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CALCULATION OF MILL SETTINGS
By G. G. ASHE
CircumferenceeDia. x 3 .14=39 x 3.14=10.02 ft.
12
The volume occupied by this sucrose will be
2.69x .035 cu. ft.
= .094 cu. ft.
Sucrose
From (I) we see that the total sucrose weighed
260 lbs. and had a volume 2.69 cu. ft.
.'.3.5 %of this sucrose will weight 260 x .035 lbs.
=9.1 lbs.. .. .. ... (8)
Average revolutions per minute at which the mill runs
=3.6 r.p.m (5)
Peripheral speed = Circumference x r.p.m.
=1O.02x3.6
=37 feet per minute. . . . . . . . .. (6)
Width of Roller = 7 feet
Escribed Area = Peripheral speed x Width of
Roller
=37x7
=259 sq. ft. (7)
Discharge
39" 39"
Feed Top
39"
So far we have worked on one ton of cane and as
mill roll speeds are usually given in feet/minute we
must now establish a crushing rate in tons per minute.
Crushing Rate= 170 tons cane per hour
=170 tons cane per minute
60
='2.83 tons cane per minute. .. (4)
We now have to calculate the peripheral speed of
the mill. In this example we have taken the average
outside diameter of the three rolls, whereas the mean
diameter of the top roll only is sometimes used.
The following figures and calculation are based on
our No.6 (last) mill. '
Average
Diameter
39"
Escribed area can be described as the area that the
roller will cover if rolled on the floor for 3.6 turns.
From the graph shown in figure Ait will be seen that
we expect an extraction of 96.5 %and a moisture of
49 %from No. 6 mill. In order to achieve this it
means that the bagasse passing out of this mill must
contain only 3.5 %of the original weight sucrose in
the cane, all of the fibre and only have a moisture
content of 49 %. Therefore the volume of these three
ingredients must be the volume passing through the
discharge opening.
This volume is calculated as follows:
The following is a simplified method of getting
approximate mill settings, using first principles. For
the purpose of these calculations we assume that cane
consists of three ingredients, i.e. fibre, sucrose and
water. Also that the S.G. of fibre, sucrose and water
is 1.35, 1.55 and I respectively. It is necessary to have
these values so that volumes in cubic feet can be
calculated. The figures used in the following calcu
lations are those for the 84" x 39" mill at the Umfolozi
Cooperative Sugar Planters' factory at Riverview.
The following figures are the expected averages for
the season:
13%Sucrose (S.G.=1.55)
13%Fibre (S.G.=1.3)
74%Water (S.G. = 1 )
The cubic footage for I ton (2,000 lbs.) of cane can
be calculated as follows:
Sucrose=2,000 lbs. x .13= 2601bs.
Fibre =2,000 lbs. x .13= 2601bs.
Water =2,000 lbs. x .74=1,480 lbs.
2,000Ibs.
Sucrose
The weight of sucrose is 260 lbs. and the specific
gravity is 1.55. Therefore, in order to get the volume,
we divide the weight by S.G. x 62.5, thus:
Vol. of Sucrose/ton Cane = 260
1.55x62.5
=2.69cu.ft. (I)
We can summarise as follows:
Sucrose=2,000 x .13= 260Ibs.= 2.69 cu. ft.
Fibre =2,000 x .13= 260Ibs.= 3.07 cu. ft.
Water =2,000 x .74=1,480 Ibs.=23. 7 cu. ft.
2,000 Ibs.;=29.46 cu. ft.
Fibre
The weight of fibre is 260 lbs. and the specific gravity
is 1.35. Therefore, in order to get the volume, we
divide the weight by S.G. x 62.5, thus:
Vol. of Fibre/ton Cane 260
1.35x62.5
=3.07 cu. ft. (2)
Water
The weight of water is 1,480 Ibs. and the S.G. of
water is I. Therefore, in order to get the volume, we
divide the weight by the S.G. x 62.5, thus:
Vol. of Water/ton Cane 1,480
lx62.5
23. 7 cu. ft. . . .... (3)
"
102 Proceedings of The SouthAfrican Sugar Technologists' AssociationApri/1963
Fibre
The bagasse contains all the original fibre. Therefore
from (2) we get weight of fibre which is 260 lbs. and
has a volume of 3.07 cu. ft. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. (9)
Water
The water content of the bagasse is 49 %. Therefore,
the weight of water will be
= (weight ofsucrose+weight of fibre) X 49 Ibs.
51
=(9.1 + 260) x 49 lbs.
. 51
=269.1 x49
51
=258 lbs (10)
One cubic foot of water weighs 62.5 lbs.
.'. Volume occupied by water
= 258
62.5
=4.14 cu. ft.
.'. Volume of Bagasse=Vol. of sucrose + Vol. of fibre
+ Vol. of water
=.094+3.07+4.14 cu. ft.
= 7.304 cu. ft./ton cane ... (11)
This volume is per ton of cane and we now have to
multiply it by the volume factor worked out in (4) to
get the volume per minute.
.'. Volume of bagasse/min. = 7.304 x 2.83 cu. ft.jmin,
=2.07 cu. ft./min.... (12)
This can now be termed the escribed volume per
minute. In order to get the discharge opening we di
vide the escribed volume per minute (12) by the
escribed area per minute (7).
Discharge opening =Escribed Volume ft.
Escribed Area
=20.7xI2 ins.
259
= .96 ins (13)
The discharge opening which we have calculated is
the total opening and is measured from point to
bottom of the grooves provided the grooving is the
same on both rollers.
Set Opening
In order to take cane of fibre variations and also
allowing for top roller lift the set opening is taken as
75 %of the calculated opening.
Therefore set opening> .96 x .75 ins.
=72 ins.
Say 23/32/1 (14)
FeedOpening
From graph B it will be seen that the ratio of feed
to discharge varies from 2 to 1 at the crusher to
1.5 to 1 on the last mill.
Thus, the set feed opening will be
=.72 xl. 5 ins.
=1.08 ins.
Say 116/1 (15)
The settings for· the remaining mills can be found
in a similar way. The extraction and moisture figures
will of course differ from mill to mill.
Graph "A"
This graph has been drawn using the average figures
from over one hundred individual mill tests and is
reproduced here as a guide to indicate what extraction
can be expected from each unit. In the actual calcu
lations higher extractions for each mill have been
used than the average shown by the curve. Maximum
and minimum figures are also plotted. As a check on
the above figures, Noel Deerr states that no advantage
can be had by squeezing the bagasse to a density of
more than 76 lbs. to one cubic foot.
Check
From (8) Sucrose= 9.1 lbs. = .094 cu. ft.
From (9) Fibre =260 lbs.=3.([17 cu. ft.
From (10) Water =258 lbs.=4.14 cu. ft.
527. 1 lbs. = 7. 304 cu. ft.
:. Density of bagasse =Weight
cu. ft.
=527.1 lbs.jcu. ft.
7.304
= 72 Ibs./cu. ft.
This figure of 72 lbs.jcu, ft. is only 9 5 ~ ; ' ; of that stated
by Noel Deerr but we have more than accounted for
that by taking 75%of the calculated opening.
Trashplate
The sole object of a trashplate is to convey the
bagasse from the feed roller to the back roller and
therefore the clearance between the top roller and the
trashplate should not be smaller than the feed opening,
so as to allow the bagasse to pass freely from the
front to the back. In the event of the trashplate being
set too high, choking of the mill will occur and un
necessary power is lost due to the pressure of the top
roller on the bagasse between the trashplate and top
roller.
In order to prevent this we set the toe opening
equal to the feed openinglj", for mills with grooving
over 1/1 pitch, and for 1/1 and below, feed opening + 16/1.
The opening between the heel of the trashplate and
the top roller should vary between 1" and 1/1 greater
than the toe opening, depending on the size of the
mill. In our case we use 1/1.
,
Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963
103
(Umfolozi 5.7.62)
Brix
Brix is a measure of solids in cane, or JUIce or
bagasse. Some of the solids are soluble, like sucrose,
and some are insoluble.
As we are dealing with bagasse let us take the milling
figures for any day to illustrate roughly what it
consists of:
That is to say that in every 100tons of cane there is
14.85 tons water, 12.5 tons fibre and .75 tons brix or
solids.
Let us go further with the above sample of bagasse
and separate, again roughly, the sucrose part.
Of the 2.69 parts brix, 1.83 parts are sucrose,
or .75 x l , 83 tons of sucrose= .51 tons sucrose
2.69
leaving (.75.51) tons other solids or .24 tons
other solids.
Bagasse % Cane 28. 10
Fibre % Cane 12.5
Sucrose % Bagasse 1.83
Moisture % Bagasse 52.84
Fibre % Bagasse 44.47
Brix % Bagasse 2.69
These figures show that there is 28.10 tons bagasse
to every 100 tons cane crushed and this bagasse can
be separated into different parts as follows:
Moisture % Bagasse 52.84 14.85 tons
Fibre % Bagasse : 44.47 : 12.5 tons
Brix % Bagasse 2. 69: .75 tons
23.89 " 100.00%
Tons of sucrose left in bagasse will now be
.64 X 1.83
2.69
= .436 tons sucrose
leaving (.64: .436) tons other solids or
. 206 tons ether
solids
The difference in the weight of water is
14.8510.75tons
=4.1 tons of water
Taking the sucrose %cane as 13%the extraction in
the first example with 52.84 % moisture will be:
Subtract the loss of sucrose in bagasse from sucrose in
cane.
Weight 13.51 = 12.49 tons sucrose in mixed juice
.'. Extraction =SUCfose in mixedjuice X100
Sucrose in cane
To show how important it is to keep the moisture
low let us use the same fibre %cane figure, the brix %
bagasse figure and the sucrose % bagasse figure, but
make the moisture 45% bagasse.
If we have 45% water and 2.69 % brix, the remain
der is fibre % bagasse, thus:
Fibre % bagassee. 100(45 +2. 69)
=52.31 %
The 52.31 % fibre will still weigh only 12.5 tons.
The tons of brix will now alter and our bagasse will
now show a new weight, thus:
Fibre 52.31 % 12.5 tons
Moisture 45.00% 10.75"
Brix 2. 69% . 64 "
=12.49
13'"
=96%
In the example with 45% moisture the loss is .436
tons of sucrose.
I .'. Sucrose in mixed juice
=13 .436
=12.564 tons sucrose in mixedjuice
.'. Extraction = 12. 564X 100
13
=96.5%
This shows an increase of . 5% in extraction.
A very important observation from the above is
the gain in heat value of the bagasse. In the first
example we have to evaporate 14.85 tons of water
per hour from the bagasse while burning it, whereas
in the second example we have to evaporate 10.75
tons of water or 4.1 tons less per hour, thus effecting
a considerable saving in fuel.
(All calculations have been done on slide rule.)
28.1 tons 100.00%
Therefore trashplate setting is as follows:
Toe openingFeed opening+16"
=116"+16"
= If' (16)
Heel openingeToe openinglI"
=It''+l''
=2f' (17)
I' would like to mention here that: at Umfolozi
during the last season not a single trashplate was
renewed and on the 84"X39" mill 800,000 tons cane
was milled, or 130,000 tons fibre. The trashplates
are made of semisteel. .
Bagasse
The following notes on bagasse may be of interest
to engineers who are newcomers to the Sugar Industry.
Bagasse plays a big part in the engineer's life. He
mills it all day and burns it all day in the boilers.
It depends on how well he mills it, just how good
the extraction will be and how good it will be as fuel.
We will separate the bagasse' into the parts that
mean most to the engineer. .
Bagasse consists of fibre, plus moisture plus brix.
Firstly, fibre. This is given as 13% on cane, that
is for every 100 tons of cane crushed we get 13 tons
of fibre.
SUMMARY OF DATA REQUIRED FOR CALCULATING MILL SETTINGS
Crusher l st Mill 2nd Mill 3rd Mill 4th Mill 5th Mill 6th Mill
Top Roll Diameter ..
· . · . · . 39t 39 40 37 37 39 39
Feed Roll Diameter
· . · . ..
· . 40t 38fa 40 37i 39 39 39
Discharge Roll Diameter
· .
.. ..
3?*
37t 38t 371 37! 38t 39
Average Roll Diameter ..
· . " · .
40.14 38.56 39.62 37.29 37.8 38.8 39
Peripheral Speed
· . · .
.. (A) 30 ft.jrnin. 30 ft./min. 30 ft./min. 30 ft./min. 30 ft.jmin, 30 ft.jmin. 37 ft.jmin.
Mill R.P.M. .. .. · . · . · .
2.86 2.96 2.89 3.08 3.03 2.95 3.6
Length of Rolls ..
· . · . .. (B) 7 ft. 7 ft. 7 ft. 7 ft. 7 ft. 7 ft. 7 ft.
Escribed Area (A x B)
· . · .
.. (C) 210 sq. ft./min. 210 sq. ft./min. 210 sq. ft.jmin. 210 sq. ft./min. 210 sq. ft./min. 210 sq. ft./min. 259 sq. ft.jmin,
Extraction (See Graph "A")
· . · . · . 70% 79% 85% 89% 93% 95% 96.5%
Moisture .. . .
" · . · . · . 60% 58% 55% 53% 51% 50% 49%
Weight of Fibre per Ton of Cane .. 2601bs. . 260 Ibs. 2601bs. 2601bs. 2601bs. 2601bs. 2601bs.
Weight of Sucrose per Ton of Cane ..
· .
781bs. 54.6Ibs. 391bs. 28.6Ibs. 18.2Ibs. 13 lbs. 9.1 Ibs.
Weight of Water per Ton of Cane · . · . 5051bs. 4351bs. 3651bs. 3261bs. o 2841bs. 2731bs. 2581bs.
Cubic feet of Fibre per Ton of Cane .. (D) 3.07 cu. ft. 3.07 cu. ft. 3.07 cu. ft. 3.07 cu. ft. 3.07 cu. ft. 3.07 cu. ft. 3.07 cu. ft.
Cubic feet of Sucrose per Ton of Cane (E) 0.87cu.ft. 0.565 cu. ft. o.404 cu. ft. 0.295 cu. ft. 0.1883 cu. ft. . 1345 cu. ft. .094 cu. ft.
Cubic feet of Water per Ton of Cane .. (F) 8.1 cu. ft. 6.96 cu. ft. 5.84 cu. ft. 5.22 cu. ft. 4.54 cu. ft. 4.36 cu. ft. 4.14 cu. ft.
Total Vol. of Bagasse/Ton Cane (D+E+F) (G) 11 .977 cu. ft. 10.595 cu. ft. 9.314 cu. ft. 8.585 cu. ft. 7.798 cu. ft. 7.564 cu. ft. 7.304 cu. ft.
Total Vol. of Bagasse/Min. (Gx2.83) (II) 33.8 cu. ft./min. 29.9 cu. ft./min. 26.4 cu. ft.jrnin, 24.3 cu. ft./min. 22 cu. ft. Imino 21.4 cu. ft./min. 20.7 cu. ft./min.
Discharge Opening in inches (H/C x 12) (1) 1 .93 cu. ft./min. 1.71 cu. ft.jrnin. 1. 51 cu. ft./min. 1.39" 1.26 cu. ft.jrnin. 1.2Y .96"
Set Discharge Opening (J x .75)
· .
(K) 1.45" (1t") 1. 28" (1"3\") 1.13" (1N') 1.04".(1;&") 0.945" (U") 0.925" (s£") .72" (W)
Ratio of Feed to Discharge (See Graph "B") 2 : 1 1. 92 : 1 1. 83 : 1 1. 75 : 1 1. 67 : 1 1.58 : 1 1.5 : I
Set Feed Opening .. .. .. (L) 2.9" (3") 2.46" (2!fr") 2.07" (2f1r) 1.82" (1*") 1. 77" (1 s{") 1. 46" (1 !fr") 1.08" (1fIr)
Trashplate Toe Opening (L+t") & (L+h;) 3t"
2':;"
2"1\"
lin
Ifi" lY
11."
8 8
Pitch of Grooving (55°)
· .
..
· .
3" 2" 2" I" I" I" . I" (35°)

~
~
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~
~
'"
I
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~
~
~
:;;J
s
C
S
o."
EO'
1:t
~ ,..,
~
,..,
is'
1
:::::
.....
~
~
\
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~ .
Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963
,
~
FIGURES USED IN CALCULATION
~
~
OF MILL SETTINGS 0
~
~ ~ /
V
/
/'
i
.:
AVERAGE OF ,OVER ONE HUNDRED
(/
INDIVIDUAL MILL TESTS
I
/
X Indicates Highest Figures Obtained
I
 Indicates Lowest Figures Obtained


105
w
C)
2
co::
c(
J:
U
'"
s
0
I
0
1.75
w
w
LL.
LL.
~ :
0
0
~
c
co::
1.5
~
~
~
~
~
r
..........
~
co:: ...J ...J ...J ...J ...J ...J
W
...J ...J ...J ...J ...J ...J
I
I: I: L I: I: I:
'" :J C'l
,.,
"t"
'"
D
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0 0 0 0 0 0
U
Z Z Z Z Z z
GRAPH B
106
Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963
Mr. Gunn (in the Chair) said that the author
apparently did not account for the fact of
tion and as Mr. Ashe had stated that the set operung
was taken as 75 per cent of the calculated opening,
he wondered if this allowance was helping to over
come the effect of reabsorption.
Mr. Ashe said that this allowance was used to make
up for reabsorption and like assumptions in
Australia, this allowance was found at Umfolosi to
be quite effective.
He had called his method a simplified one because
while all the things mentioned by Dr. Douwes Dekker
should be taken into account when calculating mill
settings, when the hydraulics lifted, the mill settings
worked out would probably be a few decimals of an
inch out.
Dr. Douwes Dekker said Mr. Ashe had given a
method for calculating mill setting which was different
from that used by the S.M.R.I. in the Mutual Milling
Control Project. Of course every engineer was entitled
to use any method he thought suitable and which he
thought gave the best results. Mr. Ashe claimed his
was a simplified method but he had not shown which
were the simplifications used to arrive at his method.
On looking at the various figures given, it was
apparent that the author assumed that the volume of
the cane and the volume of the bagasse could be cal
culated from the percentage of sucrose, fibre and
water. Dr. Douwes Dekker said he could not agree
with this method.
In the first place the water in the cane and that in
the bagasse was not always present in the same way.
Some of the water was attached to the fibre as so
called Brixfree water and apparently we could not
assume that volume of the Brixfree water attached
to the fibre was of the same order as the free water.
When the specific gravity of fibre in anorganic
liquid was determined, we found that it was about
1.3. When this fibre absorbed moisture of a specific
gravity of 1.0, one would expect its specific gravity
to be lowered. On the contrary, the specific gravity
increased and from this fact we could only assume
that the water added was absorbed in some way, such
as the small molecules of water becoming so attached
to the fibre that it did not increase the volume. Thus
a calculation of the volume of cane or of bagasse
passing through a mill, made by assuming that these
substances consisted simply of sucrose, fibre and water
was, for this reason, difficult to justify.
Moreover, there was not only sucrose in the cane,
there was Brix in the cane and its amount could be
very different from the amount of sucrose in the cane.
The sucrose was quoted as having a specific gravity
of 1.55 but this did not exactly apply to that of the
Brix. This was one of the simplifications used by the
author for which there was no justification.
Another point was that the reabsorption problem
was not taken into account, although it had been
referred to. It was not correct to say that 75%was
one of the assumptions used in Australia but of which
we were not sure. There was no doubt about the fact
of reabsorption. When we calculate the volume of
cane or bagasse going through the ascribed volume
from its constituents, as compared with what actually
occurred, a big difference was found from which we
must conclude that more material was passed through
the opening of the mill than the space available was
calculated to accommodate. This meant that either
the speed of the juice alone, or that of the fibre plus
the juice, was larger than the circumferential speed of
the roller.
The two things mentioned should be remembered
when calculating mill settings.
He pointed out also that while the Brix was a
measure of soluble solids, particles of fibre in the.
juice should also be allowed for, and added to the
Brix.
Mr. van Hengel said the author had stated that all
the discrepancies due to reabsorption were accounted
for in the allowance of 75%, but more than 75%
allowance should be made because when the setting
of a mill was worked out we knew that the set opening
was going to be smaller than the work opening be
cause of the lift of the top roller. The author had
used two figures in which the discharge opening was
going to be 0.72 inch and the feed opening 1.08
inches. If we do not forget that there is reabsorption
Mr. Ashe's calculation of the density of bagasse as
72 Ibs. per cubic foot was similar to that of Noel
Deerr and the S.M.R.I. normally took 75 lbs, for all
bagasses and so the 72 lb. figure was acceptable.
If the mill settings are worked out according to the
S.M.R.I. formula, the discharge work opening will be
found to be 0.69 inch. and the feed work opening
1.5 x 0.69=1.04 inch. (using for a moment the same
ratio 1:5). These are figures in which reabsorption is
taken into account and which, in fact, differ little
from the 0.72 inch. and 1.08 inch. mentioned by the
author.
However, the settings of a mill are normally con
siderably narrower than calculated for the work
openings as a constant lift of the top roller of ap
proximately 0.25 inch should be maintained. For this
reason 0.2 inch should be subtracted from both dis
charge and feedopenings, bringing them to 0.49
inch and 0.84 inch respectively (ratio 1:7). Now it is
not customary to apply the mill ratio to the set
openings as was done by the author, as the setopen
ings have no real practical meaning with respect to
milling. If the same procedure had been used in the
case of the S.M.R.I. settings it may have resulted in
a feed setopening of 1.5 x 0.49=0.74 inch and in
lifted position of the toproller the ratio would have
b
0.74 +0.20 1 36 di 'I 1 . d d
een 0.49 +0.20 . ,extraor man y ow in ee .
Obviously, the factor 0.75 is too small to take the
lift into account as well and, therefore, a mill set
according to the method propagated by the author
cannot work well. Of course, it can be reasoned that
the discharge opening could be pulled in until sufficient
lift occurs, but that would change the mill ratio to a
large extent, and the primary goal, i.e. to predeter
Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963 107
mine the optimum position of the rollers, has not
been achieved.
Mr. Ashe pointed out that no two factories could
apply the same method, as variations would depend
upon the way the mills were fed.
With a pressure feeder one had a different set of
circumstances as compared with when no forced
feeding was used.
Once the mills were set it was necessary to carry
out regular observations and laboratory tests on each
mill. Such tests would show which mills did not
measure up to the standard required and needed
further adjustment.
Mr. Kramer said that after concentrating on mill
settings for many years he had found the formulae
used by the S.M.R.I. gave best results.
Mr. Gunn said that with a more or less identical
pressure fed mill at Tongaat with 20%more fibre but
the same crushing rate the setting of the discharge
roller differed by almost 100% from that used by
Mr. Ashe and amounted to 0.43 inches. The peri
pheral speed of the mill was much slower and this
would account for some of the difference.
. Volume of Bagasse= Vol. ft.07 cu. . Thus. = 7. Therefore.304 = 72 Ibs.. ft. = 7./cu..'. ft.83 cu.1 lbs. =1. =527.. .14 cu. ft.5 =4. In the event of the trashplate being set too high.75 ins. =2. Therefore set opening> . Trashplate (13) The sole object of a trashplate is to convey the bagasse from the feed roller to the back roller and therefore the clearance between the top roller and the trashplate should not be smaller than the feed opening. Density of bagasse =Weight cu. (12) This can now be termed the escribed volume per minute. In order to prevent this we set the toe opening equal to the feed openinglj". 7. 527.304 x 2.1 x49 51 =258 lbs One cubic foot of water weighs 62. .14 cu. ft. . .'. = .. As a check on the above figures. . choking of the mill will occur and unnecessary power is lost due to the pressure of the top roller on the bagasse between the trashplate and top roller. . ft. Check From (8) Sucrose= 9. ft. the weight of water will be= (weight ofsucrose+weight of fibre) X 49 Ibs. 51 =269. Say 116/1 Water The water content of the bagasse is 49 %. (11) This volume is per ton of cane and we now have to multiply it by the volume factor worked out in (4) to get the volume per minute. The opening between the heel of the trashplate and the top roller should vary between 1" and 1/1 greater than the toe opening. In our case we use 1/1. and for 1/1 and below..96 x . . ft. . of fibre + Vol. From (9) Fibre =260 lbs.([17 cu. .14 cu. ft. .96 ins (10) (15) The settings for· the remaining mills can be found in a similar way. and has a volume of 3 . . =72 ins. 1 lbs.094+3. = 7. feed opening + 16/1.094 cu. . Graph "A" This graph has been drawn using the average figures from over one hundred individual mill tests and is reproduced here as a guide to indicate what extraction can be expected from each unit. of sucrose + Vol. ft. the set feed opening will be=. In order to get the discharge opening we divide the escribed volume per minute (12) by the escribed area per minute (7). In the actual calculations higher extractions for each mill have been used than the average shown by the curve.304 cu. Escribed Area =20.72 xl. . Therefore from (2) we get weight of fibre which is 260 lbs.1 lbs.07+4. ft.=4. This figure of 72 lbs. of water =.07 cu.jcu./min. . depending on the size of the mill.=3.08 ins. ft.1 + 260) x 49 lbs. Volume of bagasse/min. to one cubic foot. :. 304 cu. Discharge opening =Escribed Volume ft. . 259 = . From (10) Water =258 lbs. The discharge opening which we have calculated is the total opening and is measured from point to bottom of the grooves provided the grooving is the same on both rollers. Set Opening In order to take cane of fibre variations and also allowing for top roller lift the set opening is taken as 75 %of the calculated opening. Noel Deerr states that no advantage can be had by squeezing the bagasse to a density of more than 76 lbs. ft.. (9) FeedOpening From graph B it will be seen that the ratio of feed to discharge varies from 2 to 1 at the crusher to 1.5 to 1 on the last mill. 51 =(9.jcu. Volume occupied by water = 258 62. ft.7xI2 ins. Maximum and minimum figures are also plotted. so as to allow the bagasse to pass freely from the front to the back. is only 95~.'.'. 5 ins.jmin.102 Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApri/1963 Fibre The bagasse contains all the original fibre.5 lbs. . . ./ton cane . for mills with grooving over 1/1 pitch. The extraction and moisture figures will of course differ from mill to mill. of that stated by Noel Deerr but we have more than accounted for that by taking 75 % of the calculated opening. . . Say 23/32/1 (14) .
Brix Tons of sucrose left in bagasse will now be. again roughly. Bagasse plays a big part in the engineer's life.'.89 " Heel openingeToe openinglI" =It''+l'' (17) I' would like to mention here that: at Umfolozi during the last season not a single trashplate was renewed and on the 84" X 39" mill 800.75 x l .83 tons of sucrose= .436) tons other solids or .75tons =4. 10 Fibre % Cane 12.75" Moisture 45.000 tons cane was milled.564 tons sucrose in mixedjuice . Of the 2.31 % fibre will still weigh only 12.. As we are dealing with bagasse let us take the milling figures for any day to illustrate roughly what it consists of: (Umfolozi 5. the remainder is fibre % bagasse. The trashplates are made of semisteel.75 tons brix or solids.49 Brix is a measure of solids in cane.83 2. Bagasse The following notes on bagasse may be of interest to engineers who are newcomers to the Sugar Industry.000 tons fibre. fibre.) . that is for every 100 tons of cane crushed we get 13 tons of fibre.436 =12.1 tons 13'" =96% In the example with 45 % moisture the loss is .69 leaving (.5 Sucrose % Bagasse 1.00% 23. Sucrose in mixed juice =13.00% 28. 100(45 +2.00% Brix 2. the sucrose part. and some are insoluble.75 tons 100. 69) =52.7.5% This shows an increase of .69 parts brix.1 tons less per hour.24 tons other solids. We will separate the bagasse' into the parts that mean most to the engineer.Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963 103 Therefore trashplate setting is as follows: Toe openingFeed opening+16" =116"+16" = If' =2f' (16) To show how important it is to keep the moisture low let us use the same fibre % cane figure. Bagasse consists of fibre. It depends on how well he mills it.85 tons Fibre % Bagasse : 44.436 tons of sucrose.47 : 12.1 tons of water Taking the sucrose % cane as 13% the extraction in the first example with 52.51) tons other solids or . 5 % in extraction. The tons of brix will now alter and our bagasse will now show a new weight. 12.31 % The 52.5 tons.436 tons sucrose leaving (. but make the moisture 45 % bagasse.75 tons of water or 4. the brix % bagasse figure and the sucrose % bagasse figure. thus effecting a considerable saving in fuel.84 % moisture will be: Subtract the loss of sucrose in bagasse from sucrose in cane. or 130.31 % 12. 69 % . like sucrose. or JUIce or bagasse. 564 X 100 13 That is to say that in every 100 tons of cane there is 14.51 = 12.'.75. Let us go further with the above sample of bagasse and separate. He mills it all day and burns it all day in the boilers.5 tons fibre and . =96. 64 " 100.85 tons of water per hour from the bagasse while burning it. Some of the solids are soluble. plus moisture plus brix. 206 tons ether solids The difference in the weight of water is14. A very important observation from the above is the gain in heat value of the bagasse. or .69 % brix. just how good the extraction will be and how good it will be as fuel.69 = .5 tons Brix % Bagasse 2. . Firstly.69 These figures show that there is 28.84 14. (All calculations have been done on slide rule.47 Brix % Bagasse 2.5 tons 10. I . 1.64 X 1. Extraction =SUCfose in mixedjuice X 100 Sucrose in cane =12.84 Fibre % Bagasse 44. Extraction = 12.85 tons water.10 tons bagasse to every 100 tons cane crushed and this bagasse can be separated into different parts as follows: Moisture % Bagasse 52.51 tons sucrose 2.62) Bagasse % Cane 28. In the first example we have to evaporate 14. thus: Fibre % bagassee. whereas in the second example we have to evaporate 10.'.83 Moisture % Bagasse 52. 69: ..83 parts are sucrose.8510. .49 tons sucrose in mixed juice . thus:Fibre 52. Weight 13.64 :. If we have 45 % water and 2. This is given as 13% on cane.
(L) 2. 8. ·.jmin. ft.54 cu.. ft. 1.. ft. 3651bs..(1.36 cu. 9. 3?* ·. ft. 5..89 7 ft.304 cu. ft. 10. 5. ft. 8. 89% 53% 2601bs. ft.07 cu. 46" (1 !fr") 1. 1. 2731bs. ~ ~ ·. ·.&") 1. . ft. 37 ft. 2. S Ratio of Feed to Discharge (See Graph "B") Set Feed Opening 1.404 cu. Peripheral Speed Mill R. 28" (1"3\") 1." 8 2" 2. . ft. 2.72" (W) Length of Rolls . 77" (1 s{") 5th Mill 39 39 38t 38. ft. .45" (1t") 2 :1 2. (B) (C) . 4. 260 Ibs. 210 sq. ft.M.07 cu. ·. 3. Extraction (See Graph "A") Moisture . 259 sq. 22 cu. of Bagasse/Ton Cane (D+E+F) (G) Total Vol.. ·. ft..07 cu.. 3261bs. 210 sq. ft. 67 : 1 1. ft.07" (2f1r) 2"1\" 2" 1. ft.ft.29 30 ft. ft. 7.8 30 ft.565 cu./min. 54./min.4 cu.. ft. ft. .82" (1*") Trashplate Toe Opening (L+t") & (L+h. 33. .62 30 ft. Escribed Area (A x B) · .93 cu.977 cu.07 cu. Discharge Roll Diameter Average Roll Diameter .9 cu.08" (1fIr) 11.83) Discharge Opening in inches (H/C x 12) Set Discharge Opening (J x . ft.jrnin. 7.6Ibs. ·.314 cu. 13 lbs. 4.jrnin. 40t . 28./min. ft.~ SUMMARY OF DATA REQUIRED FOR CALCULATING MILL SETTINGS Crusher Top Roll Diameter Feed Roll Diameter l st Mill 39 38fa 2nd Mill 40 40 38t 39. . (D) (E) (F) 781bs. 1 . " ·. ft./min../min.04". " · .585 cu.jmin.46" (2!fr") 2':.13" (1N') 1. ·.295 cu./min. 2581bs.595 cu./min. of Bagasse/Min./min. 3" I" (35°) 1 ::::: ~ .798 cu.3 cu. .. ft.75) (II) ~ ~ (1) (K) s C :. 210 sq.. 2.7 cu. 1. 93% 51% 2601bs. 210 sq.. ft./min.jmin./min. 37t 38. 51 cu.jrnin.. 9.5% 49% 2601bs. 24. ft.26 cu... ·.71 cu. ~ I '" Total Vol. ~ \ '0>. ft.. ft.96 7 ft. 75 : 1 o 4th Mill 37 39 37!37.03 7 ft.564 cu. 210 sq. . ft.925" (s£") 6th 39 39 39 39 Mill .. ft. ~..P. ·. ·.094 cu.2Y 0. ·..6 7 ft. .6Ibs. ·. (Gx2. ft. 1345 cu. o. o. 20.87cu. ft. 0.. 2. 29.jmin./min. 3. ft. ·. 210 sq. ·. 40.jmin.14 cu. 0. Imino 1 . ft.22 cu./min. ~. ft.. 79% 58% . 5051bs. .8 30 ft. . ft. 3.. 21. 1.5 : I 1.. 18.. 85% 55% 2601bs.." EO' ~ ../min. 3rd Mill 37 37i 37137. . ft. ft. ·... .07 cu. ft. ft./min. 0. 1. 1.84 cu..14 (A) 30 ft. 3. ·. 1 . 70% 60% 2601bs. ft. 96.J ·.. ·.8 cu. 26. 7. 3.945" (U") 1. 3. ·.95 7 ft. ft.86 7 ft. ·.2Ibs.1 Ibs. ft.1 cu.jrnin.) Pitch of Grooving (55°) lin I" Ifi" I" lY I" . . 6. 4.58 : 1 1." 8 1:t ~ . 92 : 1 . 3. ~ ~ Weight of Fibre per Ton of Cane Weight of Sucrose per Ton of Cane Weight of Water per Ton of Cane .07 cu. is' ·. ft. 4351bs. 11 .96 cu. 39t · . . ·. Cubic feet of Sucrose per Ton of Cane Cubic feet of Water per Ton of Cane .1883 cu.. ft.. 391bs.9" (3") 3t" ~ ~ Cubic feet of Fibre per Ton of Cane .4 cu.39" 1. ·. 3. 83 : 1 ~ . 95% 50% 2601bs./min. 0.08 7 ft.. ft.56 30 ft. 2841bs. 0.96" . ·. ·. 3.. 3.07 cu. ft.
.. ~ FIGURES USED IN CALCULATION OF MILL SETTINGS 0 ~~ i (/ ..J .: / /' / V ~ ~ ~ AVERAGE OF ....OVER ONE HUNDRED INDIVIDUAL MILL TESTS I I  /  X Indicates Highest Figures Obtained Indicates Lowest Figures Obtained C) w co:: c( 2 J: '" s I U ~~ 0 0 ~ 1...J ... .. Z 0 I: "t" I: I: D Z 0 Z 0 '" 0 Z z 0 GRAPH B .J ..J I :J U '" co:: I: Z 0 I: C'l L .....J c co:: 1......J co:: .75 LL.J ..J ~ ..... w w ~ ~: 0 0 ~ r..J .. LL.J ...Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963 105 .J ....5 W ~ .J ...
Another point was that the reabsorption problem was not taken into account. This was one of the simplifications used by the author for which there was no justification. Ashe said that this allowance was used to make up for reabsorption and like assumptions mad~ in Australia.e. Moreover. He had called his method a simplified one because while all the things mentioned by Dr. Some of the water was attached to the fibre as socalled Brixfree water and apparently we could not assume that volume of the Brixfree water attached to the fibre was of the same order as the free water. i. was larger than the circumferential speed of the roller. such as the small molecules of water becoming so attached to the fibre that it did not increase the volume. or that of the fibre plus the juice. although it had been referred to.69= 1. When we calculate the volume of cane or bagasse going through the ascribed volume from its constituents. but that would change the mill ratio to a large extent. Obviously.08 inch. there was not only sucrose in the cane.I. In the first place the water in the cane and that in the bagasse was not always present in the same way. However. The sucrose was quoted as having a specific gravity of 1. we found that it was about 1.49 +0. the specific gravity increased and from this fact we could only assume that the water added was absorbed in some way. Ashe claimed his was a simplified method but he had not shown which were the simplifications used to arrive at his method.74 inch and in lifted position of the toproller the ratio would have been 0. mentioned by the author. in the Mutual Milling Control Project. one would expect its specific gravity to be lowered. When the specific gravity of fibre in anorganic liquid was determined. the settings of a mill are normally considerably narrower than calculated for the workopenings as a constant lift of the top roller of approximately 0. There was no doubt about the fact of reabsorption. 0.2 inch should be subtracted from both discharge.I. (using for a moment the same ratio 1:5). it was apparent that the author assumed that the volume of the cane and the volume of the bagasse could be calculated from the percentage of sucrose.20 man ow .extraordi 'Iy 1 indeed. the factor 0.I. fibre and water was. On the contrary.R.M. made by assuming that these substances consisted simply of sucrose. For this reason 0. fibre and water. If the same procedure had been used in the case of the S.74 + 0. The two things mentioned should be remembered when calculating mill settings.69 inch. and the primary goal. he wondered if this allowance was helping to overcome the effect of reabsorption. It was not correct to say that 75 % was one of the assumptions used in Australia but of which we were not sure.5 x 0. Of course. Ashe's calculation of the density of bagasse as 72 Ibs. but more than 75 % allowance should be made because when the setting of a mill was worked out we knew that the set opening was going to be smaller than the work opening because of the lift of the top roller. for this reason. figure was acceptable. and the feed work opening 1. Mr.M. when the hydraulics lifted. for all bagasses and so the 72 lb. Ashe had given a method for calculating mill setting which was different from that used by the S.04 inch. When this fibre absorbed moisture of a specific gravity of 1.5 x 0.55 but this did not exactly apply to that of the Brix.36.75 is too small to take the lift into account as well and. He pointed out also that while the Brix was a measure of soluble solids. van Hengel said the author had stated that all the discrepancies due to reabsorption were accounted for in the allowance of 75 %. as compared with what actually occurred.M.R. Douwes Dekker said he could not agree with this method. and added to the Brix.M.25 inch should be maintained. Douwes Dekker should be taken into account when calculating mill settings. If we do not forget that there is reabsorption Mr. as the setopenings have no real practical meaning with respect to milling.20 1. bringing them to 0. differ little from the 0. to predeter . difficult to justify. particles of fibre in the. If the mill settings are worked out according to the S. formula. there was Brix in the cane and its amount could be very different from the amount of sucrose in the cane. in fact. Mr. therefore.0. Dr. a big difference was found from which we must conclude that more material was passed through the opening of the mill than the space available was calculated to accommodate.49 inch and 0.72 inch and the feed opening 1. Dr.49=0. the discharge work opening will be found to be 0. a mill set according to the method propagated by the author cannot work well. Douwes Dekker said Mr. Ashe had stated that the set operung was taken as 75 per cent of the calculated opening.R.106 Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963 Mr.and feedopenings. settings it may have resulted in a feed setopening of 1. normally took 75 lbs. Mr. per cubic foot was similar to that of Noel Deerr and the S. On looking at the various figures given. and 1. The author had used two figures in which the discharge opening was going to be 0. This meant that either the speed of the juice alone. Now it is not customary to apply the mill ratio to the setopenings as was done by the author. Thus a calculation of the volume of cane or of bagasse passing through a mill. the mill settings worked out would probably be a few decimals of an inch out.3. Gunn (in the Chair) said that the author apparently did not account for the fact of reabso~p tion and as Mr.I.08 inches. it can be reasoned that the discharge opening could be pulled in until sufficient lift occurs.R. These are figures in which reabsorption is taken into account and which. Of course every engineer was entitled to use any method he thought suitable and which he thought gave the best results.72 inch.84 inch respectively (ratio 1:7). juice should also be allowed for. this allowance was found at Umfolosi to be quite effective.
Mr. has not been achieved.M. Ashe pointed out that no two factories could apply the same method.R. The peripheral speed of the mill was much slower and this would account for some of the difference.I.43 inches. as variations would depend upon the way the mills were fed. Kramer said that after concentrating on mill settings for many years he had found the formulae used by the S. With a pressure feeder one had a different set of circumstances as compared with when no forced feeding was used. Such tests would show which mills did not Mr. Ashe and amounted to 0. Once the mills were set it was necessary to carry out regular observations and laboratory tests on each mill. . Gunn said that with a more or less identical pressure fed mill at Tongaat with 20 %more fibre but the same crushing rate the setting of the discharge roller differed by almost 100% from that used by Mr. Mr. gave best results.Proceedings of The South African Sugar Technologists' AssociationApril 1963 107 mine the optimum position of the rollers. measure up to the standard required and needed further adjustment.
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