained constant, the strain amplitude gradu
ally decreases, Figure 2401.02.01. If the plastic strain range ∆ε
p
is controlled, the stress
amplitude required to maintain the strain limit gradually increases. A fatigue hardening
or softening curve is represented by the peak stress amplitude σ
p
when each cycle is
plotted against the number of cycles. Such curves generally show that rapid hardening or
softening occurs in the first few percent of total fatigue life. Eventually the material
'shakes down' into a steadystate or saturation condition in which the rate of hardening
or softening becomes zero. The magnitude of the saturation stress, σ
s
depends on the
TALAT 2401 19
plastic strain amplitude, the temperature and the initial degree of cold work  σ
s
increases when ∆ε
p
is increased or the temperature is decreased. Aluminium exhibits
generally a unique saturation stress σ
s
for a given ∆ε
p
and temperature independent of
prior load history (the socalled wavyslip mode).
The locus of the tips of all steadstate cyclic loops of width ∆ε
p
forms the socalled
'cyclic stressstrain curve', i.e. the steadystate cyclic stress strain behaviour of the
material. The curve is generated by plotting (for a given temperature and initial
condition) the saturation stress vs. ∆ε
p
/2, (Figure 2401.02.02). An approximate
expression for the cyclic stressstrain curve is:
σ
s
= σ
o
(∆ε
p
/2)
n'
where
σ
o
is a constant and n' is the cyclic strain hardening exponent with a value of approxi
mately 0.15 for wavyslip mode materials such as aluminium.
The above equation is extremely useful in low cycle fatigue applications. It gives in con
venient form the stable stress amplitudes to be expected from a given imposed strain
amplitude, or viceversa. Using it, one can convert easily from MansonCoffin type
plots of log(∆σ
p
) vs. log(n) to SN plots.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
σ
σ
εp
S
t
r
e
s
s
Plastic Strain of
∆εp
/2
Cyclic Stress
Strain Curve
Monotonic Stress
Strain Curve
Cyclic Stress
Strain Curve
Monotonic StressStrain Curve
Stable Loops
Annealed Material
Cold Worked Material
Cyclic StressStrain Curve 2401.02.02
Comparison of monotonic tensile and cyclic
stressstrain curves. For aluminium  a wavy slip
mode material  the two cyclic stress
strain curves would be identical.
Construction of the cyclic stress
strain curve from stable loops
after Feltner and Laird, 1967
TALAT 2401 20
On a microscopic scale the movement of dislocations in the crystal structure leads to the
saturation condition as described above and serves only to determine the flow stress of
the metal, i.e. its hardness.
Fatigue hardening/softening mechanisms in complex, precipitation hardened alloys such
as the 7000 series of aluminium alloys are not as straightforward. Nevertheless, the main
product of the cycling is again a dense array of dislocations whose presence per se does
not serve to weaken the material. In certain, specific cases, cyclic straining can cause
actual degradation of the precipitate structure in an alloy, thus causing irreversible
softening. The softened zones can then become the sites of fatigue failure. A
controversy exists over whether such action occurs in highpurity Al4Cu alloys. No
such softening has ever been observed in commercial aluminium alloys, however
(Figure 2402.02.02).
In the presence of stress concentration, enhanced fatigue hardening will occur in propor
tion to the stress or strain concentration factor. One can expect this enhancement in the
vicinity of notches, fasteners, welds, and most importantly, near the tip of a fatigue
crack.
Generation of Fatigue Cracks
When is a crack ?
For the practitioner a crack exists when he can see it with the observational technique,
he normally employs for such purposes, the naked eye, a glass magnifier, a metallogra
phic microscope, or an electron microscope. A fatigue crack may vary in length from
anywhere from 3mm down to 1000Å.
Defining a crack in terms of the highest resolving power instrument available (the elec
tron microscope for instance) it is possible to establish a number of load cycles N
I
, to
generate an observable fatigue crack. It is usual to express the result in terms of the
fraction of total life, N
I
/N
T
. It has been shown that this ratio is normally a small number
in unnotched members, about 0.1, so that fatigue crack propagation occupies a large
percentage of total life. This is especially true in structural components with existing
imperfections due to manufacturing. Nevertheless the mechanisms of crack initiation
and respective estimation of life cycles are important for certain applications in the high
cycle range.
As already mentioned fatigue cracks always begin at concentrations of plastic strain.
Consequently if no other manufacturing imperfections are present fatigue cracks have
their origins at the surface. The socalled slip band formation, extrusions and intrusions
on the surface of an otherwise uncracked material form fatigue crack initiation sites
(Figure 2401.02.03).
TALAT 2401 21
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
NotchPeak Geometry of Slip Bands 2401.02.03
NotchPeak Geometry of Slip Bands at a Free Surface
S
l
i
p
B
a
n
d
Surface
Under high amplitude loading fatigue cracks start at grain boundaries in pure alumini
um. In many commercial alloys the existence of large second phase particles, inclusions,
play a predominant role in crack generation. They cause localised plastic deformation
leading to cracking usually at the inclusion matrix interface (Figure 2401.02.04).
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
Fatigue Crack Initiation at a Surface Inclusion 2401.02.04
Fatigue Crack Initiation at a Surface Inclusion
after 5% of Total Life
2024T4 Aluminium Alloy
after J. C, Grosskreutz, ASTM STP 495, 1970
Inclusion
Fatigue Crack
Other flaws such as internal voids or large surface scratches may be the sites of fatigue
crack generation. Such flaws need only the application of cyclic load to begin their
growth as bona fide fatigue cracks.
TALAT 2401 22
Joints are an important site for fatigue crack generation in structures since they exhibit
substantial stress concentration points, notches, either on the free surface of the compo
nent or at internal surfaces, such as lack of penetration in welds. Another cause for fati
gue crack formation at joints may be fretting.
There is indication that cracks must reach a minimum critical size before they can begin
propagating. Nonpropagating microcracks which have been observed at very low stress
amplitudes may be examples of cracks, for which the generation mechanism ceased to
operate before they reached critical size.
The value of N
I
/N
T
is dependent of the load amplitude, specimen geometry, material
properties, the temperature, previous loading history, and the environment. In very gene
ral terms the following statements help to describe the various effects.
The value of N
I
/N
T
decreases with increasing load amplitude, so that in the extreme low
cycle range the entire life is consumed in crack propagation and in the extreme high cy
cle range a substantial portion of the entire life is consumed in crack initiation. With in
creasing load amplitude a larger number of cracks are generated. A stress concentration
will reduce N
I
/N
T
(Table 1). Microcracks will develop more quickly in wavyslip mode
materials. Cracks develop sooner in more ductile materials as illustrated by comparing
the notched 2014 and 2024 aluminium alloy with the 7075 alloy.
The combination of fatigue stresses and even a mildly corrosive environment accelerates
the time for crack generation. The effects on later crack growth are even more pronou
nced. One of the more important environmental constituents is water vapour which has a
strong effect on the fatigue of aluminium and its alloys. Previous load history can have
two effects. First, if the material has been hardened, as already mentioned in the case
with commercial aluminium alloys, the yield stress is increased, and under constant
stress conditions, the time to generate a crack would be increased. Secondly, prior load
ing can produce significant residual stresses at the root of a notch. For example prior
tensile stress will leave a compressive residual stress, and cracks at the notch root will
be very slow in developing compared to the annealed state. A similar situation may arise
by superimposed stress conditions such as mean stresses due to external loads or to
residual stresses. Treatments such as shotpeening are used to induce compressive resid
ual stresses on surfaces, so that N
I
can be significantly increased.
Before applying any of these guidelines to a specific situation it should first be ascertai
ned whether cracks already may exist, in which case the crack generation state, often
referred to as crack initiation stage as well, is effectively bypassed. Many real structures
already contain microcracks before the first service load is ever applied.
TALAT 2401 23
Material Specimen
Geometry
Crack Site N
T
Cycles
Cracklength
at first
observation
10
2
mm
N
I
/N
T
Pure Al smooth Grain
Boundary
3 ⋅ 10
5
1.3 0.10
2024T3 smooth
5 ⋅ 10
4
10.2 0.40
smooth
1 ⋅ 10
6
10.2 0.70
2024T4 smooth 150 25 0.60
1 ⋅ 10
3
25 0.72
5 ⋅ 10
3
25 0.88
Pure Al notched
K
t
≈2
slip bands
2 ⋅ 10
6
0.025 0.005
2024T4 notched
K
t
≈2
inclusions
1 ⋅ 10
5
2.0 0.05
3 ⋅ 10
6
1 0.07
2014T6 notched
K
t
≈2
2 ⋅ 10
3
6.3 0.015
2 ⋅ 10
4
6.3 0.02
1 ⋅ 10
6
6.3 0.05
7075T6 notched
K
t
≈2
inclusions
2 ⋅ 10
5
50 0.64
7075T6 notched
K
t
≈2
5 ⋅ 10
3
7.6 0.20
1 ⋅ 10
5
7.6 0.40
Table 1: Crack generation time as a fraction of total life (after ASTM STP 495,
Grosskreuz)
Fatigue Crack Growth
The increase in crack length ∆a for the increment ∆N of load cycles define the growth
rate, ∆a/∆N. This is a function of both, the crack length a and the stress or strain ampli
tude. Observed growth rates may range between 10
10
m/cycle at low amplitudes to
about 10
3
m/cycle at high amplitudes. The importance of the growth rate lies in its use
to calculate remaining life times, given a certain initial crack length a
i
after N
I
load cy
cles. Assuming that a is a continuous function of N, the instantaneous crack growth rate
da/dN can be used to give the total life for a crack propagation
( )
N N N
da
da dN
P T I
a
a
I
T
= − =
∫
/
TALAT 2401 24
Desirable is a theory of fatigue crack growth yielding universal expressions for da/dN as
a function of a, σ or ∆ε
p
, and material properties. Not only could such a theory be used
to predict fatigue lives, but it would allow a designer to choose those materials most re
sistant to fatigue crack growth. Central to the construction of such a theory is a model
which can be described mathematically to give the incremental advance of the crack.
Such a model must be derived from experimental observation.
Respective analytical expressions, supported by experimental observations, in the case
of aluminium alloy structural components and their welded connections, as well as the
analytical procedures for life estimation will be explained in detail under a later chapter
on fracture mechanics applications. At this point some general observations on the pro
pagation modes, the crack growth mechanisms and the effects of multiple load amplitu
des and other parameters on da/dN will be briefly covered.
Cracks forming in slip bands propagate along the active slip planes which are inclined at
±45° with respect to the tensile stress axis. This shear mode propagation, Stage I
growth, tends to continue more deeply into the specimen the lower the amplitude of loa
ding. The crack soon begins to turn and follow a course perpendicular to the tensile axis.
This tensile mode propagation as called Stage II growth, characterising crack growth up
to the critical length for which the next load peak produces tensile failure of the speci
men (Figure 2401.02.05).
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.02.05
Stage I and II Fatigue Crack Growth
Stage II
Stage I
σ
σ
Stage I and II Fatigue Crack Growth
Source: C. Laird, 1967
Actually, the Stage I growth in a polycrystalline material involves hundreds of individu
al slip band cracks linking up to form a dominant crack at about the time Stage II growth
begins. Stage II crack growth life increases with increasing load amplitude.
Cracks formed at inclusions grow only a few micrometers in Stage I before changing to
the Stage II mode. At low stress or strain amplitudes, very few inclusion cracks are gen
erated and one such crack may grow all the way into the final failure crack. At higher
TALAT 2401 25
amplitudes several inclusion cracks may joint together to form the final crack, thus
producing discontinuous jumps in da/dN. This case is of importance and will be de
monstrated in more detail in the respective chapter on fracture mechanics applications to
welded connections.
Examination of fracture surfaces tells us a lot about the mechanism by which the crack
advances. For all practical purposes the entire fracture surface formed is governed by the
Stage II mode. Very near the crack nucleus, while the crack length is still small, condi
tions of plane strain hold at the crack tip. The fracture surface is microscopically flat and
oriented perpendicular to the tensile axis. As the crack grows in length a shear lip begins
to develop where the fracture surface intersects the specimen surface (Figure
2401.02.06). This reorientation of the fracture surface to a 45° position with respect to
the tensile axis is caused by the plane stress conditions at the crack tip intersecting the
surface. As the plastic zone in front of the crack tip increases in dimension to become
comparable to that of the specimen thickness, plane stress conditions hold everywhere at
the crack tip and the fracture surface is one continuous shear lip or double shear lip.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Schematic Illustration of a Fatigue Fracture Surface 2401.02.06
after J. C, Grosskreutz, ASTM STP 495, 1970
Fatigue Crack Growth
Fatigue Crack
Initiation
Propagation under planestress conditions
begins at a later stage and the crack
continues in 45°shear mode.
Planestrain crack growth occurs at 90°
w./r. to tensile axis near the point of initiation.
The flat, plane strain surface is especially rich in detail, exhibiting regularly spaced stria
tions, even visible at optical magnification. Each striation represents the crack advance
for one cycle of load and this was verified experimentally. The conclusion that each
striation corresponds to one cycle of crack advance allows one to measure the local rate
of crack growth by measuring the distance between adjacent striations. Careful ex
periments have shown that these striations spacings correspond very closely to the mi
croscopic rates of crack growth measured on the surface of the specimen. However the
first is consistently larger than the microscopic da/dN on the surface which indicates that
surface growth is only an average of local rates in the general direction of Stage II
growth.
TALAT 2401 26
Crack Growth Mechanisms
Crack growth rates can be expressed analytically for different crack lengths and for dif
ferent loads in terms of the stress intensity factor range ∆K as will be shown later on.
The correlation of crack growth rates with a crack tip stress intensity factor provides the
key to a study of crack growth mechanisms. It is only recently that such correlations ha
ve been experimentally verified on a reliable basis for aluminium alloys and especially
the material zones in aluminium weldments (Figure 2401.02.07).
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.02.07
Fatigue Crack
Growth Rate
d
a
/
d
N
[
m
/
L
W
]
AlMg4.5Mn
R = 0
+ base material
x HAZ
o weld
∆
K [MPa√ m]
∆
K
eff
[MPa√ m]
10
7
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
8
10
9
10
10
10
11
10
3
10 20 40 60 100 1 2 4 6 0.6
Fatigue Crack Growth Rate
Source: D. Kosteas and U. Graf, TUM
Cross sections taken through the crack tip at various parts of a load cycle have establis
hed that Stage II growth occurs by repetitive blunting and re sharpening of the crack tip
(Figure 2401.02.08).
TALAT 2401 27
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
(a) no load
(b) small tensile load
(c) max. tensile load
(d) small compressive load
(e) max. compressive load
(f) small tensile load
Fatigue Crack Growth by the Plastic Blunting Mechanism 2401.02.08
Fatigue Crack Growth by the Plastic Blunting Mechanism
after C. Laird
Although many investigations of the micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth under
spectrum loading have been undertaken in the last decades as there is still an urgent
need for further work. However, results are available allowing to some general
statements on the effect of multiple load amplitudes.
In the first place it is important to distinguish between the effects of spectrum loading
on total life on a laboratory specimen and on the growth rate of an existing crack. Much
of the literature of spectrum loading has dealt only with total life and the concept of cu
mulative damage. Because total life includes both crack initiation and crack propagati
on, we cannot expect to apply such results to understanding the effect of multiple loads
on just crack growth.
The effects of multiple load amplitude can be best understood in terms of crack tip plas
tic deformation. The concept of stress intensity factor is of limited use here because it
relates only to elastic stresses. The two important concepts are localised work hardening
and localised residual stresses at the crack tip. More on the practical application of such
analytical and experimental results will follow under the chapter on fracture mechanics,
especially in defining a socalled effective stress intensity range.
A particularly instructive set of experiments demonstrated in Figure 2401.02.09 depicts
the effect of various load sequences on the microscopic growth rate, as determined in
experiments on 2024T3 aluminium, from striation spacings on the fracture surface.
Keeping the maximum load constant and varying the amplitude range had no significant
effect on crack growth. Reversing the sequence did not affect the results either. If the
load amplitude range was kept constant and the maximum load was varied, interaction
effects were observed.
TALAT 2401 28
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
No interaction effects.
Striation spacing stable for
each load amplitude range.
First cycle of each sequence
causes abnormally large
striation spacing.
Striation spacing in given
sequence is smaller than
in corresponding sequence
in ascending series above.
after McMillan and Pelloux
Effect of Variable Load Sequence on Fatigue Crack Growth 2401.02.09
The importance of separating crack initiation and crack propagation interaction effects
was stressed. Intermittent overloads can delay the subsequent growth of cracks at lower
loads. On the other hand, such overloads are capable of generating new cracks, which
can then grow on the lower amplitudes. The overall effect would be to shorten the
effective service life of the member by linking together many individual cracks
generated in this manner. An opposite case is the so called 'coaxing', in which fatigue at
low amplitudes followed by high amplitudes leads to longer, overall lives, even though
such a sequence can produce larger than normal crack growth rates. In this case
nucleation of cracks is suppressed by the coaxing procedure which hardens the surface
layers.
Effect of other Parameters on Crack Propagation Rate
Crack growth rates are affected by temperature, environment, strain rate or frequency,
and material properties.
Raising the temperature usually promotes dislocation and slip processes so that the
plastic blunting mechanism can act more freely, thereby increasing the rate of Stage II
crack growth. Because Stage II crack mechanisms are governed largely by unidirectional
mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, yield and ultimate strength, strain harden
ing coefficient), the effect of temperature of these properties can be extrapolated directly
to crack growth rates. However, structural engineering components rarely have to oper
ate at such elevated temperatures.
Environment has a significant influence on crack growth rate and may affect the mecha
nism of fracture. The presence of a corrosive environment often will change a ductile
fracture mode into a brittle one. The effect is for environmental attack to increase the
TALAT 2401 29
rate of crack growth. It is not uncommon for the crack growth rate to increase by a factor
of about 10 in aluminium alloys exposed in humid air compared to the rate in vacuum.
Attention should be given however to the interpretation of laboratory tests on the
environmental effects on fatigue and their extrapolation to service conditions. The
frequency of loading and the severity of the environmental attack cannot be estimated
reliably without prior experimental verification.
The effect of material properties on da/dN is of great importance because such informa
tion can be used by the engineer to choose crack resistant materials. Such information is
unfortunately not documented in an easily and retrievable and adequate manner. The
research in this field is still going on. It can be stated that Stage I crack growth is more
rapid in wavy slip mode materials like aluminium. The growth rate in Stage II is gover
ned as already mentioned by the unidirectional properties of the material. Slower rates
are obtained by raising the modulus of elasticity, the ultimate tensile strength, and the
strain hardening rate. The effect of small grain size in reducing crack growth rates is
considerably at low stress amplitudes but negligible at large amplitudes. It should be
mentioned that significant variations in fatigue crack propagation rates may be observed
in the same material obtained from different sources.
Endurance Limit
The endurance limit or fatigue limit, is recognised as a change in the slope of a conven
tional SN curve from negative to zero (flat). Aluminium and its alloys does not give S
N curves with strictly zero slopes at long lives. Nevertheless the curve is nearly flat, and
it is usual to speak of the endurance limit at 10
7
or 10
8
cycles. The definite endurance
limit is connected strongly with the existence of a sharp yield point in the tensile stress
strain curve, as for instance in the case of iron or steel. On the other hand in the case of
aluminium alloys, dislocation locking does not occur  which is associated with the
sharp yield point  so that there is no definite stress below which cracks refuse to grow.
Predictive Theories of Fatigue
When will a given construction or component fail?
The design engineer needs the answer to provide safe design. The operator demands the
answer to provide safe operation. The question can usually be answered through a com
bination of past experience, experimental inspection and testing, and semiempirical fa
tigue theories. While the latter provide only approximate answers, they are especially
important to the design engineer.
TALAT 2401 30
Damage Accumulation Theories
The first theories of fatigue were aimed at describing the typical constant amplitude SN
curve. In terms of the accumulation of some vague, undefined damage within the mater
ial. Failure was assumed to occur with the accumulation of a critical amount of damage.
The parameters which had to be adjusted were the rate of damage accumulation and the
critical amount for failure. A useful extension of this concept was made by Palmgren
Miner to the case of variable amplitude loading. The criterion for failure under a series
of different load amplitudes is given as
n
N
i
i i
∑
=1
the linear damage accumulation rule.
Detailed information on the PalmgrenMiner rule and its applicability in practice will be
given in Lecture 2401.04 dealing with load and stress spectra and damage
accumulation. Comparison of the rule with experiment has shown it to err in most cases,
often on the unsafe side. Yet the rule is close enough to reality, so it is being used
frequently as a guide when other more precise information is lacking. That such a
simple concept of damage accumulation works at all lies in the basic nature of fatigue
failure. Whether the basic process is crack generation or crack growth, each proceeds by
a definite increment in each cycle of stress. Crack generation proceeds until a critical
stage is reached such that crack growth can than proceed. The crack propagates until it
reaches a critical length, such that the next load application brings catastrophic failure.
In each case, the term damage can be substituted for crack generation or growth, and the
critical stage of the development can be termed a critical amount of damage
accumulation. Assuming no interaction effects between different load amplitudes leads
directly to the above linear damage accumulation rule.
MansonCoffin Law
Under conditions of constant plastic strain range ∆ε
p
the numbers of cycles to failure is
found to be (for ∆ε
p
> 0.01)
( ) ∆ε
p T
Z
N C ⋅ =
where C and the exponent z are material constants, z weakly dependent on material and
with a value in the order 0.5 to 0.7 and the constant C related to ductility and the true
tensile fracture strain. This general relationship has been modified to include the total
strain range and is usually referred to as the MansonCoffin law.
The development of numerical analysis procedures, especially the finite element method
allow a rapid and accurate analysis of local stress and strains at notches or cracks. Rela
ted to the true strain behaviour of the material under repeated loading  the cyclic stress
strain curve as compared to the initial monotonic, static stressstrain curve  the possibil
ity of applying such relationships especially in the area of lowcycle fatigue are outlined
in the following. Some more details on local stress concepts in fatigue will follow in
TALAT 2401 31
Lecture 2401.05. The overall procedure of analysis and life estimation through the
MansonCoffin relation is outlined in. Figure 2401.02.10 and Figure 2401.02.11.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters 2401.02.10
σ
arctan E
2
∆εp
∆ε
∆εe
ε
∆
σ
σ
a
σ
a
∆ε0
σa
∆εe
∆εp
∆σ
E
∆ε/2
∆ε
= stress range
= stress amplitude
= strain range
= plastic strain range
= elastic strain range
= strain amplitude
= Young's Modulus
= ductility D = ln
A
0
A
f
= engineering stress σf
A
0
P
f
=
= true stress σf
A
f
P
f
=
Hysteresis
∆ε/
2
∆ε/
2
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.02.11
StrainLife Relationship
Cycles to Failure logN
f
1
1
b
c
D
3.5
σ /
E
f
0.6
D
0.6
σ /
E
f
Morrow
Manson
Coffin
plastic
strain
elastic strain
plastic
strain
elastic strain
Strain
Amplitude
log (
∆ε
/2)
Strain Range
log
∆ε
Cycles to Failure logN
f
∆ε σ
'
f
E
(
2N
f
)
b
+ ε (
2N
f
)
c
2
∆ε
σf
E
N
f
0.12
= 3.5 + D
0.6
N
f
0.6
StrainLife Relationship
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
When plotted on loglog paper, the relationship becomes a straight line. With the aid of
the cyclic stressstrain relation this plot can be converted to a SN curve. A useful ex
pression for the exponent z is given in terms of the cyclic hardening exponent n'
TALAT 2401 32
z
n
=
+
1
2 1
'
Since n' ≈ 0.15 we get z ≈ 0.75, this value being about 25% larger than measured values.
The detailed dependence of C and z on material constants is not resolved completely. In
our opinion the MansonCoffin relation and further derivations may be a useful tool for
comparative studies and initiation life estimations for different materials. The
advancement of life estimation methods on the basis of fracture mechanics, especially in
cases where fatigue life is governed mainly by propagation, is nowadays a more
powerful and sophisticated tool in the hands of a knowledgeable design engineer.
Crack Growth Laws
Many empirical crack growth laws have been proposed. The most popular have the form
da/dN = C ⋅ F(a,s)
where C is a constant which depends on the material and F(a,s) is a function determined
empirically from the data. There are two important ingredients which are necessary to
any successful crack growth theory. First, a realistic model for crack growth. Second,
analytical methods for expressing the model in mathematical terms so that a quantitative
relation may be derived. It is worth noting that theoretical crack growth laws are of the
form
da/dN = C ⋅ K
m
where C is again a material constant and K is the stress intensity factor depending on the
instantaneous crack length and the overall nominal stress and affected by geometrical
and loading parameters. This is the form found empirically by Paris and others and is
discussed in more detail under Chapter 12 on fracture mechanics and life estimation.
Ideal Cumulative Damage Theory
Ideally one would like to predict the failure of structural components which are subject
to a spectrum of loads in a variable environment. While such a theory is not fully
available the framework for achieving it is fairly clear. Fatigue mechanisms provide the
basic idea, namely that the number of cycles to failure is the sum of the crack initiation
time N
I
and the crack propagation time N
P
(see Figure 2401.02.12)
N
T
= N
I
+ N
P
Quantitative expression of N
I
is a difficult problem, the effect of aggressive
environment on crack initiation time is also largely unknown. However, if N
I
<< N
p
then the problem is minimised. This is often the case with structural components
containing substantial notches, for instance welded structures.
TALAT 2401 33
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Loadings
σm, εm
∆σ, ∆ε
Material Properties
stressstrain relation
hardening
softening
%
$
Geometry
FEmethods (el.pl.)
empirical methods
&$
el
&$
pl
$
m
Geometry
FEmethods (el.pl.)
empirical methods
crack
∆K
I
Material Properties
crack prop. behavior
% ' $behavior
d
a
/
d
N 10
1
10
8
Kth K
Ic
Crack Initiation Life
low cycle fatigue concepts
MansonCoffin, Morrow etc.
∆ε
2
= + BN C
i
b
i
c
Damage Accumulation
PalmgrenMiner
N
N
1 crack a
i
t
0
=
∑
(
i
Crack Propagation
Paris, Forman etc.
da dN f K / ( ) = ∆
Damage Accumulation
N f K da
P
a
a
c
=
∫
( ) ∆
0
Crack Initiation Crack Propagation
Component Life
N
i
N
p
N
T
Outline of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods
2401.02.12
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Such an approach to cumulative damage and the prediction of fatigue lives requires an
accurate model for the simulation of the service life of the structure as well. Such esti
mations are performed almost entirely nowadays by computer simulation.
TALAT 2401 34
2401.03 Fatigue Data Analysis and Evaluation
• Analysis of data
• Analysis in the middlecycle fatigue range
• Analysis in the highcycle fatigue range
• Fatigue diagrams
• Linear PSN curves
• Nonlinear PSN curves
• Some problems of data analysis in practice
It is a requirement for fatigue design stresses to be related to some probability of failure.
This is particularly true in the context of structures whose failure could be catastrophic
but it also arises in relation to design rules which are based on limit states. A need for
statistical analysis also arises during an actual design procedure, when further levels of
sophistication beyond the rules of a recommendation have to be established. In such
cases own data or comparisons of data have to be performed on a homogeneous way and
compatible to the procedures of the recommendations themselves. In order to meet such
requirements, fatigue data need to be analysed statistically.
Fatigue data have long been the subject of statistical considerations because of their
inherent scatter. However, in practice, fatigue data, especially for welded joints, are
seldom ideal material for statistical treatment. Either in the case of literature data, which
usually come from several sources, and need to be analysed to provide the basis for
design rules  or in the case of data from special fatigue tests carried out under well
defined and controlled conditions to validate a particular design. Despite the merits of
computerised analysis it must be reminded that the ability to make a qualified, well
weighted decision, based on engineering judgement (whatever this may be more than
experience) is still extremely valuable. We normally encounter three different types of
data:
• many results for identical specimens made and tested at the same laboratory
• many results for similar specimens, representing more severe stress concentra
tions than in the first type, obtained mainly at one laboratory over a period of
years
• many results for similar specimens obtained from many different investigations
over a period of years.
No simple statistical method is suitable for treating all three types of data. Further more,
the greatest problem is presented by the third type; this is the type of data which need to
be evaluated in the formulation of design rules.
TALAT 2401 35
Analysis of Data
Fatigue life of a specimen will be expressed in cycles to failure. This is the observed
variable dependent on the investigated property, i.e. fatigue strength. Practically we
perform a test data analysis in order to calculate characteristic values for a statistical
population out of the random sample observation. These are the mean value x and the
variance s
2
or the standard deviation s which identify the population and enable further
comparisons.
As a next element we need confidence intervals for the observed data which again
describe the relation of the sample to the whole population. In the case of fatigue test
data we are interested in the calculation of probability of failure or probability of
survival limits.
Through comparative evaluation of test results by means of variance analysis significant
or nonsignificant deviations may be calculated. Finally the functional relationship be
tween two variables, here fatigue strength and cycles to failure, has to be established by
using methods of regression analysis.
It is pointed out that statistical and regression methods are included in the operations of
the 'Aluminium Data Bank' installed at the Department Aluminium Structures and
Fatigue of the University of Munich. Details on these procedures are given in Lecture
2403.02.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.03.01
) ) )* ))
)) ))* )))
++++
,,++
,,++
,,,+
,,,,
,,,
,,!
,!!
!!!
Endurance limit
Ultimate strength
m
a
x
S
[
M
P
a
]
LCF MCF HCF
Cycles to Failure
Nc
Su
Se
Probability of survival P
at confidence level
γ
PSN Curve
LogN = m log
σ
+ C
~10
4
Statistical / Regressional Analysis
Statistical/Regressional Analysis
for the middle cycle fatigue range
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
TALAT 2401 36
Analysis in the MiddleCycle Fatigue Range
For most practical applications a fatigue life range approximately between 1*10
4
and
5*10
6
cycles may be defined as a range where the relationship between cycles to failure
and fatigue strength will be linear for all practical purposes, when the data are plotted on
a doublelogarithmic scale, see Figure 2401.03.01. Figure 2401.03.02 describes a
calculation of important statistical parameters. In Figure 2401.03.03 an outline of
statistical distributions is given pertaining to the calculation of different parameters or to
the performance of statistical evaluations and comparisons. Further details can be found
in respective literature.
s
2
c
1/2
(
χ
2
;
γ
)
a
1
/a
2
= (n1)
s = (x
i
 x )
2
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Fatigue Test Data Analysis
2401.03.02
logN
Statistical Analysis
)) ) )  ))) ))
P/S/N curve
sample size n
N is the dependent variable
σ
is the independent variable
log
σ
mean
standard
deviation
confidence
intervals for
mean and
standard
deviation
Regressional analysis
estimation of regression parameters through minimisation of deviations (least squares)
linear S/N: (Wöhler) log N = a
σ
+ b (Basquin) log N= a log
σ
+ b
or nonlinear S/N: (Stüssi) (Weibull)
N = B ( )  B
1
a
σz

σd
σ

σd
σ
=
σz
+ bN
a
σD
1 + bN
a
σD
c ( t;
γ
)
n
a = s
conf { a
2
> s > a
1
}
n  1
1
Σ1
n
conf { x  a < µ < x + a}
Fatigue Test Data Analysis
x = x
i
Σ1
n
1
n
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
The observed event or the element of the test sample, i.e. the dependent variable, is the
logarithm of the number of cycles to failure logN. Fatigue strength is regarded as the
independent or controlled variable S or logS. Although not used frequently in structural
engineering anymore the possibility of expressing fatigue behaviour in a linear
logarithmic relationship S vs. logN is still mentioned. This method has nowadays been
abandoned in favour of the double logarithmic relationship logS vs. logN. For every
sample value x
1
(= logN
1
) ≤ ...x
i
(= logN
i
) ≤ ...x
n
(= logN
n
) we get a respective value for
the
probability of survival p
i
n
s i ,
= −
+
1
1
and (1)
probability of failure p
i
n
f i ,
=
+1
(2)
with p
s,i
+ p
f,i
= 1
TALAT 2401 37
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Distribution Hypothesis: F(x) is the distribution of the whole population
Distribution in KolmogoroffSmirnowTest probability paper
Distribution Parameters Regression Analysis Correlation
Confidence
Interval
Mean Value Variance
Variance
Regression
Coefficient
(slope)
Mean Value Linearity Correlation
Coefficient
known unknown
tDistribution Distrib. tDistribution tDistribution
Comparing Two Samples
Hypothesis:
FDistrib. FDistrib.
tDistribution
Hypothesis
FDistrib.
Hypothesis
tDistribution
Hypothesis
tDistribution
Tests Test of Hypothesis by Means of Analysis of Variance
Hypothesis:
Comparison of Several
Samples
FDistribution
Hypothesis
Normal
Distribution
Normal
Distribution
ω
2
ω
2
σ
2
σ σ
1 2
=
µ = mean
µ µ
1
= ....
n
β = 0
θ = 0
D. Kosteas, TUM µ β = = mean and slope of population
β β =
0
Statistical Methods for Calculations
of Distributions and Significance
2401.03.03
A normal distribution of the logarithms of the cycles to failure is assumed for the
sample and this would result in a straight line for the relationship between the
cumulative frequency and the number of cycles to failure if the respective values are
recorded on probability paper with a logarithmic scale for the observed number of
cycles, e.g Figure 2401.03.04.
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
95
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
5
10
5
10
6
10
7
Cycles to Failure
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
v
e
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
i
n
%
σ
a
=12,0 σ
a
= 25,0 σ
a
=18.35 σ
a
=14.4
Probability of Survival Lines for a Fillet Weld
D. Kosteas, TUM
2401.03.04
TALAT 2401 38
Analysis in the HighCycle Fatigue Range
The existence of a fatigue endurance limit is discussed in Lecture 2401.02. A physically
oriented explanation is also given in Lecture 2403 on fracture mechanics. Here we are
involved with the fact of a fatigue life limit, where the slope of the relationship logS vs.
logN becomes increasingly shallower and failure occurs after increasingly larger number
of cycles. Out of practical reasons a limit in cycles to be observed will be set for tests
conducted on different fatigue strength levels and the quantity observed will be failure
or nonfailure, i.e. runout. This results practically in a distribution of fatigue strength
values at the selected cycle limit. Such experimental tests are by nature very costly,
especially because of the high costs of testing and the long testing periods necessary. A
larger sample size is also needed, which in the case of component or full size testing
cannot be supplied. In terms of a testing methodology we distinguish between two test
methods, differing in both the process and evaluation: the probitmethod (see Figure
2401.03.05) and the staircasemethod (see Figure 2401.03.06). Some other related test
methods have been developed, eg. the „arcsin√P“method or the „TwoPoint“ method,
see Figure 2401.03.07. In practice the staircase method gives reliable results for the
mean of the fatigue strength with a total of 25 specimens and can be recommended.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.03.05
Graphic estimation of endurance fatigue strength at preassigned life limit.
Recommended sample size approx. over 50.
ProbitMethod
Endurance limit estimation
* )
)
)
)
) * * * * **
*
* * *
* *
*
* *
*
*
*
*
6
5
4
2
1
N*
50% 100%
n
f
n
s
σ5
σ4
σ3
σ2
σ1
Probability of survival
P
s
= n
s
/ (n
s
+ n
f
)
σe
ProbitMethod
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
TALAT 2401 39
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
2401.03.06
StaircaseMethod
Endurance limit estimation
d
test sequence
)
)
)
)
)
*
*
*
*
*
) )
)
)
*
)
)
)
)
*
*
*
*
)
)
*
*
*
i
4
3
2
1
0
n
i
0
2
5
4
1
12
in
i
0
6
10
4
0
20
i
2
n
i
0
18
20
4
0
42
σi
σ4
σ3
σ2
σ1
σ0
Preassign limit cycle life N*; ''select'' step size d; sample size approx. 25
Exclude tests up to first pair of contrary results (nofailure ); failure *)
Sum up ''nofailures'' and ''failures'' and continue evaluation with results of event with smaller
sum (in this example this is the event of ''nofailures'': 12 points against the event ''failures'': 13
points)
Estimate the mean of fatigue endurance at N* cycles:
(use '''' for ''failure'', ''+'' for ''no failure'')
Estimate the standard deviation ('unreliable'):
σe
=
σ0
+ d ( ) +

Σ
in
i
Σ
n
i
1
2
s = 1.62d ( + 0.029)
Σ
n
i
2
Σ
i
2
n
i
Σ
n
i
( )
2
Σ
in
i

StaircaseMethod
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
2401.03.07
TwoPointMethod (Little)
Endurance limit estimation
Testing and evaluation for a given limit fatigue life N*:
Begin testing as in staircasemethod until two stress levels with a probability of
failure P other than 0 or 1 are established.
Concentrate further test specimens on these two levels.
Estimate mean for fatigue strength at the given life limit N* graphically.
σ
*
) * ) *
)
* ) *
)
*
)
*
) ) )
* * ) *
Test sequence
σ2
σ1
P
2,f
P
1,f
0.99
0.95
0.50
0.10
0.01
Normal distribution graph
P
2,f
P
1,f
σ1 σe σ2
TwoPointMethod (Little)
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Fatigue Diagrams
Results of fatigue tests can be depicted in various diagrams depending on the choice of
parameters. Figure 2401.03.08 shows some common diagrams used in structural engin
eering. The Smith and the Haigh diagrams are traditionally more frequently used in
TALAT 2401 40
mechanical engineering and they involve the stress amplitude plotted over mean stress.
In civil engineering it is traditional to use the relationship stress vs. cycles to failure. Its
earlier form  a linearlogarithmic relationship between maximum stress and cycles to
failure, also called the Wöhler curve  has been substituted by a double logarithmic
relationship of the stress range log∆σ vs. cycles to failure logN in the last decades,
especially for welded structures.
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
2401.03.08
Wöhler  Diagram
time
s
t
r
e
s
s
σ
tension
compression
N = const.
1 0 1 R
SmithDiagram
σu
logN
σu
logN
∆σ
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Fatigue Strength Diagrams
σ
m
σ σ
mean m
=
σ
max
σ
min
∆σ
σ
a
σ
e
σ
min
σ
max
σ
max
∆σ
σ
m
Definitions:
σ
m
σ
a
σ
m
1<R<+1
increase
1<R<+1
decrease
Figure 2401.03.09 shows the general form of this relationship which can be calculated
by regression analysis and the Gauß method of least squares. Straight line probability of
survival limits, either in the traditional form as in Figure 2401.03.01 with increasing
scatter band width for increasing number of cycles, or in the now usual form of limit
lines parallel to the mean line will be similarly calculated from respective probability of
survival values. These curves are often referred to as PSN (Probability  Stress  Life)
curves.
TALAT 2401 41
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.03.09
endurance
limit
Cycles to Failure
PSNCurve
LogN = m log
σ
+ C
10
4
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
5
x
10
6
P = 90% 50% 10%
slope m depends on detail
(parameter R)
Probability of survival P
v
dependent on detail
and material
scatter band
S
t
r
e
s
s
(
l
o
g
)
PSNCurve
design
value
Linear PSN Curves
The double logarithmic relationship (sometimes referred to as the Basquin curve) is
given in the following form
N = C*σ
m
or (3)
logN = m*logσ + logC (4)
Given k pairs of values for the variables y=logσ and x=logN for a specific probability of
survival value we get the following equations for the
slope
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
m
k x y x y
k y y
i i i
k k
i
k
i i
k k
=
⋅ ⋅ − ⋅
⋅ −
∑ ∑ ∑
∑ ∑
1 1 1
2
1
2
1
(5)
intercept
( ) ( )
logC
x m y
k
i
k
i
k
=
− ⋅
∑ ∑
1 1
(6)
TALAT 2401 42
NonLinear PSN Curves
The previously defined linear double logarithmic relationship may be used successfully
for the representation of test results in the middle cycle fatigue range. As far as an extra
polation of the relationship in the high cycle fatigue range is needed this will be
achieved in practice by a bend in the PSN curve and a new, again linear, double
logarithmic line continuing with a now shallower slope into the high cycle region. This
is the usual treatment for design purposes in practice.
If a monotonic analytical relationship for the whole range of cycles to failure is
demanded, from the static limit strength up to the endurance limit, this may be achieved
by a nonlinear PSN curve. Two basic types of fourparametric curves have been
proposed. Weibull modified an older proposal by Palmgren, based again on a function
by Stromeyer, presented in the following general form
( ) σ σ σ σ = − ⋅ +

\

.

+
−
z D
a
D
N
B
1 (7)
with
σ
z
: ultimate strength
σ
D
: endurance limit
B : time parameter
a : form parameter
From d
2
(σ)/d(logN)
2
= 0 we get the transition point of the curve N
i
=B/a further we
have the following relationships for the shape of the curve: dσ/dlogN=0 and
d
2
(σ)/d(logN)
2
< 0 for N < N
i
and d
2
(σ)/d(logN)
2
> 0 for N > N
i
when the function is
plotted in linearlogarithmic coordinates.
The second curve type, also a fourparametric relationship, was proposed by Stüssi as
follows
σ
σ σ
σ
=
+ ⋅
+ ⋅
z
a
D
a
D
bN
bN 1
(8)
The four parameters of the equations can be calculated by a multiparametric nonlinear
regression analysis. The above expressions as functions of the four parameters have a
specific value (by assuming initial values for each of the four parameters) which shows
a deviation v
i
for each available experimental observation M
i
. By minimisation of these
deviations
v Min
i
i
n
2
1 =
∑
=
!
(9)
we get a system of n equations out of which the four unknown parameters may be
calculated. Details of the procedure are given in literature or in a respective calculation
procedure within the Aluminium Data Bank.
TALAT 2401 43
Some Problems of Data Analysis in Practice
The basic method of analysis described has been the calculation of the bestfit
regression curve of logN on log∆σ (appropriate in the case of welded joints) to fatigue
data by the method of least squares. The SN curves have been assumed to be linear
plotted in loglog coordinates, where the stress is the nominal applied stress range in the
vicinity of the weld detail. The standard deviation of logN about the regression line is
calculated and used to establish confidence limits based on the assumption that the data
conform to lognormal distribution, Figure 2401.03.01. Although the confidence limits
are strictly hyperbolae which are nearest to the mean regression line at the mean value of
log∆σ covered by the data, for convenience it is assumed to be sufficiently accurate to
assume that they are equivalent to tangents drawn to the hyperbolic confidence limits
parallel to the mean regression line. The lower 95% confidence limit, which is
approximately two standard deviations below the mean regression line, is chosen as a
suitable basis for design  it depends on the respective recommendations, whether
additional material safety factors may be defined or not. It corresponds theoretically to a
probability of failure of 2.5% or to a probability of survival of 97.5%.
We would like to draw attention to the fact that in the above context the term "confi
dence limits" denotes a scatter band of the test data of a given probability of occurrence.
It is not understood in the sense of confidence limit for a certain fractile of the statistical
analysis expressing the uncertainty associated with the calculation of this fractile
because of the estimation performed out of a specific sample size only (i.e. a limited
number of observations).
When applying regression analysis it is important to ensure that all the data considered
can be expected to correspond to the assumed relationship. In the case of fatigue data
this is relevant, because, although the linear log∆σlogN relationship will apply over a
wide range of stresslife conditions, deviations towards horizontal lines on the SN dia
grams may occur in the high stresslow cycle regime, when the maximum stress exceeds
yield, and at low stresses as the stress range approaches the fatigue limit. In practice,
deviations in the lowcycle regime are easily identified because the yield strength of the
material is known. However, the fatigue limit is a property of the joint tested and its
value not always obvious. Appropriate procedures were outlined in Figure 2401.03.05,
Figure 2401.03.06 and Figure 2401.03.07.
Another problem mentioned when analysing fatigue data from several sources is the
question of whether or not all the data can be assumed to belong to the same population.
This is found to be a problem for some sets of data, even when they are obtained from
geometrically similar joints under the same loading conditions. An alldata analysis pro
duces a bestfit SN curve whose slope is incorrect in that it is quite different from the
slope indicated by the separate analysis of the individual sets of data. The fact that data
belong to different populations can be demonstrated by a plot as in Figure 2401.03.04.
If nevertheless a common analysis has to be undertaken, because of lack of sufficient
appropriate data, the following procedure may be adopted. Calculate the bestfit SN
curve for each set of data, calculate the median value of their slopes and then assume
that this is the slope of the SN curve for all the data together, the mean SN curve
passing through the centre of gravity of the data points.
TALAT 2401 44
Aluminium weldments seem to be more susceptible to problems as outlined. They are
susceptible to mean stress and the level of residual stress due to welding, reflecting the
greater sensitivity of crack growth to mean stress in aluminium alloys. Variations in the
level of residual stress in a given type of joint from one investigation to the next could
arise as a result of variations in the welding conditions. The effect of differences in ap
plied mean stress related to the residual stress level could be to influence both the slope
and position of the SN slope. In practice, welded joints containing high tensile residual
stresses are of interest to the designer of a welded structure. Thus test data obtained
from relatively large specimens, preferably having the detail incorporated in a structural
element such as a beam, or from specimens tested under a high tensile mean stress are of
special interest  Lecture 2402.03 demonstrates the significance of such information for
design purposes through the structural details investigated and evaluated. In order to
utilise other data, it may be necessary to correct the SN curves fitted to them to allow
for the absence of high tensile residual stresses, see here also chapter 6 on residual stress
influence and fatigue strength correction factors. SN curves for higher R values show
steeper slopes, the curves for different R values meeting close to material yield strength
in the range between 10
4
and 10
5
cycles.
The validity of grouping together data sets for a given joint type or the general validity
of test results depends on further factors, like plate thickness, alignment of the joint and
test environment. Plate thickness not only affects the level of residual stresses, it is also
important in the case of joints which fail by fatigue crack growth from a surface stress
concentration such as a weld toe. There can be a significant reduction in fatigue strength
with increase in plate thickness, see respective provisions for plate thickness above 25
mm in the recommendations in Lecture 2402.01 and 2402.03. Misalignment is difficult
to avoid in small specimens, particularly in the case of transverse butt welds. Its effect is
to introduce secondary bending stresses when the specimen is tested axially such that
the stress near the weld may be quite different from the nominal stress based on
load/plate crosssectional area, that is the stress normally used to express fatigue test
results. The presence of misalignment may be a major cause of the relatively very wide
scatter in transverse butt and fillet welds and, of course, the applicability of laboratory
(small specimen) test results to real structures operating in potentially corrosive condi
tions is questionable.
A technique which could be used to deal with the above problems, both from the point
of view of deciding whether or not different data sets could be regarded as belonging to
the same population and the analysis of several data sets with an SN curve whose
apparent slope differs from the individual slopes, is the maximum likelihood method,
Figure 2401.03.10. The method also is able to handle results from unbroken test
specimens (runouts). Runouts arise either because the test specimen endures a
predetermined life without failing or because testing is stopped when some special
failure criterion is satisfied, for example the presence of a detectable crack. The former
is particularly relevant since frequently, especially in the past, it was quite common to
stop tests at only 2 ⋅ 10
6
cycles on the basis (probably stemming from test results for
plain unwelded specimens) that the fatigue limit would correspond to such an
endurance. In practice, test data suggest that an endurance limit of around 5 ⋅ 10
6
cycles
would be more appropriate. For aluminium such an adjustment has been taken into
account in design recommendations, see Lecture 2402.03.
TALAT 2401 45
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.03.10
Through curve parameter (life limit N*,
fatigue endurance, slope and scatter)
variation determination of max SUP.
Result: maximumlikelihood PSN/ curve
failures runouts
probability of failure
m
s
s
) ) ) ** * * * *
failure probability distribution
∆
x
f(x)
1F(x)
SUP =
Π
[
∆
x f(x) (1 F(x)]
MaximumLikelihoodMethod
MaximumLikelihoodMethod
PSN curve estimation
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Closing these remarks we would like to remind about the comments made earlier on the
merits but also on the problems associated with the application of statistical methods in
evaluating and comparing fatigue test data. It seems that in many cases where we lack
visual apparentness of facts in fatigue data this cannot be substituted or provided by
mathematical assumptions. An alternative approach on the basis of fracture mechanics
and crack growth analysis using basic information from similar tests can be
recommended, especially in view of the general problem of scatter.
TALAT 2401 46
2401.04 Load Spectra and Damage Accumulation
• Service behaviour
• Timedependent loads
• Spectrum definition and cycle counting
• The rainflow cycle counting method
• The service behaviour fatigue test
• Analytical life estimation and damage accumulation
• The PalmgrenMiner linear damage accumulation hypothesis
• Service behaviour assessment
Service Behaviour
Structural components in service are exposed to a more or less random sequence of
loading of variable amplitude and frequency. Even when maximum values of these
loading inducing stresses up to 2 or 3 times the fatigue endurance limit appear in relat
ively small numbers, somewhat lower amplitudes may reach considerable number
within the lifetime of a structure and together with irreversible deformations or local
damage, like flaws, cracks, etc., reduce the carrying capacity and the design life.
It is the goal of a fatigue service behaviour analysis to assess through an appropriate
procedure the probability for a given structure under a given loading to reach without
failure or extensive necessary repair the demanded design life.
Components in many structural engineering applications, esp. in metal structures in civil
engineering, are only rarely assessed under the principles of a service behaviour analysis
 and this situation is still reflected in the current recommendations for fatigue design.
With increasing service lives and the use of new or special materials and manufacturing
methods this approach is not sufficient. Besides, service loading conditions will in
general be more favourable than the constant amplitude loading (Wöhlertest) forming
the basis of fatigue endurance investigations. Service conditions on the other hand may
change. Several applications in land and sea transportation, cranes or even some bridge
components demand for such a service behaviour assessment accounting for a variable
loading sequence and damage accumulation.
Principles of light structural design cannot be satisfied if a component is designed
merely against the maximum value of a load or stress spectrum. The accurate definition
of the latter for a specific application still poses great difficulties and it is on the loading
side of the analysis that the greatest uncertainties emerge. Only with a reliable
description of the loading can suitable damage accumulation hypotheses be developed
and applied to the calculation of fatigue life.
TALAT 2401 47
Time Dependent Loads
Loads on a structural component depend, first, on the usage of the structure (steering,
accelerating or established procedure forces) and, second, act on the structure out of its
environment (wind, wave motion, track smoothness) and will generally be time depen
dent. They may be deterministic or random in nature. In the first case (as for instance
periodic or nonperiodic load like the influence of an impact load or the thermal defor
mation) a mathematical relationship allows a definite expression of the value of the
characteristic quantity at any time. In the second case (and here we encounter most
mechanical loads) values of the characteristic quantity can be estimated only through a
time sequence measurement. Naturally they are unique and not reproducible and conse
quently the estimation can be expressed only with a certain probability.
A stochastic process is defined as nonstationary or stationary depending on whether its
statistical characteristic values are varying or not with time. This can not be identified in
practice seldom though since service load measurements are performed only once as a
rule.
Spectrum Definition and Cycle Counting
A load spectrum includes all necessary information on magnitude and frequency of
service loads, possibly also about the loading sequence. For each structural detail a
respective stress spectrum results expressing the frequency of occurrence of a
characteristic value such as the stress amplitude, stress range or maximum stress.
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
Cycle
Counting
Methods
2401.04.01
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
t
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
1 2 3 4 5 6 0
Maxima
Minima
Class Frequency
Cumulative Frequency
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
1 2 3 4 5 6 0
Cumulative Frequency
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
1 2 3 4 5 6 0
Frequency of Exceedence
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
X
t
Class Limit
Class
Cycle Counting Methods
D. Kosteas, T.U. München
X
t
2
4
4
4
5
5
6
2
3
3
5
4
3
2
1
TALAT 2401 48
The spectrum is derived from measurements of the characteristic value over the
observed cycles for a specific time period. Three basic counting methods can be applied
as demonstrated also in Figure 2401.04.01:
− the measured value reaches a turning point, maximum or minimum,
− the measured value encompasses a range, between a minimum and the
following maximum or vice versa,
− the measured value touches or surpasses a defined class limit in ascending or
descending order.
The graphic depiction gives the socalled histogram, which turns into the probability
distribution function for an extremely large number of observations. This frequency
distribution is shown usually in a linear (stress)  logarithmic (cumulative frequency)
distribution and is the so called spectrum, Figure 2401.04.02.
An estimate of the magnitude of the difference between the original, measured stress
time function and the derived spectrum is given by i=H
o
/H
1
, where H
o
is the number of
passes through zero (or the reference value) and H
1
the number of turning points
(maxima, minima). For random stresstime functions we have 0<i≤1 and for in the
above manner derived frequency distributions i=1.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
StressTime Diagram and Stress Spectrum 2401.04.02
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
S
t
r
e
s
s
x
Time t
x
o
x
i
x
m
x
u
H
i
=N
x
o
x
i
x
m
x
u
Frequency H (log)
H=N
2
x
a
x
H
i
x
Time t
x
i
x
m
H
i
x
i
x
m
Frequency H (log)
2
x
a
x
H
i
x
oi
x
ui
H
~
constant
amplitude
variable
or random
amplitude
StressTime Diagram and Stress Spectrum
A normalisation, Figure 2401.04.03, allows the comparison between spectra of different
maximum values or absolute cumulative frequency. In many cases in structural
engineering a spectrum cumulative frequency of 10
6
is used; the maximum value with a
frequency of 1 in 10
6
is designated x
a, 10
6
.
TALAT 2401 49
Experience shows that most of the observed and measured stresstime functions follow
a few basic statistical distributions. This is very important for the calculation and
adaptation of fatigue test results to cases with different loading conditions through the
socalled damage accumulation hypotheses, a concept which poses a number of
difficulties.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Normalized Universal Spectra
2401.04.03
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
S
t
r
e
s
s
S
/
S
(
1
0
)
6
Cumulative Frequence H
1.00
0.75
0.50
0.25
0
10 10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
1
H(x
a
) = H
0
e
ax
n
a
Normalized Universal Spectra
n=3
n=2
n>2
n=1
n=0.8
n=3:
n>2:
n=2:
n=1:
n=0.8:
constant amplitude
normal distribution with p=const./cranes,bridges
p=1: const. ampl. and p=0.67/0.33/0 in DIN 15018
stationary Gaussian processes
loads on smooth track, sea waves, longtime observations
lognormal distribution, wind loads
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
Following a suggestion by Gassner/Griese/Haibach the mathematical expression
formulated by Hanke H(x
a
) = H
0
*exp
−ax
a
n
describes five such basic types, Figure
2401.04.03. Type (a): for n<2 represents a spectrum with constant amplitude. Type (b):
for n>2 is typical for spectra in crane and bridge structures, which can be seen as
Gaussian normal distributions with a constant part p. Here again p=1 would refer to the
constant amplitude, and values of p=2/3, 1/3, 0 have been suggested for respective cases
in the German national standard for cranes DIN 15018. Type (c): for n=2 is typical for
stationary Gaussian processes. Type (d): for n=1 is the socalled linear distribution as it
appears with a straight line in the linearlog diagram and is characteristic for loading
conditions due to track smoothness or sea wave motions and for long observation
periods. Type (e): for n≈0.8 is typical for wind loads and follows the shape of a
logarithmic normal distribution.
The frequency distribution allows not only the comparison with other distributions but
also enables the extrapolation beyond the actual measurement period to other, longer
ones and consequently up to the design life of the structure. Two conditions must be
fulfilled: (a) the measured event must be representative for the whole design life, the
sample measured must be adequate, and the different service conditions represented
with their respective relative frequencies; (b) an extrapolated maximum value must still
be physically feasible. The universal spectra mentioned are exponential functions which
for infinite observation periods furnish infinitely large x
a
values. Extrapolations are
undertaken for reasons of simplicity on such scales that let the frequency distribution
TALAT 2401 50
(spectrum) appear as a straight line. Measurement data exhibit considerable scatter and
such extrapolations may become questionable. Preferable are methods based on extreme
value distributions that allow the estimation of such maximum values through statistical
tools adapted to engineering [3].
Twoparametric counting methods register two consecutive characteristics in an effort to
include information about the loading sequence as well. In fatigue two methods are of
interest, the "rangemean counting" and the most frequently used "rainflow cycle
counting" (see next paragraph).
The RainFlow Cycle Counting Method
The method is based on the forming and counting of full cycles out of the original am
plitudetime diagram. Practically this is done through registering those stress amplitude
parts of the stress amplitudetime diagram over which a rain drop would flow as
indicated in Figure 2401.04.04.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.04
C
C
B
B
B
A
10
10
9
9
8
8
7 7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1
B
C
D
D
D
F
E
Stress History
Strain
The "RainFlow" Method
StressStrain Cycles
S
t
r
e
s
s
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
The "RainFlow" Method
D. Kosteas, T.U. München
The same result is obtained by the better comprehensible "reservoir method", Figure
2401.04.05. The stresstime diagram is filled with water like a reservoir, the water is let
out at the lowest point and the water column height gives the respective cycle with a
range∆σ
1
. The procedure is repeated at the next lower point and so on. The stress ranges
are collected in classes and result in the cumulative frequency diagram, the stress
spectrum. The counting method does not account for mean stresses or the Rratio but
this does not present a problem in life estimations in practice since these are based on an
assessment of stress ranges.
TALAT 2401 51
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.05
S
t
r
e
s
s
S
(
t
)
one stress cycle
Time Cycles N
./ ./ ./ ./
Determination of Stress Spectra
"Reservoir" Cycle Counting Method
S
4
S
1
S
5
S
2
S
3
S
1
S
2
S
3
S
4
S
5
Determination of Stress Spectra
"Reservoir" Cycle Counting Method
D. Kosteas, T.U. München
The Service Behaviour Fatigue Test
It is the goal of fatigue tests with an appropriate spectrum loading to establish such
strengthlife limit curves for structural components that may lead to generalised design
criteria in practical cases, Figure 2401.04.06. Such tests are rather costly and time
consuming and as such they will be realised on a greater scale only in products
manufactured in larger numbers. In aircraft as well as in several applications of ground
transport vehicles where random loading sequences are simulated during the test proce
dure such tests have their justification. In all other cases the assumption of a damage
accumulation hypothesis in relation to fatigue data from constant amplitude tests will be
the rule.
Depending on the extent of idealisation of the original loading events in service we may
distinguish between different spectra and tests. Results of these tests with variable
amplitudes can be analysed in a way similar to the one for constant amplitude tests.
They may be characterised by analogous expressions for the maximum or minimum
amplitudes, ranges or ratios and the stresslife curve
R
N
m a
m
*
*
*
* * * * *
*
min
max
; ;
*
= = − = ⋅

\

.

−
σ
σ
σ σ σ σ σ ∆ ∆ ∆
10
6
6
10
whereby the quantity N
*
indicates the total number of cycles in the spectrum, often
assumed to N
*
= 10
6
.
TALAT 2401 52
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.06
Influence of Stress Spectrum
on Fatigue Strength
100
10
8
10
7
10
4
10
5
10
6
50
200
300
N/mm²
m
a
x
.
S
t
r
e
s
s
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Cycles to Failure
Form of Collective
Spectrum
P
ü
= 90 %
R= 1
P P
Specimen St35/St52
Influence of Stress Spectrum on Fatigue Strength
Source: E. Haibach, 1971
A characteristic example of such analyses is given in Figure 2401.04.07 for flat notched
(stress concentration factor α=3.6) specimens of AlCuMg2 alloy under axial loading
[3]. The testing frequency was variable and the lines are for a probability of survival
50%. Figure 2401.04.07 shows the results for a spectrum form of the normal
distribution.
Relationships between the lives realised in constant and variable amplitude tests can be
established only empirically because of the very complicated damage mechanisms.
Schütz has performed comprehensive investigations and the two diagrams in Figure
2401.04.08. Figure 2401.04.08 shows the results for aluminium alloy AlCuMg2
(AA2024) [3]. Loading was axial and the probability of survival 50%.
TALAT 2401 53
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
2401.04.07
Fatigue Behaviour Diagram
AlCuMg2 Spectrum Behaviour: Normal Distribution
N/mm²
200
150
100
50
0
0
50 100 150
N/mm²
N = 5· 10
6
N = 5· 10
5
N = 7· 10
5
N = 1· 10
6
N = 1,5· 10
6
N = 2· 10
6
N = 3· 10
6
N = 7· 10
6
N = 7· 10
7
R
=

1
R
=

0
,
5
R
=

0
,
3
3
R
=

0
,
2
R
=
0
R
=
0
,2
R = 0,5
R
=
0
,3
3
S
t
r
e
s
s
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Mean Tensile Stress
Fatigue Behaviour Diagram
Source: Schütz, Gassner
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.08
Fatigue Strength for Constant and Variable
Amplitude (Normal) Loads
ALCuMg2
2 4 6 8 10
7
10
8
2 4 6 8 4 6 8 10
6
Cycles to Failure N
C
y
c
l
e
s
t
o
F
a
i
l
u
r
e
N
4
6
8
10
5
2
4
6
8
10
4
Notch Factor
αk
= 3.6 and 5.2
R=R=0
Notch Factor
αk
= 2.0 to 5.2
R=R=1
Fatigue Strength for Constant and Variable
Amplitude (Normal) Loads
TALAT 2401 54
Analytical Life Estimation and Damage Accumulation
Every model used to estimate the fatigue life of a structural component under variable or
random amplitudes from respective data of constant amplitude tests is confronted by the
fact that damage mechanisms and with them the crack initiation or propagation con
ditions may be altered. Despite these inherent difficulties estimation procedures are
often necessary either in a preliminary design stadium or because of the extreme cost of
service behaviour tests as already mentioned. The purely physical way to explain fatigue
failure has not yet led and will not lead in the near future to a satisfactory allencom
passing model. So it is only understandable that it has been attempted to look upon dam
age as an irreversible process, governed by the number and magnitude of single,
consecutive load cycles. Thus the idea of the damage accumulation was formed, under
which we understand the summation of partial damage per cycle, so that damage can be
quantified and calculated.
Although damage accumulation hypotheses seem to be simple, their application in
practice is associated with a serious problem, that of the "sequence effect", i.e. the
influence of preceding load cycles upon following ones. In other words the damage due
to a certain loading event depends on the damage already accumulated. In this context
we mention the problem of stress amplitudes below the fatigue endurance limit and
which may cause damage nevertheless.
The general outline of a fatigue life estimation is shown in Figure 2401.04.09.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Fatigue Life Estimation
2401.04.09
External Forces Structure
Stress
Time
Function
Spectrum
Geometry
Notch
Manufacturing Material
SurfaceEnvironment
Fatigue Strength
Damage Accumulation
Fatigue Life
Fatigue Life Estimation
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
TALAT 2401 55
The PalmgrenMiner Linear Damage Accumulation Hypothesis
The hypothesis rests on two basic assumptions: (a) the damage D in a constant ampli
tude test grows linearly with the number of cycles n until these reach the number of
cycles to failure N, for which the damage D reaches the value of one; (b) for a loading
sequence with variable amplitudes the partial damage D
i
on the amplitude level i can be
summed with other partial damages and failure (fracture) will appear when the sum of
partial damages reaches unity, i.e.
D D
n
N
for fracture
i
i
i i
= =

\

.
 =
∑ ∑
1
Schematically the application of the linear damage accumulation hypothesis is shown in
Figure 2401.04.10.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
n
i
= no. of cycles on stress level σi
N
i
= no. of cycles to failure on level
σi
σ
2
σ
1
n
i
n
2
n
1
Cycles to Failure
S
t
r
e
s
s
PalmgrenMiner Rule
of Linear Damage Accumulation
σi
N
1
N
2
N
i
2401.04.10 PalmgrenMiner Rule of Linear Damage Accumulation
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
Σ
i
i
i
n
N
1 = =
Already Miner himself had warned against a general application of the linear damage
accumulation rule. It should be taken into account that the linearity itself does not
strictly exist, the sequence of loading and local residual stresses are not considered, and,
theoretically, stresses below the fatigue endurance limit of the constant amplitude SN
line do not contribute to the damage summation.
Numerous suggestions have been made to improve the original hypothesis in the above
mentioned points by changing the constant amplitude SN line, esp. through various
extrapolations of it below the constant amplitude cutoff limit, Figure 2401.04.11.
TALAT 2401 56
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
(MM) (EM)
Modified
Miner
Elementary
Miner
0 10 20 0 10 20 30
Shift in Partial Damage
(OM)
(MM)
(EM)
Cycles to Failure
N
o
r
m
a
l
S
t
r
e
s
s
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
s
a
10² 10³ 10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8
Stress Spectrum
Endurance
Limit
200
400
0
P
ü
= 50 %
600
800
1000
2401.04.11 Shift in Partial Damage
D. Kosteas, T.U. München
Original Miner
(OM)
It is really a whim of statistics, if the mean of fatigue life estimations for stochastic load
ing processes evaluated with the PalmgrenMiner rule compared to respective test
results is approximately at the value of one. It can be formulated that the ratio of actual
to estimated life may vary between 0.2 and 6, or in other words as 1:30 (Figure
2401.04.12). An engineer should try to visualise this statement: a fatigue life estimation
on the basis of the PalmgrenMiner hypothesis can be either five times lower or six
times higher than the actual value! On the other hand too conservative statements, such
as generally limiting the allowable damage sum to 0.3 for instance would result in
uneconomical design.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.12
in practice the damage sum varies from 0.2 to 6
Visualize !
Too conservative limits of the allowable damage sum
would, on the other hand, result in uneconomical design
A fatigue life estimation on the basis of
PalmgrenMiner can be either
five times lower or
six times higher
than the actual value
Life Estimation
with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
Life Estimation with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
TALAT 2401 57
Many of the observed uncertainties associated with the linear damage hypothesis are not
of accidental nature. Some tendencies have been observed (Figure 2401.04.13). An
estimation on the (1) unsafe side will result when there are
(a) large fluctuations of the basic or mean stresses,
(b) an SN constant amplitude curve for bending stresses is used,
(c) stresstime function with a large number of cycles below the endurance limit,
(d) treatments introducing compressive residual stresses, i.e. the use of respective
constant amplitude SN curves,
(e) higher temperatures.
Estimated values will tend to the (2) safe side when
(a) stresstime functions with positive basic or mean stresses are used,
(b) measures introducing tensile residual stresses are taken,
(c) eyebars are assessed,
(d) components with compressive residual stresses are assessed as far as the
respective constant amplitude SN curve has been established on specimens
without significant compressive residual stresses.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.13
 large fluctuations of mean stress
 S/N for constant bending used
 large no. cycles below endurance limit
 treatments for compressive resid. stresses
 higher temperatures
Results on the
unsafe side,
when
Results on the
safe side,
when
 stress history with positive mean stresses
 treatments for tensile residual stresses
 eyebars assessed
 S/N for constant amplitude without significant
compressive residual stresses applied to
components with compressive residual stresses
Observed Tendencies
with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
Observed Tendencies with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
A generally larger scatter of the estimations will result if there is a change in the site of
fracture as a consequence of a change in the stress intensity, or if there is a variation
(enhancement or reduction) of residual stresses which is not accounted for in the respec
tive constant amplitude SN curve, and, finally, if a relocation of the force transfer is
encountered during the lifetime of the component, as can be the case with joints.
As a final fact it should be remembered that the quality of an estimation by means of the
linear damage accumulation hypothesis (i.e. the scatter) cannot be influenced signific
antly by observing the above points. This experience leads to the fact that the quality of
TALAT 2401 58
the damage accumulation rule is characterised primarily not by the fact whether summa
tion results near unity are observed, but rather by the fact whether the observed scatter is
sufficiently small (Figure 2401.04.14).
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.14
1. Rather large scatter in estimates, if
2. Quality of estimate cannot be influenced significantly
Experience with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
 change of SIF resulting in change of site of fracture
 variation of resid. stresses not accounted for in the
respective S/N curve
 relocation of force transfer during lifetime (joints !)
the quality of the rule is characterised primarily by the fact
whether observed scatter is sufficiently small and not
whether summation results near unity are observed
Experience with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
Service Behaviour Assessment
Many of the elements already described concerning the actual fatigue testing of speci
mens or structural components, their analysis and evaluation, influencing parameters, as
well as the above information on variable amplitude loading constitute parts of the
assessment procedure under service conditions. The recent recommendations for
aluminium constructions follow to a certain extent these procedures, especially in
relation to spectrum loading and its evaluation through reference to the established
constant amplitude SN curves of the different structural details and by means of the
linear damage accumulation. Figure 2401.04.15 and Figure 2401.04.16 give the
elements of the constant amplitude curve and the calculation procedure of the
"equivalent stress" based on PalmgrenMiner. Figure 2401.04.16 illustrates the load
spectrum transformation for the service behaviour assessment depending on the
application. The original spectrum 0 may be transformed by means of the linear
damage accumulation hypothesis to either an equivalent stress 1 with the same total
number of cycles as the original spectrum or to an equivalent stress 2 for a "single
loading event" (as for instance the passage of a multiaxle vehicle, train etc.).
TALAT 2401 59
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
P = 90%
50%
10%
1
m
N
A
N
D
log N
1
2m1
log
∆σ
( ) N= C N
m
A
⋅ = ⋅ ⋅
−
∆ ∆ ∆ σ σ σ
A
m m
∆σ
D
∆σ
A
Elements of the Constant Amplitude SN Curve
Reference value
∆σA
at N
A
cycles (2*10
6
),
constant amplitude cutoff
∆σD
at N
D
cycles,
parallel scatter band
2401.04.15
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.04.16
Spectrum Transformation
∆ ∆
∆ ∆ Σ∆
σ σ
σ σ σ
eq i
m
i
m
eq
m
i
m
i
m
N
n
N n
=
= =
∑
( )
( )
1
1
1
1 1
'1'
m
1
N´ N
D
n
i
i
σ
eq
σ
σ
1
1
2
3
3
Transformation
from to
and
from to
1
2 1
2
Spectrum Transformation
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
N= C
m
⋅
−
∆σ
N = n
i
Σ
TALAT 2401 60
Literature
[1] D. Kosteas: Grundlagen für BetriebsfestigkeitsNachweise. Stahlbauhandbuch,
Bd.1, pp. 585618.
[2] n.n.: European Recommendations for Aluminiuzm Alloy Structures  Fatigue De
sign. ECCS Doc. N
o
. 68, Brussels, 1992
[3] O. Buxbaum: Betriebsfestigkeit. Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf, 1986
TALAT 2401 61
2401.05 Local Stress Concepts and Fatigue
• Analytical relationship between strain and fatigue life
• Notch theory concept
• The strainlife diagram
Analytical Relationship between Strain and Fatigue Life
Describing predictive theories of fatigue in Lecture 2401.02 we have mentioned the
relationship between strain range ∆ε and the number of cycles to failure, the
semiempirical MansonCoffin law. Especially in the socalled lowcyclefatigue range
where plastic strain ranges contribute significantly to the strain vs. fatigue life
relationship, such an approach describes the phenomenon in a satisfactory way. As
already mentioned the MansonCoffin relationship, or as modified by Morrow, states
that
∆ ∆
∆
ε ε
ε
t el
pl
2 2 2
= + (1)
This can be transformed as follows
∆ ∆ ∆ ε σ σ
t
n
E K 2 2 2
1
= +

\

.

'
'
(2)
and taking into account the loglog relation after Basquin ∆σ = C*N
B
( ) ( )
∆ε
σ
ε
t
f
f
b
f f
c
E
N N
2
2 2 = +
'
'
(3)
where
∆ε
t
true strain at notch
∆ε
el
elastic part of true strain
∆ε
pl
plastic part of true strain
∆σ effective stress at notch
E elastic modulus of the cyclic stressstraincurve
K' cyclic stress coefficient
n' cyclic hardening exponent
σ'
f
true ultimate strength
b fatigue strength vs. life exponent
ε'
f
fatigue ductility coefficient
c fatigue ductility exponent
2N
f
reversals to failure = total cycles N to failure
The goal is the estimation of N = 2N
f
cycles to failure for a given notch strain condtion
expressed through ∆ε
t
. In practical applications we are interested in a simple relation
TALAT 2401 62
between nominal stresses on the structural component and cycles to failure. The connec
tion between nominal design stresses and the local notch stresses or strains can be estab
lished through the analytical notch theory concept of Neuber, as explained below.
All other parameters as given in the above strain vs. life relationship are to be estimated
from experimental data, i.e. cyclic stressstrain relationships expressed analytically
through the RambergOsgood formula
ε
σ σ
= +

\

.


E R
p
n
0 002
0 2
.
, .
'
(4)
with
Rp,o.2 = yield stress at 0.2% plastic strain in cyclic stressstrain relation
In case of spectrum loading respective damage accumulation theories, see Lecture
2401.02, may be used.
Notch Theory Concept
Defining local stress or strain as σ and ε and the respective nominal values as S and e
we define the theoretical stress or strain intensity factors
K
S
σ
σ
= and K
e
t
t
ε
ε
= (5)
Neuber defines the theoretical intensity factor as
K
t
= (K
σ
⋅ K
ε
)
1/2
(6)
and Topper assumes a similar relationship for the case of cyclic loading substituting the
stress and strain values with the respective stress and strain ranges whereby the cyclic
notch factor K
f
is introduced
K
S e
f
t
t
=
⋅
⋅

\

.

∆ ∆
∆ ∆
σ ε
1
2
(7)
This last formula may be transformed into
( )
∆ ∆ ∆ σ ε ⋅ = ⋅
t f
E
K S
1 2
(8)
which gives us the possibility to determine the product ∆σ*∆ε
t
on the condition that on
the right side of the formula is determinable. The latter may be achieved by estimating
the only unknown, K
f
, from a empirical relationship such as given by Peterson
TALAT 2401 63
K
K
a
r
f
t
= +
−
+
1
1
1
(9)
where
a is a material constant with an approximate value of a = 0.5 mm for
aluminium alloys according to Peterson
r is the notch radius
In case of fatigue cracks the so called 'worst notch case' is assumed, i.e. a maximum
value for K
f
has to be estimated, which will be produced for a certain relation of the
material constant a, the geometrical notch form, and the critical notch radius. In the most
common case of an elliptical crack shape r
crit
= a and maxK
f
= 1+2(t/a)
1/2
with
t = plate thickness.
The StrainLife Diagram
With the help of a cyclic stressstrain curve for the material observed the pair of values
∆σ and ∆ε
t
may be calculated according to the now known value of their product as
given with equation (8). Finally with the calculated ∆ε
t
value the desired fatigue life to
failure according to equation (3) can be determined and the respective εN curve can be
constructed.
According to a proposal by SmithWatsonTopper the quantity (σ
a
⋅ ε
a
⋅ E)
1/2
may be
used to characterize the fatigue behaviour of a material in a respective diagram. Through
equation (2) and (3) a new relation is established
( ) ( )
σ ε σ σ ε
a a f f f f f
b c
E N E N ⋅ ⋅ = ⋅ + ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
+
' ' '
2
2
2 2 (10)
with σ
a
= ∆σ/2 and ε
a
= ∆ε
T
/2
The right side of this equation enables the simple calculation of characteristic values in
the form of (σ
a
⋅ ε
a
⋅ E)
1/2
vs. reversals to failure 2N
f
. The resulting curve characterises
the fatigue behaviour of the material and can be readily used in design, since for design
purposes the value (σ
a
⋅ ε
a
⋅ E)
1/2
is equal to K
f
⋅ S
a
with
K
f
from equation (9)
S
a
nominal stress amplitude = ∆σ/2
A schematic diagram of the above described procedure follows in Figure 2401.05.01.
TALAT 2401 64
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
ε
char.
ε
char.
ε
char.
A
B
Material Properties StressStrain
Behaviour
Static Loading Repeated Loading
assumed experimental
spectrum
MansonCoffin
Morrow
SmithWatson
Topper
N cycles to failure
in the HAZ
for
unwelded material
material properties
stabilising after
number of cycles
assumed conditions
specifications
"real" conditions
experiment
plastic strain 
in HAZ  due to
allowable
serviceability limit
cyclic
monotonic
HAZ
el.
base metal
yield
HAZ
base metal
HAZ
log Nf
log (2Nf')
log (2Nf)
k =
yHAZ y
σ σ /
σ ε ⋅ ⋅E
P A
all k all
= ⋅σ
( ) A A 1 k A
k HAZ
= Σ
σ
all
∆ ∆ ∆ ε ε ε = +
el pl
∆ ∆ ∆
ε ε ε
2 2 2
el pl
= +
log ∆ε
log
2
∆ε
σ
yHAZ spec.
σ
σ
y
5 steps
500 cycles
each
cycles 2500
P
p
σ
σ
σ
ε
ε
ε
ε
ε
Life Estimation Procedure
Example for the HAZ
of an Aluminium Weldment
Life Estimation Procedure
2401.05.01
TALAT 2401 65
References
[1] Kosteas, D., Steidl G. and Strippelman W.  D.: Geschweißte Aluminium
Konstruktionen. Vieweg, Braunschweig, 1978.
[2] Hellmich, K.: Beitrag zur Berechnung von Aluminiumstäben unter vorwiegend
ruhender Belastung, ALUMINIUM 55 (1979) 9, p. 579/584
[3] Kosteas, D.: Basis for Fatigue Design of Aluminium, Proc. IABSE colloquium
"Fatigue", p. 113/120, Lausanne, 1982.
[4] Kosteas, D.: Zyklisches Verhalten von AluminiumSchweißverbindungen und
Lebensdauervoraussage. Schweißen und Schneiden, September 1982
[5] Kosteas, D.: Cyclic behavior and fatigue life prediction in Welded Aluminium
Joints. Proceed. Intern. Symposium on LowCycle Fatigue Strength and
Elastoplastic Behavior of Materials, p. 611/619, Stuttgart, 1979.
[6] Steinhardt, O.: Aluminiumkonstruktionen im Bauwesen. Schweiz, Bauz., 89.
Jahrgang Heft 11, 18 March 1971, p. 255/262.
[7] Steinhardt, O.: Aluminium im konstruktiven Ingenieurbau. Aluminium 47 (1971),
p. 131/139 and 254/261.
Remarks
Further proposals have been made for the application of the local notch theory concept
in estimating fatigue behaviour. These proposals, especially by Seeger or Radaj, provide
for different solutions to the calculation of the effective strain values at the notch.
Details for calculation of respective values are given in:
Seeger T., Beste A.:
"Zur Weiterentwicklung von Näherungsformeln für die Berechnung von Kerbspannun
gen im elastischplastischen Bereich"
VDIFortschrittsberichte, Vol. 18(2), pp. 156, 1978
Radaj D:
"Gestaltung und Berechnung von Schweißkonstruktionen"
Deutscher Verlag für Schweißtechnik
TALAT 2401 66
2401.06 Effects of Weld Imperfections on Fatigue
• Types of imperfections
• Influence of imperfections on static strength
• Influence of imperfections on fatigue strength
In the last few years codes for the definition of weld defects, weld quality and the
derivation of acceptance levels for weld defects have been introduced in several
countries, Figure 2401.06.01, covering steel as well aluminium structures. For a wide
range of quality control criteria the codes for use in structural engineering are based on
empirical experience and the possibilities to measure the defect size or to avoid the
defect during the manufacturing. Only in some cases have quality criteria been based on
the residual strength of the joint or the structure. In this chapter weld imperfections in
aluminium welded joints and their influence on fatigue behaviour will be covered. A
certain overlap with Lecture 2404.02 cannot be avoided, but the latter will refer mainly
to attempts of quantification of influence in relation to classification of structural joint
details.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.06.01
Quality Control and Defect Assessment Codes
Defect
Definition
Quality
Requirements
Defect
Assessment
Allowable
Stresses
DIN 8524;DIN EN 26520 DIN 8563 T4 DVS Ri FM
DIN 8563 T3/T30
IIW NDT IIW Design
BS PD 6493 Acceptance Levels for Defects
Det Norske Veritas Recommendations
NL Permissible Weld Discontinuities
BS 8118 P1:Design, P2:Workmanship
AFNOR 89220:Classification et Controlle
AWS Structural Welding Code Aluminium
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Quality Control and Defect Assessment Codes
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
The quantification of effects of weld imperfections on the static and the fatigue beha
viour of structures in different engineering applications is associated with several
problems. Different loads, safety and quality control concepts complicate the evaluation.
In the case of welded aluminium structures there is also a lack of data in some areas, i.e.
greater cracks and cracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ), as well as aluminium specific
problems, i.e. the reduced strength in the weld and in the heat affected zone.
TALAT 2401 67
Types of Imperfections
Weld imperfections can be classified by different characteristics, for example internal or
external, source of imperfection, or the type of the imperfection. Another way is the
classification based upon a fracture mechanics approach in cracklike, stress raising and
insignificant imperfections. This shows that weld imperfection classification depends on
the standpoint of the classifier, in general the organisation issuing the code. If quality
control engineers and welding specialists dominate, the codes may oriented more on the
possibility of detection or avoidance of a weld imperfection.
A detailed description of possible weld imperfections is given in DIN 8524 and DIN EN
16520. Figure 2401.06.02 shows the major groups of weld imperfections. The proposed
German quality standard DIN 8563, T30 uses 19 single characteristics for butt welds
and 14 for fillet welds, 5 of the first and 4 of the second are determined by quantitative
rules. The others are described qualitatively. There are 4 classes for butt welds (AS, BS,
CS, DS) and 3 for fillet welds (AK, BK, CK). These characteristics are only a part of a
detailed list of 110 possible weld imperfections in DINEN 16520.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.06.02
internal defects
1 cracks
2 pores
3 inclusions, oxides
4 lack of fusion (LOF)
5 lack of penetration (LOP)
external defects
6 weld shape
7 arc strike, spatter
8 geometric misalignment
9 postweld mechanical imperfections
10
residual stresses
Defect Groups in Butt and Fillet Welds
5
5
4
2
6
1
7
7
Defect Groups in Butt and Fillet Welds
9
3
3
3
3 3
3
1
3
According to DIN 8524 and DIN EN 26520
8
Cracks usually form as hot cracks in the heat affected zone or the weld itself during the
cooling period. For standard alloys and filler metals problems arise generally from
cracks at end craters only. They can be minimised through joint optimisation a welding
plan and a welding sequence, qualified welding personnel. Alloys with higher silicon
concentration may develop cracks in the remelted base material. This is a problem
depending on the combination fillerbase metal and the welding parameters. Greater
cracks can reach up to some millimetres in length and depth. They may grow up to
visible sizes after a number of load cycles. Care should be taken in welding over of
greater cracks or in multilayer welds which may lead to residual internal cracks difficult
to detect.
TALAT 2401 68
Pores result from the reduction of the volume during its solidifying process, from
humidity and/or gas input into the fusion zone associated with a high welding speed.
Volume reduction leads to microporosity less than 0.25 mm in diameter. Hydrogen gas
in solution in the melt diffuses during solidification into micropores. These micropores
may coalesce to macropores by remelting through a second weld pass. Larger pores may
result from water vapour or moisture in the shielding gas or moisture on the base and/or
filler metal. Another source of water vapour are defect torch cooling systems.
Inclusions larger than 0.1m are the result of a defective cleaning of material surfaces.
Slag inclusions which present a significant problems with steel welds are no problem for
aluminium welds, commonly performed in MIG, TIG, electron beam or plasma techni
ques. Larger oxides or lack of fusion results from wrong welding parameters and/or
improper removal of the initial oxide film. Oxides smaller than 0.3 mm are unavoidable.
Lack of penetration will be determined by the weld preparation geometry and the weld
ing parameters. Fillet welds exhibit by definition lack of penetration. But a sound weld
root or a double fillet weld is always beneficial.
The weld shape is controlled by the welding position, the welding parameters, especially
the heat input, the qualification of the welders and the equipment. The welding
personnel is also responsible for frequency of arc strikes and the volume of spatters.
Geometric misalignment and thermally induced deformations are a general and common
problem for welded structures. They may affect the appearance of the structure and more
significant, the strength and the function of the components. Deformations can be
limited to acceptable values by carefully designed welding procedures and sequences,
appropriate fixtures for the joint parts etc.
Mechanical deformations due to post weld treatments, transportation and erection are
often unavoidable.
Residual stresses due to welding are commonly not discussed in the quality codes. But
nevertheless they are one of the main parameters affecting fatigue behaviour of welded
structures. Accounting for uncertainties in the calculation and determination of residual
stresses in the hot spot areas the design codes assume the presence of residual stresses
and their magnitude equal to the yield strength level in practically all welded joints.
Whether residual stresses will show a relaxation or not during fatigue cycling in certain
alloys or joint configurations is still an open issue. Recommendations account for a
bonus factor, if a residual stress relaxation can be verified, as is the case with the ECCS
Recommendations for Aluminium Alloys Structures in Fatigue, see Lecture 2402.01.
A possibility to reduce residual stresses and simultaneously offering a beneficial
geometric effect as well, is peening, TIGdressing, stressrelieveannealing. In this
context we may also mention the specific problem of welded aluminium joints covering
at least 3 different material property areas, base metal, heat affected zone and weld zone.
These may be regarded as a metallurgical notch effect.
TALAT 2401 69
Influence of Imperfections on Static Strength
Aluminium Alloys customarily used in structural engineering like 5083, 5086, 6061,
6082, 7004, 7020 show favourable toughness and sufficient to good ductility values in
the base metal and the different zones of the weldment. Problems may arise in the
reduced strength of relatively large heat affected zones, especially for work hardened
alloys, or in the weld itself. This leads to a concentration of a deformation of a welded
joint. Stresses will be raised locally and crack like weld imperfections will further
concentrate the deformation in small regions of the joint. Reduced ductility of the joint
is the result which may lead to an early failure of the structure, although the latter is still
under fully elastic strain. It is therefore indicated that in statically loaded structures
acceptance levels for weld imperfections are a ductility problem of the joint rather than a
strength problem. Tests with full scale tubular joints show a tougher behaviour for lower
strength base metal compared to high strength base metal, because of a better
redistribution of deformations. The maximum load capacity is not influenced by the
strength of the base metal significantly.
Static tests in small specimens show a similar behaviour. The strength of the welded
joint is normally a function of the strength of the weld metal, as long as this is lower
than the strength of the base metal or of the heat affected zone. This can be derived also
from the critical stress intensity factors for the different zones of the weldment as
demonstrated in the Kvalues measured according to different methods or
recommendations, see Table 1 (Figure 2401.06.03):
Alloy K
Q
MPa√m
K
J,c
MPa√m
K
δo
MPa√m
K
max
MPa√m
AlZn4,5Mg1 47 50 52 73
AlMg4,5Mn 29 38 40 42
AlMgSi1 39 45 51 39
AlZn4,5Mg1HAZ 35 46 52 
AlMg4,5MnHAZ 27 36 39 44
AlMgSi1HAZ 38 38 38 45
SAlMg4,5Mn 30 43 47 
SAlMg5 29 38 40 43
SAlSi5 26 40 43 34
Table 1: Stress Intensity Factors for Weldments, LT Direction, CTSpecimen, B
= 30mm, K
Q
and K
max
after ASTM E399, K
J,c
after ASTM E813,K
δ0
after BS 5762
TALAT 2401 70
alu
Training in AluminiumApplication Technologies
K(Q)/ASTM E399
K(J,c)/ASTM E813
K(d,0)/BS 5762
Kmax/ASTM E399
Critical Stress Intensity Factors
LT direction, CTspecimen, B = 30 mm
2401.06.03
Critical Stress Intensity Factors
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
7
0
2
0

B
M
5
0
8
3

B
M
6
0
8
2

B
M
7
0
2
0

H
A
Z
5
0
8
3

H
A
Z
6
0
8
2

H
A
Z
5
0
8
3

W
M
5
0
5
6

W
M
4
0
4
3

W
M
[BM = base metal] [HAZ = heat affected zone] [WM = weld metal][
80
60
40
0
20
S
t
r
e
s
s
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
[
M
P
a
m
1
/
2
]
The diagram in Figure 2401.06.04 demonstrates that such stress intensity factors permit
crack like defects of some millimetres size to be tolerated without significant reduction
of strength.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
N
/
m
m
2
Normalized crack length a/W
Critical Stress for a Side Crack in a Plate
Critical Stress for a Side Crack in a Plate
with crack length a and width W
2401.06.04
R(m) ultimate
R(p0.2) yield
K(J)
K(Q)
S(all/HAZ)
AlMg4.5Mn/5083
plate width 200 mm
R(m) = 304 N/mm
2
R(p0.2) = 142 N/mm
2
K(c) = 30 MPa m
1/2
K(J,c) = 38 MPa m
1/2
Source: D. Kosteas, T.U. München
Also at cryogenic temperatures brittle fracture is no problem with welded aluminium
joints. Static fracture toughness as well as ultimate strength will increase with decreas
ing temperatures, while the impact Charpy energy values will decrease slightly with
TALAT 2401 71
decreasing temperature. The lower Charpy values in the welded zone compared to those
in base material are a result of the lower ultimate strength respectively. Internal
imperfections like porosity reduce the Charpy values only for relatively high pore
density. No decrease could be detected even with fatigue cracks as starter notches up to
porosity values of 15%. Porosity up to 45% reduces the impact toughness slightly by the
amount of reduction of the area. This is true for the static strength values of a joint as
well. All this demonstrates that statically loaded welded aluminium structures are
relatively insensitive to imperfections as far as these do not reach considerable
dimensions. Geometrical notches due to misalignment should be taken into account
though in the calculation of stresses.
Butt welds welded from one side only, or unsatisfactory weld root form in fillet welds or
the unavoidable gap in double fillet welds forms the imperfection defined as lack of
penetration (LOP). Unsatisfactory connection between weld and base metal will lead to
lack of fusion (LOF). LOP and LOF are two imperfections that will affect strength
significantly. Especially LOP may be unavoidable in certain joint configurations and
plate thicknesses because otherwise the necessary weld energy input would result in a
significant heat affected zone, i.e. potential crack site. Static strength will decrease in a
linear relationship with increasing imperfection size. Even in intermittent LOP it seems
that the strength reduction depends on the imperfection size rather, i.e. depth of
imperfection than the reduction of area due to this imperfection. One sided LOP will
affect strength more severely, since eccentricity causes additional bending stresses.
Influence of Imperfections on Fatigue Strength
Fatigue life is dominated by crack propagation especially in welded joints. Cracks of
approximately 100 µm are initiated during the first 10 % of total life to failure. If the
measurable crack size can be reduced to approx. 10 µm this ratio may be reduced below
1% of total life. This was established for unnotched base metal as well as for notched
base metal and welded joints. Similar behaviour has been observed in high strength and
welded structural steel. Fatigue behaviour can, therefore, be viewed largely as a result of
crack propagation behaviour and of the stress conditions in the critical zones, hence the
importance of fracture mechanics.
Based on this knowledge the influence of weld imperfections can be derived through
fracture mechanics calculations as defined in recommendations such as DVSMerkblatt
'Bruchmechanische Bewertung in Schweißverbindungen', BS PD6493 'Guidance on
some methods for the derivation of acceptance levels for defects in fusion welded
joints', and ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code 'Analysis of flaw indication'. Crack
initiation time is thereby neglected. Details on the fracture mechanics assessment are
given in Lecture 2403.
Numerous and detailed empirical investigations exist for most types of weld
imperfections in welded aluminium joints. A literature documentation on imperfections
is available within the Aluminium Data Bank at the Technical University of Munich and
lists more than 300 publications dealing directly with weld imperfections.
TALAT 2401 72
Cracks
Data on the fatigue behaviour of hot or cold cracks is not so numerous. Some published
data indicate a 10% reduction of the fatigue strength for rewelded crater cracks. Some
data with full scale welded beam fatigue tests shows no influence of rewelded or surface
crater cracks. No fractures could be detected here originating from crater cracks. This
may be explained through a full remelting of possible initial cracks by the second weld
pass or that in all cases where surface crater cracks had been detected, these were in the
direction of the principal stress. Care should be taken though for transverse cracks
which will reduce fatigue strength significantly.
Porosity
Porosity up to 35% will reduce fatigue life of butt welds with reinforcement removed
(overfill ground flush) up to a factor of 200, Figure 2401.06.05.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.06.05
Porosity
Influence on Fatigue Strength
0 8 16 24 32
Porosity in % of Fracture Area
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
C
y
c
l
e
s
t
o
F
r
a
c
t
u
r
e
butt weld with overfill dressed
flush
respective increase of net section stress
in the order of 50%
factor of ~200
on life
Porosity  Influence on Fatigue Strength (I)
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
This is equivalent to a reduction in strength of 3.7 times for an SN curve slope of
m = 4, while the respective increase of net section stress is of the order of 50% due to
the above reduction of the area. Sound aswelded butt joints with reinforcement intact
show a reduction in strength of 20  25 % in comparison to reinforcement removed
welds, see Figure 2401.06.06. Experimental data indicate that porosity up to certain
values will not reduce fatigue strength of the aswelded joints significantly. Even values
of 15% porosity have been reported as insignificant to the fatigue strength. Much will
depend though on the size of individual pores, on their distribution within the weldment.
TALAT 2401 73
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.06.06
Overfill
Influence on Fatigue Strength
Cycles to Failure
0
50
100
150
200
250
F
a
t
i
g
u
e
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
i
n
M
P
a
base metal
aswelded
Butt Weld
5000 series alloy
overfill
dressed flush
Overfill  Influence on Fatigue Strength
D. Kosteas, TUM
10
3
4 6 10
4
4 6 10
5
2 4 6 10
6
5 10
7
2 5 10
8
On the basis on fracture mechanics calculations and empirical data the maximum pore
size has been recognised as a characteristic and more accurate parameter influencing
fatigue strength. Single large pores are always more severe than the always present fine
to intermediate porosity. In DVS: Merkblatt 1611 'Beurteilung von Durchstrahlungsauf
nahmen im Schienenfahrzeugbau  Schmelzschweißverbindungen an Aluminium und
Aluminiumlegierungen' the diameter of a single pore is limited to 30  43 % of the plate
thickness up to a maximum value of 6.4mm. Test data and fracture mechanics calcula
tions indicate an acceptable pore size of 12mm in aswelded joints and 0.2  0.5 mm for
reinforcement removed butt welds. The fatigue strength of fillet welds will normally not
be affected significantly by porosity, since the severe notch effect at the weld toe or the
lack of penetration of the root overshadows the influence of porosity. As a consequence,
larger single pores or higher porosity percentages may be tolerated.
Small butt welded specimens with sound reinforcements removed show porosity
induced fractures only for pores near or at the surface with sizes of 0.2  0.5 mm.
Fracture mechanics calculations show that the K
I
values are higher by a factor of 1.5 for
imperfections at or near the surface than for internal imperfections of the same size.
Based on this the acceptable imperfection size can be increased for internal
imperfections by a factor of 2.25. Secondary bending stresses increase the detrimental
effects of surface imperfections. If surface imperfections are the cause of fatigue
fracture, another fact must be mentioned which is the relative insensitivity of the test
results with respect to stress conditions, whether axial tension or bending. On the other
hand bend tests can lead to unsafe prediction or noncomparable results concerning the
effects of internal imperfections, since reduced local stresses will act at the imperfection
site. Welds in structures are usually stressed by axial tension and only by a small
bending component. Therefore axial tension tests are more realistic in most cases.
TALAT 2401 74
The diagram of Figure 2401.06.07 depicts fatigue test results of butt welds in
AlMg4,5Mn with 4 different porosity densities (sound welds, low, middle, and higher
porosity). Specimens with removed reinforcements show a higher fatigue strength than
those with reinforcement left intact. Tests were performed on a plate thickness of 9.5
mm respective values for 25.4 mm thickness lie at approximately 20 % lower strengths
especially in the high cycle region. In general porosity will not affect the behaviour of
welds with reinforcement intact, only in case of a very flat weld profile and a very high
pore density. Porosity will have a significant effect on fatigue strength in case of
removed reinforcement especially for low fatigue strengths.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.06.07
Porosity
Influence on Fatigue Strength
10
5
10
6
10
7
Cycles to Failure N
F
a
t
i
g
u
e
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
i
n
M
P
a
50
100
150
200
250
RI
RR
weld accepted
weld rejected
base metal
5083 butt welds, plate 9.5 mm
for 25.4 mm 20% lower values, esp. in HCF
(no/low/middle/high porosity)
Porosity  Influence on Fatigue Strength (II)
RI = Reinforcement intact
RR = Reinforcement removed
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Inclusions, Oxides
Oxides form cracklike imperfections because of their planar character with a thickness
of 1 to 10µm and sizes below 0.5mm. Nearsurface or surface oxide inclusions are com
mon crack initiation sites in sound welds. This was also observed for sound aswelded
butt and fillet welds. Larger oxides will reduce the fatigue strength significantly. As a
result of their very small dimensions, especially thickness, oxides are very difficult to
detect by nondestructive test methods.
For aluminium welds the inclusion problem is not as severe as for electroslag steel
welds. Some investigations show no or very small effect of inclusions upon fatigue
strength. This will be especially the case when geometric effects of the weld profile
override possible notch effects of inclusions, as is often the case with fillet welds.
Lack of Penetration  Lack of Fusion
TALAT 2401 75
Lack of penetration (LOP) and lack of fusion (LOF) are similar imperfections but they
may show different behaviour. Both will exhibit a detrimental effect on fatigue
strength. The opposite surface of a LOF imperfection will usually be pressed together by
residual stresses and this will lead to higher fatigue lives. On the other hand the
imperfection may not be detected easily by means of nondestructive testing. Tests have
showed that the length of the imperfection in the weld direction as the commonly used
parameter to restrict LOP and LOF imperfections is inadequate to describe their
influence on fatigue strength. The relevant parameter should rather be the width of the
imperfection transverse to the maximum stress direction. This can be derived from
fracture mechanics considerations as well. This imperfection size will usually be the
throughthickness imperfection width, for which identification problems by non
destructive testing are in common. Using ultrasonic inspection methods one has to use
special transducers for diagonal testing. Xray tests record only the perpendicular
projection which may underestimate the value significantly.
Acceptable imperfection sizes can be derived from test results, Figure 2401.06.08. For
aswelded joints the LOP size may be between 1 mm and 2 mm, this is compatible with
fracture mechanics analysis results. For butt joints with reinforcement removed this
limit value has to be reduced below 0.5 mm for sound welds.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Lack of Penetration  Lack of Fusion
Influence on Fatigue Strength
Cycles to Failure
F
a
t
i
g
u
e
S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h
i
n
M
P
a
RI
RR
5.3 mm
1.5 mm
0.5 mm
3.8 mm
2401.06.08
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
size of
imperfection
and life range
LOP  LOF Influence on Fatigue Strength
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
RR = reinforcement removed
RI = reinforcement intact
100
200
300
50
Sound
Welds
Load carrying fillet welds in cruciform joints show by definition a LOP imperfection.
The fatigue strength of cruciform joints is a function of the stresses in the weld and the
geometric dimensions. Test results show that, for fractures emanating from the root, the
strength is directly proportional to the reduction of net section stress in the weld. For
double fillet welds and a nominal weld thickness a ≤ 0.6t fracture will emanate from the
root, a result which is also supported by fracture mechanics analysis. The transition
between weld root and weld toe initiation lies in the region of 0.6 < a/t < 0.8. It is
significantly affected by the actual penetration of the fillet weld, which increases the real
weld thickness. In cases of double fillet welds with preparation of joint surfaces butt like
welds will result. Nonloadcarrying fillet welds will usually fracture from the toe, here
LOP and LOF do not affect the fatigue behaviour significantly.
TALAT 2401 76
Weld Shape
Major parameters of the weld shape are the reinforcement angle and the toe transition
radius. The bead height is a secondary parameter. Nevertheless for butt welds the bead
height and for fillet welds the convexity is the standard parameter for characterising the
weld profile in recommendations except DIN 8563, T30. On the condition that the weld
profile is circular with radius r the toe angle alpha is a function of bead height h and
weld width b.
h r b = ⋅ − = ⋅ − ( cos ) ( cos ) / sin 1 1 α α α (1)
As a result the relation h/b can be used as a characteristic parameter, b depends on the
weld form, V or X, thickness and pass number. The relation h/t provides a less accurate
correlation. Standard values for the reduction in fatigue strength from milled to aswel
ded butt joints are 1.2  1.6, in the case of sound welds, see Figure 2401.06.06.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.06.09
Overfill Toe Angle
Influence on Fatigue Strength
100° 120° 140° 160° 180°
Toe Angle
α
[°]
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Stress Range [MPa]
α
Alloy NP5/6, R=0, t=9.4 mm
Overfill Toe Angle  Influence on Fatigue Strength
D. Kosteas, TUM
Depending on the reinforcement angle the fatigue strength at 3·10
6
cycles ranges from
50110 MPa for AlMgMn welds, see Figure 2401.06.09. Respective values for welds
with removed reinforcement lie in the range of 90110 MPa. Based on this data an angle
of up to 150° is acceptable for a strength of 90 MPa. This is equivalent to h = 1.25·b
and with b = 1.4·t (ß = 70°, Vweld), we have h =1.37·t.
Geometric Misalignment
Geometric, linear and/or angular misalignment act as stress raisers, see Figure
2401.06.10. The magnitude of the secondary stress amplitude depends on the overall
TALAT 2401 77
design of the joint. The secondary bending stress σ
M
in the case of linear misalignment
of welded plates can be estimated by the simple relation
σ
M
= σ
N
·3·e/t (2)
with σ
N
denoting the axial stress, t the plate thickness and e the eccentricity. Detailed
formulas are given in BS PD6493 also in the case of angular misalignment. For spec
trum or block loaded structures with a certain number of cycles and stresses above the
yield strength (the latter may lie below 120 MPa in the weld or heat affected zone) the
angular misalignment will be reduced through plastic deformations during the first
cycles.
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
2401.06.10
Linear Misalignment
Influence on Fatigue Strength
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Relative Eccentricity e/t [%]
250
270
290
310
330
Stress Range
&%
[MPa]
e
t
AlMgSi1 / SAlSi5
t = 2.5 to 3.2 mm
Linear Misalignment  Influence on Fatigue Strength
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
Arc Strike, Spatter
Arc strikes outside the weld are not common in aluminium weldments. They may
reduce the fatigue strength of the joint in a way similar to the reduction due to a butt
weld. Spatters do not reduce the fatigue strength of aluminium welded joints.
PostWeld Mechanical Imperfections
Postweld mechanical imperfections may reduce the fatigue strength of reinforcement
removed butt welds. Other weldtype are not affected by usual mechanical imperfections
as hammer indentations or grinding notches of minor depth. Drilled holes show a fatigue
TALAT 2401 78
behaviour similar to sound aswelded butt welds, if net section stresses are compared.
Therefore improperly drilled holes should not be repaired by filling the hole with weld
material. The result may be LOP and LOF imperfections with consequent lower fatigue
strengths.
TALAT 2401 79
2401.07 Literature/References
Further details and information on the subjects treated in these lectures may be found in
the following literature
KOSTEAS, D.: Grundlagen für Betriebsfestigkeitsnachweise, Stahlbau Handbuch,
Ch. 10.8, p. 585618, StahlbauVerlagsGmbH, Köln, 1982
GRAF, U.: Bruchmechanische Kennwerte und Verfahren für die Berechnung der
Ermüdungsfestigkeit geschweißter Aluminiumbauteile. Berichte aus
dem Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau der Technischen Universität
München Nr. 3/92, München, 1992
KOSTEAS, D. and GRAF, U.: Versuchsdurchführung und Auswertung von
Dauerfestigkeitsuntersuchungen, Mitteilungen aus dem Lehrstuhl für
Stahlbau Technische Universität München, Heft 20, p. 3273,
München, 1984
KOSTEAS, D. and KIROU, I.: Bewertung von Schwingfestigkeitsuntersuchungen
durchgeführt nach dem Treppenstufenverfahren im
Zeitfestigkeitsbereich, Mitteilungen aus dem Lehrstuhl für Stahlbau
Technische Universität München, Heft 20, p. 123159, München,
1984
N.N.: European Recommendations for Aluminium Alloy Structures 
Fatigue Design. ECCS Doc. N
o
. 68, Brussels, 1992
BUXBAUM, O.: Betriebsfestigkeit. Verlag Stahleisen mbH, Düsseldorf, 1986
KOSTEAS, D. and ONDRA, R.: Imperfektionen in AluminiumSchweißverbindungen 
Einfluß auf die Betriebsfestigkeit, VDI Berichte Nr. 770, p.4375,
1989
KOSTEAS, D.: Zyklisches Verhalten von AluminiumSchweißverbindungen und
Lebensdauervoraussage, Schweißen und Schneiden, 9, September
1982
KOSTEAS, D.: Cyclic behaviour and fatigue life prediction in welded aluminium
joints, In: Proc. Intern. Symp. on LowCycle Fatigue Strength and
ElastoPlastic Behaviour of Materials, p. 611619, Stuttgart, 1979
KOSTEAS, D.: Lowcycle fatigue damage probability in the HAZ of aluminium
weldments, In: Proc. 2nd INALCO, p. II.3.116, Munich, 1982
TALAT 2401 80
2401.08 List of Figures
Figure Nr. Figure Title (Overhead)
2401.01.01 Fatigue  Where?
2401.01.02 Fatigue  Location
2401.01.03 Fatigue  When and What?
2401.01.04 Fatigue  The Remedy
2401.01.05 Fatigue  Significance for Aluminium
2401.01.06 Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading
2401.01.07 Definitions: Spectrum Loading
2401.02.01 StressStrain Loops: (a) Stress Control, (b) Strain Control
2401.02.02 Cyclic StressStrain Curve
2401.02.03 NotchPeak Geometry at Slip Bands
2401.02.04 Fatigue Crack Initiation at a Surface Inclusion
2401.02.05 Stage I and II Fatigue Crack Growth
2401.02.06 Schematic Illustration of a Fatigue Fracture Surface
2401.02.07 Fatigue Crack Growth Rate
2401.02.08 Fatigue Crack Growth by the Plastic Blunting Mechanism
2401.02.09 Effect of Variable Load Sequence on Fatigue Crack Growth
2401.02.10 Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters
2401.02.11 StrainLife Relationship
2401.02.12 Outline of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods
2401.03.01 Statistical / Regressional Analysis
2401.03.02 Fatigue Test Data Analysis
2401.03.03 Statistical Methods for Calculations of Distributions and Significance
2401.03.04 Probability of Survival Lines for a Fillet Weld
2401.03.05 ProbitMethod
2401.03.06 StaircaseMethod
2401.03.07 TwoPointMethod (Little)
2401.03.08 Fatigue Strength Diagrams
2401.03.09 PSNCurve
2401.03.10 MaximumLikelihoodMethod
2401.04.01 Cycle Counting Methods
2401.04.02 StressTime Diagram and Stress Spectrum
2401.04.03 Normalized Universal Spectra
2401.04.04 The „RainFlow“ Method
2401.04.05 Determination of Stress Spectra  „Reservoir“ Cycle Counting Method
2401.04.06 Influence of Stress Spectrum on Fatigue Strength
2401.04.07 Fatigue Behaviour Diagram
2401.04.08 Fatigue Strength for Constant and Variable Amplitude (Normal)Loads
2401.04.09 Fatigue Life Estimation
2401.04.10 PalmgrenMiner Rule of Linear Damage Accumulation
2401.04.11 Shift in Partial Damage
TALAT 2401 81
2401.04.12 Life Estimation with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
2401.04.13 Observed Tendencies with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
2401.04.14 Experience with the PalmgrenMiner Rule
2401.04.15 Elements of the Constant Amplitude SN Curve
2401.04.16 Spectrum Transformation
2401.05.01 Life Estimation Procedure
2401.06.01 Quality Control and Defect Assessment Codes
2401.06.02 Defect Groups in Butt and Fillet Welds
2401.06.03 Critical Stress Intensity Factors
2401.06.04 Critical Stress for a Side Crack in a Plate
2401.06.05 Porosity  Influence on Fatigue Strength (I)
2401.06.06 Overfill  Influence on Fatigue Strength
2401.06.07 Porosity  Influence on Fatigue Strength (II)
2401.06.08 LOP  LOF Influence on Fatigue Strength
2401.06.09 Overfill Toe Angle  Influence on Fatigue Strength
2401.06.10 Linear Misalignment  Influence on Fatigue Strength
2401 Fatigue Behaviour and Analysis
Table of Contents
2401.01 Introduction............................................................................................... 4 Significance of the Fatigue Problem and its Influence on Design ...........................4 Significance of Fatigue for Aluminium Structures ..................................................5 Potential Sites for Fatigue Cracks............................................................................5 Conditions for Susceptibility ...................................................................................6 Definitions ...............................................................................................................9 Symbols..................................................................................................................16 2401.02 Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters ...................................... 17 Response of Material to Cyclic Loading................................................................18 Generation of Fatigue Cracks ................................................................................20 Fatigue Crack Growth............................................................................................23 Crack Growth Mechanisms....................................................................................26 Effect of other Parameters on Crack Propagation Rate .........................................28 Endurance Limit.....................................................................................................29 Predictive Theories of Fatigue ...............................................................................29 Damage Accumulation Theories............................................................................30 MansonCoffin Law...............................................................................................30 Crack Growth Laws ...............................................................................................32 Ideal Cumulative Damage Theory .........................................................................32 2401.03 Fatigue Data Analysis and Evaluation.................................................. 34 Analysis of Data.....................................................................................................35 Analysis in the MiddleCycle Fatigue Range ........................................................36 Analysis in the HighCycle Fatigue Range ............................................................38 Fatigue Diagrams ...................................................................................................39 Linear PSN Curves..............................................................................................41 NonLinear PSN Curves......................................................................................42 Some Problems of Data Analysis in Practice.........................................................43
TALAT 2401
2
2401.04 Load Spectra and Damage Accumulation ............................................ 46 Service Behaviour..................................................................................................46 Time Dependent Loads ..........................................................................................47 Spectrum Definition and Cycle Counting..............................................................47 The RainFlow Cycle Counting Method................................................................50 The Service Behaviour Fatigue Test ......................................................................51 Analytical Life Estimation and Damage Accumulation ........................................54 The PalmgrenMiner Linear Damage Accumulation Hypothesis..........................55 Service Behaviour Assessment ..............................................................................58 Literature................................................................................................................60 2401.05 Local Stress Concepts and Fatigue........................................................ 61 Analytical Relationship between Strain and Fatigue Life......................................61 Notch Theory Concept ...........................................................................................62 The StrainLife Diagram ........................................................................................63 References..............................................................................................................65 Remarks .................................................................................................................65 2401.06 Effects of Weld Imperfections on Fatigue ............................................ 66 Types of Imperfections ..........................................................................................67 Influence of Imperfections on Static Strength .......................................................69 Influence of Imperfections on Fatigue Strength.....................................................71 Cracks ............................................................................................................... 72 Porosity............................................................................................................. 72 Inclusions, Oxides ............................................................................................. 74 Lack of Penetration  Lack of Fusion ............................................................... 74 Weld Shape........................................................................................................ 76 Geometric Misalignment................................................................................... 76 Arc Strike, Spatter............................................................................................. 77 PostWeld Mechanical Imperfections ............................................................... 77 2401.07 Literature/References ............................................................................... 79 2401.08 List of Figures............................................................................................ 80
TALAT 2401
3
2401.01
• • • • • •
Introduction
Significance of the fatigue problem and its influence on design Significance of fatigue for aluminium structures Potential sites for fatigue cracks Conditions for susceptibility Definitions Symbols
Significance of the Fatigue Problem and its Influence on Design Structures subjected to fluctuating service loads in sufficient numbers are liable to fail by fatigue. Although the number of structures that have failed by fatigue under service conditions is low the consequences can be costly in terms of human life and/or property damage. Consequences may be catastrophic especially when no appropriate inspection intervals are observed and fatigue damage can grow and accumulate during service life. Today's understanding of fatigue mechanisms, the experimental data available, in many cases the manufacturing process of constructional components, and the analytical methods applied offer a high degree of sophistication in the design procedures. However, currently the most important task is educational. It must be granted that all aspects of the fatigue problem and of fracture control are not yet universally available during engineering education. The following chapters try to give an overall outline of mechanisms, influencing parameters, analytical methods, and suggestions for better design. Beyond this the engineer must deal with actual problems. Experience is the best teacher, and so calculation examples have been added to the theoretical information. For structures under fatigue loads the degree of compliance with the static limit state criteria given in other sections of these design rules may not serve as any useful guide to the risk of fatigue failure. It is necessary therefore to establish as early as possible the extent to which fatigue is likely to control the design. In doing this the following factors are important. a) b) c) an accurate prediction of the complete loading sequence throughout the design life should be available. the elastic response of the structure under these loads should be accurately assessed detail design, methods of manufacture and degree of quality control can have a major influence on fatigue strength, and should be defined more precisely than for statically controlled members. This can have a significant influence on design and construction cost.
TALAT 2401
4
It is only but recently that such methods and data have been systematically documented and are now been made available to practical design. but then damageprone. Bearing in mind that with a variation or enhancement of the geometrical dimensions of the calculated case the relative static limit state assessments will have a more pronounced influence. structure. A great deal can be accomplished in terms of complementary methods of analysis utilising recent developments in fracture mechanics and respective data for aluminium alloys and joints in aluminium structures. it can be demonstrated that the static limit state assessment (ultimate limit state. local buckling. above 105 cycles. Such applications may also be frequently found in areas of severe environmental exposure. Because of applications in transportation area there is also a pressure on the design engineer to choose a lightweight. It should be kept in mind that rules and design values stated for steel structures cannot in every case be assumed for or adapted to respective problems in aluminium. Potential Sites for Fatigue Cracks Most common initiation sites for fatigue cracks are as follows: a) toes and roots of fusion welds b) machined corners and drilled holes c) surfaces under high contact pressure (fretting) d) roots of fastener threads In a typical structural component designed statically the fatigue assessment will not normally present a more severe demand to be fulfilled. In a comparative study (Kosteas/Ondra: "Abgrenzung der Festigkeitsnachweise im Leichtmetallbau. An extrapolation of design SN curves down to 104 will rarely have any practical meaning. Research report 235/91. TALAT 2401 5 . Only in cases of respective applications with frequent and significant load variations fatigue will be the governing criterion. This implies that structural applications will be governed by a different ratio of minimum to maximum stresses. Munich 01. flexural/torsional buckling.1992) for an aluminium column for which both a static and a fatigue assessment were performed. deflection) limits the applicability range of the fatigue design SN curves to approx.Significance of Fatigue for Aluminium Structures Aluminium due to its physical and mechanical properties often finds application in areas where the ratio of dead weight of the structure to the total weight is significantly lower than in structures with steel or concrete. the applicability range of fatigue design moves to even higher cycle numbers.10.
Conditions for Susceptibility The main conditions affecting fatigue performance are as follows: a) high ratio of dynamic to static load. machinery offshore components components of land or sea vehicles Source: D. the member crosssectional shape should be selected to ensure smoothness and simplicity of joint design. such as land or sea transport vehicles. This applies not only to joints between members.01 Fatigue . so that stresses can be calculated and adequate standards of fabrication and inspection can be assured. etc. whether or not the resulting connection is considered to be 'structural'.01. Slender structures or members with low natural frequencies are particularly prone to resonance and enhance magnification of dynamic stress. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Fatigue . use of welding. This results in a high number of cycles in the design life.01 TALAT 2401 6 .Where? Fatigue . even though the static design stresses are low. b) c) d) e) Figure 2401. cranes. such as wind and structures supporting machinery.01. complexity of joint detail. are more likely to be prone to fatigue problems than fixed structures unless the latter are predominately carrying moving loads as in the case of bridges. While these may have little effect on the ultimate static capacity of the joint.Where? 2401. Some commonly used welded details have low fatigue strength. but also to any attachment to a loaded member. In certain thermal and chemical environments fatigue strength may be reduced. If fatigue is dominant. Complex joints frequently result in high stress concentrations due to local variations in stiffness of the load path. Moving or lifting structures. Structures subjected predominantly to fluid loading. environment.Where? bridges highwaysignbridges parts of buildings cranes. frequent applications of load. should be carefully checked for resonance effects. they can have a severe effect on fatigue resistance. Kosteas.
When and What? 2401.03 TALAT 2401 7 .When and What? When: subjected to fluctuating service loads in sufficient numbers What: cracks initiate + propagate to final failure consequences are costly in terms of human life and property damage Source: D. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Fatigue . Kosteas.01. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Fatigue .01.Location Frequent Fatigue Location Sites Toes and roots of fusion welds Surfaces under high contact pressure Fastener threads Machined corners and drilled holes Source: D.03 Fatigue .01.01.When and What? Fatigue .02 Figure 2401.02 Fatigue .Figure 2401. Kosteas.Location 2401.
Kosteas. manufacturing and degree of quality control have major influence on fatigue strength. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies design. and influence design and construction costs significantly Fatigue .Figure 2401.01.The Remedy # educate for good design + fracture control # predict service load history.04 Fatigue . TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies severe environmental exposure lightweight transportation.04 Figure 2401.Significance for Al Due to its physical and mechanical properties (low specific weight.01. low modulus of elasticity.05 Fatigue .Significance for Aluminium Fatigue .The Remedy Fatigue . assess damage Bear in mind: ! ! ! ! Source: D. Kosteas.The Remedy 2401.01.01.Significance for Al 2401. corrosion resistance) aluminium is found frequently in applications with: ! ratio σmin/σmax different from steel or concrete ! ! Source: D.05 TALAT 2401 8 . # damageprone Fatigue .
racetrack count). the stated proportion of the times the confidence interval is expected to include the population parameter the two statistics that define a confidence interval a loading in which all of the peak loads are equal and all of the valley loads are equal a plot (usually on rectangular coordinates) of a family of curves each of which is for a single fatigue life. (some of the counting methods are: level crossing count. and often also termed 'crack length'. synergistic effect of fatigue and aggressive environment acting simultaneously. σmin. relating stress amplitude ∆σ. or a spectrum loading sequence of finite length that is repeated identically an interval estimate of a population parameter computed so that the statement 'the population parameter included in this interval will be true. commonly used in the calculation of quantities descriptive of the stress and displacement fields.Definitions Block a specified number of constant amplitude loading cycles applied consecutively. in a stated portion of the times such computations are made based on different samples from the population. All stresses below this limit may be ignored Confidence Interval Confidence Level Confidence Limits Constant Amplitude Loading Constant Life Diagram Corrosion Fatigue Counting Method Crack Size a CutOff Limit TALAT 2401 9 . on the average. a method of counting the occurrences and defining the magnitude of various loading parameters from a loadtime history. to mean stress σm or maximum stress σmax. range count. peak count. mean crossing peak count. N. or to minimum stress. a lineal measure of a principal planar dimension of a crack. rainflow count. which leads to a degradation in fatigue behaviour. rangepair count. the fatigue strength at 1*108 cycles corresponding to the SN curve.
scratches. corrosion pits. C=n/N the period during which the structure is required to perform without repair the total of all stress spectra.Cycle one complete sequence of values of load that is repeated under constant amplitude loading. The symbol n or N is used to indicate the number of cycles (see definition of fatigue life). expressed in terms of crack extension per cycle of fatigue (da/dN) the number of loading cycles of a specified character that a given specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature occurs Cycles Endured Cycle Ratio Design Life Design Spectrum Discontinuity Environment Estimation FailSafe Fatigue Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Fatigue Life N TALAT 2401 10 . caused by all loading events during design life. n. to the estimated fatigue life (SN) or the strain versus fatigue life (εN) diagram for cycles of the same character. to be used in the fatigue assessment an absence of material causing stress concentration. porosity or undercut the aggregate of chemical species and energy that surrounds the test specimen a procedure for making a statistical inference about the numerical values of one or more unknown population parameters from observed values in sample fatigue limit state assessing the gradual. stable crack propagation the process of progressive localised permanent structural change occurring in a material subjected to conditions that produce fluctuating stresses and strains at some point or points and that may culminate in cracks or complete fracture after a sufficient number of fluctuations the rate of crack extension caused by constant amplitude fatigue loading. that is. Typical discontinuities are cracks. the number of cycles of specified character (that produce fluctuating load) which a specimen has endured at any time in its load history the ratio of cycles endured. lack of penetration.
or consecutively. N. the most widely used ratio is R = Pmin/Pmax = σmin/σmax Fatigue Loading Fatigue Notch Factor Kf Fatigue Notch Sensitivity Fatigue Strength Group Hysteresis Loading Amplitude Loading Event Loading (Unloading) Rate Load Stress Ratio R Maximum Load Pmax the load having the highest algebraic value TALAT 2401 11 . In most cases the fatigue limit is given at 2*106 or 5*106 cycles. When all stresses are less than the fatigue limit. periodic or nonperiodic fluctuation loading applied to a test specimen or experienced by a structure in service (also known as cyclic loading). the ratio of the fatigue strength of a specimen with no stress concentration to the fatigue strength of a specimen with a stress concentration for the same percent survival at N cycles and for the same conditions a measure of the degree of agreement between fatigue notch factor Kf and the theoretical stress concentration factor Kt a value of stress for failure at exactly N cycles as determined from a SN diagram. no fatigue assessment is required.Fatigue Limit σf theoretically the fatigue strength for N→∞. passage and departure of a vehicle or device on the structure the time rate of change in the monotonic increasing (decreasing) portion of the load time function the algebraic ratio of the two loading parameters of a cycle. A group may comprise one or more specimens the stressstrain path during the cycle one half of the range of a cycle a well defined loading sequence on the entire structure caused by the occurrence of a loading. at one stress level. becomes very large. This may be the approach. The value of SN thus determined is subject to the same conditions as those which applied to the SN diagram the specimens of the same type tested at one time. or the limiting value of the median fatigue strength as the fatigue life.
Maximum Stress σmax Mean Load Pm the stress having the highest algebraic value the algebraic average of the maximum and minimum loads in constant amplitude loading. Parameter Peak Population Probability of Failure P Probability of Survival Q Random Loading TALAT 2401 12 . real or conceptual. that could prepared in the specified way from the material under consideration the ratio of the number of observations failing in fatigue to the total number of observations it follows that P + Q = 1 a spectrum load where the peak and valley loads and their sequence result of a random process. or of individual cycles in spectrum loading. or of individual cycles in spectrum loading. such as a population median or a population of a standard deviation the occurrence where the fatigue derivative of the load time history changes from positive to negative sign. or the integral average of the instantaneous stress values of a spectrum loading history a linear damage (PalmgrenMiner rule) accumulation calculation Mean Stress σm Miner's Summation Minimum Load Pmin Minimum Stress σmin Nominal Stress load having the lowest algebraic value stress having the lowest algebraic value the applied stress calculated on the area of the net section of the structural component by simple theory ignoring stress raisers and disregarding plastic flow a constant (usually to be estimated) defining some property of the frequency distribution of the population. or the integral average of the instantaneous load values of a spectrum loading history the algebraic average of the maximum and minimum stresses in constant amplitude loading. such as the probability density function. the point of maximum load in constant amplitude loading the totality of set of test specimens. the loading is usually described in terms of its statistical properties.
the mean. the occurrence where the first derivative of the loadtime history changes sign the piece at a number of cycles at which no apparent fatigue damage has been observed and test is continued the specimens selected from the population for test purposes an effect or difference between populations is said to be present if the value of a teststatistic is significant. It is an estimate of the relationship between stress and the number of cycles to failure that p% of the population would survive.5%) a plot of stresses against the number of cycles to failure. p may be any percent (in most cases p is set equal 97. For σ a linear scale or log scale is used in most cases. the irregularity factor. ∆σ. The stress can be the maximum stress σmax. The diagram indicates the SN relationship for a specified value of σm or R and a specified probability of survival. the minimum stress σmin. ∆ε the algebraic difference between successive valley and peak loads (positive range or increasing load range) or between successive peak and valley loads (negative range or decreasing load range). For N a log scale is almost always used. that is. the root mean square. lies outside of selected limits a curve fitted to the fatigue life for p% survival values of each several stress levels. or stress range ∆σ. and others as appropriate Range ∆P. a loading in which all of the peak loads are not equal or all of the valley loads are not equal (also known as variable amplitude loading) a summary value calculated from the observed values in a sample the pair of stress (or strain) components necessary to define the applied cycle Reversal RunOut Sample Significance Survival Limit p% SN Diagram Spectrum Loading Statistic Stress Level TALAT 2401 13 .
Stress Ratio R the algebraic ratio of the minimum stress to the maximum stress in one cycle. linear elastic body the ratio of the greatest stress in the region of a notch as determined by advanced theory to the corresponding stress a statistical test that purports to provide a test of a null hypothesis. for example. that an imposed treatment in the experiment is without effect an interval computed so that it will include at least a stated percentage of the population with stated probability the two statistics that define a tolerance interval the exclusion of cycles with values above. R = σmin/σmax the magnitude of the idealcracktip stress field (a stressfield singularity) for a particular mode in a homogeneous. or the exclusion of cycles with values below a specified level (referred to as truncation level) of a loading parameter The occurrence where the first derivative of the lad time history changes from negative to positive sign. the point of minimum load in constant amplitude loading see spectrum loading Stress Intensity Factor K Stress Concentration Factor Kt Test of Significance Tolerance Interval Tolerance Limit Truncation Valley Variable Amplitude Loading TALAT 2401 14 .
Pm amplitude.01.Figure 2401.07 Definitions: Spectrum Loading Definitions: Spectrum Loading peak reversal Load (+) range () range mean valley reversal mean crossing Time alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Definitions: Spectrum Loading 2401.01. Pmin cycle Time alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading 2401.06 Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading maximum. Pa Load range mean. Pa minimum.06 Figure 2401.07 TALAT 2401 15 .01. Pmax amplitude.01.
0.2 εmax εmin ∆ε σmax σmin σres ∆σ ∆σe τ crack length eccentricity modulus of elasticity shear modulus stress intensity factor length of attachments slope constant in fatigue strength equation number of cycles corresponding to specified stresses σi number of cycles corresponding to a particular fatigue strength cutofflimit stress ratio R = σmin/σmax plate thickness ultimate tensile strength tensile strength at ε = 0.2 % maximum strain minimum strain strain range maximum stress minimum stress residual stress stress range ∆σ = σmax .Symbols a e E G K l m ni N Nc R t Rm Rp.σmin equivalent constant amplitude stress calculated from the respective stress range spectrum for a particular value for m shear stress TALAT 2401 16 .
once initiated. As an alternative or complementary method a material must be chosen which best resists the mechanisms which lead to cracks and their growth. localised plastic deformation develops at stress concentration points.e. especially at high load amplitudes. progressive crack extension following up to final failure. repairing and detecting fatigue damage can be thus applied intelligently. A degradation of material properties during fatigue is not normally observed. It is important to understand these mechanisms and the influence of them on material properties.2401. Crack propagation occupies a major portion of fatigue life. continues to grow a finite amount during each cycle. This repeated. Procedures for minimising. We treat the problem in a simplified view recognising the fact that real structures contain discontinuities which may develop into cracks with applications of stress. Consequently minimising these strain concentrations must be the first rule for avoiding fatigue failure. The higher the load amplitude. load amplitudes and their sequence. TALAT 2401 17 . We study thus the material response to cyclic loading at temperatures in the subcreep range. i. Provided the local stress concentration exceeds a certain threshold.02 • • • • • • • • • • • Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters Response of material to cyclic loading Generation of fatigue cracks Fatigue crack growth Crack growth mechanism Effect of other parameters on crack propagation rate Endurance limit Predictive theories of fatigue Damage accumulation theories MansonCoffin law Crack growth laws Ideal cumulative damage theory Fatigue damage occurs in metals due to local concentrations of plastic strain. a fatigue crack. temperature and environment. localised plastic deformation leads to crack initiation. or of many small cracks coalescing into a final crack. the load amplitude and the temperature. hardening or softening depending on the material. Superimposed on the general response of the material to cyclic loading. Corrosive environment also produces multiple cracking and accelerates failure. By far the most common mode of fatigue failure consists simply of initiation and propagation of cracks to the point of static failure. Final failure may be the result of the growth of one crack. the more likely the production of multiple cracks.
Final catastrophic failure occurs when a crack has grown to a critical length such that the next application of load produces static failure of the remaining net section. Grosskreutz. structures designed with 'crack arrestors' stopping the rapid growth of critical cracks before they weaken the integrity of the total structure. i. (b) Strain Control If the stress range ∆σ is controlled and maintained constant. Response of Material to Cyclic Loading The familiar stressstrain relation and work hardening under static.or Strain Control σ ∆σ $ σ σp ∆tp $ (a) Stresscontrolled stress strain loops (b) Straincontrolled stressstrain loops σp σp σs N (c) Straincontrolled hardening Source: J. and the number of cycles N characterise the usual fatigue test. the stress amplitude required to maintain the strain limit gradually increases. The fatigue test itself can be performed in a stress. The stress amplitude σ or strain amplitude ε. If the plastic strain range ∆εp is controlled.01 StressStrain Loops: (a) Stress Control. Under service conditions of variable amplitude loading. in terms of the highest expected load and the total load spectrum. the strain amplitude gradually decreases. For straincontrolled tests one has to distinguish between control of either the total or the plastic strain amplitude. A fatigue hardening or softening curve is represented by the peak stress amplitude σp when each cycle is plotted against the number of cycles.02. Figure 2401.or straincontrolled manner. Stress. Such curves generally show that rapid hardening or softening occurs in the first few percent of total fatigue life. The magnitude of the saturation stress. represent an important advance in fatigue design based on the previously described crack growth mechanisms. σs depends on the TALAT 2401 18 .e. the mean stress or strain.02.01. C. Eventually the material 'shakes down' into a steadystate or saturation condition in which the rate of hardening or softening becomes zero. tensile loading condition forms practically the first quartercycle of an extended fatigue test. the critical crack length must be defined of course. Redundant structures. 1970 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies σs N (d) Straincontrolled softening (initially cold worked metal) 2401.
(Figure expression for the cyclic stressstrain curve is: σs = σo (∆εp/2)n' where σo is a constant and n' is the cyclic strain hardening exponent with a value of approximately 0. It gives in convenient form the stable stress amplitudes to be expected from a given imposed strain amplitude. i. An approximate σ Cyclic StressStrain Curve σ Monotonic StressStrain Curve Cold Worked Material Cyclic StressStrain Curve εp Stress Annealed Material Monotonic StressStrain Curve Stable Loops Construction of the cyclic stressstrain curve from stable loops Plastic Strain of ∆εp/2 Comparison of monotonic tensile and cyclic stressstrain curves.a wavy slip mode material .15 for wavyslip mode materials such as aluminium.σs increases when ∆εp is increased or the temperature is decreased.02. or viceversa.e.02). 1967 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Cyclic StressStrain Curve 2401. one can convert easily from MansonCoffin type plots of log(∆σp) vs.the two cyclic stressstrain curves would be identical. For aluminium . after Feltner and Laird. Aluminium exhibits generally a unique saturation stress σs for a given ∆εp and temperature independent of prior load history (the socalled wavyslip mode). The above equation is extremely useful in low cycle fatigue applications. the temperature and the initial degree of cold work .02 TALAT 2401 19 .plastic strain amplitude. the steadystate cyclic material. width ∆εp forms the socalled stress strain behaviour of the given temperature and initial 2401. ∆εp/2. Using it. log(n) to SN plots. The curve is generated by plotting (for a condition) the saturation stress vs.02. The locus of the tips of all steadstate cyclic loops of 'cyclic stressstrain curve'.
a metallographic microscope. near the tip of a fatigue crack. its hardness.02. The softened zones can then become the sites of fatigue failure. fasteners. to generate an observable fatigue crack. the naked eye. about 0. It has been shown that this ratio is normally a small number in unnotched members. It is usual to express the result in terms of the fraction of total life. he normally employs for such purposes. A fatigue crack may vary in length from anywhere from 3mm down to 1000Å. specific cases. enhanced fatigue hardening will occur in proportion to the stress or strain concentration factor. Fatigue hardening/softening mechanisms in complex. Consequently if no other manufacturing imperfections are present fatigue cracks have their origins at the surface. a glass magnifier. cyclic straining can cause actual degradation of the precipitate structure in an alloy.02). the main product of the cycling is again a dense array of dislocations whose presence per se does not serve to weaken the material. A controversy exists over whether such action occurs in highpurity Al4Cu alloys.e.02. Nevertheless. As already mentioned fatigue cracks always begin at concentrations of plastic strain. Defining a crack in terms of the highest resolving power instrument available (the electron microscope for instance) it is possible to establish a number of load cycles NI. and most importantly. so that fatigue crack propagation occupies a large percentage of total life. extrusions and intrusions on the surface of an otherwise uncracked material form fatigue crack initiation sites (Figure 2401. The socalled slip band formation. This is especially true in structural components with existing imperfections due to manufacturing. TALAT 2401 20 . Nevertheless the mechanisms of crack initiation and respective estimation of life cycles are important for certain applications in the highcycle range. or an electron microscope. In certain. i.On a microscopic scale the movement of dislocations in the crystal structure leads to the saturation condition as described above and serves only to determine the flow stress of the metal. thus causing irreversible softening. precipitation hardened alloys such as the 7000 series of aluminium alloys are not as straightforward. In the presence of stress concentration. Generation of Fatigue Cracks When is a crack ? For the practitioner a crack exists when he can see it with the observational technique.1. welds. NI/NT. One can expect this enhancement in the vicinity of notches. however (Figure 2402. No such softening has ever been observed in commercial aluminium alloys.03).
Grosskreutz. inclusions.03 Under high amplitude loading fatigue cracks start at grain boundaries in pure aluminium. In many commercial alloys the existence of large second phase particles. 1970 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Fatigue Crack Initiation at a Surface Inclusion 2401.NotchPeak Geometry of Slip Bands at a Free Surface Surface alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies NotchPeak Geometry of Slip Bands Sli p Ba nd 2401. Such flaws need only the application of cyclic load to begin their growth as bona fide fatigue cracks. C.04 Other flaws such as internal voids or large surface scratches may be the sites of fatigue crack generation.02. They cause localised plastic deformation leading to cracking usually at the inclusion matrix interface (Figure 2401. TALAT 2401 21 . ASTM STP 495.02.04). Fatigue Crack Initiation at a Surface Inclusion after 5% of Total Life 2024T4 Aluminium Alloy Inclusion Fatigue Crack after J.02. play a predominant role in crack generation.
either on the free surface of the component or at internal surfaces. The combination of fatigue stresses and even a mildly corrosive environment accelerates the time for crack generation. Treatments such as shotpeening are used to induce compressive residual stresses on surfaces. With increasing load amplitude a larger number of cracks are generated. The value of NI/NT decreases with increasing load amplitude. the yield stress is increased. and the environment. Microcracks will develop more quickly in wavyslip mode materials. Nonpropagating microcracks which have been observed at very low stress amplitudes may be examples of cracks. and cracks at the notch root will be very slow in developing compared to the annealed state. Previous load history can have two effects. often referred to as crack initiation stage as well. One of the more important environmental constituents is water vapour which has a strong effect on the fatigue of aluminium and its alloys. The value of NI/NT is dependent of the load amplitude. There is indication that cracks must reach a minimum critical size before they can begin propagating. and under constant stress conditions. For example prior tensile stress will leave a compressive residual stress. for which the generation mechanism ceased to operate before they reached critical size. A stress concentration will reduce NI/NT (Table 1). A similar situation may arise by superimposed stress conditions such as mean stresses due to external loads or to residual stresses. Before applying any of these guidelines to a specific situation it should first be ascertained whether cracks already may exist. previous loading history. notches. The effects on later crack growth are even more pronounced. the temperature. as already mentioned in the case with commercial aluminium alloys. so that NI can be significantly increased. specimen geometry. prior loading can produce significant residual stresses at the root of a notch. Cracks develop sooner in more ductile materials as illustrated by comparing the notched 2014 and 2024 aluminium alloy with the 7075 alloy. Secondly. Many real structures already contain microcracks before the first service load is ever applied. the time to generate a crack would be increased. so that in the extreme low cycle range the entire life is consumed in crack propagation and in the extreme high cycle range a substantial portion of the entire life is consumed in crack initiation. First. TALAT 2401 22 . if the material has been hardened.Joints are an important site for fatigue crack generation in structures since they exhibit substantial stress concentration points. In very general terms the following statements help to describe the various effects. is effectively bypassed. in which case the crack generation state. material properties. such as lack of penetration in welds. Another cause for fatigue crack formation at joints may be fretting.
0 1 6. Grosskreuz) Fatigue Crack Growth The increase in crack length ∆a for the increment ∆N of load cycles define the growth rate.3 10. Observed growth rates may range between 1010 m/cycle at low amplitudes to about 103 m/cycle at high amplitudes. ∆a/∆N.40 Pure Al 2024T4 notched Kt≈2 notched Kt≈2 notched Kt≈2 slip bands inclusions 2 ⋅ 106 1 ⋅ 105 3 ⋅ 106 2 ⋅ 103 2 ⋅ 104 1 ⋅ 106 2014T6 7075T6 7075T6 notched Kt≈2 notched Kt≈2 inclusions 2 ⋅ 105 5 ⋅ 103 1 ⋅ 105 Table 1: Crack generation time as a fraction of total life (after ASTM STP 495.40 0. given a certain initial crack length ai after NI load cycles.10 0.2 10.005 0.2 25 25 25 0.6 NI/NT 0.07 0.05 0. Assuming that a is a continuous function of N.6 7. This is a function of both. the instantaneous crack growth rate da/dN can be used to give the total life for a crack propagation N P = NT − N I = ∫ aT da da / dN ) aI ( TALAT 2401 23 .72 0.3 6. The importance of the growth rate lies in its use to calculate remaining life times.Material Specimen Geometry Crack Site NT Cycles Pure Al 2024T3 2024T4 smooth smooth smooth smooth Grain Boundary 3 ⋅ 105 5 ⋅ 104 1 ⋅ 106 150 1 ⋅ 103 5 ⋅ 103 Cracklength at first observation 102 mm 1.20 0.02 0.88 0.025 2. the crack length a and the stress or strain amplitude.60 0.64 0.70 0.015 0.3 6.05 0.3 50 7.
σ or ∆εp. Laird. At low stress or strain amplitudes. Cracks formed at inclusions grow only a few micrometers in Stage I before changing to the Stage II mode. Cracks forming in slip bands propagate along the active slip planes which are inclined at ±45° with respect to the tensile stress axis.Desirable is a theory of fatigue crack growth yielding universal expressions for da/dN as a function of a. The crack soon begins to turn and follow a course perpendicular to the tensile axis. supported by experimental observations. very few inclusion cracks are generated and one such crack may grow all the way into the final failure crack. in the case of aluminium alloy structural components and their welded connections. This shear mode propagation. Stage II crack growth life increases with increasing load amplitude. Central to the construction of such a theory is a model which can be described mathematically to give the incremental advance of the crack. and material properties. the crack growth mechanisms and the effects of multiple load amplitudes and other parameters on da/dN will be briefly covered.02. but it would allow a designer to choose those materials most resistant to fatigue crack growth.05 Actually. This tensile mode propagation as called Stage II growth.05). the Stage I growth in a polycrystalline material involves hundreds of individual slip band cracks linking up to form a dominant crack at about the time Stage II growth begins. At higher TALAT 2401 24 . tends to continue more deeply into the specimen the lower the amplitude of loading. Not only could such a theory be used to predict fatigue lives. At this point some general observations on the propagation modes. Respective analytical expressions. 1967 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies σ Stage I and II Fatigue Crack Growth 2401.02. Such a model must be derived from experimental observation. characterising crack growth up to the critical length for which the next load peak produces tensile failure of the specimen (Figure 2401. as well as the analytical procedures for life estimation will be explained in detail under a later chapter on fracture mechanics applications. Stage I growth. Stage I and II Fatigue Crack Growth σ Stage II Stage I Source: C.
C. Fatigue Crack Initiation Fatigue Crack Growth Planestrain crack growth occurs at 90° w. 1970 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Schematic Illustration of a Fatigue Fracture Surface 2401. ASTM STP 495. thus producing discontinuous jumps in da/dN. Propagation under planestress conditions begins at a later stage and the crack continues in 45° shear mode. For all practical purposes the entire fracture surface formed is governed by the Stage II mode.amplitudes several inclusion cracks may joint together to form the final crack. while the crack length is still small.06 The flat. However the first is consistently larger than the microscopic da/dN on the surface which indicates that surface growth is only an average of local rates in the general direction of Stage II growth. The fracture surface is microscopically flat and oriented perpendicular to the tensile axis. As the plastic zone in front of the crack tip increases in dimension to become comparable to that of the specimen thickness.06). to tensile axis near the point of initiation. Very near the crack nucleus. As the crack grows in length a shear lip begins to develop where the fracture surface intersects the specimen surface (Figure 2401. after J.02. conditions of plane strain hold at the crack tip. even visible at optical magnification. Careful experiments have shown that these striations spacings correspond very closely to the microscopic rates of crack growth measured on the surface of the specimen. This reorientation of the fracture surface to a 45° position with respect to the tensile axis is caused by the plane stress conditions at the crack tip intersecting the surface. The conclusion that each striation corresponds to one cycle of crack advance allows one to measure the local rate of crack growth by measuring the distance between adjacent striations.02. Examination of fracture surfaces tells us a lot about the mechanism by which the crack advances. plane stress conditions hold everywhere at the crack tip and the fracture surface is one continuous shear lip or double shear lip. TALAT 2401 25 . This case is of importance and will be demonstrated in more detail in the respective chapter on fracture mechanics applications to welded connections./r. plane strain surface is especially rich in detail. Grosskreutz. Each striation represents the crack advance for one cycle of load and this was verified experimentally. exhibiting regularly spaced striations.
The correlation of crack growth rates with a crack tip stress intensity factor provides the key to a study of crack growth mechanisms. Graf.02. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies ∆K [MPa√ m] Fatigue Crack Growth Rate 2401.07).07 Cross sections taken through the crack tip at various parts of a load cycle have established that Stage II growth occurs by repetitive blunting and re sharpening of the crack tip (Figure 2401. TALAT 2401 26 .5Mn R=0 + base material x HAZ o weld Source: D. Kosteas and U. Fatigue Crack Growth Rate da/dN [ m/LW ] ∆Keff [MPa√ m] 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 1010 1011 0. It is only recently that such correlations have been experimentally verified on a reliable basis for aluminium alloys and especially the material zones in aluminium weldments (Figure 2401.02.02.08).Crack Growth Mechanisms Crack growth rates can be expressed analytically for different crack lengths and for different loads in terms of the stress intensity factor range ∆K as will be shown later on.6 1 2 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 AlMg4.
More on the practical application of such analytical and experimental results will follow under the chapter on fracture mechanics.09 depicts the effect of various load sequences on the microscopic growth rate. results are available allowing to some general statements on the effect of multiple load amplitudes. If the load amplitude range was kept constant and the maximum load was varied. we cannot expect to apply such results to understanding the effect of multiple loads on just crack growth.08 Although many investigations of the micromechanisms of fatigue crack growth under spectrum loading have been undertaken in the last decades as there is still an urgent need for further work. compressive load (c) max. A particularly instructive set of experiments demonstrated in Figure 2401. Much of the literature of spectrum loading has dealt only with total life and the concept of cumulative damage. especially in defining a socalled effective stress intensity range. In the first place it is important to distinguish between the effects of spectrum loading on total life on a laboratory specimen and on the growth rate of an existing crack. Because total life includes both crack initiation and crack propagation. Reversing the sequence did not affect the results either.02. The effects of multiple load amplitude can be best understood in terms of crack tip plastic deformation.Fatigue Crack Growth by the Plastic Blunting Mechanism (a) no load (d) small compressive load (b) small tensile load (e) max. The concept of stress intensity factor is of limited use here because it relates only to elastic stresses. from striation spacings on the fracture surface. However. as determined in experiments on 2024T3 aluminium. Keeping the maximum load constant and varying the amplitude range had no significant effect on crack growth. interaction effects were observed. The two important concepts are localised work hardening and localised residual stresses at the crack tip. TALAT 2401 27 . tensile load (f) small tensile load after C. Laird alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Fatigue Crack Growth by the Plastic Blunting Mechanism 2401.02.
The effect is for environmental attack to increase the TALAT 2401 28 . after McMillan and Pelloux alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Effect of Variable Load Sequence on Fatigue Crack Growth 2401. An opposite case is the so called 'coaxing'. thereby increasing the rate of Stage II crack growth. On the other hand. in which fatigue at low amplitudes followed by high amplitudes leads to longer. However. and material properties. Striation spacing in given sequence is smaller than in corresponding sequence in ascending series above. structural engineering components rarely have to operate at such elevated temperatures. strain rate or frequency. overall lives. such overloads are capable of generating new cracks. strain hardening coefficient). Environment has a significant influence on crack growth rate and may affect the mechanism of fracture. Intermittent overloads can delay the subsequent growth of cracks at lower loads. The presence of a corrosive environment often will change a ductile fracture mode into a brittle one.02. Because Stage II crack mechanisms are governed largely by unidirectional mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity.09 The importance of separating crack initiation and crack propagation interaction effects was stressed. Raising the temperature usually promotes dislocation and slip processes so that the plastic blunting mechanism can act more freely.No interaction effects. Striation spacing stable for each load amplitude range. the effect of temperature of these properties can be extrapolated directly to crack growth rates. First cycle of each sequence causes abnormally large striation spacing. yield and ultimate strength. The overall effect would be to shorten the effective service life of the member by linking together many individual cracks generated in this manner. Effect of other Parameters on Crack Propagation Rate Crack growth rates are affected by temperature. even though such a sequence can produce larger than normal crack growth rates. environment. which can then grow on the lower amplitudes. In this case nucleation of cracks is suppressed by the coaxing procedure which hardens the surface layers.
experimental inspection and testing. It should be mentioned that significant variations in fatigue crack propagation rates may be observed in the same material obtained from different sources. It can be stated that Stage I crack growth is more rapid in wavy slip mode materials like aluminium. and semiempirical fatigue theories. TALAT 2401 29 . Endurance Limit The endurance limit or fatigue limit. dislocation locking does not occur . Slower rates are obtained by raising the modulus of elasticity. The operator demands the answer to provide safe operation. they are especially important to the design engineer. Aluminium and its alloys does not give SN curves with strictly zero slopes at long lives. On the other hand in the case of aluminium alloys. Attention should be given however to the interpretation of laboratory tests on the environmental effects on fatigue and their extrapolation to service conditions. Predictive Theories of Fatigue When will a given construction or component fail? The design engineer needs the answer to provide safe design. the ultimate tensile strength. The question can usually be answered through a combination of past experience. The research in this field is still going on. and the strain hardening rate. Nevertheless the curve is nearly flat. Such information is unfortunately not documented in an easily and retrievable and adequate manner. The effect of material properties on da/dN is of great importance because such information can be used by the engineer to choose crack resistant materials. and it is usual to speak of the endurance limit at 107 or 108 cycles. While the latter provide only approximate answers.rate of crack growth. The effect of small grain size in reducing crack growth rates is considerably at low stress amplitudes but negligible at large amplitudes. It is not uncommon for the crack growth rate to increase by a factor of about 10 in aluminium alloys exposed in humid air compared to the rate in vacuum. The definite endurance limit is connected strongly with the existence of a sharp yield point in the tensile stressstrain curve. The frequency of loading and the severity of the environmental attack cannot be estimated reliably without prior experimental verification.which is associated with the sharp yield point . as for instance in the case of iron or steel. The growth rate in Stage II is governed as already mentioned by the unidirectional properties of the material.so that there is no definite stress below which cracks refuse to grow. is recognised as a change in the slope of a conventional SN curve from negative to zero (flat).
the term damage can be substituted for crack generation or growth. Comparison of the rule with experiment has shown it to err in most cases. such that the next load application brings catastrophic failure. each proceeds by a definite increment in each cycle of stress. static stressstrain curve . Some more details on local stress concepts in fatigue will follow in TALAT 2401 30 . This general relationship has been modified to include the total strain range and is usually referred to as the MansonCoffin law. The crack propagates until it reaches a critical length. The development of numerical analysis procedures. Yet the rule is close enough to reality.Damage Accumulation Theories The first theories of fatigue were aimed at describing the typical constant amplitude SN curve. Assuming no interaction effects between different load amplitudes leads directly to the above linear damage accumulation rule. The criterion for failure under a series of different load amplitudes is given as ∑N i ni i =1 the linear damage accumulation rule. Failure was assumed to occur with the accumulation of a critical amount of damage. Whether the basic process is crack generation or crack growth.7 and the constant C related to ductility and the true tensile fracture strain. especially the finite element method allow a rapid and accurate analysis of local stress and strains at notches or cracks. so it is being used frequently as a guide when other more precise information is lacking.the possibility of applying such relationships especially in the area of lowcycle fatigue are outlined in the following. z weakly dependent on material and with a value in the order 0. and the critical stage of the development can be termed a critical amount of damage accumulation. A useful extension of this concept was made by PalmgrenMiner to the case of variable amplitude loading. often on the unsafe side.01) ∆ε p ⋅ ( N T ) = C Z where C and the exponent z are material constants. Detailed information on the PalmgrenMiner rule and its applicability in practice will be given in Lecture 2401. undefined damage within the material. The parameters which had to be adjusted were the rate of damage accumulation and the critical amount for failure.04 dealing with load and stress spectra and damage accumulation.the cyclic stressstrain curve as compared to the initial monotonic. In terms of the accumulation of some vague.5 to 0. In each case. Crack generation proceeds until a critical stage is reached such that crack growth can than proceed. That such a simple concept of damage accumulation works at all lies in the basic nature of fatigue failure. Related to the true strain behaviour of the material under repeated loading . MansonCoffin Law Under conditions of constant plastic strain range ∆εp the numbers of cycles to failure is found to be (for ∆εp > 0.
TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies A0 = ductility Af Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters 2401. Hysteresis σ σa arctan E ∆σ ∆σ σa ∆ε ∆εp ∆εe = stress range = stress amplitude = strain range = plastic strain range = elastic strain range ∆εp ε ∆ε/2 = strain amplitude E Pf A0 Pf σf = A f σf = D = ln = Young's Modulus = engineering stress = true stress σa 2 ∆ε0 ∆ε/2 ∆εe ∆ε/2 ∆ε Source: D.02.11.6 σf /E 1 plastic 1 b c strain elastic strain Cycles to Failure logN f D0. The overall procedure of analysis and life estimation through the MansonCoffin relation is outlined in.6 Nf0.10 and Figure 2401.5 σ /E f ∆ε = 3. Kosteas.Lecture 2401.02.05. the relationship becomes a straight line. With the aid of the cyclic stressstrain relation this plot can be converted to a SN curve.11 When plotted on loglog paper. Figure 2401. Kosteas.5 σf 0.12 Nf + D0.02.6 ∆ε 2 σ'f E b c (2Nf ) + ε (2Nf ) Morrow Strain Range log ∆ε 3.10 StrainLife Relationship Strain Amplitude log (∆ε/2) D0.6 E Source: D. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies plastic elastic strain strain Cycles to Failure logN f StrainLife Relationship MansonCoffin 2401. A useful expression for the exponent z is given in terms of the cyclic hardening exponent n' TALAT 2401 31 .02.
Crack Growth Laws Many empirical crack growth laws have been proposed. the effect of aggressive environment on crack initiation time is also largely unknown. especially in cases where fatigue life is governed mainly by propagation. Ideal Cumulative Damage Theory Ideally one would like to predict the failure of structural components which are subject to a spectrum of loads in a variable environment. namely that the number of cycles to failure is the sum of the crack initiation time NI and the crack propagation time NP (see Figure 2401.15 we get z ≈ 0.02. While such a theory is not fully available the framework for achieving it is fairly clear. This is the form found empirically by Paris and others and is discussed in more detail under Chapter 12 on fracture mechanics and life estimation.s) where C is a constant which depends on the material and F(a. TALAT 2401 32 . This is often the case with structural components containing substantial notches. this value being about 25% larger than measured values. In our opinion the MansonCoffin relation and further derivations may be a useful tool for comparative studies and initiation life estimations for different materials. Fatigue mechanisms provide the basic idea.75. The detailed dependence of C and z on material constants is not resolved completely. There are two important ingredients which are necessary to any successful crack growth theory. The most popular have the form da/dN = C ⋅ F(a. is nowadays a more powerful and sophisticated tool in the hands of a knowledgeable design engineer.s) is a function determined empirically from the data. a realistic model for crack growth. Second. The advancement of life estimation methods on the basis of fracture mechanics. analytical methods for expressing the model in mathematical terms so that a quantitative relation may be derived. First.12) NT = NI + NP Quantitative expression of NI is a difficult problem. for instance welded structures. It is worth noting that theoretical crack growth laws are of the form da/dN = C ⋅ Km where C is again a material constant and K is the stress intensity factor depending on the instantaneous crack length and the overall nominal stress and affected by geometrical and loading parameters.z= 1 2n ' + 1 Since n' ≈ 0. However. if NI << Np then the problem is minimised.
Such estimations are performed almost entirely nowadays by computer simulation. Morrow etc.02. ∆ε = BNb + Cic i 2 da / dN = f ( ∆K ) Paris.pl. Damage Accumulation N ∑ Ni = 1 ( crack a0 i t PalmgrenMiner Damage Accumulation NP = ∫ f (∆K )da Crack Initiation Ni NT Np Crack Propagation Component Life Source: D.12 Such an approach to cumulative damage and the prediction of fatigue lives requires an accurate model for the simulation of the service life of the structure as well. TALAT 2401 33 . ∆ε Material Properties stressstrain relation hardening % softening $ Geometry FEmethods (el.Loadings σm. Kosteas. εm ∆σ.pl. Forman etc.) empirical methods $ m &$ el &$ pl Geometry FEmethods (el. behavior % ' behavior $ da/dN ac a0 101 ∆KI 108 Kth KIc Crack Initiation Life low cycle fatigue concepts Crack Propagation MansonCoffin.) empirical methods crack Material Properties crack prop. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Outline of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods 2401.
when further levels of sophistication beyond the rules of a recommendation have to be established. are seldom ideal material for statistical treatment. in practice. This is particularly true in the context of structures whose failure could be catastrophic but it also arises in relation to design rules which are based on limit states. fatigue data need to be analysed statistically. this is the type of data which need to be evaluated in the formulation of design rules. which usually come from several sources. representing more severe stress concentrations than in the first type. TALAT 2401 34 . fatigue data. A need for statistical analysis also arises during an actual design procedure. Either in the case of literature data. We normally encounter three different types of data: • • many results for identical specimens made and tested at the same laboratory many results for similar specimens.2401. the greatest problem is presented by the third type. Fatigue data have long been the subject of statistical considerations because of their inherent scatter. Despite the merits of computerised analysis it must be reminded that the ability to make a qualified. Further more. In order to meet such requirements.03 • • • • • • • Fatigue Data Analysis and Evaluation Analysis of data Analysis in the middlecycle fatigue range Analysis in the highcycle fatigue range Fatigue diagrams Linear PSN curves Nonlinear PSN curves Some problems of data analysis in practice It is a requirement for fatigue design stresses to be related to some probability of failure. based on engineering judgement (whatever this may be more than experience) is still extremely valuable. obtained mainly at one laboratory over a period of years many results for similar specimens obtained from many different investigations over a period of years. and need to be analysed to provide the basis for design rules . However. In such cases own data or comparisons of data have to be performed on a homogeneous way and compatible to the procedures of the recommendations themselves.or in the case of data from special fatigue tests carried out under well defined and controlled conditions to validate a particular design. • No simple statistical method is suitable for treating all three types of data. well weighted decision. especially for welded joints.
It is pointed out that statistical and regression methods are included in the operations of the 'Aluminium Data Bank' installed at the Department Aluminium Structures and Fatigue of the University of Munich.++ . has to be established by using methods of regression analysis... This is the observed variable dependent on the investigated property. As a next element we need confidence intervals for the observed data which again describe the relation of the sample to the whole population... Finally the functional relationship between two variables. HCF 2401.Analysis of Data Fatigue life of a specimen will be expressed in cycles to failure..++ . Statistical/Regressional Analysis for the middle cycle fatigue range Su .! .+ . Details on these procedures are given in Lecture 2403.!! !!! Ultimate strength PSN Curve LogN = m logσ + C ) ) )* )) [MPa] maxS Probability of survival P at confidence level γ )) ))* ))) Se Endurance limit ~104 LCF MCF Nc Cycles to Failure ++++ . here fatigue strength and cycles to failure. i. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Statistical / Regressional Analysis TALAT 2401 35 . These are the mean value x and the variance s2 or the standard deviation s which identify the population and enable further comparisons.02.01 Source: D. ...03..e... fatigue strength. Through comparative evaluation of test results by means of variance analysis significant or nonsignificant deviations may be calculated. Practically we perform a test data analysis in order to calculate characteristic values for a statistical population out of the random sample observation. In the case of fatigue test data we are interested in the calculation of probability of failure or probability of survival limits. Kosteas.
i + pf. In Figure 2401.03. Further details can be found in respective literature.. the dependent variable..02 The observed event or the element of the test sample. is the logarithm of the number of cycles to failure logN. Kosteas.σd a ) B σ .xn(= logNn) we get a respective value for the i probability of survival p s.i = 1 i n +1 (2) TALAT 2401 36 . Fatigue strength is regarded as the independent or controlled variable S or logS.xi(= logNi) ≤ .Analysis in the MiddleCycle Fatigue Range For most practical applications a fatigue life range approximately between 1*104 and 5*106 cycles may be defined as a range where the relationship between cycles to failure and fatigue strength will be linear for all practical purposes.01.03. logN is still mentioned.a < µ < x + a} confidence intervals for mean and standard deviation a=s c ( t.i = with ps. i. when the data are plotted on a doublelogarithmic scale.02 describes a calculation of important statistical parameters. γ ) n P/S/N curve N is the dependent variable σ is the independent variable logN conf { a2 > s > a1 } a1/a2 = (n1) s2 c1/2 ( χ2.x ) i 1 n 2 conf { x .03.. For every sample value x1(= logN1) ≤ . Although not used frequently in structural engineering anymore the possibility of expressing fatigue behaviour in a linearlogarithmic relationship S vs.03 an outline of statistical distributions is given pertaining to the calculation of different parameters or to the performance of statistical evaluations and comparisons. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies 1 + bN σD a (Weibull) Fatigue Test Data Analysis 2401. γ ) Regressional analysis estimation of regression parameters through minimisation of deviations (least squares) linear S/N: (Wöhler) log N = aσ + b σ= σz + bN σD a (Basquin) log N= a log σ + b N=B( 1 σz .03. see Figure 2401.. Figure 2401.))) )) 1 x=n mean standard deviation s= Σx 1 n i 1 n1 Σ (x . This method has nowadays been abandoned in favour of the double logarithmic relationship logS vs. logN. Fatigue Test Data Analysis Statistical Analysis logσ sample size n )) ) ) .σd or nonlinear S/N: (Stüssi) Source: D.i = 1 − and (1) n +1 probability of failure p f .e.
03 A normal distribution of the logarithms of the cycles to failure is assumed for the sample and this would result in a straight line for the relationship between the cumulative frequency and the number of cycles to failure if the respective values are recorded on probability paper with a logarithmic scale for the observed number of cycles.Distribution Hypothesis: F(x) is the distribution of the whole population ω 2 Distribution in KolmogoroffSmirnowTest probability paper Distribution Parameters Mean Value Variance σ 2 Confidence Interval known unknown tDistribution ω 2 Distrib.0 105 106 Cycles to Failure 107 D. Kosteas. tDistribution Hypothesis θ =0 tDistribution Test of Hypothesis by Means of Analysis of Variance Comparison of Several Samples Hypothesis: µ 1= .03..35 σ a = 14. TUM Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Statistical Methods for Calculations of Distributions and Significance 2401.04 TALAT 2401 37 . µ = mean and β = slope of population alu D...04. FDistrib.4 σ a = 12. 95 Cumulative Frequency in % 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 σ a = 25. tDistribution Regression Analysis Regression Coefficient (slope) Mean Value Correlation Variance Linearity Correlation Coefficient Normal Distribution tDistribution Normal Distribution Comparing Two Samples Hypothesis: µ = mean tDistribution Tests Hypothesis Hypothesis σ 1= σ 2 β = β0 FDistrib.03. µ n FDistribution Hypothesis β =0 FDistrib.03.0 σ a = 18. Kosteas. e. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Probability of Survival Lines for a Fillet Weld 2401.g Figure 2401.
TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies ProbitMethod 2401. see Figure 2401. which in the case of component or full size testing cannot be supplied. In practice the staircase method gives reliable results for the mean of the fatigue strength with a total of 25 specimens and can be recommended. logN becomes increasingly shallower and failure occurs after increasingly larger number of cycles. Recommended sample size approx. over 50.e. A larger sample size is also needed.05) and the staircasemethod (see Figure 2401. Kosteas. A physically oriented explanation is also given in Lecture 2403 on fracture mechanics. Such experimental tests are by nature very costly.03. Here we are involved with the fact of a fatigue life limit. Source: D.Analysis in the HighCycle Fatigue Range The existence of a fatigue endurance limit is discussed in Lecture 2401. differing in both the process and evaluation: the probitmethod (see Figure 2401. eg. Some other related test methods have been developed. In terms of a testing methodology we distinguish between two test methods. especially because of the high costs of testing and the long testing periods necessary.06).03. This results practically in a distribution of fatigue strength values at the selected cycle limit.05 TALAT 2401 38 .03. where the slope of the relationship logS vs.07. runout.02. i. ProbitMethod Endurance limit estimation 50% nf σ5 σ4 σ3 σ2 σ1 ns * * )2 * * )4 * * * )5 * * )6 100% ** * ** * )1 * * * * * σe N* Probability of survival Ps = ns / (ns + nf) Graphic estimation of endurance fatigue strength at preassigned life limit. Out of practical reasons a limit in cycles to be observed will be set for tests conducted on different fatigue strength levels and the quantity observed will be failure or nonfailure.03. the „arcsin√P“method or the „TwoPoint“ method.
95 * *) * * ) * ) ) ) σ2 σ1 P2.01 σ1 σe σ2 Testing and evaluation for a given limit fatigue life N*: Begin testing as in staircasemethod until two stress levels with a probability of failure P other than 0 or 1 are established.and the Haigh diagrams are traditionally more frequently used in TALAT 2401 39 .50 P1. sample size approx.08 shows some common diagrams used in structural engineering.03. failure *) Sum up ''nofailures'' and ''failures'' and continue evaluation with results of event with smaller sum (in this example this is the event of ''nofailures'': 12 points against the event ''failures'': 13 points) Σ ini + 1 ) Estimate the mean of fatigue endurance at N* cycles: σe = σ0 + d ( Σ ni 2 (use '''' for ''failure''. ''+'' for ''no failure'') Estimate the standard deviation ('unreliable'): Source: D.03. Source: D.03. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies s = 1.f 0.99 0.( Σ ini ) Σ ni2 2 2 + 0.f P2.07 Fatigue Diagrams Results of fatigue tests can be depicted in various diagrams depending on the choice of parameters. 25 Exclude tests up to first pair of contrary results (nofailure ).029) StaircaseMethod 2401. Kosteas. Figure 2401. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies TwoPointMethod (Little) 2401.06 TwoPointMethod (Little) Endurance limit estimation σ * Normal distribution graph 0. Concentrate further test specimens on these two levels. The Smith.StaircaseMethod σi Endurance limit estimation i 4 3 2 1 0 ni 0 2 5 4 1 12 ini 0 6 10 4 0 20 i2ni 0 18 20 4 0 42 * * σ4 * * * ) * ) * * σ3 * * ) * ) ) ) )*) σ2 ) ) *) ) σ1 ) d ) σ0 ) test sequence Preassign limit cycle life N*.62d ( Σ ni Σ i ni . ''select'' step size d. Kosteas.10 * ) * ) ) * ) *) Test sequence 0. Estimate mean for fatigue strength at the given life limit N* graphically.f P1.f 0.
09 shows the general form of this relationship which can be calculated by regression analysis and the Gauß method of least squares. either in the traditional form as in Figure 2401.has been substituted by a double logarithmic relationship of the stress range log∆σ vs.03. These curves are often referred to as PSN (Probability .a linearlogarithmic relationship between maximum stress and cycles to failure. or in the now usual form of limit lines parallel to the mean line will be similarly calculated from respective probability of survival values. In civil engineering it is traditional to use the relationship stress vs. cycles to failure logN in the last decades. Kosteas. Straight line probability of survival limits.08 Figure 2401.Life) curves. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies ∆σ 1<R<+1 σm 1<R<+1 σm decrease logN increase logN Fatigue Strength Diagrams 2401.Stress .mechanical engineering and they involve the stress amplitude plotted over mean stress.03. SmithDiagram N = const. Its earlier form .03. also called the Wöhler curve . TALAT 2401 40 . σ max σu Definitions: stress σa σ max σ ∆σ σa ∆σ tension compression time Wöhler . cycles to failure. especially for welded structures.01 with increasing scatter band width for increasing number of cycles.Diagram 1 0 1 R σ mean = σ m σ m σ min σ min σm σu σ max σe Source: D.
Probability of survival P P = 90% 50% 10% PSNCurve LogN = m logσ + C Stress (log) slope m depends on detail (parameter R) scatter band v dependent on detail and material endurance limit design value 104 Source: D.09 Linear PSN Curves The double logarithmic relationship (sometimes referred to as the Basquin curve) is given in the following form N = C*σm or logN = m*logσ + logC (3) (4) Given k pairs of values for the variables y=logσ and x=logN for a specific probability of survival value we get the following equations for the k ⋅ ∑ ( xi ⋅ yi ) − ∑ ( xi ) ⋅ ∑ ( yi ) 1 k 1 k 1 2 k k k slope m= k ⋅ ∑ ( yi2 ) − ∑ ( yi ) 1 1 (5) intercept log C = ∑ ( xi ) − m ⋅ ∑ ( yi ) 1 1 k k k (6) TALAT 2401 41 .03. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies 105 106 5x106 Cycles to Failure PSNCurve 107 108 2401. Kosteas.
By minimisation of these deviations ∑v i =1 n 2 i = Min ! (9) we get a system of n equations out of which the four unknown parameters may be calculated. Two basic types of fourparametric curves have been proposed. presented in the following general form N σ = (σ z − σ D ) ⋅ + 1 B −a +σ D (7) with σz: σD: B: a: ultimate strength endurance limit time parameter form parameter From d2(σ)/d(logN)2 = 0 we get the transition point of the curve Ni=B/a further we have the following relationships for the shape of the curve: dσ/dlogN=0 and d2(σ)/d(logN)2 < 0 for N < Ni and d2(σ)/d(logN)2 > 0 for N > Ni when the function is plotted in linearlogarithmic coordinates. this may be achieved by a nonlinear PSN curve. The second curve type. The above expressions as functions of the four parameters have a specific value (by assuming initial values for each of the four parameters) which shows a deviation vi for each available experimental observation Mi. Details of the procedure are given in literature or in a respective calculation procedure within the Aluminium Data Bank. again linear. from the static limit strength up to the endurance limit. This is the usual treatment for design purposes in practice. If a monotonic analytical relationship for the whole range of cycles to failure is demanded. As far as an extrapolation of the relationship in the high cycle fatigue range is needed this will be achieved in practice by a bend in the PSN curve and a new. Weibull modified an older proposal by Palmgren. was proposed by Stüssi as follows σ= σ z + bN a ⋅ σ D 1 + bN a ⋅ σ D (8) The four parameters of the equations can be calculated by a multiparametric nonlinear regression analysis. also a fourparametric relationship. TALAT 2401 42 . double logarithmic line continuing with a now shallower slope into the high cycle region. based again on a function by Stromeyer.NonLinear PSN Curves The previously defined linear double logarithmic relationship may be used successfully for the representation of test results in the middle cycle fatigue range.
The standard deviation of logN about the regression line is calculated and used to establish confidence limits based on the assumption that the data conform to lognormal distribution. Figure 2401. because of lack of sufficient appropriate data. The fact that data belong to different populations can be demonstrated by a plot as in Figure 2401. It corresponds theoretically to a probability of failure of 2.03. The SN curves have been assumed to be linear plotted in loglog coordinates.05. Another problem mentioned when analysing fatigue data from several sources is the question of whether or not all the data can be assumed to belong to the same population. If nevertheless a common analysis has to be undertaken. which is approximately two standard deviations below the mean regression line. Appropriate procedures were outlined in Figure 2401. However.5% or to a probability of survival of 97. The lower 95% confidence limit. is chosen as a suitable basis for design . for convenience it is assumed to be sufficiently accurate to assume that they are equivalent to tangents drawn to the hyperbolic confidence limits parallel to the mean regression line. This is found to be a problem for some sets of data.03. An alldata analysis produces a bestfit SN curve whose slope is incorrect in that it is quite different from the slope indicated by the separate analysis of the individual sets of data. because.03. Calculate the bestfit SN curve for each set of data.Some Problems of Data Analysis in Practice The basic method of analysis described has been the calculation of the bestfit regression curve of logN on log∆σ (appropriate in the case of welded joints) to fatigue data by the method of least squares. Although the confidence limits are strictly hyperbolae which are nearest to the mean regression line at the mean value of log∆σ covered by the data. and at low stresses as the stress range approaches the fatigue limit. the following procedure may be adopted. deviations in the lowcycle regime are easily identified because the yield strength of the material is known.07. In the case of fatigue data this is relevant.06 and Figure 2401.it depends on the respective recommendations. Figure 2401. When applying regression analysis it is important to ensure that all the data considered can be expected to correspond to the assumed relationship. deviations towards horizontal lines on the SN diagrams may occur in the high stresslow cycle regime.5%. the mean SN curve passing through the centre of gravity of the data points. calculate the median value of their slopes and then assume that this is the slope of the SN curve for all the data together. even when they are obtained from geometrically similar joints under the same loading conditions. a limited number of observations). when the maximum stress exceeds yield. We would like to draw attention to the fact that in the above context the term "confidence limits" denotes a scatter band of the test data of a given probability of occurrence.01. It is not understood in the sense of confidence limit for a certain fractile of the statistical analysis expressing the uncertainty associated with the calculation of this fractile because of the estimation performed out of a specific sample size only (i.03. although the linear log∆σlogN relationship will apply over a wide range of stresslife conditions.e.03. whether additional material safety factors may be defined or not. where the stress is the nominal applied stress range in the vicinity of the weld detail. In practice. TALAT 2401 43 .04. the fatigue limit is a property of the joint tested and its value not always obvious.
03.10. see Lecture 2402. Plate thickness not only affects the level of residual stresses. SN curves for higher R values show steeper slopes. especially in the past. preferably having the detail incorporated in a structural element such as a beam.Aluminium weldments seem to be more susceptible to problems as outlined. They are susceptible to mean stress and the level of residual stress due to welding. The former is particularly relevant since frequently. test data suggest that an endurance limit of around 5 ⋅ 106 cycles would be more appropriate. A technique which could be used to deal with the above problems.01 and 2402. particularly in the case of transverse butt welds. Misalignment is difficult to avoid in small specimens.03. it was quite common to stop tests at only 2 ⋅ 106 cycles on the basis (probably stemming from test results for plain unwelded specimens) that the fatigue limit would correspond to such an endurance. the curves for different R values meeting close to material yield strength in the range between 104 and 105 cycles.03. or from specimens tested under a high tensile mean stress are of special interest . see here also chapter 6 on residual stress influence and fatigue strength correction factors. TALAT 2401 44 .Lecture 2402. In order to utilise other data. The method also is able to handle results from unbroken test specimens (runouts). For aluminium such an adjustment has been taken into account in design recommendations.03 demonstrates the significance of such information for design purposes through the structural details investigated and evaluated. In practice. Figure 2401. The presence of misalignment may be a major cause of the relatively very wide scatter in transverse butt and fillet welds and. The validity of grouping together data sets for a given joint type or the general validity of test results depends on further factors. it is also important in the case of joints which fail by fatigue crack growth from a surface stress concentration such as a weld toe. In practice. Variations in the level of residual stress in a given type of joint from one investigation to the next could arise as a result of variations in the welding conditions. Thus test data obtained from relatively large specimens. the applicability of laboratory (small specimen) test results to real structures operating in potentially corrosive conditions is questionable. like plate thickness. for example the presence of a detectable crack. There can be a significant reduction in fatigue strength with increase in plate thickness. Runouts arise either because the test specimen endures a predetermined life without failing or because testing is stopped when some special failure criterion is satisfied. it may be necessary to correct the SN curves fitted to them to allow for the absence of high tensile residual stresses. The effect of differences in applied mean stress related to the residual stress level could be to influence both the slope and position of the SN slope. see respective provisions for plate thickness above 25 mm in the recommendations in Lecture 2402. reflecting the greater sensitivity of crack growth to mean stress in aluminium alloys. that is the stress normally used to express fatigue test results. both from the point of view of deciding whether or not different data sets could be regarded as belonging to the same population and the analysis of several data sets with an SN curve whose apparent slope differs from the individual slopes. alignment of the joint and test environment. Its effect is to introduce secondary bending stresses when the specimen is tested axially such that the stress near the weld may be quite different from the nominal stress based on load/plate crosssectional area. welded joints containing high tensile residual stresses are of interest to the designer of a welded structure. of course. is the maximum likelihood method.
TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies SUP = Π [∆x f(x) (1. fatigue endurance. TALAT 2401 45 . slope and scatter) variation determination of max SUP.F(x)] failures runouts probability of failure 2401.10 MaximumLikelihoodMethod Closing these remarks we would like to remind about the comments made earlier on the merits but also on the problems associated with the application of statistical methods in evaluating and comparing fatigue test data. It seems that in many cases where we lack visual apparentness of facts in fatigue data this cannot be substituted or provided by mathematical assumptions.MaximumLikelihoodMethod PSN curve estimation m s failure probability distribution ∆x f(x) s 1F(x) * * ** * ) )) * Through curve parameter (life limit N*.03. An alternative approach on the basis of fracture mechanics and crack growth analysis using basic information from similar tests can be recommended. Result: maximumlikelihood PSN/ curve Source: D. Kosteas. especially in view of the general problem of scatter.
in metal structures in civil engineering. etc. service loading conditions will in general be more favourable than the constant amplitude loading (Wöhlertest) forming the basis of fatigue endurance investigations. somewhat lower amplitudes may reach considerable number within the lifetime of a structure and together with irreversible deformations or local damage. cracks. esp.2401. Besides.04 • • • • • • • • Load Spectra and Damage Accumulation Service behaviour Timedependent loads Spectrum definition and cycle counting The rainflow cycle counting method The service behaviour fatigue test Analytical life estimation and damage accumulation The PalmgrenMiner linear damage accumulation hypothesis Service behaviour assessment Service Behaviour Structural components in service are exposed to a more or less random sequence of loading of variable amplitude and frequency. It is the goal of a fatigue service behaviour analysis to assess through an appropriate procedure the probability for a given structure under a given loading to reach without failure or extensive necessary repair the demanded design life. Components in many structural engineering applications. TALAT 2401 46 . Only with a reliable description of the loading can suitable damage accumulation hypotheses be developed and applied to the calculation of fatigue life. Principles of light structural design cannot be satisfied if a component is designed merely against the maximum value of a load or stress spectrum. cranes or even some bridge components demand for such a service behaviour assessment accounting for a variable loading sequence and damage accumulation. Even when maximum values of these loading inducing stresses up to 2 or 3 times the fatigue endurance limit appear in relatively small numbers. like flaws. reduce the carrying capacity and the design life. With increasing service lives and the use of new or special materials and manufacturing methods this approach is not sufficient.. The accurate definition of the latter for a specific application still poses great difficulties and it is on the loading side of the analysis that the greatest uncertainties emerge. Service conditions on the other hand may change. are only rarely assessed under the principles of a service behaviour analysis .and this situation is still reflected in the current recommendations for fatigue design. Several applications in land and sea transportation.
second. For each structural detail a respective stress spectrum results expressing the frequency of occurrence of a characteristic value such as the stress amplitude.01 TALAT 2401 47 . They may be deterministic or random in nature.Time Dependent Loads Loads on a structural component depend. A stochastic process is defined as nonstationary or stationary depending on whether its statistical characteristic values are varying or not with time. stress range or maximum stress.U. possibly also about the loading sequence. wave motion. T. In the first case (as for instance periodic or nonperiodic load like the influence of an impact load or the thermal deformation) a mathematical relationship allows a definite expression of the value of the characteristic quantity at any time. accelerating or established procedure forces) and. Spectrum Definition and Cycle Counting A load spectrum includes all necessary information on magnitude and frequency of service loads. on the usage of the structure (steering. In the second case (and here we encounter most mechanical loads) values of the characteristic quantity can be estimated only through a time sequence measurement. track smoothness) and will generally be time dependent. act on the structure out of its environment (wind. Cycle Counting Methods X 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Class Limit Class X 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Class Frequency Maxima Minima Cumulative Frequency t X 4 6 3 2 5 4 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 X 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Cumulative Frequency 5 4 3 2 2 1 t X 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 D. first.04. This can not be identified in practice seldom though since service load measurements are performed only once as a rule. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 X 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 Frequency of Exceedence t 3 4 5 6 Cycle Counting Methods 2401. Kosteas. Naturally they are unique and not reproducible and consequently the estimation can be expressed only with a certain probability.
The graphic depiction gives the socalled histogram. where Ho is the number of passes through zero (or the reference value) and H1 the number of turning points (maxima. − the measured value encompasses a range. T. 106 . allows the comparison between spectra of different maximum values or absolute cumulative frequency.The spectrum is derived from measurements of the characteristic value over the observed cycles for a specific time period. Three basic counting methods can be applied as demonstrated also in Figure 2401. Figure 2401. An estimate of the magnitude of the difference between the original. which turns into the probability distribution function for an extremely large number of observations. For random stresstime functions we have 0<i≤1 and for in the above manner derived frequency distributions i=1.04. Kosteas. StressTime Diagram and Stress Spectrum x xo xi xm Hi=N Time t xo xi 2xa xm xu Frequency H (log) x xi xm Hi x xi xm Time t xoi x Hi H=N constant amplitude Stress xu Hi xui ~ H variable or random amplitude Frequency H (log) Source: D. maximum or minimum. This frequency distribution is shown usually in a linear (stress) . TALAT 2401 48 .02. measured stresstime function and the derived spectrum is given by i=Ho/H1. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies StressTime Diagram and Stress Spectrum 2xa 2401.02 A normalisation.04. between a minimum and the following maximum or vice versa.U. the maximum value with a frequency of 1 in 106 is designated xa. In many cases in structural engineering a spectrum cumulative frequency of 106 is used. − the measured value touches or surpasses a defined class limit in ascending or descending order.03. Figure 2401.04.01: − the measured value reaches a turning point.logarithmic (cumulative frequency) distribution and is the so called spectrum.04. minima).
München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Normalized Universal Spectra 2401. Here again p=1 would refer to the constant amplitude.04.50 H(xa) = H0eax a n n=1 0. Type (a): for n<2 represents a spectrum with constant amplitude. and p=0. The frequency distribution allows not only the comparison with other distributions but also enables the extrapolation beyond the actual measurement period to other. Normalized Universal Spectra Normalized Stress S/S (10 )6 1. The universal spectra mentioned are exponential functions which for infinite observation periods furnish infinitely large xa values. Extrapolations are undertaken for reasons of simplicity on such scales that let the frequency distribution TALAT 2401 49 .U. (b) an extrapolated maximum value must still be physically feasible. a concept which poses a number of difficulties. Type (b): for n>2 is typical for spectra in crane and bridge structures. Figure 2401. which can be seen as Gaussian normal distributions with a constant part p. This is very important for the calculation and adaptation of fatigue test results to cases with different loading conditions through the socalled damage accumulation hypotheses. and the different service conditions represented with their respective relative frequencies. longer ones and consequently up to the design life of the structure.04.8 102 103 104 105 106 0 1 10 Cumulative Frequence H n=3: n>2: constant amplitude normal distribution with p=const.8 is typical for wind loads and follows the shape of a logarithmic normal distribution. wind loads Source: D. Kosteas.8: lognormal distribution.67/0. Type (d): for n=1 is the socalled linear distribution as it appears with a straight line in the linearlog diagram and is characteristic for loading conditions due to track smoothness or sea wave motions and for long observation periods.03 Following a suggestion by Gassner/Griese/Haibach the mathematical expression n formulated by Hanke H(xa) = H0*exp −axa describes five such basic types.75 n=2 0.33/0 in DIN 15018 n=2: stationary Gaussian processes n=1: loads on smooth track. T.00 n=3 n>2 0. Type (c): for n=2 is typical for stationary Gaussian processes.Experience shows that most of the observed and measured stresstime functions follow a few basic statistical distributions./cranes. longtime observations n=0.bridges p=1: const.25 n=0.03. the sample measured must be adequate. and values of p=2/3. ampl. 1/3. Type (e): for n≈0. Two conditions must be fulfilled: (a) the measured event must be representative for the whole design life. 0 have been suggested for respective cases in the German national standard for cranes DIN 15018. sea waves.
Practically this is done through registering those stress amplitude parts of the stress amplitudetime diagram over which a rain drop would flow as indicated in Figure 2401.(spectrum) appear as a straight line. Kosteas. the stress spectrum.U.05. The "RainFlow" Method 10 4 Stress Amplitude E 10 8 2 4 2B A 6C 8 D 6 D B Strain 3 B C 9 D 1 5 7 F Stress History D. the "rangemean counting" and the most frequently used "rainflow cycle counting" (see next paragraph). Preferable are methods based on extreme value distributions that allow the estimation of such maximum values through statistical tools adapted to engineering [3]. Figure 2401. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies C 1 7 5 3 9 StressStrain Cycles 2401.04. The stress ranges are collected in classes and result in the cumulative frequency diagram. Measurement data exhibit considerable scatter and such extrapolations may become questionable.04. TALAT 2401 50 . The procedure is repeated at the next lower point and so on.04 The "RainFlow" Method The same result is obtained by the better comprehensible "reservoir method". the water is let out at the lowest point and the water column height gives the respective cycle with a range∆σ1.04. The stresstime diagram is filled with water like a reservoir. T. The counting method does not account for mean stresses or the Rratio but this does not present a problem in life estimations in practice since these are based on an assessment of stress ranges. Twoparametric counting methods register two consecutive characteristics in an effort to include information about the loading sequence as well.04. The RainFlow Cycle Counting Method The method is based on the forming and counting of full cycles out of the original amplitudetime diagram. In fatigue two methods are of interest.
München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Cycles N 2401./ Time D. Results of these tests with variable amplitudes can be analysed in a way similar to the one for constant amplitude tests.06.04. T. often assumed to N* = 106. They may be characterised by analogous expressions for the maximum or minimum amplitudes. In aircraft as well as in several applications of ground transport vehicles where random loading sequences are simulated during the test procedure such tests have their justification. ranges or ratios and the stresslife curve min σ * * . TALAT 2401 51 . In all other cases the assumption of a damage accumulation hypothesis in relation to fatigue data from constant amplitude tests will be the rule.Determination of Stress Spectra "Reservoir" Cycle Counting Method one stress cycle Stress S(t) S1 S4 S3 S5 S2 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 .05 Determination of Stress Spectra "Reservoir" Cycle Counting Method The Service Behaviour Fatigue Test It is the goal of fatigue tests with an appropriate spectrum loading to establish such strengthlife limit curves for structural components that may lead to generalised design criteria in practical cases. ∆σ * = σ * − σ * . ∆σ * = ∆σ 106 R* = m a max σ * 10 6 ⋅ N* − m* whereby the quantity N* indicates the total number of cycles in the spectrum. Kosteas.U. Figure 2401. Depending on the extent of idealisation of the original loading events in service we may distinguish between different spectra and tests.04. Such tests are rather costly and time consuming and as such they will be realised on a greater scale only in products manufactured in larger numbers.
Schütz has performed comprehensive investigations and the two diagrams in Figure 2401. Haibach. Figure 2401.Influence of Stress Spectrum on Fatigue Strength N/mm² Form of Collective Spectrum max.07 for flat notched (stress concentration factor α=3. The testing frequency was variable and the lines are for a probability of survival 50%. Relationships between the lives realised in constant and variable amplitude tests can be established only empirically because of the very complicated damage mechanisms. Loading was axial and the probability of survival 50%.08.04.6) specimens of AlCuMg2 alloy under axial loading [3]. 1971 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Cycles to Failure Influence of Stress Spectrum on Fatigue Strength 2401. Stress Amplitude 300 200 Pü = 90 % R= 1 100 P Specimen St35/St52 50 104 105 P 106 107 108 Source: E. Figure 2401.04.07 shows the results for a spectrum form of the normal distribution.06 A characteristic example of such analyses is given in Figure 2401.08 shows the results for aluminium alloy AlCuMg2 (AA2024) [3].04.04.04. TALAT 2401 52 .
3 3 R R = 0 .07 Fatigue Strength for Constant and Variable Amplitude (Normal) Loads 105 8 6 ALCuMg2 Notch Factor αk= 3. 5 N/mm² Stress Amplitude 150 N = 5· 105 N = 7· 105 N = 1· 106 N = 1.6 and 5.08 TALAT 2401 53 .33 50 R = 0.04. Gassner alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Mean Tensile Stress 50 100 150 N/mm² Fatigue Behaviour Diagram 2401.2 R=R=1 104 8 6 4 4 6 8 106 2 4 6 8 107 2 4 6 8 108 Cycles to Failure N alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Fatigue Strength for Constant and Variable Amplitude (Normal) Loads 2401.2 R= 0.2 R=R=0 Cycles to Failure N 4 2 Notch Factor αk= 2.0 to 5.Fatigue Behaviour Diagram AlCuMg2 Spectrum Behaviour: Normal Distribution R = 1 R= 200 0.04.2 R= 0 100 R= 0.5· 106 N = 2· 10 6 N = 3· 106 N = 5· 106 N = 7· 106 N = 7· 10 7 =0.5 0 0 Source: Schütz.
their application in practice is associated with a serious problem. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Fatigue Life Estimation 2401. Fatigue Life Estimation External Forces StressTimeFunction Geometry Notch Spectrum Structure Manufacturing Material SurfaceEnvironment Fatigue Strength Damage Accumulation Fatigue Life Source: D. so that damage can be quantified and calculated.U. under which we understand the summation of partial damage per cycle. The general outline of a fatigue life estimation is shown in Figure 2401. that of the "sequence effect". i.09.04. In other words the damage due to a certain loading event depends on the damage already accumulated. the influence of preceding load cycles upon following ones.09 TALAT 2401 54 .Analytical Life Estimation and Damage Accumulation Every model used to estimate the fatigue life of a structural component under variable or random amplitudes from respective data of constant amplitude tests is confronted by the fact that damage mechanisms and with them the crack initiation or propagation conditions may be altered. In this context we mention the problem of stress amplitudes below the fatigue endurance limit and which may cause damage nevertheless. T. Kosteas. So it is only understandable that it has been attempted to look upon damage as an irreversible process.04. Thus the idea of the damage accumulation was formed. Although damage accumulation hypotheses seem to be simple. governed by the number and magnitude of single.e. consecutive load cycles. The purely physical way to explain fatigue failure has not yet led and will not lead in the near future to a satisfactory allencompassing model. Despite these inherent difficulties estimation procedures are often necessary either in a preliminary design stadium or because of the extreme cost of service behaviour tests as already mentioned.
of cycles on stress levelσi Ni = no. PalmgrenMiner Rule of Linear Damage Accumulation σ1 ni = no. and. theoretically. the sequence of loading and local residual stresses are not considered. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies n2 ni Cycles to Failure PalmgrenMiner Rule of Linear Damage Accumulation 2401. It should be taken into account that the linearity itself does not strictly exist. Numerous suggestions have been made to improve the original hypothesis in the above mentioned points by changing the constant amplitude SN line.The PalmgrenMiner Linear Damage Accumulation Hypothesis The hypothesis rests on two basic assumptions: (a) the damage D in a constant amplitude test grows linearly with the number of cycles n until these reach the number of cycles to failure N. n D = ∑ D = ∑ i = 1 for fracture i i Ni Schematically the application of the linear damage accumulation hypothesis is shown in Figure 2401.U.04. esp. Kosteas. stresses below the fatigue endurance limit of the constant amplitude SN line do not contribute to the damage summation.11. T.04. through various extrapolations of it below the constant amplitude cutoff limit.10 Already Miner himself had warned against a general application of the linear damage accumulation rule.04. (b) for a loading sequence with variable amplitudes the partial damage Di on the amplitude level i can be summed with other partial damages and failure (fracture) will appear when the sum of partial damages reaches unity.10. of cycles to failure on level σi N 1 N 2 Stress σ2 σi Σ= i ni =1 Ni N i n1 Source: D. for which the damage D reaches the value of one. Figure 2401.e. TALAT 2401 55 . i.
U.11 It is really a whim of statistics. Life Estimation with the PalmgrenMiner Rule in practice the damage sum varies from 0. on the other hand.12).2 to 6 A fatigue life estimation on the basis of PalmgrenMiner can be either five times lower or six times higher than the actual value Visualize ! Too conservative limits of the allowable damage sum would.04. if the mean of fatigue life estimations for stochastic loading processes evaluated with the PalmgrenMiner rule compared to respective test results is approximately at the value of one. such as generally limiting the allowable damage sum to 0.12 TALAT 2401 56 . Kosteas. T.04.04.1000 Shift in Partial Damage Pü = 50 % 800 Normal Stress Amplitude sa Original Miner (OM) Modified Miner (MM) Elementary Miner (EM) 600 400 Endurance Limit (OM) Stress Spectrum (MM) (EM) 200 30 0 10² 10³ D. or in other words as 1:30 (Figure 2401. It can be formulated that the ratio of actual to estimated life may vary between 0. result in uneconomical design Source: D. An engineer should try to visualise this statement: a fatigue life estimation on the basis of the PalmgrenMiner hypothesis can be either five times lower or six times higher than the actual value! On the other hand too conservative statements.3 for instance would result in uneconomical design.U. Kosteas. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies 0 10 20 0 10 20 10 10 10 Cycles to Failure 4 5 6 10 7 10 8 Shift in Partial Damage 2401. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Life Estimation with the PalmgrenMiner Rule 2401. T.2 and 6.
13 Results on the safe side. i. This experience leads to the fact that the quality of TALAT 2401 57 . and.e. T. (e) higher temperatures.13). (d) treatments introducing compressive residual stresses. An estimation on the (1) unsafe side will result when there are (a) large fluctuations of the basic or mean stresses. finally. (b) an SN constant amplitude curve for bending stresses is used.stress history with positive mean stresses .treatments for tensile residual stresses . Some tendencies have been observed (Figure 2401.S/N for constant bending used . as can be the case with joints. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Observed Tendencies with the PalmgrenMiner Rule A generally larger scatter of the estimations will result if there is a change in the site of fracture as a consequence of a change in the stress intensity. the scatter) cannot be influenced significantly by observing the above points.treatments for compressive resid. the use of respective constant amplitude SN curves.eyebars assessed .e.large fluctuations of mean stress .U. (c) stresstime function with a large number of cycles below the endurance limit. Estimated values will tend to the (2) safe side when (a) stresstime functions with positive basic or mean stresses are used.S/N for constant amplitude without significant compressive residual stresses applied to components with compressive residual stresses 2401. stresses .large no. (d) components with compressive residual stresses are assessed as far as the respective constant amplitude SN curve has been established on specimens without significant compressive residual stresses. if a relocation of the force transfer is encountered during the lifetime of the component.Many of the observed uncertainties associated with the linear damage hypothesis are not of accidental nature. As a final fact it should be remembered that the quality of an estimation by means of the linear damage accumulation hypothesis (i. when Source: D. when .04. (b) measures introducing tensile residual stresses are taken. Observed Tendencies with the PalmgrenMiner Rule Results on the unsafe side.04. (c) eyebars are assessed. or if there is a variation (enhancement or reduction) of residual stresses which is not accounted for in the respective constant amplitude SN curve.higher temperatures . cycles below endurance limit . Kosteas.
The recent recommendations for aluminium constructions follow to a certain extent these procedures. as well as the above information on variable amplitude loading constitute parts of the assessment procedure under service conditions. their analysis and evaluation.04.16 illustrates the load spectrum transformation for the service behaviour assessment depending on the application. Quality of estimate cannot be influenced significantly the quality of the rule is characterised primarily by the fact whether observed scatter is sufficiently small and not whether summation results near unity are observed Source: D.variation of resid.15 and Figure 2401.04.). München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Experience with the PalmgrenMiner Rule 2401.the damage accumulation rule is characterised primarily not by the fact whether summation results near unity are observed.04. if .change of SIF resulting in change of site of fracture . influencing parameters.14).16 give the elements of the constant amplitude curve and the calculation procedure of the "equivalent stress" based on PalmgrenMiner.14 Service Behaviour Assessment Many of the elements already described concerning the actual fatigue testing of specimens or structural components.04.relocation of force transfer during lifetime (joints !) 2. especially in relation to spectrum loading and its evaluation through reference to the established constant amplitude SN curves of the different structural details and by means of the linear damage accumulation. T. Figure 2401. but rather by the fact whether the observed scatter is sufficiently small (Figure 2401.U. Rather large scatter in estimates. Figure 2401.04. The original spectrum 0 may be transformed by means of the linear damage accumulation hypothesis to either an equivalent stress 1 with the same total number of cycles as the original spectrum or to an equivalent stress 2 for a "single loading event" (as for instance the passage of a multiaxle vehicle. stresses not accounted for in the respective S/N curve . TALAT 2401 58 . train etc. Kosteas. Experience with the PalmgrenMiner Rule 1.
04. parallel scatter band N= C ⋅ ∆σ m = ( ∆σ m ⋅ NA ) ⋅ ∆σ − m A 1 m log ∆σ 10% ∆σ A ∆σ D 1 NA log N ND 2m1 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Elements of the Constant Amplitude SN Curve 2401.15 Spectrum Transformation σ1 σi σeq 1 3 m 1 n N = C ⋅ ∆σ −m 2 i '1' Transformation from 1 to 2 and from 1 2 to 3 Source: D. Kosteas.U. T.04. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies N = Σ n i N´ ∆ σ eq = ( 1 N ND ∑ m ∆ σ i ni ) 1 m 1 m ∆ σ 1 = ∆ σ eq N = ( Σ∆ σ n i ) m i 1 m Spectrum Transformation 2401.P = 90% 50% Reference value ∆σA at NA cycles (2*106).16 TALAT 2401 59 . constant amplitude cutoff ∆σD at ND cycles.
n. 1992 O. 1986 [2] [3] TALAT 2401 60 . Düsseldorf. Stahlbauhandbuch. Verlag Stahleisen mbH.: European Recommendations for Aluminiuzm Alloy Structures . 68. Kosteas: Grundlagen für BetriebsfestigkeitsNachweise. Buxbaum: Betriebsfestigkeit. Bd. ECCS Doc. No. Brussels.Literature [1] D.Fatigue Design. pp.1. 585618.n.
In practical applications we are interested in a simple relation TALAT 2401 61 .05 Local Stress Concepts and Fatigue • Analytical relationship between strain and fatigue life • Notch theory concept • The strainlife diagram Analytical Relationship between Strain and Fatigue Life Describing predictive theories of fatigue in Lecture 2401.02 we have mentioned the relationship between strain range ∆ε and the number of cycles to failure. As already mentioned the MansonCoffin relationship. such an approach describes the phenomenon in a satisfactory way. the semiempirical MansonCoffin law.2401. states that ∆ε t ∆ε el ∆ε pl = + 2 2 2 (1) This can be transformed as follows ∆ε t ∆σ ∆σ n ' = + 2 2 E 2 K' and taking into account the loglog relation after Basquin ∆σ = C*NB b c ∆ε t σ 'f = 2 N f + ε 'f 2 N f E 2 1 (2) ( ) ( ) (3) where ∆εt ∆εel ∆εpl ∆σ E K' n' σ'f b ε'f c 2Nf true strain at notch elastic part of true strain plastic part of true strain effective stress at notch elastic modulus of the cyclic stressstraincurve cyclic stress coefficient cyclic hardening exponent true ultimate strength fatigue strength vs. life exponent fatigue ductility coefficient fatigue ductility exponent reversals to failure = total cycles N to failure The goal is the estimation of N = 2Nf cycles to failure for a given notch strain condtion expressed through ∆εt. or as modified by Morrow. fatigue life relationship. Especially in the socalled lowcyclefatigue range where plastic strain ranges contribute significantly to the strain vs.
The connection between nominal design stresses and the local notch stresses or strains can be established through the analytical notch theory concept of Neuber. as explained below.2 = yield stress at 0. The latter may be achieved by estimating the only unknown.2 σ n' (4) with Rp.2% plastic strain in cyclic stressstrain relation In case of spectrum loading respective damage accumulation theories. Notch Theory Concept Defining local stress or strain as σ and ε and the respective nominal values as S and e we define the theoretical stress or strain intensity factors Kσ = σ S and Kε = εt et (5) Neuber defines the theoretical intensity factor as Kt = (Kσ ⋅ Kε)1/2 (6) and Topper assumes a similar relationship for the case of cyclic loading substituting the stress and strain values with the respective stress and strain ranges whereby the cyclic notch factor Kf is introduced ∆σ ⋅∆ε t 2 Kf = ∆S ⋅ ∆et 1 (7) This last formula may be transformed into ∆σ ⋅ ∆ε t = 1 K f ⋅ ∆S E ( ) 2 (8) which gives us the possibility to determine the product ∆σ*∆εt on the condition that on the right side of the formula is determinable. may be used.o.002 R E p . All other parameters as given in the above strain vs. i. from a empirical relationship such as given by Peterson TALAT 2401 62 . Kf. 0 .e. life relationship are to be estimated from experimental data.02. see Lecture 2401. cyclic stressstrain relationships expressed analytically through the RambergOsgood formula σ ε = + 0.between nominal stresses on the structural component and cycles to failure.
05. the geometrical notch form.5 mm for aluminium alloys according to Peterson r is the notch radius In case of fatigue cracks the so called 'worst notch case' is assumed. reversals to failure 2Nf. Finally with the calculated ∆εt value the desired fatigue life to failure according to equation (3) can be determined and the respective εN curve can be constructed. a maximum value for Kf has to be estimated.e. since for design purposes the value (σa ⋅ εa ⋅ E)1/2 is equal to Kf ⋅ Sa with Kf Sa from equation (9) nominal stress amplitude = ∆σ/2 A schematic diagram of the above described procedure follows in Figure 2401. and the critical notch radius. The resulting curve characterises the fatigue behaviour of the material and can be readily used in design. i. According to a proposal by SmithWatsonTopper the quantity (σa ⋅ εa ⋅ E)1/2 may be used to characterize the fatigue behaviour of a material in a respective diagram.Kf = 1 + Kt − 1 a 1+ r (9) where a is a material constant with an approximate value of a = 0. Through equation (2) and (3) a new relation is established σ a ⋅ ε a ⋅ E = σ 'f 2 ⋅ ( 2 N f ) + E ⋅ σ 'f ⋅ ε 'f ⋅ ( 2 N f ) 2 b+c (10) with σa = ∆σ/2 and εa = ∆εT/2 The right side of this equation enables the simple calculation of characteristic values in the form of (σa ⋅ εa ⋅ E)1/2 vs. In the most common case of an elliptical crack shape rcrit = a and maxKf = 1+2(t/a)1/2 with t = plate thickness. which will be produced for a certain relation of the material constant a. TALAT 2401 63 . The StrainLife Diagram With the help of a cyclic stressstrain curve for the material observed the pair of values ∆σ and ∆εt may be calculated according to the now known value of their product as given with equation (8).01.
01 TALAT 2401 64 . ε σ cyclic B "real" conditions experiment σ ε char.Material Properties A σ StressStrain Behaviour base metal HAZ Static Loading Repeated Loading material properties stabilising after number of cycles assumed experimental spectrum σy 5 steps 500 cycles each assumed conditions specifications σ all for unwelded material ε log ∆ε P plastic strain in HAZ . monotonic Morrow ∆ε ε = ∆2el + 2pl HAZ σ yHAZ spec. ε log (2Nf) N cycles to failure in the HAZ alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Life Estimation Procedure 2401.due to base metal allowable HAZ yield serviceability limit el. A k = A .(1. ε p log (2Nf') σ ⋅ ε ⋅E ε SmithWatsonTopper Life Estimation Procedure Example for the HAZ of an Aluminium Weldment ε char.05.k ) Σ AHAZ σ k = σ yHAZ / σ y MansonCoffin ∆ε = ∆ε el + ∆ε pl Pall = Ak ⋅ σ all cycles 2500 log Nf log ∆2ε ∆ε 2 ε char.
.: Beitrag zur Berechnung von Aluminiumstäben unter vorwiegend ruhender Belastung. 89. [7] Steinhardt. 18(2). Lausanne. D. Steidl G.. Proceed. 156. .: Zyklisches Verhalten von AluminiumSchweißverbindungen und Lebensdauervoraussage. p. 18 March 1971. 131/139 and 254/261. 579/584 [3] Kosteas. Braunschweig. D. [2] Hellmich. 1978. Bauz. Jahrgang Heft 11. and Strippelman W. O. 1979. Details for calculation of respective values are given in: Seeger T. pp.: "Zur Weiterentwicklung von Näherungsformeln für die Berechnung von Kerbspannungen im elastischplastischen Bereich" VDIFortschrittsberichte. Schweiz. p. [6] Steinhardt. Intern. These proposals. 1978 Radaj D: "Gestaltung und Berechnung von Schweißkonstruktionen" Deutscher Verlag für Schweißtechnik TALAT 2401 65 . p. Schweißen und Schneiden. D. K.References [1] Kosteas. Aluminium 47 (1971). Vol. IABSE colloquium "Fatigue". 1982.: Geschweißte AluminiumKonstruktionen. O. September 1982 [5] Kosteas.: Cyclic behavior and fatigue life prediction in Welded Aluminium Joints. 611/619. 113/120. Stuttgart. Remarks Further proposals have been made for the application of the local notch theory concept in estimating fatigue behaviour. Vieweg.: Aluminiumkonstruktionen im Bauwesen. p. provide for different solutions to the calculation of the effective strain values at the notch. p. Beste A. Proc.D. 255/262.: Aluminium im konstruktiven Ingenieurbau.: Basis for Fatigue Design of Aluminium. ALUMINIUM 55 (1979) 9. D. especially by Seeger or Radaj.. Symposium on LowCycle Fatigue Strength and Elastoplastic Behavior of Materials. [4] Kosteas.
e. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Quality Control and Defect Assessment Codes 2401.DIN EN 26520 DIN 8563 T3/T30 IIW NDT IIW Design BS PD 6493 Acceptance Levels for Defects ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code AWS Structural Welding Code Aluminium Det Norske Veritas Recommendations NL Permissible Weld Discontinuities BS 8118 P1:Design. For a wide range of quality control criteria the codes for use in structural engineering are based on empirical experience and the possibilities to measure the defect size or to avoid the defect during the manufacturing. as well as aluminium specific problems.2401.01 The quantification of effects of weld imperfections on the static and the fatigue behaviour of structures in different engineering applications is associated with several problems.06. In this chapter weld imperfections in aluminium welded joints and their influence on fatigue behaviour will be covered. P2:Workmanship AFNOR 89220:Classification et Controlle Source: D. Quality Control and Defect Assessment Codes Defect Definition Quality Requirements Allowable Stresses DIN 8563 T4 Defect Assessment DVS Ri FM DIN 8524. i. T.U. weld quality and the derivation of acceptance levels for weld defects have been introduced in several countries. Figure 2401.02 cannot be avoided. but the latter will refer mainly to attempts of quantification of influence in relation to classification of structural joint details. i. Different loads. safety and quality control concepts complicate the evaluation.06 Effects of Weld Imperfections on Fatigue • Types of imperfections • Influence of imperfections on static strength • Influence of imperfections on fatigue strength In the last few years codes for the definition of weld defects. In the case of welded aluminium structures there is also a lack of data in some areas.06. covering steel as well aluminium structures.e. Only in some cases have quality criteria been based on the residual strength of the joint or the structure. TALAT 2401 66 . the reduced strength in the weld and in the heat affected zone. greater cracks and cracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Kosteas.01. A certain overlap with Lecture 2404.
source of imperfection. Alloys with higher silicon concentration may develop cracks in the remelted base material. the codes may oriented more on the possibility of detection or avoidance of a weld imperfection. Figure 2401. BS.06. 5 of the first and 4 of the second are determined by quantitative rules. T30 uses 19 single characteristics for butt welds and 14 for fillet welds. The others are described qualitatively. Greater cracks can reach up to some millimetres in length and depth. For standard alloys and filler metals problems arise generally from cracks at end craters only. They can be minimised through joint optimisation a welding plan and a welding sequence.02 shows the major groups of weld imperfections. Another way is the classification based upon a fracture mechanics approach in cracklike. for example internal or external. This is a problem depending on the combination fillerbase metal and the welding parameters. There are 4 classes for butt welds (AS.Types of Imperfections Weld imperfections can be classified by different characteristics.06. stress raising and insignificant imperfections. DS) and 3 for fillet welds (AK. They may grow up to visible sizes after a number of load cycles. CK). CS. Care should be taken in welding over of greater cracks or in multilayer welds which may lead to residual internal cracks difficult to detect. The proposed German quality standard DIN 8563. in general the organisation issuing the code. qualified welding personnel.02 Cracks usually form as hot cracks in the heat affected zone or the weld itself during the cooling period. BK. or the type of the imperfection. This shows that weld imperfection classification depends on the standpoint of the classifier. TALAT 2401 67 . A detailed description of possible weld imperfections is given in DIN 8524 and DIN EN 16520. If quality control engineers and welding specialists dominate. Defect Groups in Butt and Fillet Welds internal defects 1 2 3 4 5 cracks pores inclusions. spatter geometric misalignment postweld mechanical imperfections residual stresses 5 3 3 3 7 9 3 3 3 7 According to DIN 8524 and DIN EN 26520 alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Defect Groups in Butt and Fillet Welds 2401. These characteristics are only a part of a detailed list of 110 possible weld imperfections in DINEN 16520. oxides lack of fusion (LOF) lack of penetration (LOP) 2 6 1 1 3 5 4 8 external defects 6 7 8 9 10 weld shape arc strike.
In this context we may also mention the specific problem of welded aluminium joints covering at least 3 different material property areas. as is the case with the ECCS Recommendations for Aluminium Alloys Structures in Fatigue. TIGdressing.01. from humidity and/or gas input into the fusion zone associated with a high welding speed. Oxides smaller than 0. But a sound weld root or a double fillet weld is always beneficial. Hydrogen gas in solution in the melt diffuses during solidification into micropores. if a residual stress relaxation can be verified. These may be regarded as a metallurgical notch effect. commonly performed in MIG. The weld shape is controlled by the welding position. TIG. Fillet welds exhibit by definition lack of penetration.3 mm are unavoidable. Larger pores may result from water vapour or moisture in the shielding gas or moisture on the base and/or filler metal. Recommendations account for a bonus factor. Accounting for uncertainties in the calculation and determination of residual stresses in the hot spot areas the design codes assume the presence of residual stresses and their magnitude equal to the yield strength level in practically all welded joints. is peening. the strength and the function of the components. Geometric misalignment and thermally induced deformations are a general and common problem for welded structures.25 mm in diameter. Volume reduction leads to microporosity less than 0. appropriate fixtures for the joint parts etc. the welding parameters. the qualification of the welders and the equipment. stressrelieveannealing. base metal. Deformations can be limited to acceptable values by carefully designed welding procedures and sequences. Another source of water vapour are defect torch cooling systems. especially the heat input.1m are the result of a defective cleaning of material surfaces. Mechanical deformations due to post weld treatments. TALAT 2401 68 . Residual stresses due to welding are commonly not discussed in the quality codes. They may affect the appearance of the structure and more significant. see Lecture 2402. heat affected zone and weld zone. transportation and erection are often unavoidable. Larger oxides or lack of fusion results from wrong welding parameters and/or improper removal of the initial oxide film. A possibility to reduce residual stresses and simultaneously offering a beneficial geometric effect as well. electron beam or plasma techniques. These micropores may coalesce to macropores by remelting through a second weld pass. The welding personnel is also responsible for frequency of arc strikes and the volume of spatters. Whether residual stresses will show a relaxation or not during fatigue cycling in certain alloys or joint configurations is still an open issue. But nevertheless they are one of the main parameters affecting fatigue behaviour of welded structures.Pores result from the reduction of the volume during its solidifying process. Lack of penetration will be determined by the weld preparation geometry and the welding parameters. Slag inclusions which present a significant problems with steel welds are no problem for aluminium welds. Inclusions larger than 0.
5086. KJ. 6082.06. Reduced ductility of the joint is the result which may lead to an early failure of the structure.Kδ0 after BS 5762 TALAT 2401 69 . 7004.c after ASTM E813. This leads to a concentration of a deformation of a welded joint. This can be derived also from the critical stress intensity factors for the different zones of the weldment as demonstrated in the Kvalues measured according to different methods or recommendations. CTSpecimen.5Mn SAlMg5 SAlSi5 KQ MPa√m 47 29 39 35 27 38 30 29 26 KJ.5Mn AlMgSi1 AlZn4.5MnHAZ AlMgSi1HAZ SAlMg4. or in the weld itself. as long as this is lower than the strength of the base metal or of the heat affected zone. see Table 1 (Figure 2401. Tests with full scale tubular joints show a tougher behaviour for lower strength base metal compared to high strength base metal.c MPa√m 50 38 45 46 36 38 43 38 40 Kδo MPa√m 52 40 51 52 39 38 47 40 43 Kmax MPa√m 73 42 39 44 45 43 34 Table 1: Stress Intensity Factors for Weldments. B = 30mm.Influence of Imperfections on Static Strength Aluminium Alloys customarily used in structural engineering like 5083. 7020 show favourable toughness and sufficient to good ductility values in the base metal and the different zones of the weldment.5Mg1 AlMg4. Stresses will be raised locally and crack like weld imperfections will further concentrate the deformation in small regions of the joint. Problems may arise in the reduced strength of relatively large heat affected zones. especially for work hardened alloys. KQ and Kmax after ASTM E399.03): Alloy AlZn4. It is therefore indicated that in statically loaded structures acceptance levels for weld imperfections are a ductility problem of the joint rather than a strength problem. Static tests in small specimens show a similar behaviour.5Mg1HAZ AlMg4. although the latter is still under fully elastic strain. LT Direction. The strength of the welded joint is normally a function of the strength of the weld metal. 6061. because of a better redistribution of deformations. The maximum load capacity is not influenced by the strength of the base metal significantly.
Static fracture toughness as well as ultimate strength will increase with decreasing temperatures. T. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Critical Stress for a Side Crack in a Plate 2401.0)/BS 5762 Kmax/ASTM E399 60 40 20 5083WM 5056WM 7020HAZ 5083HAZ [BM = base metal] Source: D.6 0. while the impact Charpy energy values will decrease slightly with TALAT 2401 70 4043WM 7020BM 5083BM 6082BM 0 1 .06.2 0. Kosteas.U.Critical Stress Intensity Factors LT direction. T.2) yield S(all/HAZ) 0.03 The diagram in Figure 2401.2) = 142 N/mm2 K(J. B = 30 mm 80 Stress intensity [MPa m1/2] K(Q)/ASTM E399 K(J. München alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies [HAZ = heat affected zone] 6082HAZ [WM = weld metal][ Critical Stress Intensity Factors 2401.c)/ASTM E813 K(d.06.c) = 38 MPa m1/2 N/mm2 300 R(m) ultimate 200 100 00 K(J) K(Q) R(p0.4 0.06.04 Also at cryogenic temperatures brittle fracture is no problem with welded aluminium joints.5Mn/5083 plate width 200 mm R(m) = 304 N/mm2 K(c) = 30 MPa m1/2 R(p0. Critical Stress for a Side Crack in a Plate with crack length a and width W 500 400 AlMg4.8 Normalized crack length a/W Source: D. CTspecimen.04 demonstrates that such stress intensity factors permit crack like defects of some millimetres size to be tolerated without significant reduction of strength. Kosteas.U.
Details on the fracture mechanics assessment are given in Lecture 2403. depth of imperfection than the reduction of area due to this imperfection. TALAT 2401 71 . If the measurable crack size can be reduced to approx. Numerous and detailed empirical investigations exist for most types of weld imperfections in welded aluminium joints. One sided LOP will affect strength more severely. A literature documentation on imperfections is available within the Aluminium Data Bank at the Technical University of Munich and lists more than 300 publications dealing directly with weld imperfections. 10 µm this ratio may be reduced below 1% of total life. therefore. Static strength will decrease in a linear relationship with increasing imperfection size. Even in intermittent LOP it seems that the strength reduction depends on the imperfection size rather.decreasing temperature. hence the importance of fracture mechanics. Unsatisfactory connection between weld and base metal will lead to lack of fusion (LOF). Butt welds welded from one side only. This was established for unnotched base metal as well as for notched base metal and welded joints. Cracks of approximately 100 µm are initiated during the first 10 % of total life to failure. Crack initiation time is thereby neglected. since eccentricity causes additional bending stresses. Geometrical notches due to misalignment should be taken into account though in the calculation of stresses. The lower Charpy values in the welded zone compared to those in base material are a result of the lower ultimate strength respectively. No decrease could be detected even with fatigue cracks as starter notches up to porosity values of 15%. or unsatisfactory weld root form in fillet welds or the unavoidable gap in double fillet welds forms the imperfection defined as lack of penetration (LOP). potential crack site. i. BS PD6493 'Guidance on some methods for the derivation of acceptance levels for defects in fusion welded joints'. Based on this knowledge the influence of weld imperfections can be derived through fracture mechanics calculations as defined in recommendations such as DVSMerkblatt 'Bruchmechanische Bewertung in Schweißverbindungen'. i. All this demonstrates that statically loaded welded aluminium structures are relatively insensitive to imperfections as far as these do not reach considerable dimensions.e. Especially LOP may be unavoidable in certain joint configurations and plate thicknesses because otherwise the necessary weld energy input would result in a significant heat affected zone. Influence of Imperfections on Fatigue Strength Fatigue life is dominated by crack propagation especially in welded joints. This is true for the static strength values of a joint as well. Similar behaviour has been observed in high strength and welded structural steel. Internal imperfections like porosity reduce the Charpy values only for relatively high pore density.e. Fatigue behaviour can. be viewed largely as a result of crack propagation behaviour and of the stress conditions in the critical zones. Porosity up to 45% reduces the impact toughness slightly by the amount of reduction of the area. and ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code 'Analysis of flaw indication'. LOP and LOF are two imperfections that will affect strength significantly.
Cracks Data on the fatigue behaviour of hot or cold cracks is not so numerous. Some published data indicate a 10% reduction of the fatigue strength for rewelded crater cracks. Some data with full scale welded beam fatigue tests shows no influence of rewelded or surface crater cracks. No fractures could be detected here originating from crater cracks. This may be explained through a full remelting of possible initial cracks by the second weld pass or that in all cases where surface crater cracks had been detected, these were in the direction of the principal stress. Care should be taken though for transverse cracks which will reduce fatigue strength significantly.
Porosity Porosity up to 35% will reduce fatigue life of butt welds with reinforcement removed (overfill ground flush) up to a factor of 200, Figure 2401.06.05.
Porosity
Influence on Fatigue Strength
106
Cycles to Fracture
10
5
butt weld with overfill dressed flush factor of ~200 on life
104 103 102 101 100
respective increase of net section stress in the order of 50%
0
alu
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
8 16 24 Porosity in % of Fracture Area
Porosity  Influence on Fatigue Strength (I)
32
2401.06.05
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
This is equivalent to a reduction in strength of 3.7 times for an SN curve slope of m = 4, while the respective increase of net section stress is of the order of 50% due to the above reduction of the area. Sound aswelded butt joints with reinforcement intact show a reduction in strength of 20  25 % in comparison to reinforcement removed welds, see Figure 2401.06.06. Experimental data indicate that porosity up to certain values will not reduce fatigue strength of the aswelded joints significantly. Even values of 15% porosity have been reported as insignificant to the fatigue strength. Much will depend though on the size of individual pores, on their distribution within the weldment.
TALAT 2401
72
Overfill
Influence on Fatigue Strength
250
Fatigue Strength in M Pa
base metal 200 150 100 50 0 overfill dressed flush
Butt Weld 5000 series alloy
103 4 6 104 4 6 105 4 6 106 2
aswelded
5 107 2 5 108
Cycles to Failure
D. Kosteas, TUM
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Overfill  Influence on Fatigue Strength
2401.06.06
On the basis on fracture mechanics calculations and empirical data the maximum pore size has been recognised as a characteristic and more accurate parameter influencing fatigue strength. Single large pores are always more severe than the always present fine to intermediate porosity. In DVS: Merkblatt 1611 'Beurteilung von Durchstrahlungsaufnahmen im Schienenfahrzeugbau  Schmelzschweißverbindungen an Aluminium und Aluminiumlegierungen' the diameter of a single pore is limited to 30  43 % of the plate thickness up to a maximum value of 6.4mm. Test data and fracture mechanics calculations indicate an acceptable pore size of 12mm in aswelded joints and 0.2  0.5 mm for reinforcement removed butt welds. The fatigue strength of fillet welds will normally not be affected significantly by porosity, since the severe notch effect at the weld toe or the lack of penetration of the root overshadows the influence of porosity. As a consequence, larger single pores or higher porosity percentages may be tolerated. Small butt welded specimens with sound reinforcements removed show porosity induced fractures only for pores near or at the surface with sizes of 0.2  0.5 mm. Fracture mechanics calculations show that the KI values are higher by a factor of 1.5 for imperfections at or near the surface than for internal imperfections of the same size. Based on this the acceptable imperfection size can be increased for internal imperfections by a factor of 2.25. Secondary bending stresses increase the detrimental effects of surface imperfections. If surface imperfections are the cause of fatigue fracture, another fact must be mentioned which is the relative insensitivity of the test results with respect to stress conditions, whether axial tension or bending. On the other hand bend tests can lead to unsafe prediction or noncomparable results concerning the effects of internal imperfections, since reduced local stresses will act at the imperfection site. Welds in structures are usually stressed by axial tension and only by a small bending component. Therefore axial tension tests are more realistic in most cases.
TALAT 2401
73
The diagram of Figure 2401.06.07 depicts fatigue test results of butt welds in AlMg4,5Mn with 4 different porosity densities (sound welds, low, middle, and higher porosity). Specimens with removed reinforcements show a higher fatigue strength than those with reinforcement left intact. Tests were performed on a plate thickness of 9.5 mm respective values for 25.4 mm thickness lie at approximately 20 % lower strengths especially in the high cycle region. In general porosity will not affect the behaviour of welds with reinforcement intact, only in case of a very flat weld profile and a very high pore density. Porosity will have a significant effect on fatigue strength in case of removed reinforcement especially for low fatigue strengths.
Porosity
Influence on Fatigue Strength
250 5083 butt welds, plate 9.5 mm for 25.4 mm 20% lower values, esp. in HCF (no/low/middle/high porosity)
Fatigue Strength in MPa
200
base metal
150 weld rejected RR 100 weld accepted 50 105 106 Cycles to Failure N 107
RI = Reinforcement intact RR = Reinforcement removed
RI
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
Porosity  Influence on Fatigue Strength (II)
2401.06.07
Inclusions, Oxides Oxides form cracklike imperfections because of their planar character with a thickness of 1 to 10µm and sizes below 0.5mm. Nearsurface or surface oxide inclusions are common crack initiation sites in sound welds. This was also observed for sound aswelded butt and fillet welds. Larger oxides will reduce the fatigue strength significantly. As a result of their very small dimensions, especially thickness, oxides are very difficult to detect by nondestructive test methods. For aluminium welds the inclusion problem is not as severe as for electroslag steel welds. Some investigations show no or very small effect of inclusions upon fatigue strength. This will be especially the case when geometric effects of the weld profile override possible notch effects of inclusions, as is often the case with fillet welds.
Lack of Penetration  Lack of Fusion
TALAT 2401
74
Lack of penetration (LOP) and lack of fusion (LOF) are similar imperfections but they may show different behaviour. Both will exhibit a detrimental effect on fatigue strength. The opposite surface of a LOF imperfection will usually be pressed together by residual stresses and this will lead to higher fatigue lives. On the other hand the imperfection may not be detected easily by means of nondestructive testing. Tests have showed that the length of the imperfection in the weld direction as the commonly used parameter to restrict LOP and LOF imperfections is inadequate to describe their influence on fatigue strength. The relevant parameter should rather be the width of the imperfection transverse to the maximum stress direction. This can be derived from fracture mechanics considerations as well. This imperfection size will usually be the throughthickness imperfection width, for which identification problems by nondestructive testing are in common. Using ultrasonic inspection methods one has to use special transducers for diagonal testing. Xray tests record only the perpendicular projection which may underestimate the value significantly. Acceptable imperfection sizes can be derived from test results, Figure 2401.06.08. For aswelded joints the LOP size may be between 1 mm and 2 mm, this is compatible with fracture mechanics analysis results. For butt joints with reinforcement removed this limit value has to be reduced below 0.5 mm for sound welds.
Lack of Penetration  Lack of Fusion
Influence on Fatigue Strength
300
Fatigue Strength in MPa
200 5.3 mm
Sound Welds 1.5 mm
100
size of imperfection and life range
3.8 mm
RR
RI
0.5 mm
50
103
Source: D. Kosteas, TUM
alu
Training in Aluminium Application Technologies
104
105 Cycles to Failure
106
107
RR = reinforcement removed RI = reinforcement intact
LOP  LOF Influence on Fatigue Strength
2401.06.08
Load carrying fillet welds in cruciform joints show by definition a LOP imperfection. The fatigue strength of cruciform joints is a function of the stresses in the weld and the geometric dimensions. Test results show that, for fractures emanating from the root, the strength is directly proportional to the reduction of net section stress in the weld. For double fillet welds and a nominal weld thickness a ≤ 0.6t fracture will emanate from the root, a result which is also supported by fracture mechanics analysis. The transition between weld root and weld toe initiation lies in the region of 0.6 < a/t < 0.8. It is significantly affected by the actual penetration of the fillet weld, which increases the real weld thickness. In cases of double fillet welds with preparation of joint surfaces butt like welds will result. Nonloadcarrying fillet welds will usually fracture from the toe, here LOP and LOF do not affect the fatigue behaviour significantly. TALAT 2401 75
linear and/or angular misalignment act as stress raisers.06. see Figure 2401. we have h =1. in the case of sound welds. t=9.2 .25·b and with b = 1.06. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Stress Range [MPa] α Alloy NP5/6. Geometric Misalignment Geometric.06. b depends on the weld form. Respective values for welds with removed reinforcement lie in the range of 90110 MPa.Weld Shape Major parameters of the weld shape are the reinforcement angle and the toe transition radius. Vweld).4 mm 120° 140° Toe Angle α [°] 160° 180° Overfill Toe Angle . The relation h/t provides a less accurate correlation.06.09. Overfill Toe Angle Influence on Fatigue Strength 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 100° D. Based on this data an angle of up to 150° is acceptable for a strength of 90 MPa.6.09 Depending on the reinforcement angle the fatigue strength at 3·106 cycles ranges from 50110 MPa for AlMgMn welds. The bead height is a secondary parameter. h = r ⋅ (1 − cos α ) = b ⋅ (1 − cos α ) / sin α (1) As a result the relation h/b can be used as a characteristic parameter. Standard values for the reduction in fatigue strength from milled to aswelded butt joints are 1. On the condition that the weld profile is circular with radius r the toe angle alpha is a function of bead height h and weld width b. Kosteas.4·t (ß = 70°. The magnitude of the secondary stress amplitude depends on the overall TALAT 2401 76 .37·t. Nevertheless for butt welds the bead height and for fillet welds the convexity is the standard parameter for characterising the weld profile in recommendations except DIN 8563. thickness and pass number.1. This is equivalent to h = 1. T30. see Figure 2401. V or X. R=0.Influence on Fatigue Strength 2401.06.10. see Figure 2401.
2 mm t Source: D. t the plate thickness and e the eccentricity. For spectrum or block loaded structures with a certain number of cycles and stresses above the yield strength (the latter may lie below 120 MPa in the weld or heat affected zone) the angular misalignment will be reduced through plastic deformations during the first cycles. PostWeld Mechanical Imperfections Postweld mechanical imperfections may reduce the fatigue strength of reinforcement removed butt welds.06. Kosteas. Linear Misalignment Influence on Fatigue Strength Stress Range &% [MPa] 330 310 e 290 270 250 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Relative Eccentricity e/t [%] 80 90 100 AlMgSi1 / SAlSi5 t = 2.5 to 3.10 Arc Strike.design of the joint. Drilled holes show a fatigue TALAT 2401 77 . They may reduce the fatigue strength of the joint in a way similar to the reduction due to a butt weld. Spatters do not reduce the fatigue strength of aluminium welded joints. Detailed formulas are given in BS PD6493 also in the case of angular misalignment. The secondary bending stress σM in the case of linear misalignment of welded plates can be estimated by the simple relation σM = σN·3·e/t (2) with σN denoting the axial stress. Other weldtype are not affected by usual mechanical imperfections as hammer indentations or grinding notches of minor depth. Spatter Arc strikes outside the weld are not common in aluminium weldments.Influence on Fatigue Strength 2401. TUM alu Training in Aluminium Application Technologies Linear Misalignment .
if net section stresses are compared. TALAT 2401 78 . The result may be LOP and LOF imperfections with consequent lower fatigue strengths. Therefore improperly drilled holes should not be repaired by filling the hole with weld material.behaviour similar to sound aswelded butt welds.
p. 2nd INALCO. No. Stahlbau Handbuch.116. and GRAF.: Betriebsfestigkeit. Heft 20. Mitteilungen aus dem Lehrstuhl für Stahlbau Technische Universität München.3. U. In: Proc. p. 1984 KOSTEAS. and KIROU.N. Düsseldorf.: Versuchsdurchführung und Auswertung von Dauerfestigkeitsuntersuchungen.: Zyklisches Verhalten von AluminiumSchweißverbindungen und Lebensdauervoraussage. II. 1989 KOSTEAS. Köln. Berichte aus dem Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau der Technischen Universität München Nr. September 1982 KOSTEAS.4375. 611619.: Grundlagen für Betriebsfestigkeitsnachweise. D.2401. p.: Bruchmechanische Kennwerte und Verfahren für die Berechnung der Ermüdungsfestigkeit geschweißter Aluminiumbauteile. München. 123159. 3273. 9. D. and ONDRA. StahlbauVerlagsGmbH. D. I. D. 3/92.: Lowcycle fatigue damage probability in the HAZ of aluminium weldments. 10.07 Literature/References Further details and information on the subjects treated in these lectures may be found in the following literature KOSTEAS. 1979 KOSTEAS. Stuttgart. p. p. Ch.: Cyclic behaviour and fatigue life prediction in welded aluminium joints. 770. Munich. Brussels. 1982 GRAF. 1992 KOSTEAS.: Imperfektionen in AluminiumSchweißverbindungen Einfluß auf die Betriebsfestigkeit. D.: Bewertung von Schwingfestigkeitsuntersuchungen durchgeführt nach dem Treppenstufenverfahren im Zeitfestigkeitsbereich. Intern. VDI Berichte Nr. R. München. O. Heft 20. on LowCycle Fatigue Strength and ElastoPlastic Behaviour of Materials.: European Recommendations for Aluminium Alloy Structures Fatigue Design. ECCS Doc. Symp. Schweißen und Schneiden. München. D. 68.8. 1986 KOSTEAS. U. 1992 BUXBAUM. In: Proc. D. 585618. 1984 N. 1982 TALAT 2401 79 . p. Verlag Stahleisen mbH. Mitteilungen aus dem Lehrstuhl für Stahlbau Technische Universität München.
01.04.05 2401.07 2401.01 2401.04 2401.06 2401.10 2401.03.12 2401.06 2401.03.02 2401.04.02.02.02.05 2401.03 2401.01.The Remedy Fatigue .01 2401.01.02.2401.02 2401.04.09 2401.01.01 2401.03 2401.02.03 2401.03.10 2401.11 2401.02.10 2401.08 2401.04 2401. 2401.When and What? Fatigue .06 2401.03 2401.03.09 2401.05 2401.03.03.07 2401.Where? Fatigue .07 2401.06 2401.03.01.02.08 List of Figures Figure Nr.Significance for Aluminium Definitions: Constant Amplitude Loading Definitions: Spectrum Loading StressStrain Loops: (a) Stress Control.02 2401.01.Location Fatigue .08 2401.03.04.05 2401.02 2401.04 2401.03. (b) Strain Control Cyclic StressStrain Curve NotchPeak Geometry at Slip Bands Fatigue Crack Initiation at a Surface Inclusion Stage I and II Fatigue Crack Growth Schematic Illustration of a Fatigue Fracture Surface Fatigue Crack Growth Rate Fatigue Crack Growth by the Plastic Blunting Mechanism Effect of Variable Load Sequence on Fatigue Crack Growth Fatigue Damage and Influencing Parameters StrainLife Relationship Outline of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods Statistical / Regressional Analysis Fatigue Test Data Analysis Statistical Methods for Calculations of Distributions and Significance Probability of Survival Lines for a Fillet Weld ProbitMethod StaircaseMethod TwoPointMethod (Little) Fatigue Strength Diagrams PSNCurve MaximumLikelihoodMethod Cycle Counting Methods StressTime Diagram and Stress Spectrum Normalized Universal Spectra The „RainFlow“ Method Determination of Stress Spectra .04.04.11 TALAT 2401 Figure Title (Overhead) Fatigue .02.04.02.03.04.09 2401.02.01.„Reservoir“ Cycle Counting Method Influence of Stress Spectrum on Fatigue Strength Fatigue Behaviour Diagram Fatigue Strength for Constant and Variable Amplitude (Normal)Loads Fatigue Life Estimation PalmgrenMiner Rule of Linear Damage Accumulation Shift in Partial Damage 80 .04.04 2401.07 2401.02.08 2401.01 2401.04.04.02.
06.LOF Influence on Fatigue Strength Overfill Toe Angle .06.04.2401.09 2401.01 2401.Influence on Fatigue Strength Porosity .05 2401.14 2401.15 2401.04.04 2401.06.12 2401.Influence on Fatigue Strength TALAT 2401 81 .04.Influence on Fatigue Strength (II) LOP .16 2401.06.06.04.06.03 2401.10 Life Estimation with the PalmgrenMiner Rule Observed Tendencies with the PalmgrenMiner Rule Experience with the PalmgrenMiner Rule Elements of the Constant Amplitude SN Curve Spectrum Transformation Life Estimation Procedure Quality Control and Defect Assessment Codes Defect Groups in Butt and Fillet Welds Critical Stress Intensity Factors Critical Stress for a Side Crack in a Plate Porosity .07 2401.06.Influence on Fatigue Strength (I) Overfill .04.05.06.13 2401.01 2401.08 2401.02 2401.06 2401.06.06.Influence on Fatigue Strength Linear Misalignment .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?