COMMUNITY RADIO MONITORING Framwork

Syed Tamjid ur Rahman, ChangeMaker April, 2010 Prepared for Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication www.bnnrc.net Supported by Article19

Introduction: ________________________________________________________________ 9
What is CR? Formal definition in CR policy __________________________ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Definition – Community Radio: _____________________________________________ Error! Bookmark not defined.

Conceptions of Community in the Community Radio ________________________________________ 10 Models of Community Radio ____________________________________________________________ 11

Different between CR and other media __________________________________________ 12
Difference between Community Radio and other Radios: ____________________________________ 13
Basis of Comparison: ______________________________________________________ Error! Bookmark not defined. Different Radios __________________________________________________________ Error! Bookmark not defined.

Role of Community Radio _______________________________________________________________ 12

Rational: _____________________________________________Error! Bookmark not defined.
Purpose for A Monitoring Handbook ______________________________________________________ 14 Applications of M&E ___________________________________________________________________ 30
Internal and External Applications ___________________________________________________________________30 Knowledge Capital ________________________________________________________________________________30 Transparency and Accountability ____________________________________________________________________30

Objective of the CR Monitoring Hand Book ________________________________________________ 14 Methodology __________________________________________________ Error! Bookmark not defined.

monitoring of Community Radio________________________________________________ 17
CR Monitoring Framework (CRMF) _______________________________________________________ 18 The Design of the Community Radio Monitoring System _____________________________________ 19 Main Stakeholders in Monitoring _________________________________________________________ 20
Demand Side ____________________________________________________________________________________20 Supply Side: _____________________________________________________________________________________26

The five-step approach to monitoring and evaluation _______________________________________ 20 Steps of Monitoring ____________________________________________________________________ 19

Conclusion _________________________________________________________________ 30
Understanding Readiness __________________________________________________ Error! Bookmark not defined. Three Main Parts of the Readiness __________________________________________________________________31 1. Incentives and Demands for Designing and Building M&E System ____________________________________31 2. Roles and Responsibilities and Existing Structures for Assessing _____________________________________31 3. Capacity Building Requirements for the System ___________________________________________________32

Recommendation ___________________________________________________________ 33 Sample Code of Conduct ______________________________________________________ 33

Content Analysis

:

Balance sheet Commercial Copywriter Cost Per Thousand (CPM or Cost Per Mil) Demographics Ethnic FM Frequency Modulation Frequency Licensee Live copy Persons using radio (PUR) Market PSA Psychographics Rate card Rating Reach Remote Signal Signature Sponsor Spots Station log Stringer Talk Total Survey Area (TSA)

: : : :

content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter-subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalizability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented A summary of a station's assets and liabilities Paid advertising announcement; spot One who writes commercial or promotional copy Estimate of how much it costs an advertiser to reach 1,000 listeners Audience statistical data pertaining to age, sex, race, income, and so forth Programming for minority group audiences Method of signal transmission using 88-108 MHz band Number of cycles-per-second of a sine wave Individual or company holding license issued by the Government for broadcast purposes Material read over air; not prerecorded Measurement of the number of persons listening to stations in a market Area served by a broadcast facility; ADI Public Service Announcement; noncommercial message Research term dealing with listener personality, such as attitude, behavior, values, opinions, and beliefs Statement of advertising fees and terms Measurement of the total available audience Measurement of how many different members of an audience will be exposed to a message Broadcast originating away from station control room Sound transmission; RF. Theme; aural logo, jingle, ID. Advertiser; client, account, underwriter Commercials; paid announcements Document containing specific operating information Field or on-scene reporter; freelance reporter Conversation and interview radio format Geographic area in radio survey

Media monitoring and analysis service– A firm that aggregates information gathered by traditional and social media content providers, using its software to compile and analyze that information – sometimes further refined by human analysts. The resulting media intelligence is packaged according to client specifications and delivered to those clients in a timely fashion, i.e., as close to real-time as possible. Organizations use this media intelligence to determine what is being said – positive or negative – about the organization itself, its

brand, or an issue that can affect it. Among other things, media monitoring and analysis can help organizations track publicity campaigns, discover the nature and extent of various social trends, and obtain insight on how media and other opinion leaders are responding to their products and messages. Prominence refers to the attention a story on an organization, brand, issue, message, etc. gets in the media. It can be measured by a number of factors that measure the quantity and quality of media coverage, including type of media, extent (of coverage), share of voice, story size or length, placement, media circulation or audience share, media relevance (to the organization's audience), story treatment, use of visuals, type of coverage, etc. Media type – the type of media – daily newspaper, blog, television station, community newspaper, business publication, etc. – covering the story. Scope – the geographical area the media reach, including national, provincial, regional, and specifically defined and selected areas. Share of voice – the organization's share of media attention in the total coverage of a product, issue, industry, cause, etc. This information can contribute to competitive intelligence studies. Story size/length – the space the story occupies in print media (half a page, 400 lines, a tiny mention, etc.), the time (10 seconds, one minute, etc.) devoted to it in broadcast media, and the space/time it earns in new media. Placement – where the story was placed in the media. In print, it could range from the front page to page 52 or in the sports or world news section. In broadcast, placement is where the story was aired in the newscast (lead story, story number five, etc.) In new media, it could refer to the space it occupies on a blog, the number of mentions on Twitter, etc. Circulation/share – the total number of copies of a publication delivered to print audiences (media circulation). Audience share is the percentage of listeners or viewers within a defined market of listeners/viewers who are tuned in to a broadcast outlet. For more information, see print circulation as well as listenership/viewership below. Media relevance – the criteria that determine the relevance of a specific medium to the organization's target audience. This can be assessed by how closely the composition of the media audience – demographics and/or psychographics – matches that of the organization's audience. Story treatment – how a story is treated in the media. It could be a cover story, a running story earning coverage day after day, a one-shot mention, or a story earning multiple mentions in one issue, one broadcast or one Twitter day. (See related articles) Use of visuals – information on the content and placement of such visuals as photographs Type of coverage – the context in which an item is presented in the media (news, opinion/commentary, community service, etc) It can be further

identified as an editorial, news story, blog post, news brief, bumper, letter to the editor, comment to a blog post, etc. Tone or sentiment measures how a person, group, organization, or issue is portrayed in the media. Tone is normally categorized as positive, neutral or negative, with various degrees of negative and positive tones. (Toning can be enhanced when a human analyst – able to recognize sarcasm, irony, and various human quirks – serves as a filter.) Message fidelity delivers information on how well the message conveyed by the media matched the message or messages the organization wanted to communicate. Content and nature of quotes – an amalgamation of what was said/printed in the media, who was quoted in the story, including the quotes themselves as well as the source – media, organizational spokesperson, and/or third party. Impact is determined by measuring how prominence is amplified by tone and/or message fidelity. For example, a positive front page story – with an accompanying large flattering photo and multiple spokesperson and third-party quotes delivering the desired messages – in a daily newspaper reaching an audience that matches that of the organization could be judged to have a high impact. While impact evaluation processes for social media are ever-evolving, one such measurement revolves around engagement. Engagement – a measurement of the nature and extent of audience engagement through two-way conversations, the sharing of information, and other interactions such as subscribership. Included in this measurement are such considerations as reach and tone delivered by blog posts and comments, link backs, tweets, and re-tweets. Audiences and measurement Demographics refers to the social and economic characteristics of a group of households or individuals. Commonly used demographics include age, gender, mother tongue, employment, and household income. Psychographics describe audiences through personality traits, interests, lifestyles, attitudes, etc. Reach refers to the number of audience members who potentially receive a message. Most reach measures use circulation/audience share figures. Frequency measures the number of times (within a specific period) an audience potentially receives a message. Impressions tally the total number of times the potential audience (including duplications) was exposed to a message within a specific period. This is calculated by multiplying the number of people who potentially received it (reach) by the number of times (frequency) they potentially were exposed to it. The use of the word "potential" is key as this type of measurement deals only with those who might have heard something – not with those who actually heard it, understood it, or acted upon it. Portable People Meters (PPMs) are pager-sized, rechargeable monitoring pods worn by respondents. When an audio code embedded in radio station signals is

detected, the unit captures the time of viewing. Tuning information is downloaded nightly to a central audience collection point. Listenership – data on listeners (radio) including the size of the cumulative audience, the number of listeners as a quarter-hour average, the average hours tuned by listeners, and the audience share in a particular market. This information is available by specific demographic groups (age, gender, etc.) Central area – a defined geographical area assigned to stations for reporting purposes. All stations in a market share the same central area. Full Coverage Area –includes all areas where respondents’ meters or diaries indicate listenership to a station. Stations in the same markets have different full coverage areas. Cumulative Audience (cumes) – the number of different people listening to a station for at least 15 minutes during a specified period of time (usually weekly) Central reach refers to the estimated number of different listeners within the central market area, while full coverage reach includes the estimated number of different viewers anywhere in the country. Quarter Hour Average – average number of listeners tuned to a station in any quarter hour in a given time period. It is determined by adding all the individual quarter hour audiences and dividing by the number of quarter hours involved. Average Minute Audience (AMA) – a ratings system, that provides information on the average number of listeners in this time period. Audience or Market Share – the percentage of those people listening to radio who are tuned to a particular station at a particular time • Individual station audience x 100 = Audience Share • Total Radio Audience Average Hours Tuned – average number of hours people listen to a station during a weekly period. It is determined by dividing the total number of hours tuned by the number of listeners. Metrics and analytics Metrics and analytics are terms used to describe measurements, evaluations, and interpretations of statistics and correlating them with business and public relations objectives. Some use the terms interchangeably while others use only one or the other. Some make a distinction between the two, using metrics for measurements of statistics and analytics for interpretation and analysis of those metrics, including the ultimate evaluation of whether or not outcome objectives were met. Content measures are evaluations of how content – facts, opinions, messages, etc. about an organization, issue, or topic – is accessed, adapted, shared, and amplified on a site or sites or across the web. Conversation measures study online conversations (tweets, blog posts and comments, link backs, etc.) related to an organization, issue, etc. The

conversation may be measured by quantity, tone/sentiment, message fidelity, etc. One such content measure is the conversation index or conversation rate, created by dividing the total number of posts by the number of relevant comments and trackbacks. Sometimes, this measurement evaluates the prominence and sphere of influence enjoyed by those participating in a relevant conversation. Some go even further, connecting those conversations to an organization's objectives relating to knowledge or awareness, attitudes towards the organization, and desired behaviors. Outcome measures are used to evaluate how content measures correlate with outcome objectives. Web Metrics Page views is a count of the number of times a page was viewed. This includes duplications. Traffic sources – how visitors get to a site or page on a site. They may arrive directly or through a referring site or search engine. Unique visits adds up the number of individual people who visited a site within a specified period of time used for reporting purposes. New visitors – the number of unique visitors who access any page on a site – via a web browser – for the first time Repeat visitors – the number of unique visitors who make two or more visits to a site. Return visitors – the number of unique visitors who return to a site after the initial visit. Visit duration – the length of time visitors spend on a page or a site. Conversation reach – the number of unique visitors who took part in a conversation. Tone/sentiment analysis is not included. Bounce rates – statistics on those visitors who remain on a site for five seconds or less or those who visit only one page of a site. Supplementary terms Advertising Value Equivalency (AVE) is the amount in dollars a story would cost if it appeared as paid advertising. It is determined by multiplying the size/length of the story by the advertising rate for the relevant publication or station. Benchmark refers to a point of reference for measuring coverage of an issue or campaign. It's a standard or yardstick used when measuring progress in a campaign. Clip count refers to the total number of stories that mention a client company, product or campaign.

Digital Rights Management (DRM) refers to access control methods that limit usage of digital content to protect publishers and copyright holders. Issue refers to any subject or topic that is being tracked and analyzed. For an issue to earn media coverage, it usually is a public issue, i.e., a problem, opportunity, question, or choice faced by or greatly affecting society or some segment of society. Omnibus issues monitoring/analysis is undertaken by a group of noncompeting organizations who share the cost of gathering media intelligence on a situation or issue. Related articles are those that relate to the main story. It may be a sidebar with a human interest angle, another (perhaps opposite) point of view, an editorial, etc. Syndicated issues tracking is a service provided to individual subscribers who all receive the same information on media coverage of a situation or issue.

COMMUNITY RADIO MONITORING HANDBOOK
I NTRODUCTION :
“One doesn’t have to be a Marxist to tell that large media conglomerates and transnational companies are disconnected from the lives of communities where they operate from. Worse still, the much talked about ‘Digital revolution’ in the contested topography of the ‘information society’ has resulted in new forms of cyber-capitalism and digital divides. Contrary to this, community radio provides a framework, not only to re-engage those communities which exist on the periphery, but also gives a chance for civic transformation, participatory democracy and mutuality. Community Radio is a counterpoise to the egotistical profit driven media accountable to their own 1 selves. ” Community radio is defined in the policy as ‘a medium that gives a voice to the voiceless, serves as mouthpiece of the marginalized and is central to communication and democratic processes within societies’2. Community Radio is generally a broadcasting system established by the efforts of a specific community, operated by the community for the purpose of the community’s welfare. It is, therefore, a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting content that is popular to a local audience and is often overlooked by commercial or mass-media broadcasters. Community radio stations serve the local community listeners by offering a variety of content that is not necessarily provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets often provide news and information programming geared toward the local area, particularly focusing on the marginalized groups such as religious or cultural minority groups that are poorly served by other major media outlets. The policy outlines the Community Radio as “A non-profit service will be in charge of ‘Community Radio’ broadcasting activities. It should be owned by a particular community, usually through a trust, foundation, or association. Its aim is to serve and benefit that community. It is, in effect, a from of public1

Saima Saeed, Community Radio: Policies, Power and Possibilities, Lecturer, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 2 Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy 2008

service broadcasting, but it serves a community rather than the whole nation, as is the usual form of public broadcasting described above. Moreover, it relies 3 and must rely mainly on the resources of the community. ”

C OMMUNITY

IN THE

C OMMUNITY R A DIO

A community is a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government and often have a common cultural and historical heritage. The term ‘community’ obscures many complexities. ‘Community has been defined in many different ways. Geographical definitions emphasize that a community is a group of people living in proximity within defined borders such as a village or neighborhood. Social psychological definitions emphasize that a community is defined less by presence in a particular physical space than by real or imagined commonalities of identity, aspiration and/or values.

•a community is a group of people living in proximity within defined borders such as a village or neighborhood

•a community is defined less by presence in a particular physical space than by real or imagined commonalities of identity, aspiration and/or values

•emphasize commonalities of culture, kinship, religious affinity, social structure and values, together with living in a particular place.

Geographical definitions

Social psychological definitions

Sociological and Anthropological definitions

Sociological and anthropological definitions emphasize commonalities of culture, kinship, religious affinity, social structure and values, together with living in a particular place. Within communities, there are important differences in status, wealth and power. In fact, the term ‘community’ often implies a level of homogeneity that does not exist. A community frequently consists of multiple subgroups that differ according to religion, socio-economic status and ethnicity and some groups may wield much more power and influence than others do. In such contexts, communities may decide to establish community radio that reduces the inequities that already exist within the community. Even if the groups include members of different sub-groups, their participation may be symbolic and their influence may be limited. Communities in Community Radio are often a contentious and tricky debate and will vary from country to country. Community may also often be replaced

3

Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy 2008

by a range of terms like "alternative", "radical", or "citizen" radio. Although traditionally in sociology, a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location, community radio is often built around concepts of access and participation and so the term community may be thought of as often referring to geographical communities based around the possible reach of the radio's signal, i.e. the people who can receive the message, and their potential to participate in the creation of such messages. This pose the challenge in defining the community appropriately for the fact that many community radio stations now broadcast over the internet as well, thereby reaching potentially global audiences and communities. According to the government policy “A ‘Community’ is considered to be a group of people who share common characteristics and/or interests such as sharing a single geographical location i.e. a specific town, village, or neighborhood; sharing of economic and social life through trade, marketing, exchange of goods and services.4”

M ODELS

OF

C OMMUNITY R ADIO

Philosophically two distinct approaches to community radio can be discerned, though the models are not necessarily mutually exclusive. • • One stresses service or community-mindedness, a focus on what the station can do for the community. The other stresses involvement and participation by the listener.

Within the service model localism is often prized, as community radio, as a third tier, can provide content focused on a more local or particular community than larger operations. Sometimes, though, the provision of syndicated content that is not already available within the station's service area is seen as a desirable form of service. Within the access or participatory model, the participation of community members in producing content is seen as a good in itself. While this model does not necessarily exclude a service approach, there is a tension between the two, as outlined, for example, in Jon Bekken's Community Radio at the Crossroads5. Community media, according to Kevin Howley , are distinguished from their commercial and public service counterparts in three fundamental ways. First, community media provide local populations with access to the instruments of media production and distribution. Second, the organizational culture of community media stresses volunteerism over professionalism and promotes participatory management, governance and decision-making. Third, and perhaps most significantly, community media reject market-oriented approaches to communicative practices and are philosophically committed to
6

4 5

Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy 2008 Bekken, Jon. "Community Radio at the Crossroads: Federal Policy and the Professionalization of a Grassroots Medium" in Sakolsky, Ron and S. Dunifer (eds.) Seizing the Airwaves: A Free Radio Handbook. 6 Howley, K. (2002) Communication, Culture and Community: Towards A Cultural Analysis of Community Media. The Qualitative Report, Volume 7, Number 3

nurturing mutually supportive, collaborative, and enduring communal relations7. In sum, community media play a vital, though largely unacknowledged role in preserving democratic forms of communication, defending local cultural autonomy, promoting civil society, and rebuilding a sense of community. Community media as a development device

R OLE

OF

C OMMUNITY R ADIO

Community radio is primarily an alternative media that can act as a countervailing force to the politically motivated state media and profit-motive corporate media. Community radio facilitates the empowerment of people with their active participation in the process and not merely as passive listeners. Community radio promotes people’s agenda first such as local knowledge, cultures, human rights and social justice, environmental issues and community problems as well as the issues related to development, community radio can raise voices against human rights violation, oppression, promote human rights situation, the practice of democracy and promote improved governance through transparent and accountable relation building among citizens and in the society. Therefore, community radio helps create knowledge, preserve knowledge, disseminate knowledge and apply knowledge for the advancement of the community. It helps build a knowledge society, establishes human rights, empowers community to raise voices and develop a pluralistic society.8

•Knowledge Society
Knowledge Creation Knowledge Preservation

•Pluralism

•Human Rights

Knowledge Utilization

Knowledge Dissemination

•Community Empowerment

C OMMUNITY R ADIO AND OTHER MEDIA
Globally there are three tier radio systems, i.e. 1. 2. Public Service Broadcasting Commercial Broadcasting

Devine, R. H. (1991) Marginal notes: Consumer video, the first amendment and the future of access. Community Television Review, 14(2), 8-11. 8 A form of society which is made up of people from different ethnic, religious and cultural backgrounds, a society which embraces minority groups and is tolerant towards them

7

3.

Community Broadcasting

Public service broadcasting usually public sector broadcast system aimed for publicity of the government. It covers national issues according to government’s priority. The peripheral or rural people eventually ignored in this kind of media. A nationwide consensus building or reconstruction of public consent is being propagated by public service broadcast. In commercial broadcasting system profit is the ultimate goal. Enterprises established radio for earning money by advertisement. So, the outreach becomes more isolated and peripheral. Community radio is a broadcast system owned, operated and broadcast by the community people. CR covers local issues. National and international issues also cover in line with community interests. It creates an environment of promoting local knowledge, cultural heritage, custom, practice and values. Usually low power FM transmitters used for broadcasting in CR for the specific area. Community motivation and participation are two powerful things which make CR different from traditional media system.

D IFFERENC E R ADIOS

B ETW EEN

C OMMUNITY R ADI O

AND O THER

The differences of community radio and other radio can be made on the basis of the following criteria9:

Approach

Ownership

Audience

Responsibility

Style

Goal

Therefore, using the criteria the following can be determined:

Basis of Comparison
Approach Ownership Audience Responsibility Style Goal

Community Radio
Participatory Collective Active/Participant Towards Society Natural/informal Collective Welfare

Commercial Radio
Market Driven Private Carefree Towards Owners Artificial Profit

Government Radio
Bureaucratic Government Passive Towards Government Formal Propaganda

9

Ref: Radio Pledge, Mr. Raghu Mainali

These criteria make the monitoring framework of a community radio quite different that other radio.

P URPOSE F OR A M ONI TORING H AN DBOO K F OR C OMMUNITY R ADIO
Community Radio is a new media in Bangladesh context. This is the first time in history, a community driven broadcasting system is about to air programs which contain voices of the voiceless people. There is a mind-set that media should be monitored to make it accountable or controlled. In case of CR, the intention is not putting control over its operation but to ensure its effective operation. The monitoring framework is aimed to assist CR from the beginning to be an effective medium for community people as mentioned in the policy. A handbook of monitoring is needed to address issues related license, establishment, planning, operation, content management, production, broadcast and evaluation. Community people don’t have practical knowledge and expertise for operating CR in this moment. A practical guideline could help them for smooth operation on CR station. On the supply side, this handbook will cover issues related to efficient role-play of the policy maker and implementer as well. Monitoring and evaluation are important for two main reasons. For learning and development • Help assess how well interventions are doing and help make it better. It is about asking what has happened and why, what is and what is not working. It is about using evaluation to learn more about an organization’s activities, and then using what has been learnt. For accountability - to show others that the interventions are effective Funders and other sponsors want to know whether a project has spent its money in the right way. There is pressure from funders to provide them with ‘proof’ of success. Many projects have to respond to this demand in order to survive.

• • •

O BJECTIV E

OF THE

CR M O NITORING H AN D B OOK

Community Radio Monitoring Handbook will address both the issues for stakeholders and policy implementer. In the same time it will consider the general audience for ensuring more listener-focused broadcasting system. CR initiators are getting preparation for establishing stations. The proposed handbook will offer the ground rules for fair play. Editorial guidelines, ethics, aesthetic, national interests, development agenda, local issues, national integration, code of conducts and many more issues are there to consider before starting CR station. A comprehensive work plan is required to prepare beforehand. The handbook could be a guiding force for initiators, government and general audience as well.

WHAT IS MONITORING AND EVALUATION?
The term monitoring is primarily used for collecting information to help answer questions about progress of activity or program. It is a planned, organised and a routine process to understand and appreciate the activity or project more concretely and help evaluate its performance and provide constructive feedback for improvement. On the other hand, the term evaluation is primarily used for applying the monitoring information to make judgments about activity or program and make changes and improvements. The OECD (2002a) defines monitoring and evaluation as follows:
Monitoring is a continuous function that uses the systematic collection of data on specified indicators to provide management and the main stakeholders of an ongoing development intervention with indications of the extent of progress and achievement of objectives and progress in the use of allocated funds. Evaluation is the systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed project, program, or policy, including its design, implementation, and results. The aim is to determine the relevance and fulfillment of objectives, development efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability. An evaluation should provide information that is credible and useful, enabling the incorporation of lessons learned into the decisionmaking process of both recipients and donors.

It is evident that both monitoring and evaluation are distinct yet complementary. Monitoring gives information on where a policy, program, or project is at any given time (and over time) relative to respective targets and outcomes. It is descriptive in intent. Evaluation gives evidence of why policies, targets and outcomes are or are not being achieved. It seeks to address issues of causality. Of particular emphasis here is the expansion of the traditional M&E function to focus explicitly on compliance, outcomes and impacts of community radio. Evaluation is a complement to monitoring in that when a monitoring system sends signals that the efforts are going off track (for example, that the target population is not approving the services, that policy compliance are meeting standards, that there is weakness in operation and management as agreed upon, and so forth), then good evaluative information can help clarify the realities and trends noted with the monitoring system. For example, If performance information is presented by itself (in isolation) without the context and benefit of program evaluation, there is a danger of program managers, regulators, legislators... and

others drawing incorrect conclusions regarding the cause of improvements or declines in certain measures. Simply looking at trend data usually cannot tell us how effective the program interventions are.

C OM P LEM ENT AR Y R OLES
Monitoring Clarifies program objectives

OF

M ONI T OR I NG
Evaluation

A ND

E VA LU A T I ON

Links activities and their resources to objectives Translates objectives into performance indicators and sets targets Routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets Reports progress to managers and alerts them to problems

Analyzes why intended results were or were not achieved Assesses specific causal contributions of activities to results Examines implementation process Explores unintended results Provides lessons, highlights significant accomplishment or program potential, and offers recommendations for improvement

Evaluation, therefore, can be defined as an assessment, as systematic and objective as possible, of a planned, ongoing, or completed intervention. The aim is to determine the relevance of objectives, efficiency, effectiveness, impact, and sustainability so as to incorporate lessons learned into the decision-making process. Specifically, this kind of evaluation addresses: “why” questions, that is, what caused the changes being monitored; “how” questions, or what was the sequence or process that led to successful (or unsuccessful) outcomes; and “compliance and accountability” questions, that is, did the promised activities actually take place and as planned? The monitoring without the intervention framework or logic does not provide required information for decision-making. Therefore, it is important to understand the intervention logic – its goal, outcome, output, activities and inputs. The following diagram provides an overview of a typical program intervention logic of a CR.

Goal
Improve livlihood and quality of life of rural people through knowledge and inforamtion

Outcome
Improved level of awanress on development issues, rights, and services

Outputs
Updates of Community Development Accessing Government services Knowledge about rights Increased access to services Increased income Increased quality of life

Activities
Launch radio campaign to educate community Link service providers with the community

Inputs
Station Management Information collection Responsible Broadcasting Funds Community Participants

The above intervention logic can now become the framework for monitoring and evaluation and provide information as to where the problem originated and how it has impacted the overall performance of the intervention.

M ONITORING C OMMUNITY R ADIOS
For monitoring the community radio, the Community Radio Policy (CRP) will become the primary guiding tool. Along with the CRP, the other broadcast related laws, policies and directives can also become useful in the monitoring mechanism. To monitor the CRs, it is important to categorize and understand the functions of CR that they are expected to do. Based on the CR Policy, the following broad categories of functions can be determined:

F UNCTIONS
Regulatory Function •Roles which must be carried out under policy

OF

C OMMUNITY R A DIO
Optional Function •Roles which may be carried out for improved performance, but are not legally bound

Obligatory Function •Roles which must be carried out under legal, social and moral conditions

As per the community radio policy, the total responsibilities and functions performed by a Community Radio Initiator are about 44. These functions can be broadly categorized under three major heads • Compulsory Functions

• • 1.

Transferred Function Optional Functions Compulsory Functions: are the functions that a CR must carry out and reports to the relevant authority. There are 5 compulsory Functions: i. Regulatory responsibilities a. Technical responsibilities b. Broadcasting responsibility Operational functions: According to the regulation, CRs form community committees, hold regular meetings, fix up rules & regulation and conditions of their roles Revenue and Administration functions: Help CR to collect revenue, keep records, collect and maintenance information. Also help CR employee who is responsible for the same. Community Development functions: CRs are responsible for social, cultural, economic and political development

ii.

iii.

iv.

2.

3.

Transferred Functions: are the functions that a CR is given by authorities on special occasions. These functions become Compulsory functions when assigned such as broadcasting, relaying or rebroadcast nationally important and relevant programs of Bangladesh Betar (Radio) including Special program such as address of the president, prime minister, special program of national days celebrations and weather bulletin. Optional Functions: are the functions that are performed by the CR initiators to improve their operation and achieving the overall goal of the CR and community development such as broadcasting issues on children or women issues,

CR M O NITORING F RAMEWORK (CRMF)
The monitoring and performance framework, performance goals and indicators of CR programs can be reviewed on the basis of the knowledge and information demand and supply status of a community or a community radio operation • • • Overall ‘knowledge and information’ application area Knowledge and information suppliers (CR Initiator), Knowledge and information customers (Community)

Each category can be matched with the overall goal that program interventions are trying to achieve: • • • • • Outreach or scale: number of community people reached Access: the effort to provide services to people not served by existing media; Sustainability: CR knowledge and information provider (CR Initiators) Efficiency: cost-effectiveness of program activities Benefits: Impact on Community

CR Initiator
Government/ Regulatory Authorities
Service delivery & change in operational practice Increase in service availability and quality to beneficiaries

Targeted Community
Increase in use and benefits derived from the services received Improved quality of life and livelihood performance

Improved economic and social conditions

Program strategies, rationale, and targets will be the primary focus

The primary focus will on the penetration, interventions, quality of service, outreach, access, volume of service

Income, employment, satisfaction, growth of economic ventures, quality of life, health, education, etc

Employment, growth of business, literacy rate, gender issues, supply chain, etc

T HE D ESI GN S YSTEM

OF THE

C OMMUNITY R ADIO M ONI TORING

The design is the important and critical element in the monitoring mechanism. The primary design of the community radio is provided by the government in the community radio guideline. A good monitoring system would have the following elements:

Agreeing on Outcomes to Monitor and Evaluate

Selecting Key Indicators to Monitor Outcomes

Baseline Data on Indicators

Planning for Improvement Selecting Results Targets

Monitoring for Improvements

The Role of Evaluations

Reporting Findings

Using Findings

Sustaining the M&E System

S TEPS

OF

M O NITORING
of CR station, the initiator or representative of the to apply for license. The eligibility criterion, technical selection, priority of content, management process, planning and production, quality participation of

Before establishment community is obliged specification, content operation, program

community, accountability to the listener, financial management, human resource management, impact of broadcasting, these are few issues should prioritized logically. The steps of monitoring will differ from user specific needs. Initially there are two sets of users. They are demand side users and another is supply side user. Monitoring steps will be designed for each group and subgroups.

T H E FI VE - S T E P AP P R OAC H T O M ONI T OR I NG A ND E VA LU A T I ON
The community radio regulator as well as the initiators has to be clear about what they are trying to achieve and need to develop specific aims and objectives. This is increasingly important for government, other agencies and for community people. There are many approaches to evaluation. The approach this handbook describes is a model of self-evaluation that recognizes this emphasis on aims and objectives.

M AIN S TAKEHOLDERS

IN

M ONITORIN G

Demand Side
Ministry of Information National Regulatory Committee Technical Sub-committee Central Monitoring Committee Local Police Station CSO/ Community/ NGO Community

Supply Side
CR Management Committee Local Advisory Committee CR Station Initiator

D E M A ND S I DE
1. MoI and three committees a. National regulatory Committee b. Technical Sub-committee c. Central Monitoring Committee Local Police Station CSO/ Community/ NGO Community

2. 3. 4.

S U P P LY S I DE

1. 2. 3.

CR Management Committee Local Advisory Committee CR Station Initiator

Supply Side Demand Side
Ministry of Information National Regulatory Committee Technical Sub-committee Central Monitoring Committee Local Police Station CSO/ NGO Community People

CR Management Committee ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑

Local Advisory Committee ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑

CR Station Initiator ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑ ☑

T HE M ONITORING C RITERIA
The Community Radio Policy of Bangladesh is quite extensive and covers almost all the issues of technical, administrative, operational aspects of Community Radio. Although, it may be argued that if such a comprehensive policy is at all required at the nascent stage, however, the policy can effectively help shape the growth of community radio in Bangladesh and help achieve the objectives more effectively and efficiently.

The following monitoring criteria has been developed based on the Community Radio Policy to effectively understand the
Policy Compliance Section 5.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Compliance Issues • Coverage of the Community Radio Station will for a range of 17 km from its centre. • Maximum limit for transmitter power could be 100 watts. • Keeping the antenna tower’s height from ground to 32 meters subject to local geological and social conditions • Keeping the antenna gain under 6 DB Allocation of Frequency in FM band as per National Frequency Allocation Plan Who • BTRC • Technical Sub Committee • Vendor • BTRC • Technical Sub Committee • Vendor • BTRC • Technical Sub Committee When Quarterly Format Policy

Section 5.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Quarterly

Policy

Section 5.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008

During frequency allocation Quarterly Quarterly

Section 6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Program broadcast content Promoting equity and social justice with special priority to the marginalized communities in terms of their race, caste, religion, physical disability and gender Ensuring capacity building for and within the community through formal and / or informal training as required Evaluating (mid-term and at final) CR operation during the two year pilot phase stage of CR operation

• • • •

Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

National Frequency Allocation Plan Format-1 Format-1,2

Section 7.2.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee

Quarterly

Format

Yearly

Section 7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.5 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Non-Transferability of CR license • Sharing of programs among different Community Radio Station • Relayed or re-broadcast nationally important and relevant programs of Bangladesh Betar (Radio) including Special program such as address of the president, prime minister, special program of national days celebrations and weather bulletin • Program contents of the community radio broadcast service • Reflecting the program contents to serve the special interests of the community • Ensuring community peoples’ inclusion from the point of participation, choice and sharing. • Ensuring the participation of community people in program planning, implementing, operating and evaluating Developing plans to facilitate and promote community participation Broadcasting speeches of government officials at upazilla level on development issues and policies Developing specific program set through community participation on local information, events and notifications, local culture, identity, and local language Reflecting local culture in program broadcast format, subject, presentation and language of programs Broadcasting of local development news without political bias Broadcasting of advertisements/ commercials related to development services, relevant and limited to the specified area Ensuring no influence of sponsors on the content or the style of individual programs or the overall programming of the Community Radio Station and its code of conduct Complying the existing government regulations for commercials Regulating or monitoring the activities of any community radio station by any Government authority • Providing quarterly report to the ministry of information • Preservation of records of broadcasted programs during the piloting phase Inspecting right of the Government or its authorized representative regarding: • The broadcast • Community Radio Station setup facilities • Collecting information in connection to public and community interests The right of the Government to take over the entire Community Radio Station, service and network possessed by the licensee or revoke/ terminate/ suspend/ punish the license in the interest of national security or in the event of national emergency/ war or low intensity conflict or in any similar type of situations • The final and conclusiveness of the Government’s decision. • The power of the Government to direct the licensee to broadcast any special message as may be considered desirable to meet any contingency arising out of natural emergency, or public interest or natural disaster and the like • The obligation of the licensee to comply with such directions Submitting audited annual accounts and annual report to the Government Consequences of failing to commission services within the instructed period

• Advisory Committee BTRC • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee Monthly Format-1

Section 7.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-1

Section 7.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-2

Section 7.7.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.8 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • • • •

Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

Monthly Monthly Monthly

Format-2 Format-1 Format-1

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • • • • Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-1

Monthly Monthly

Format-1 Format-4

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-4

Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.10 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.11 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • • • •

Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

Monthly Monthly Monthly

Section 7.12 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Section 7.13 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Anytime

Section 7.14 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Anytime

Section 7.15 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.16 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • •

Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee National Regulatory Committee Central Monitoring Committee

Yearly

Section 7.17 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 7.18 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.19 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.20 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Initiatives of Government to create a Community Radio Development Fund as supplement for the community broadcaster’s own resources, capacity building, improvement in quality of technology, research & evaluation purpose, etc Complying with all conditions decided by BTRC for the use of frequency and radio equipment Non-use of tower by the private telephone operators • Arranging overall security of the station with armed Ansars through own funding • Submitting monthly report to the Government stating if any anti-state broadcasting have been carried out by the in-charge of concerned police station The rights of the government to modify any rules or regulations stated in the policy in support of public welfare or for appropriate broadcasting or for public security The rights of the Government to revoke the license at any time in public interest or in case of violation of the terms and conditions provided Submission of recordings of broadcasted programs of community radio station to the local authority prescribed by the Government every month • Formation of a local advisory committee under the UNO, Officer-In-Charge of local police stations, and Regional director of local Radio station, Principal of locally situated education institution • The monitoring the community radio station activities on a regular basis by the committee • Submission a confidential report to the Ministry of Information every month by the committee. Providing suggestions based on the strengths and weaknesses of the community radio station broadcasting by the advisory committee Encouraging the participation of upazila level government officials in the community radio programs by the advisory committee Encouragement of producing development advertisements / government advertisements through community radio by the advisory committee Provide necessary counseling service to improve the quality of programs by the advisory committee Supervision of the overall operation related to Community Radio and shall inform the Ministry on a regular basis

MoI

BTRC • • • • Central Monitoring Committee BTRC Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

Section 7.21 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• National Regulatory Committee

Section 7.22 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• National Regulatory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Section 8.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.5 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • • • • Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

5.
Policy Compliance Section 6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Compliance Issues

Local Advisory Committee
Who • • • • Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee When Format

Program broadcast content Promoting equity and social justice with special priority to the marginalized communities in terms of their race, caste, religion, physical disability and gender Ensuring capacity building for and within the community through formal and / or informal training as required Evaluating (mid-term and at final) CR operation during the two year pilot phase stage evaluation of CR operation Non-Transferability of CR license • Sharing of programs among different Community Radio Station • Relayed or re-broadcast nationally important and relevant programs of Bangladesh Betar (Radio) including Special program such as address of the president, prime minister, special program of

Section 7.2.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.5 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • • • • Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

Section 7.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 7.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 7.7.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.8 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

national days celebrations and weather bulletin • Program contents of the community radio broadcast service • Reflecting the program contents to serve the special interests of the community • Ensuring community peoples’ inclusion from the point of participation, choice and sharing. • Ensuring the participation of community people in program planning, implementing, operating and evaluating Developing plans to facilitate and promote community participation Broadcasting speeches of government officials at upazilla level on development issues and policies Developing specific program set through community participation on local information, events and notifications, local culture, identity, and local language Reflecting local culture in program broadcast format, subject, presentation and language of programs Broadcasting of local development news without political bias Broadcasting of advertisements/ commercials related to development services, relevant and limited to the specified area Ensuring no influence of sponsors on the content or the style of individual programs or the overall programming of the Community Radio Station and its code of conduct Complying the existing government regulations for commercials Regulating or monitoring the activities of any community radio station by any Government authority • Providing quarterly report to the ministry of information • Preservation of records of broadcasted programs during the piloting phase Inspecting right of the Government or its authorized representative regarding: • The broadcast • Community Radio Station setup facilities • Collecting information in connection to public and community interests The right of the Government to take over the entire Community Radio Station service and network possessed by the licensee or revoke/ terminate/ suspend/ punish the license in the interest of national security or in the event of national emergency/ war or low intensity conflict or in any similar type of situations • The final and conclusiveness of the Government’s decision. • The power of the Government to direct the licensee to broadcast any special message as may be considered desirable to meet any contingency arising out of natural emergency, or public interest or natural disaster and the like • The obligation of the licensee to comply with such directions Submitting audited annual accounts and annual report to the Government Consequences of failing to commission services within the instructed period Initiatives of Government to create a Community Radio Development Fund as supplement for the community broadcaster’s own resources, capacity building, improvement in quality of technology, research & evaluation purpose, etc Complying with all conditions decided by BTRC for the use of frequency and radio equipment Non-use of tower by the private telephone operators

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

• • • • • •

Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • • • • Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.10 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.11 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • • • •

Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

Section 7.12 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Section 7.13 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Section 7.14 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Section 7.15 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.16 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.17 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • • • •

Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

Section 7.18 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.19 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee

Section 7.20 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 7.21 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 7.22 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 8.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 8.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.5 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Arranging overall security of the station with armed Ansars through own funding • Submitting monthly report to the Government stating if any anti-state broadcasting have been carried out by the in-charge of concerned police station The rights of the government to modify any rules or regulations stated in the policy in support of public welfare or for appropriate broadcasting or for public security The rights of the Government to revoke the license at any time in public interest or in case of violation of the terms and conditions provided Submission of recordings of broadcasted programs of community radio station to the local authority prescribed by the Government every month • Formation of a local advisory committee under the UNO, Officer-In-Charge of local police stations, and Regional director of local Radio station, Principal of locally situated education institution • The monitoring the community radio station activities on a regular basis by the committee • Submission a confidential report to the Ministry of Information every month by the committee. Providing suggestions based on the strengths and weaknesses of the community radio station broadcasting by the advisory committee Encouraging the participation of upazila level government officials in the community radio programs by the advisory committee Encouragement of producing development advertisements / government advertisements through community radio by the advisory committee Provide necessary counseling service to improve the quality of programs by the advisory committee Supervision of the overall operation related to Community Radio and shall inform the Ministry on a regular basis

• Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee • • • • Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee Central Monitoring Committee Advisory Committee

6.
Policy Compliance Section 7.20 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Compliance Issues

Local Police Station
Who When Format

Section 8.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.5 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.7 of CRIBO Policy

• Submitting monthly report to the Government stating if any anti-state broadcasting have been carried out by the in-charge of concerned police station • Formation of a local advisory committee under the UNO, Officer-In-Charge of local police stations, and Regional director of local Radio station, Principal of locally situated education institution • The monitoring the community radio station activities on a regular basis by the committee • Submission a confidential report to the Ministry of Information every month by the committee. Providing suggestions based on the strengths and weaknesses of the community radio station broadcasting by the advisory committee Encouraging the participation of upazila level government officials in the community radio programs by the advisory committee Encouragement of producing development advertisements / government advertisements through community radio by the advisory committee Provide necessary counseling service to improve the quality of programs by the advisory committee Supervision of the overall operation related to Community Radio and shall inform the Ministry on a

• Local Police Station

• Local Police Station

• Local Police Station

• Local Police Station

• Local Police Station

• Local Police Station

• Local Police Station

2008

regular basis

S U P P LY S I DE :
7.
Policy Compliance Section 6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Compliance Issues Program broadcast content

CR Management Committee
Who • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee When Format

Section 7.7.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.8 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.11 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.15 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.16 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.18 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.19 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.20 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.1 of

Promoting equity and social justice with special priority to the marginalized communities in terms of their race, caste, religion, physical disability and gender Ensuring capacity building for and within the community through formal and / or informal training as required • Program contents of the community radio broadcast service • Reflecting the program contents to serve the special interests of the community • Ensuring community peoples’ inclusion from the point of participation, choice and sharing. • Ensuring the participation of community people in program planning, implementing, operating and evaluating Developing plans to facilitate and promote community participation Broadcasting speeches of government officials at upazilla level on development issues and policies Developing specific program set through community participation on local information, events and notifications, local culture, identity, and local language Reflecting local culture in program broadcast format, subject, presentation and language of programs Broadcasting of local development news without political bias Broadcasting of advertisements/ commercials related to development services, relevant and limited to the specified area Ensuring no influence of sponsors on the content or the style of individual programs or the overall programming of the Community Radio Station and its code of conduct Complying the existing government regulations for commercials • Providing quarterly report to the ministry of information • Preservation of records of broadcasted programs during the piloting phase Submitting audited annual accounts and annual report to the Government Consequences of failing to commission services within the instructed period Complying with all conditions decided by BTRC for the use of frequency and radio equipment Non-use of tower by the private telephone operators

• CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee

• CR Management Committee

• CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee

• CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee

• CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management

• Arranging overall security of the station with armed Ansers through own funding Submission of recordings of broadcasted programs of

CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

community radio station to the local authority prescribed by the Government every month • The monitoring the community radio station activities on a regular basis by the committee Providing suggestions based on the strengths and weaknesses of the community radio station broadcasting to the advisory committee Encouraging the participation of upazila level government officials in the community radio programs Encouragement of producing development advertisements / government advertisements through community radio Provide necessary counseling service to improve the quality of programs Supervision of the overall operation related to Community Radio

Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee • CR Management Committee

8.
Policy Compliance Section 6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.5 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Compliance Issues

CR Station/Initiator
How • CR Station/Initiator When Format

Program broadcast content

Promoting equity and social justice with special priority to the marginalized communities in terms of their race, caste, religion, physical disability and gender Ensuring capacity building for and within the community through formal and / or informal training as required Evaluating (Mid-term and at final) CR operation during the two year pilot phase stage evaluation of CR operation Non-Transferability of CR license

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

Section 7.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Section 7.7.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.8 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Sharing of programs among different Community Radio Station • Relayed or re-broadcast nationally important and relevant programs of Bangladesh Betar (Radio) including Special program such as address of the president, prime minister, special program of national days celebrations and weather bulletin • Program contents of the community radio broadcast service • Reflecting the program contents to serve the special interests of the community • Ensuring community peoples’ inclusion from the point of participation, choice and sharing. • Ensuring the participation of community people in program planning, implementing, operating and evaluating Developing plans to facilitate and promote community participation Broadcasting speeches of government officials at upazilla level on development issues and policies Developing specific program set through community participation on local information, events and notifications, local culture, identity, and local language Reflecting local culture in program broadcast format, subject, presentation and language of programs Broadcasting of local development news without political bias Broadcasting of advertisements/ commercials related to development services, relevant and limited to the specified area

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.11 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.15 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.16 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.18 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.19 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.20 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 8.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Ensuring no influence of sponsors on the content or the style of individual programs or the overall programming of the Community Radio Station and its code of conduct Complying the existing government regulations for commercials • Providing quarterly report to the ministry of information • Preservation of records of broadcasted programs during the piloting phase Submitting audited annual accounts and annual report to the Government Consequences of failing to commission services within the instructed period Complying with all conditions decided by BTRC for the use of frequency and radio equipment Non-use of tower by the private telephone operators

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• Arranging overall security of the station with armed Ansers through own funding Submission of recordings of broadcasted programs of community radio station to the local authority prescribed by the Government every month • Formation of a local advisory committee under the UNO, Officer-In-Charge of local police stations, and Regional director of local Radio station, Principal of locally situated education institution Providing suggestions based on the strengths and weaknesses of the community radio station broadcasting to the advisory committee

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

• CR Station/Initiator

9.
Policy Compliance Section 6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.2.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Compliance Issues

CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club
Who • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club When Format

Program broadcast content

Section 7.7.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Promoting equity and social justice with special priority to the marginalized communities in terms of their race, caste, religion, physical disability and gender Ensuring capacity building for and within the community through formal and / or informal training as required Evaluating (Mid-term and at final) CR operation during the two year pilot phase stage evaluation of CR operation • Program contents of the community radio broadcast service • Reflecting the program contents to serve the special interests of the community • Ensuring community peoples’ inclusion from the point of participation, choice and sharing. • Ensuring the participation of community people in program planning, implementing, operating and evaluating Developing plans to facilitate and promote community participation Broadcasting speeches of government officials at upazilla level on development issues and policies Developing specific program set through community participation on local information, events and notifications, local culture, identity, and local language

• CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club

• CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club

• CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club

Section 7.7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.8 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008 Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Reflecting local culture in program broadcast format, subject, presentation and language of programs Broadcasting of local development news without political bias Broadcasting of advertisements/ commercials related to development services, relevant and limited to the specified area Ensuring no influence of sponsors on the content or the style of individual programs or the overall programming of the Community Radio Station and its code of conduct Providing suggestions based on the needs and expectations of the local community for program broadcasting Encouraging the participation of civil society in the community radio programs Encouraging of producing development public service announcements through community radio by the advisory committee

• CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club

• CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club • CSO/Community/NGO, Listeners Club

CONCLUSIONS
A PPLICATIONS
OF

M&E

The M&E systems can be used to monitor and evaluate at all levels of intervention as well as at operational, management and policy levels. The required information and data can be collected and analyzed at any and all levels to provide feedback at many points in time. The information can be used to better inform key regulators, decision-makers, the general public, the initiators, and other stakeholders.

I NT ER NA L

A ND

E X T ER NA L A P P LI C AT I ONS

M&E can also be conducted at local, regional, and national levels. So whether one thinks of M&E in relation to levels of administrative complexity (project to program to policy) or geographically, the applications are evident - though they need not be identical. Again, the specific indicators may necessarily be different, as the stakeholders’ needs for information will also be different for each level of government and civil society.

K NOW LEDGE C A P I T A L
Good M&E systems are a source of knowledge capital. They enable governments and other organizations to develop a knowledge base of the types of projects, programs, and policies that are successful, and, more generally, what works, what does not, and why. M&E systems provide continuous feedback in the management process of monitoring and evaluating progress toward a given goal. In this context, they promote organizational learning.

T R A NS P AR ENC Y

A ND

A C C OU NT A BI LI T Y

M&E systems aid in promoting greater transparency and accountability within implementing organizations, governments and the community in general. External and internal stakeholders can have a clearer sense of the status of intervention, projects, programs, and policies. The ability to demonstrate positive results can also help garner greater political and popular community support.

C HALLENGES
M&E systems can be built on a number of models; however, generally what are often missed are the complexities of the wider context. The design, creation, and use of M&E systems generally place too little emphasis on existing political, organizational, cultural and often technological factors and contexts. The tendency is to start by jumping straight into building a M&E system - without even knowing where a given situation stands in relation to a number of critical factors, including organizational roles, responsibilities, and capabilities;

incentives and demands for such a system; ability of an organization to sustain systems; and so forth.

T HR EE M A I N P A R T S

OF T HE

R EA DI NES S
FOR

1. I N C E N T I V E S A N D D E M A N D S M &E S Y S T E M

DESIG NI NG

A ND

BUI LDI NG

It is important to determine whether incentives exist - political, institutional, or personal - before beginning to design and build M&E system. The demand would dictate the design of the monitoring system The following can identify the demand and the related incentives for designing the monitoring: 1. What is driving the need for building the M&E system - legislative or legal requirements, citizen demand, donor requirements (National Development Plan, National Poverty Reduction Strategy, MDG, or others? Who are the designers and users of the system - government, parliament, civil society, donors, others? What is motivating the designers to build the system - a political reform agenda, pressures from donors, a personal political agenda, or political directive? Who will benefit from the system - politicians, administrators, civil society, donors, citizens? Who will not benefit from building the system - politicians, administrators, civil society, donors, citizens? Are there counterreformers inside or outside the system?
AND

2. 3.

4. 5.

2. R O L E S A N D R E S P O N S I B I L I T I E S FOR ASS ESSI NG Performance of Community Radio

E XIS TING STR UC TUR ES

The readiness assessment will enable one to gauge the roles and responsibilities and existing structures available to monitor and evaluate development goals. • What are the roles of central and line ministries in assessing performance? • What is the role of parliament? • What is the role of the regulatory agency? • Do ministries and agencies share information with one another? • Is there a political agenda behind the data produced? • What is the role of civil society? • Who in the country produces data? - At the national government level, including central ministries, line ministries, specialized units or offices, including the national audit office - At the sub-national or regional government level, including provincial central and line ministries, local government, NGOs, donors, and others • Where in the government are data used?

-

Budget preparation Resource allocation Program policymaking Legislation and accountability to parliament Planning Fiscal management Evaluation and oversight.

3. C A P A C I T Y B U I L D I N G R E Q U I R E M E N T S

FOR TH E

SYSTEM

The readiness assessment generally reviews of the current capacity to monitor and evaluate along the following dimensions: • • • • • • Technical skills Managerial skills Existence and quality of data systems Available technology Available fiscal resources Institutional experience

This is an important part of the assessment in emerging intervention, because it can help identify any gaps in capacity needed to build and sustain the monitoring systems. Such an assessment can direct one to examine existing or possible barriers to building the monitoring system, including a lack of fiscal resources, political will, political champion, expertise, strategy, or prior experience. A number of key questions can be considered in this regard: • What are the skills of oversight and monitoring committees in the local and national level in each of the following areas: - Community Radio project and program management - Monitoring data analysis - Community Radio goal establishment - Monitoring budget management - Community Radio performance monitoring and evaluation? Is there any technical assistance, capacity building, or training, orientation in community radio and monitoring and evaluation provided at any level (national, regional, or local)? Who can provided this help and under what framework or reform process? Are there any organizations that have been identified to provide such technical assistance and training orientation for committee members and others in performance-based monitoring and evaluation particularly for community radio?

• •

Now we will build on this material and explore the eight key areas covered by a readiness assessment in more detail.

RECOMMENDATION
S AMPLE C ODE OF C ONDUCT
Internal Operational Plan/List of Document for CR station: • Advertisement policy • Gender policy • HR policy • Financial policy • Editorial guideline • Archiving policy • Green policy • Business plan • Strategic plan (short and long) • Flow-chart (compliance) • Feedback • Baseline before starting CR station, community participation, PR policy, etc

ANNEX
M ONITORING F ORMATS

Section 6 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Program broadcast content

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Quarterly

Format-1

• • • • • • •

• • • • •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others
Promoting equity and social justice with special priority to the marginalized communities in terms of their race, caste, religion, physical disability and gender • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee Quarterly Format-1,2

Section 7.2.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • • • • •

• • •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer:

• • •

• •

Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others Program Consultation with community: Date: Participants: Demography: Program Planning and Evaluation meeting with community participation Date and Time: List of Participants:
Ensuring capacity building for and within the community through formal and / or informal training as required • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee Quarterly Format

Section 7.2.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • • •

Orientation and capacity building program: Date and Time: List of Participants: Venue: Resource Persons:

Section 7.5 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Sharing of programs among different Community Radio Station • Relayed or re-broadcast nationally important and relevant programs of Bangladesh Betar (Radio) including Special program such as address of the president, prime minister, special program of national days celebrations and weather bulletin

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-1

• • • • • • •

• • • • • •

• •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others Program Consultation with community: Date: Participants: Demography: Program Planning and Evaluation meeting with community participation Date and Time: List of Participants:

Section 7.6 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Program contents of the community radio broadcast service • Reflecting the program contents to serve the special interests of the community

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-1

• • • • • • •

• • • • • •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others Program Consultation with community: Date: Participants: Demography:

Section 7.7 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• Ensuring community peoples’ inclusion from the point of participation, choice and sharing. • Ensuring the participation of community people in program planning, implementing, operating and evaluating

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-2

Program Consultation with community:

• •

Date: Participants: Demography: Program Planning and Evaluation meeting with community participation Date and Time: List of Participants:

Section 7.7.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Developing plans to facilitate and promote community participation

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-2

Program Consultation with community:

• •

Date: Participants: Demography: Program Planning and Evaluation meeting with community participation Date and Time: List of Participants:
Broadcasting speeches of government officials at upazilla level on development issues and policies • Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee Monthly Format-1

Section 7.7.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

• • • • • • •

• • • • •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others

Section 7.7.3 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Developing specific program set through community participation on local information, events and notifications, local culture, identity, and local language

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-1

• • • • • • •

• • • • • •

• •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others Program Consultation with community: Date: Participants: Demography: Program Planning and Evaluation meeting with community participation Date and Time: List of Participants:

Section 7.7.4 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Reflecting local culture in program broadcast format, subject, presentation and language of programs

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-1

• • • • • • •

• • • • •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others

Section 7.8 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Broadcasting of local development news without political bias

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-1

• • • •

Date and Time: News collection by: News Headlines: News Editor:

Section 7.9.1 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Broadcasting of advertisements/ commercials related to development services, relevant and limited to the specified area

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-4

• • • • • • •

• • • •

Date and Time: Name of Advertisement: Duration: 1 minute 5 minutes Product/Services: FMG Home Care Key Message: Objective of the Advertisement: Target Audience: Youth Local Authorities Disable Origin of Company: Origin of Product: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own

2 minutes 10 minutes Agro Others:

3 minutes Others: Health Care

4 minutes Food

Women Minority

Entrepreneurs Community Leaders

Government Marginalized

Government

Others

Section 7.9.2 of CRIBO Policy 2008

Ensuring no influence of sponsors on the content or the style of individual programs or the overall programming of the Community Radio Station and its

• Central Monitoring Committee • Advisory Committee

Monthly

Format-4

code of conduct

• • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Date and Time: Name of the Program: Duration: 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes 25 minutes 30 minutes Others: Program Format: Interview Group Discussion Report Drama Song Others: Topics and Key issues: Education Health Agriculture Business Youth Development Children Disability Objective of the program: Target Audience: Youth Women Entrepreneurs Government Local Authorities Community Leaders Marginalized Disable Minority Presenter/Speaker/Participants: Language/dialect: Program Producer: Program Sponsor: Program Ownership: own Government Others Name of Advertisement: Duration: 1 minute 2 minutes 3 minutes 4 minutes 5 minutes 10 minutes Others: Product/Services: FMG Agro Health Care Food Home Care Others: Key Message: Objective of the Advertisement: Origin of Company: Origin of Product:

M EDIA C ODE OF C ONDUCT
The following are principles of ethical behaviour for the media, based on the 10 Code of Ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists , the Associated Press 11 Managing Editors’ Statement of Ethical Principles and Gannett Newspaper 12 Division’s Principles of Ethical Conduct for Newsrooms . [3] Report the truth • Be a watchdog of the political and electoral process. • Ensure accurate, balanced and impartial coverage of the news. Make sure the news content is substantiated, accurate, complete and in context. • Do not make assumptions. Check facts, and make a good-faith effort before publication to get comments from the persons or organizations involved. • Seek solutions along with exposing problems and corruption. • Use neutral words to ensure impartial, dispassionate reporting. Be careful with technical terms, statistics, estimates and election results. Be careful with headlines and make sure they reflect the facts of the story. • Avoid inflaming emotions over controversial issues. • Label opinions and personal interpretations as such, and limit opinions and editorials to the editorial pages. • Label advertising clearly so it is not confused with the news. • Be honest and fair in the way the news is gathered, reported and presented. Do not lie or fabricate. Do not pretend to be a police officer, public official or anyone other than a journalist in pursuing a story. Do not plagiarize. Do not alter photographs or graphics to mislead the public. Minimize harm • Be transparent and honest with the reader. • Act honourably and ethically in dealing with news sources, the public and colleagues. • Do not expose the private life of a private citizen without reason. • Be sensitive when interviewing, and recognize that gathering news can cause harm or discomfort. • Respect the rights of persons involved in the news. Observe common standards of decency, and treat people with dignity, respect and compassion. • Balance the right of an accused person to a fair trial with the public’s right to know. Act independently

10 11

Society of Professional Journalists, Code of Ethics for Journalists, 1996 Associated Press Managing Editors, Statement of Ethical Principles, 1994 12 Gannett Newspaper Division, Principles of Ethical Conduct for Newsrooms, 1999

• • •

Avoid conflict of interest by refusing to accept gifts, favours or other benefits from anyone being covered in an article or from newsmakers, politicians or other journalists. Avoid being influenced by advertisers on the content of your reporting. Do not give favourable rates to one political advertiser and not others. Do not give money for sources or stories.

Be accountable • Be accountable to the public for the fairness and accuracy of what you write. • Honour pledges of confidentiality to a news source; otherwise, identify sources. • Be accountable for how you behave and collect news. Obey the laws and the standards of ethical journalism.