EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INC.

Long-Term Evolution (LTE)
STUDENT VERSION

1

Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................4
The Goal of Long Term Evolution (LTE) .................................................................................. 4 3G Networks ............................................................................................................................... 6 Comparison of 3G and 4G Networks.......................................................................................... 7 WiMax ........................................................................................................................................ 8 WiMax and Broadband Wireless Access.................................................................................... 9 WiMax Specifications............................................................................................................... 10 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) ........................................................ 11 Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO Rev C) .............................................................................. 12 Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 13

Introduction to LTE ...........................................................................................14
LTE Overview .......................................................................................................................... 14 LTE Features............................................................................................................................. 14 LTE Services............................................................................................................................. 15 Technologies Associated with LTE .......................................................................................... 16 Interoperability.......................................................................................................................... 17 New and Wider Spectrum......................................................................................................... 17 Frequency Bands for FDD and TDD ........................................................................................ 18 Support for Wide Range of Terminals...................................................................................... 19 LTE Complements HSPA+ ...................................................................................................... 20 Advantages of LTE Over HSPA+ ............................................................................................ 20 Advantages of HSPA+ Over LTE ............................................................................................ 21 Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 22

LTE Performance Overview ............................................................................23
Higher Voice Capacity Through VoIP ..................................................................................... 23 Higher User Data Rates ............................................................................................................ 23 OFDMA (Downlink) ................................................................................................................ 24 SC-FDMA (Uplink) .................................................................................................................. 25 Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) ................................................................................. 26 Advanced Antenna Systems ..................................................................................................... 27 Switched-Beam Antenna Systems ............................................................................................ 28 Adaptive Array Antennas ......................................................................................................... 29 Enhanced Interference Control ................................................................................................. 30 Single-Frequency Network Multicast Services ........................................................................ 31 LTE Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Network .............................................................................. 32 Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 33

LTE vs. Wi-Max....................................................................................................33
Introduction............................................................................................................................... 34 LTE as an Alternative Technology to WiMax.......................................................................... 34 Similarities Between WiMax and LTE..................................................................................... 35 Significant Differences ............................................................................................................. 36 WiMax vs Wi-Fi ....................................................................................................................... 37 Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 38

2

Overview of the LTE Ecosystem .....................................................................39
Introduction............................................................................................................................... 39 LTE Mobile Data Applications................................................................................................. 40 LTE Devices and Infrastructure................................................................................................ 40 Roadmap for Chipsets and Devices .......................................................................................... 41 Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 42

Overview of the LTE Physical Layer .............................................................43
Characteristics of the LTE Physical Layer ............................................................................... 43 LTE Physical Layer Design Goals............................................................................................ 44 LTE Physical Layer Specifications........................................................................................... 45 Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 46

Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) .........................47
OFDM with MIMO................................................................................................................... 48 Which Technologies Use OFDM.............................................................................................. 48 OFDM and LTE Generic Frame Structure ............................................................................... 49 Study Questions ........................................................................................................................ 50

LTE Discussion Questions......................................................................................51
In a Nutshell, What is Long Term Evolution (LTE)?............................................................... 51 What is LTE Expected to Provide?........................................................................................... 51

Glossary ...................................................................................................................52

3

Introduction
The Goal of Long Term Evolution (LTE)
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the progression of cellular technology from a 2G/3G network to a complete end-to-end broadband network. LTE technology builds upon “Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)” technology to provide high-speed data, rich multimedia, and an enhanced user experience. The final goal will be to have an all IP-based mobile architecture based on 4G functionality. With services such as WiMAX offering very high data speeds, work on developing the next generation of cellular technology has started. The UMTS cellular technology upgrade has been dubbed “LTE – Long Term Evolution”. The idea is that LTE will enable much higher speeds to be achieved along with much lower packet latency (a growing requirement for many services these days), and that LTE will enable cellular communications services to move forward to meet the needs for cellular technology to 2020 and beyond.

Figure 1: Increase in Wireless Traffic

4

LTE technology supports flexible bandwidths using OFDMA and SC-FDMA access schemes. In addition to FDD (frequency division duplexing) and TDD (time division duplexing), halfduplex FDD is allowed to support low cost User Equipment (UE). Unlike FDD, in half-duplex FDD operation a UE is not required to transmit and receive at the same time. This avoids the need for a costly duplexer in the User Equipment. The system is primarily optimized for low speeds up to 15 km/h. However, the system specifications allow mobility support in excess of 350 km/h with some performance degradation. The uplink access is based on Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA) that promises increased uplink coverage due to low “Peak-toAverage Power Ratio” (PAPR) relative to OFDMA.

Figure 2: Factors for LTE Development

The system supports downlink peak data rates of 326 Mb/s with 4 × 4 MIMO (multiple input multiple output) within 20MHz bandwidth. Since uplink MIMO is not employed in the first release of the LTE standard, the uplink peak data rates are limited to 86 Mb/s within 20MHz bandwidth. In addition to peak data rate improvements, the LTE system provides two to four times higher cell spectral efficiency. Similar improvements are observed in cell-edge throughput while maintaining same-site locations as deployed for HSPA/HSPS+. In terms of latency, the LTE radio-interface and network provides capabilities for less than 10 ms latency for the transmission of a packet from the network to User Equipment (UE) such as a cell phone or wireless laptop.

Figure 3: LTE Performance Goals

5

Handsets could vary from hand-held phones to wireless laptops used for high-speed Internet access. Component Features (Voice) 2G Wireless Phone Calls Voice Mail Features (Email) Features (Web) Speed Maximum Download for an MP3 song Simple Email Web Browsing 10 Kbps 20 minutes 3G Wireless Phone Calls/Fax Voice Mail/Roaming Send/Receive large email High-speed Web 140 Kbps to 2 Mbps . The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) started the process of defining the standard for third generation systems. and instant messaging). messaging.3G Networks 3G networks are intended to provide a global cellular communications with wide range of services including telephony. follows the first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) in wireless communications. 3G networks are wide-area cellular networks that evolved to incorporate high-speed internet access and video telephony.5 to 1. The first country that introduced 3G on a large commercial scale was Japan. The third generation. referred to as International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT-2000). 3G is the third-generation technology also known as UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) in the context of mobile phone standards. as its name suggests. Internet and broadband data. exchanging email. paging. The services associated with 3G provide the ability to transfer simultaneously both voice data (a telephone call) and non-voice data (such as downloading information.5 minutes 6 .

Comparison of 3G and 4G Networks The main difference between 3G and 4G networks is data rates. WAN 2. data and video) will attract many more customers. LTE is the next step from 2G (GSM) and 3G (based upon UMTS). as handsets morph into PDAs. Further deployment of 3G will see an explosion of personal communication devices and systems that deliver freedom of communications through mobility as well as wide-band wireless access to the Internet and advanced multimedia services.0 4G Network Voice. access technology to the Internet. Put simply. 3G wireless technologies represents a shift from voice-centric services to multimedia-oriented services like video. The 3G handsets. LTE provides significantly higher peak data rates (100 Mbps downstream/30 Mbps upstream) and is backward compatible with existing GSM and UMTS networks. transmission methods. data and fax. 1/3 Optimized antenna design. As networks evolve. Table 1-1: Comparison of 3G and 4G Networks Network Feature Major services Core Network Network Architecture Speeds Frequency Band Bandwidth Switching Technology Access Technologies Forward Error Correction Antenna Technology IP Capabilities 3G Network Primarily voice 1. though. voice. Multi-band adapters IP 5. data. In fact. more content choices will be available to satisfy customer needs. will be slightly bigger because they will have more software inside. software multiband and wideband radios All IPv6 7 . quality of service and security. Circuit/Packet switching WAN (cell based) 384 Kbps to 2 Mbps 1800-2400 MHz 5-20 MHz Circuit and Packet CDMA Convolutional rate 1/2. services. 3Gs high-speed communications (upwards of 2 Mbps) and broadband services such as enhanced multimedia (voice. Broadband IP 2. All packet switched Integration of WAN/Wireless LAN 20 to 100 Mbps mobile 2 to 8 GHz 100 MHz (or greater) All digital switching with packetized voice OFDM and MC-CDMA Concatenated coding scheme Smart Antennas. the compatibility to interface with wire-line backbone network. Service providers and network operators have already started embracing 3G wireless standards to offer new services to their techno-savvy customers. and rich multimedia 1. the appliance we carry around will become increasingly like a computer.

WiMax WiMAX is a short name for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access. Any wireless node within the coverage area would be able to access the Internet. a base station can cover up to 10 km radius (Theoretically. It is expected that WiMAX compliant systems will provide fixed wireless alternative to conventional DSL and Cable Internet. but the coverage is more. WiMAX is described in IEEE 802. however practical considerations limit it to about 10 km or 6 miles). A WiMAX receiver . Access to WiMAX base station is similar to accessing a Wireless Access Point in a WiFi network. Typically. Typically. Figure 4: WiMax Network 8 . a WiMAX system consists of two parts: • • A WiMAX Base Station: Base station consists of indoor electronics and a WiMAX tower. a base station can cover up to 50 kilo meter radius or 30 miles. It is intended to replace cable and DSL in some areas. WiMAX is an emerging technology that provides high-speed mobile data and telecommunication services.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) standard. It is a “Last Mile Broadband Internet Access” technology.The receiver and antenna could be a stand-alone box or a PCMCIA card that sits in a laptop or computer.

The DSL market. while those who do not.WiMax and Broadband Wireless Access The desire for bandwidth-intensive Internet access and other voice/data services has never been greater across all geographies and market segments. Figure 5: Broadband Wireless Access 9 . eliminating the need for extensive and expensive wireline infrastructure and providing highly flexible and cost-effective last-mile solutions. has succeeded in reaching millions of business and private subscribers. However. The need for Broadband wireless technology and specifically the introduction of the new WiMAX standard fits this agenda perfectly. require another technology solution to fill the void. and continues on a rapid growth curve. to supply the quick rollout of infrastructure to the last mile has become a difficult and expensive challenge for carriers who cannot keep pace with the demand. The base station connects to the network backbone and uses an outdoor antenna to send and receive high-speed data and voice to subscriber equipment. Typical point-to-multipoint Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) systems are composed of two key elements: a base station and subscriber equipment. based on a variety of wireline infrastructures. This has brought about a situation where subscribers who live in developed areas with broadband-ready infrastructure can enjoy all the benefits of DSL services.

and Internet access at the same time. It is also specified in 802.Up to 70 megabits per second Non-Line-of-sight (NLoS) between the user and a base station (BSS) Frequency bands . There is no need for line of sight (LOS) connections between subscriber terminals and the base station in WiMAX technology and it can support hundreds if not thousands of subscribers from a single base station.WiMax Specifications The following are major points of WiMax (Wireless MAN IEEE 802. Figure 6: WiMax Metropolitan Wireless Network 10 .16 standards that it will supports low latency applications such as voice. video.16) functionality: • • • • • Range .30-mile (50-km) radius from base station Speed .2 to 11 GHz and 10 to 66 GHz (licensed and unlicensed bands) Defines both the MAC and PHY layers and allows multiple PHY-layer specifications.

" WCDMA is the technology used in the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). the core network elements have been migrating towards the UMTS requirements with the introduction of GPRS and EDGE. It employs a 5 MHz channel bandwidth. WCDMA (or W-CDMA) stands for Wideband Code Division Multiple Access. 5MHz carrier. WCDMA is the leading 3G wireless standard in the world today.Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) UMTS. Although UMTS uses a totally different air interface. In this way the transition from GSM to the 3G UMTS architecture does not require such a large instantaneous investment. and with data rates up to 2Mbits it has the capacity to easily handle bandwidth-intensive applications such as video. data. is the third generation (3G) successor to the second generation GSM based cellular technology. and image transmission necessary for mobile broadband services. which means that it will spread its transmissions over a wide. It was adopted as a standard by the ITU under the name "IMT-2000 direct spread. WCDMA is direct spread technology. Figure 7: UMTS and LTE Architecture 11 . UMTS uses Wideband CDMA (W-CDMA) as the radio transmission standard.

You take the internet with you and surf the web in your car.Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO Rev C) Evolution Data Only/Evolution Data Optimized is a 3G mobile broadband technology used by major carriers that provides typical speeds of 600-1400kbps download (with bursts up to 2000kbps) and 500-800kbps upload “completely on a wireless network”. on the train.. you can even share the connection with multiple computers using a 3G router. in the airport. at a convention.. on the road in your RV. just like you would with your broadband connection at home! Advantages over WiFi: • • • • • • Always on with seamless roaming! Signal can travel on same cell sites as cell phones No 300-ft range from the cell tower or "hotspot" Customers can access their corporate VPN (virtual private network) anywhere they can get a cellular signal via a secure. encrypted signal Can download and run video clips in real time Can provide service to customers outside of cable-modem or DSL areas 12 .

Why is Wi-Max considered a “Break though” technology for wireless broadband? 3.Study Questions 1. How does a technology like “Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO)” compare to Wi-Fi? 13 . What are some of the major differences between Wi-Fi and WiMax? 2. How does Wi-Max compare to DSL and Cable in terms of Internet Access? 5. What are some of the major differences between 3G and 4G wireless networks? 4. What is Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)? 6.

lower operating costs and better integration with other open standards such as WLAN and WiMAX LTE Features Long Term Evolution offers the following features: • • • • • • • Up to 100 Mbps (Downlink) Up to 50 Mbps (Uplink) Simplified Architecture Advanced MIMO Spatial Antenna Technology Open Interfaces Flexible Frequency (FDD/TDD) All IP Backbone 14 . Its high data rates enable advanced multimedia applications. This is achieved by a flatter network architecture.Introduction to LTE LTE Overview The 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard represents a major advance in cellular technology. air interface and mobility will provide advanced mobile broadband services for years to come. and at a lower cost per bit. Long Term Evolution (LTE) is one of the choices for next generation broadband wireless networks and is defined by the 3GPP standards as an evolution to a variety of 3G wireless networks such as UMTS and EVDO. The LTE network architecture. A main objective of Long Term Evolution (LTE) is to support IP multimedia services. through a combination of high bit-rates and system throughput – in both the uplink and downlink – with low latency. LTE is well positioned to meet the requirements of next-generation mobile networks. LTE is an evolution of the current family of 3G mobile wireless standards. LTE is designed to meet carrier needs for high-speed data and media transport as well as high-capacity voice support well into the next decade. mass-market mobile broadband services. providing a more flexible spectrum deployment. improved spectral efficiency. including VoIP and highspeed data applications. with an “always-on” end-user experience comparable to that of fixed internet access. network interfaces and protocols. It will enable operators to offer high performance.

LTE Services Long Term Evolution (LTE) will offer the following services: • • • • • • • Mobile VoIP Data (High-Speed) Text (SMS)/Multi-Media (MMS) Video-on-Demand Social Networking Mobile Conferencing M-Commerce (Banking/Advertisement) Figure 8: LTE High-Level Architecture 15 .

One change is that a number of the functions previously handled by the core network have been transferred out to the periphery. MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output).Technologies Associated with LTE The development of Long Term Evolution is associated with the following technologies: • • WiMax-technology used for Wireless Metropolitan Networks (WMANs) OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing).OFDM technology has been incorporated into LTE because it enables high-data bandwidths to be transmitted efficiently while still providing a high degree of resilience to reflections and interference. these additional signal paths can be used to advantage and are able to be used to increase the throughput. SAE (System Architecture Evolution). • • • 16 . SC-FDMA (Single Carrier-Frequency Division Multiple Access).One of the main problems with previous telecommunications systems concerned distortion from reflected waves. The access schemes differ between the uplink and downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) is used in the downlink.Frequency Division Multiple Access) is used in the uplink.an important factor for battery power equipment.With the very high data rate and low latency requirements for 3G LTE. In this way latency times can be reduced and data can be routed more directly to its destination. Essentially this provides a much "flatter" form of network architecture. By using MIMO. SC-FDMA is used in view of the fact that its peak to average power ratio is small and the more constant power enables high RF power amplifier efficiency in the mobile handsets .SC-FDMA(Single Carrier . it is necessary to evolve the system architecture to enable the improved performance to be achieved.

These include IMT-2000 core frequency bands (1. the actual performance achievable with LTE depends on the bandwidth allocated for services. LTE is attractive for strategies focused on network capacity.7 GHz-2. a number of candidate bands below 5 GHz have also been identified by the ITU as being potentially suitable for IMT services such as LTE. To its advantage. demand for high bandwidth is leading to a greater utilization of wider bandwidth transmission. Interoperability between infrastructure and terminals is key with every technology. While the exploitation of frequencies higher than 5 GHz for the provision of extremely high data rates through LTE network deployments is feasible. considered by many parties in the mobile telecommunications value chain as a cost-efficient option to address increasing traffic demands. 1800 MHz. whereas at lower frequencies it can provide ubiquitous cost-effective coverage. In general.Interoperability LTE hardware from multiple vendors is currently being tested for compatibility with older technologies such as GSM and 3G networks. As such. In practical terms. Outside current allocations.25 MHz to 20 MHz.1 GHz) and portions of the UHF band recently identified at the World Radio Communication Conference (WRC-07) for mobile services in some parts of the world. 17 . Deployed at higher frequencies. LTE’s flexibility to operate at a scalable bandwidth also allows operators to deploy LTE in their existing spectrum allocations. The availability of commercial LTE terminals from multiple vendors and proven interoperability with networks providers is a prerequisite for any operator to launch commercial LTE services. This gives operators considerable flexibility in their commercial and technical strategies.5 GHz). as well as at 850-900 MHz. and not the choice of spectrum band itself. challenges are posed regarding the provision of wide area/national coverage at realistic cost. and it is particularly fundamental in such a new technology like LTE. LTE is designed to work with legacy technologies such as: • • • • • GSM 3G Networks WCDMA CDMA-2000 WiMax New and Wider Spectrum A key characteristic of LTE technology is its suitability for deployment in scalable bandwidths ranging from 1. it can operate in all 3GPP frequency bands in paired and unpaired spectrum allocations. AWS spectrum (1.9-2 GHz) and extension bands (2. This could be achieved via re-farming. LTE networks could be rolled out in any of the bands already harmonized for use by 3GPP systems.

In general. FDD is more efficient and represents higher device and infrastructure volumes. but TDD is a good complement. as shown in Table 1. for example. except for the radio unit.Frequency Bands for FDD and TDD LTE operates with both Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) and Time Division Duplex (TDD). in spectrum center gaps. Fifteen different FDD frequency bands and eight different TDD frequency bands have been defined in the 3GPP for LTE use. Both methods allow multiple users to share bandwidth. TDD operators will for the first time be able to enjoy the economies of scale that come with broadly supported FDD products. Leading suppliers’ first product releases will support both duplex schemes. Because LTE hardware is the same for FDD and TDD. Table 1: FDD and TDD Spectrum Bands 18 . LTE can be used in both paired (FDD) and unpaired (TDD) spectrum.

LTE supports a wide range of terminals – In addition to mobile phones. MBRs enable operators to provide broadband service cost-efficiently to all users who already have desktop computers with Ethernet connections or notebooks with WLAN connectivity. most people think “mobile phones” when cellular technology comes into question. The main difference is that the broadband service is not carried over copper cables. These terminals may range from cell phones. and laptops with mobile broadband connectivity. Today. as well as LTE through standardized mobile broadband modules. many computer and consumer electronic devices. MBRs can be compared to fixed DSL modems with Ethernet. Many companies in the consumer electronics business will be able to deploy mobile broadband technology cost-effectively to further enhance the user value of their offerings. all these devices can have ubiquitous mobile broadband coverage from day one. will incorporate embedded LTE modules. WLAN or POTS connections for devices at home or in the office. gaming devices and cameras. such as notebooks. devices such as notebooks. hand-held mobile devices.Support for Wide Range of Terminals Long Term Evolution (LTE) will support many types of terminals or user devices. Mobile Broadband Routers (MBRs) offer another opportunity to use mobile broadband efficiently. Figure 9: LTE Supports Many Types of Terminals 19 . gaming devices and video cameras will operate over existing mobile broadband technologies such as HSPA and CDMA2000. Blackberrys. In coming years. but through the radio network. ultra-portables. ultra-portables. Because LTE supports handover and roaming to existing mobile networks.

5ms instead of 2ms for HSPA+ • • • • • 20 .LTE Complements HSPA+ The 3GPP roadmap from HSPA to HSPA+ and then to LTE has been well defined in standards development work. protecting an operator’s investment in the network HSPA+ provides a strategic performance roadmap advantage for incumbent GSM-HSPA operators providing OFDMA-equivalent performance in 5X5 MHz spectrum allocations with only incremental investment HSPA+ will significantly increase HSPA capacity as well as reduce latency below 50 msec The first phase of HSPA+ with 64QAM is already being deployed by some operators providing a peak theoretical downlink throughput rate of 21. Of course the data rate will increase when the BW is increased. Similarly with HSPA+ only FDD mode of operation is possible whereas with LTE FDD or TDD mode is possible. With HSPA+ only 5MHz bandwidths possible. Spectrum Efficiency: Better spectrum efficiency. Some of the key features of HSPA+ and LTE include the following: • • HSPA+ is a simple upgrade to HSPA networks today. HSPA+ gives 42Mbps in DL and 11Mbps in UL Ultra Low Latency: 10ms instead of 50ms for HSPA+ Short TTI: 0.6 Mbps • • Advantages of LTE Over HSPA+ • Flexible Spectrum usage possible with LTE: LTE will be the same whether the bandwidth available is 5MHz or 20MHz. by a factor of 2 least over HSPA+ Simpler Architecture: LTE has a much simpler and relatively flat architecture compared to the legacy UMTS network in HSPA+ Higher Data Rates: LTE gives DL data rates of 144Mbps and UL of 57Mbps.

Also in case of LTE the number of components are reduced but since they work in a different way. it would be easier and less costly to upgrade. 21 . new components will be required. • Much less investment in infrastructure: Since HSPA+ is evolution of HSPA which is already being deployed. With LTE since its based on OFDM a lot of new components will be required.Advantages of HSPA+ Over LTE • Will be ready much before LTE: HSPA+ technology should be available in Q1 2009 whereas the earliest with LTE would be sometime in 2010.

Is LTE interoperable and backward compatible with legacy technologies? 4. Name some types of LTE terminals and services they support 6. What are some of the major features of Long Term Evolution? 2. What are some of the technologies that LTE is based upon? 3.Study Questions 1. How does LTE complement technologies such as HSPA (High-Speed Packet Access)? 22 . What services will be offered with LTE? 5.

There are many dimensions to a UE category but the most significant is probably the supported data rates. The end-to-end QoS control ensures that the LTE provides Telco-quality VoIP.LTE Performance Overview Higher Voice Capacity Through VoIP LTE deployment will mean higher voice capacity with mobile VoIP.4 Mbps on the downlink and 50 to 86. These rates represent the absolute maximum the system could support and actual peak data rates will be scaled back by the introduction of User Equipment categories. Higher User Data Rates The estimated peak data rates deemed attainable for the LTE system in ideal conditions are very high. rich voice services that can be targeted to specific market segments for increased operator revenue. The voice call continuity (VCC) service in the IMS core will ensure that the VoIP service is interoperable with the circuitswitched voice and VoIP services on the existing UMTS networks. Carrying voice traffic on the data channels not only enables a high-capacity voice service. It enables a suite of new. and range from 100 to 326. Figure 10: LTE Peak Data Rates 23 . High-capacity voice service on LTE will be supported by using VoIP over the LTE data channels. it also enables operators to meet all possible service needs by efficient mixing of voice and data traffic.4 Mbps on the uplink depending on the antenna configuration and modulation depth.

channel equalization is simplified as OFDM may be viewed as using many slowly-modulated narrowband signals rather than one rapidly-modulated wideband signal. and frequency-selective fading due to multipath. attenuation of high frequencies in a long copper wire. The advantage is that light will be distributed across the hall equally as compared to a single lamp and increase redundancy—a defect in one lamp will not affect the light in the hall. As the signals from multiple distant transmitters may be combined constructively. This mechanism also facilitates the design of single-frequency networks. For example. maintaining total data rates similar to conventional single carrier modulation schemes of the same bandwidth. In OFDM the signal is first split into independent sub-carriers and these closely-spaced orthogonal sub-carriers are used to carry the data. narrowband interference. where several adjacent transmitters send the same signal simultaneously at the same frequency.OFDMA (Downlink) OFDMA is a multi-user version of a digital modulation scheme called Orthogonal FrequencyDivision Multiplexing (OFDM). Figure 11: Multipath Fading With the help of OFDM. The primary advantage of OFDM over single-carrier scheme is its ability to cope with severe channel conditions without complex equalization filters. A general analogy for OFDM can be of many small lamps in a hall rather than a single big lamp. rather than interfering as would typically occur in a traditional single-carrier system. one for each sub-carrier. 24 . Each sub-carrier is modulated with a conventional modulation scheme (such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase shift keying) at a low symbol rate. it is feasible to insert a guard interval between the OFDM. The data is divided into several parallel data streams or channels. With the duration of each symbol being long. making it possible to handle time-spreading and eliminate inter-symbol interference (ISI).

Although it is mandatory for the mobiles to have capability to be able to receive all 2048 sub-carriers. As a result it is necessary to employ a mode of transmission that has as near a constant power level when operating. Unfortunately OFDM has a high peak to average ratio. While this is not a problem for the base station where power is not a particular problem. it is necessary that it operates in as efficient mode as possible. 25 . The lower forms of modulation.Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiplex which is a hybrid format. Signals that have a high peak to average ratio and require linear amplification do not lend themselves to the use of efficient RF power amplifiers. LTE uses a modulation scheme known as SC-FDMA .The OFDM technology used in LTE comprises a maximum of 2048 different sub-carriers having a spacing of 15 kHz. it is still necessary to ensure that the mobiles use as little battery power as possible. Only when there is a sufficient signal to noise ratio can the higher-order modulation format be used. not all need to be transmitted by the base station which only needs to be able to support the transmission of 72 sub-carriers. it is unacceptable for the mobile. This can be significantly affected by the form of radio frequency modulation and signal format. SC-FDMA (Uplink) For the LTE uplink. As a result. a different concept is used for the access technique. (QPSK) do not require such a large signal to noise ratio but are not able to send the data as fast. This combines the low peak to average ratio offered by single-carrier systems with the multipath interference resilience and flexible subcarrier frequency allocation that OFDM provides. Even though battery performance is improving all the time. In this way all mobiles will be able to talk to any base station. SC-FDMA is a hybrid transmission scheme combining the low peak to average (PAR) of single carrier schemes with the frequency allocation flexibility and multi-path protection. One of the key parameters that affects all mobiles is that of battery life. Within the OFDM signal it is possible to choose between three types of modulation: • • • QPSK (= 4QAM) 2 bits per symbol 16QAM 4 bits per symbol 64QAM 6 bits per symbol The exact format is chosen depending upon the prevailing conditions. With the RF power amplifier that transmits the radio frequency signal via the antenna to the base station being the highest power item within the mobile. The implementation is called Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA).

Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) MIMO (multiple input. This process. The antennas at each end of the communications circuit are combined to minimize errors and optimize data speed. proportionally boosts the data-transmission speed by a factor equal to the number of transmitting antennas. since all data is transmitted both in the same frequency band and with separate spatial signatures. In addition. multiple output) is an antenna technology for wireless communications in which multiple antennas are used at both the source (transmitter) and the destination (receiver). which can process the data flows and put them back together. this technique utilizes spectrum very efficiently. The MIMO system uses multiple antennas to simultaneously transmit data. multiple output). Figure 12: MIMO Smart Antenna Technology 26 . called spatial multiplexing. the others being MISO (multiple input. single output) and SIMO (single input. in small pieces to the receiver. MIMO is one of several forms of smart antenna technology.

There are two types of smart antennas: • Switched Beam Antennas have fixed beams of transmission. Since the antennas can both “listen” and “talk. are emerging to achieve the goal of 4G systems such as high rate.Advanced Antenna Systems Smart antenna systems are a very important part of 4G networks and LTE. One technology. In the early 90s. spatial multiplexing. many transmission schemes were proposed. minimize interference. gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. • Smart antennas provide the following benefits: • Optimize available power • Increase base station range and coverage • Reuse available spectrum • Increase bandwidth • Lengthen battery life of wireless devices . tune. to cater the growing data rate needs of data communication. and can switch from one predefined beam to another when the user with the phone moves throughout the sector Adaptive Array Antennas (as seen in Figure 8) represent the most advanced smart antenna approach to date using a variety of new signal processing algorithms to locate and track the user. and maximize intended signal reception. Multiple “smart antennas” can be employed to help find. The performance of wireless communications depends on an antenna system.” a smart antenna can send signals back and forth in the same direction that they came from. and turn up signal information. and long range communications. Recently. This means that the antenna systems can transmit and receive data with high capacity and in a “full-duplex” method. high reliability. 27 .

Instead of shaping the directional antenna pattern with the metallic properties and physical design of a single element (like a sectorized antenna). choose from one of several predetermined. Figure 13: Switch-Beam Antenna 28 . These antenna systems detect signal strength. fixed beams. and switch from one beam to another as the mobile moves throughout the sector. singleelement approaches. The switched-beam approach further subdivides macrosectors into several microsectors as a means of improving range and capacity. The design of such systems involves high-gain.Switched-Beam Antenna Systems Switched-beam antenna systems form multiple fixed beams with heightened sensitivity in particular directions. switched-beam systems combine the outputs of multiple antennas in such a way as to form finely sectorized (directional) beams with more spatial selectivity than can be achieved with conventional. In terms of radiation patterns. narrow azimuth antenna elements. Each microsector contains a predetermined fixed-beam pattern with the greatest sensitivity located in the center of the beam and less sensitivity elsewhere. switched-beam is an extension of the current microcellular or cellular sectorization method of splitting a typical cell.

and minimizing interfering signals. however.Adaptive Array Antennas Adaptive antenna technology represents the most advanced smart antenna approach to date. tracking. Using a variety of new signal-processing algorithms. the adaptive system takes advantage of its ability to locate and track various types of signals to dynamically minimize interference and maximize intended signal reception. Both systems attempt to increase gain according to the location of the user. Figure 14: Adaptive Array Antenna 29 . only the adaptive system provides optimal gain while simultaneously identifying.

Figure 15: Advanced Interference Control 30 . the cells in a Time Division Duplex (TDD) network typically use the same uplink downlink configuration together with inter-cell synchronization to a common time reference to align the switch-points among all the cells. Two major techniques to minimize interference in OFDM systems: • • Limiting the use of some of the OFDM resource blocks reduces or eliminates intercell collisions at the expense of under-utilizing radio resources. This avoids interference between the two links as uplink and downlink transmissions do not occur at the same time. This is especially important in macro deployments with antennas placed above rooftops with possible line-of-sight-like propagation conditions between base station antennas. the basic unit for scheduling and resource allocation is a resource block representing a number of sub-carriers allocated for a user in the time and frequency domains (upper part). In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing.Enhanced Interference Control To avoid severe interference between uplink and downlink transmissions. In this case base station-to-base station interference may otherwise severely degrade uplink reception of victim base stations. Intercell interference is caused by collisions between resource blocks that are used simultaneously by several cells (lower part). Limiting the throughput of the system so that maximum utilization of resources does not occur.

Multicast Services) feature can simultaneously transmit the same media signals using LTE eNBs (Evolved Node B) to multiple recipients in the same geographic region. the two-way capability of the MBMS system allows users to dynamically interact with the broadcast network. This means that the MBMS system can provide one-way bearer services (multicasting and broadcasting media) and user controlled media streaming. A audio broadcast (local radio station) is also connected to some of the LTE cells. In addition to the shared transmission capability. Voice broadcast (traffic alerts) are connected to cells in the system area. A television station (a or a video subscription channel) is broadcast to all the cells within the LTE system area. There is no need for a centralized radio network controller in LTE. This figure shows how the MBMS system can be used to provide radio and television broadcast services.Single-Frequency Network Multicast Services LTE was designed to allow for shared (multicast) types of services such as digital broadcast radio and digital video broadcast. Each TV subscription viewer must use a key (previously provided) so they can receive and decode the television signal. The eMBMS (Evolved Multimedia Broadcast. The eNB is a complex base station that handles radio communications with multiple devices in the cell and carries out radio resource management and handover decisions. Figure 16: E-MBMS Architecture 31 .

non-3GPP. the EPC is being standardized as the core network for all access mechanisms. Figure 17: Evolved Packet Core Network 32 . maintain seamless mobility and provide consistent and optimized services. 3G. last minute short cuts and a lack of standard-based IOTs – just to name a few things. and session/subscriber management. non3GPP and potentially even fixed access networks. • • What is your rollout plan for integrating all of the access networks into the EPC? Are you considering how 2G. However. However. the business drivers of emerging LTE radio access impact the EPC as much including fast and efficient introduction of new multimedia services and applications.LTE Evolved Packet Core (EPC) Network The Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is the next generation multimedia core network for 4G access and is required to deploy LTE radio technology. 3G. the wireless industry tends to lower the priority of the packet core. The industry tends to couple the LTE radio (the E-UTRAN) and the Evolved Packet Core (EPC). 4G. lower overall cost through intelligence and optimization. and even fixed networks access the core. leaving the EPC exposed to mediocrity. It provides optimized access for 2G. 2G. The planning around the EPC must consider how all of these access networks enter the core. and obtain consistent and optimized services? The "open" EPC allows the operator to realize a truly converged packet core supporting all access technologies. 3G. maintain seamless mobility. interoperate with legacy systems. Due to the sizable investment required to roll out LTE radio access. non-3GPP. including: LTE. and even wireline networks.

Why is MIMO antenna technology a value-add to LTE networks? 4. Discuss the benefits of using Single Carrier FDMA (SC-FDMA) on the uplink for LTE? 5. How will technologies such as Voice Over IP benefit from LTE? 2. How does LTE avoid massive interference during the uplink and downlink processes? 33 . What are some of the benefits of using “Smart Antenna” technology? 6. Why is OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Access) a superior technology on the downlink for LTE? 3.Study Questions 1.

LTE vs. However. especially in dense urban areas. speeds of up to 7. it has a crucial incumbent advantage. voice. although LTE may on paper be some years off.11n wireless local area network (WLAN) standard. video and messaging traffic. Even prior to the arrival of LTE. and enable services such as HDTV on mobiles and TVs without the need for a fixed-line or dish in the home. LTE as an Alternative Technology to WiMax An alternative high-speed mobile technology that could be used instead of. in later releases. This may help provide operators keen to control investment with the confidence to wait for LTE technology to reach maturity before upgrading their existing infrastructure. 34 . The crucial difference is that. LTE runs on an evolution of the existing UMTS infrastructure already used by over 80 per cent of mobile subscribers globally. which requires a new network to be built. The higher “Signal to Noise Ratio” (SNR) at the receiver enabled by MIMO. which is being used by more than five million subscribers worldwide. The upper layers of LTE are based upon TCP/IP. WiMAX is widely recognized as being the first that will be brought to market. or to run alongside. WiMAX is LTE. Speeds that are fast enough to potentially replace wired broadband connections with wireless. rather than invest in a brand new WiMAX network. There is also no doubt that the advent of WiMAX has injected a new sense of urgency to the LTE standardization effort. it will bring with it many advantages. LTE uses OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) and. as well as a host of other exciting services currently seen as too bandwidth-hungry to be delivered using existing mobile technologies. The world's first large scale mobile WiMAX deployment is due in the United States in 2009. WiMAX and LTE are both in different stages of development. unlike WiMAX. along with OFDM. MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) antenna technology similar to that used in the IEEE 802. Wi-Max Introduction WiMAX and Long-Term Evolution (LTE) are two different (but not necessarily competing) technologies that will eventually be used to achieve data speeds of up to 100 Mbps. LTE will support mixed data.2 Mbps are currently being reached by existing HSPA technology. not least the fact that operators will be able to evolve their existing infrastructure and base station real estate to deliver it. This means that even though development and deployment of the LTE standard may lag Mobile WiMAX. which will likely result in an all-IP network similar to the current state of wired communications. provides improved coverage and throughput.

an added expense even for those carriers that see LTE as an upgrade path to GSM. OFDM will be used in WiMax. and both have Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO). It works by splitting up signals among multiple narrow frequencies. In tough transmission locations. both technologies provide the same approach for downlinks. a technology that supports sustained video and multimedia transmissions and is already being deployed in some non-LTE and WiMax networks. but a technology called SC-FDMA (Single CarrierFrequency Division Multiple Access) will be used in LTE. Needless to say. SC-FDMA is theoretically designed to work more efficiently with lower-power end-user devices than OFDM. MIMO could be a relatively inexpensive means of improving reception to users. it is complex technology that will require sophisticated base stations. That means a substantial investment is in store for carriers wanting to deploy LTE. which means that information is sent over two or more antennas from a single cell site to improve reception. 35 . with bits of data sent at once in parallel. The cost of a national WiMax network will be billions of dollars. Uplinks from the user to the cell tower will probably be different in the two technologies. The downlinks from the Base Station to the end user in both LTE and WiMax are enhanced with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing). Many industry analysts feel that LTE is not a direct replacement for GSM technology since newer equipment will be required to deploy LTE networks. such as a dense downtown area.Similarities Between WiMax and LTE LTE (Long Term Evolution) and WiMax have the following similarities: • • • both use Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna technology both use OFDM both expect speeds to be in the 100 Mbps range For example.

and 5.Cannot build a distributed network or transport backhaul GHz.3-GHz. 3. LTE can build on 3G infrastructure WiMax Issues Built on IP and meant for data. LTE is better for voice since it WiMax was not engineered incorporates more TDM for voice networks but built technology. with WiMAX (microwave). WiMax has a small customer base and investments may have greater risk than LTE LTE may require new WiMax is part of existing hardware hardware such as laptops and other wireless devices WiMax requires new WiMax will be more costly to equipment and infrastructure deploy than LTE 36 . Limited spectral capacity WiMax lacks high-quality bands.8-GHz across LTE as well as you can frequency bands.Significant Differences The following are some of the major differences between WiMax and LTE.5. upon WiFi. 2. Not deployed in volume.5-GHz. LTE (Long Term Evolution) 3G based and voice traffic design Operates in the 700 MHz spectrum LTE is the next generation GSM Variety of bands and spectrums Has established customer base with 3G networks User Equipment must have special hardware and plug-in cards. WiMax was not meant for voice networks Operates in the 2.

WiFi technology adds mobility and convenience to wired Local-Area Networks (LANs). WiMax is supposed to compete with and possibly replace cable and DSL in some areas. WiFi is a standard for wireless LANs meant to span multiple floors or multiple buildings.WiMax vs Wi-Fi WiMax is a technology that is intended to form large Wireless Metropolitan-Area Networks (WMANs). and more . it is extremely likely that WiMAX technologies will also be used as the wireless backhaul for those networks. So. Figure 18: WiMax Cell (Base Station) At the present time. WiMax was designed to deliver a Metropolitan-Area Broadband Wireless Access service. LTE" comparison is not an either/or proposition. The most obvious difference between WiMax and WiFi is the type of networks they produce. traffic synchronization. 37 . the "WiMAX vs. Also. as well as the backhaul technology for wireless voice and data networks. WiMax can support transmission ranges up to 30 miles. WiMAX is already being used around the world as an ideal wireless backhaul technology for bandwidth intensive applications such as wireless video surveillance. neither WiMAX or LTE are expected to displace the use of Wi-Fi (due the widespread adoption and level of consumer comfort with Wi-Fi). as LTE networks begin to roll out.and it will continue to be used for that exact purpose. while WiFi supports transmission ranges from 100 to 200 meters.

5. Discuss the ways in which LTE and WiMax might eventually be complementary technologies. Discuss the advantage that LTE has over WiMax in terms of a customer base.Study Questions 1. 38 . Name some of the risks associated with deploying WiMax networks. Why does the 3G base of LTE make it cheaper to deploy than WiMax? 2. 4. Why are LTE networks easier and cheaper to build than WiMax networks? 3.

application and platform developers. the network itself will provide service development platforms which will allow third party developers to provide network-based capabilities. 39 .Overview of the LTE Ecosystem Introduction The Long Term Evolution (LTE) ecosystem will be larger than that for any communications technology to date. content and services providers which will enable end users to enjoy the performance benefits and wide-scale availability of LTE technology. device and component vendors. The ecosystem will include the regulatory and standards bodies. service providers. the consumer and business markets served. and the business models of the participants. It is not only the operators. Just as device platforms have opened to allow thousands of applications and services to be developed and bought by consumers.

and the volumes of LTE related chipsets will have a direct impact on the range and sophistication of LTE enabled devices. In this section of the report we discuss a number of services and applications that received the most interest in our survey. high data rate capability and low latency. the vendors are the main drivers in the ecosystem. They work interactively in partnerships and alliances to help build their own success and that of the industry. will provide a better platform for many varied services and applications. LTE Devices and Infrastructure The vendor community provides the foundation of the LTE ecosystem. video services. Device vendors and software developers interact to define and develop mobile operating systems and applications. During the early stages of standards development. applications and content. the variety of services. namely general data services. Our industry survey indicates general agreement that LTE networks will provide the best opportunity to date for existing and new services and applications to benefit from mobile broadband networks. This is reinforced by the growing support for LTE within the operator community. as it allows new innovative companies to bring new ideas to market. software developers and operators to bring more services/applications to the mobile user market. infrastructure suppliers and test system vendors. user device. In this section of the report we will discuss the chipset. service and content providers have increased in importance as they cooperate with device vendors. architecture design and systems development. without incurring the costs of HSPA+ upgrades. The industry was also in common agreement that increased data usage on mobile broadband networks will drive the deployment and take-up of LTE services. interactive services.LTE Mobile Data Applications LTE networks. this aspect of the industry is very intertwined and successfully so. voice services. However. One major European operator is reported to be planning to move from HSPA to LTE. location-based services and machine to machine services. The timing of demand. 40 . With the introduction of mobile data services. with their high capacity.

Figure 19: Roadmap for LTE Chipsets and End Devices 41 .Roadmap for Chipsets and Devices The following is an example of a roadmap for LTE chipsets and end devices.

Name three major components of the LTE ecosystem. What are some new revenue streams to be produced by LTE services? 6. 2. Name the major forces driving the development of the LTE ecosystem. What are some of major forces driving LTE development? 4.Study Questions 1. Why must LTE devices be multi-standard compliant? 3. How do devices drive traffic in terms of the development of LTE and 4G networks? 5. 42 .

Overview of the LTE Physical Layer Characteristics of the LTE Physical Layer The LTE Physical Layer provides data transport services to the higher layers. the physical layer performs a series of functions that include the following: • • • • • • • • • • • • Error detection on the transport channels Forward error correction (FEC) encoding/decoding of the transport channels Hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) soft-combining Rate matching and mapping of coded transport channels to physical channels Power weighting of physical channels Modulation and demodulation of physical channels Frequency and time synchronization Radio characteristics measurements and indication to higher layers MIMO antenna processing Transmit diversity Beamsteering RF processing Figure 20: LTE Physical Layer Interface to Transport 43 . To enable data transport service to the higher layers.

0. It is being developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) with the aim of moving cellular towards a packet-based all-IP network. 5. Ultimately. IP Broadband Mobile network High data rates (100 Mbps downlink/50 Mbps uplink) Supports scalable bandwidth: 1. flexible channel bandwidths and a MIMO architecture. 4. flexible and innovative processing in base stations and handsets 44 .LTE Physical Layer Design Goals Long Term Evolution (LTE). the LTE Physical Layer uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) on the downlink (DL) and Single Carrier – Frequency Division Multiple Access (SCFDMA) on the uplink (UL). 3. one of the wireless industry's 4G solutions rolling out over the next several years. 2. The LTE Physical Layer employs some advanced technologies that are new to cellular applications. presents a number of lofty goals. These include Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) data transmission. LTE is designed with the following goals in mind: 1. Mobility: Low speeds: <15km/hr. high-performance up to 120 km/hr 9. 6.5. 10. Multi-Antenna Solutions 8.25. 2. The LTE Physical Layer is a highly efficient means of conveying both data and control information between an “Enhanced Base Station” (eNodeB) and mobile user equipment (UE). OFDMA allows data to be directed to or from multiple users on a subcarrier-by-subcarrier basis for a specified number of symbol periods. and 20 MHz Low Latency (10 ms/User Plane/50 ms Control Plane) High Spectral Efficiency Frequency Domain Channel Adaptation (Selects user and data rates based upon instantaneous channel quality) 7. the increased complexity in LTE will require very powerful. In addition. 5. which in some cases requires multiple antennas. Coverage: Full performance up to 5 km LTE reaches these goals by using several concepts that add significantly to the complexity of the technology. LTE is the next-generation of the 3G UMTS wireless protocol. These include more complex modulation schemes in the download and upload directions.

coding of Layer 1 and Layer 2 control information. Physical Layer Procedures: describes the characteristics of the physical layer Procedures including synchronization procedures. 4. and how they are mapped into the frame structure. and how these measurement results are reported to higher layers and the network. This specification includes measurements for handover support. and rate matching 3. CQI (Channel Quality Indicator) reporting and MIMO feedback. cell search and timing synchronization. channel coding schemes. 45 . interleaving. random access procedure. Physical Channels and Modulation: the uplink and downlink physical signals and physical channels. Physical Layer Measurements: describes the characteristics of the physical layer Measurements to be performed in Layer 1 by the User Equipment (UE) and e-Node B (eNB). 2. Included is the processing for the support of multiple antenna techniques. power control. including multiplexing.LTE Physical Layer Specifications The LTE Physical Layer has four major specifications: 1. how they are modulated. Multiplexing and Channel Coding: describes the transport channel and control channel data processing.

Name some of the major components of the LTE Physical Layer. Name the four major specifications for the LTE Physical Layer. 46 . What types of data does the LTE Physical Layer process? 4. 6. What are the two Multiple Access Schemes supported by the LTE Physical Layer? 5. 2. What other layers does the LTE Physical Layer interact with? 3.Study Questions 1. Discuss some of the characteristics of the LTE Frame Types.

There are two methods to perform duplexing: • • FDD (Frequency Division Duplex)-Uses one frequency for the downlink.Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is a broadband multi-carrier modulation method that offers superior performance and benefits over older. etc. In OFDMA. TDD (Time Division Duplex)-uses the same frequency for uplink and downlink but uses different time slots. Since multiple versions of the signal interfere with each other (inter symbol interference (ISI)) it becomes very hard to extract the original information. such as a cable or wireless system. This is useful because in a typical terrestrial broadcasting scenario there are multipath-channels (i.). sub-channels are formed by different frequencies. more traditional single-carrier modulation methods because it is a better fit with today’s high-speed data requirements and operation in the UHF and microwave spectrum. the transmitted signal arrives at the receiver using various paths of different length). a second frequency for the uplink. Each signal travels within its own unique frequency range (carrier). Figure 21: Time Division Multiplexing or Frequency Division Multiplexing 47 . Orthogonal FDM's (OFDM) spread spectrum technique distributes the data over a large number of carriers that are spaced apart at precise frequencies. This spacing provides the "orthogonality" in this technique which prevents the demodulators from seeing frequencies other than their own.e. which is modulated by the data (text. The benefits of OFDM are high spectral efficiency. voice. sub-channels are formed by various time slots. resiliency to RF interference. Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a technology that transmits multiple signals simultaneously over a single transmission path. In TDMA. and lower multi-path distortion. video.

Specifically. the spacing between the sub-carriers. 16QAM. Multiple Output) used with OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) is a technology that uses multiple antennas to transmit and receive radio signals. In E-UTRA. The cyclic prefix is used to maintain orthogonal divisions between the sub-carriers even for a time-dispersive radio channel. 16QAM or 64QAM. downlink modulation schemes QPSK. The OFDM symbols are grouped into resource blocks. The resource blocks have a total size of 180kHz in the frequency domain and 0. In addition. Which Technologies Use OFDM OFDM is used with the following technologies: • • • • Digital Broadcast Radio WiFi (802.11a/b/g/n) WiMax LTE 48 . OFDM with MIMO MIMO (Multiple Input. One resource element carries QPSK.Long Term Evolution uses OFDM for the downlink(from the base station to the terminal). In the frequency domain. OFDM meets the LTE requirement for spectrum flexibility and enables cost-efficient solutions for very wide carriers with high peak rates.5ms in the time domain. Each 1ms Transmission Time Interval (TTI) consists of two slots (Tslot). ∆f. With 64QAM. MIMO-OFDM will allow service providers to deploy a Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) system that has Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) functionality. OFDM uses a large number of narrow sub-carriers for multi-carrier transmission. MIMO-OFDM takes advantage of the multi-path properties of environments using base station antennas that do not have LOS (Line-of-Sight). and 64QAM are available. The basic LTE downlink physical resource can be seen as a time-frequency grid. the OFDM symbol duration time is 1/∆f + cyclic prefix. each resource element carries six bits. is 15kHz.

In OFDMA. users are allocated a specific number of sub-carriers for a predetermined amount of time. The generic frame structure allows the system to select the following: • • • Channel Configuration (Modulation type and bandwidth) Waveform Length (Number of slots and time duration) Frequency (each slot has a separate frequency) Figure 22: LTE Generic Frame Structure 49 . These are referred to as physical resource blocks (PRBs) in the LTE specifications. it is vastly superior to packetoriented approaches in terms of efficiency and latency. LTE is very flexible in terms of bandwidth and frame structure. PRBs thus have both a time and frequency dimension.OFDM and LTE Generic Frame Structure OFDMA is an excellent choice of multiplexing scheme for the LTE downlink. Although it involves added complexity in terms of resource scheduling. Allocation of PRBs is handled by a scheduling function at the LTE Base Station (eNodeB).

Multiple Outputs) technology such a good fit for OFDM? 3. Why is data sent over a system using OFDM resistant to RF interference? 4. Why is the LTE “Frame Structure” considered to be flexible? 50 . How does OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) work? 2.Study Questions 1. What is meant by the “Spectral Efficiency of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)”? 5. Why is MIMO (Multiple Inputs. What is a major weakness of using OFDM compared to single-carrier modulation techniques? 6.

5 MHz. 5 MHz. Multimode devices will function across LTE/3G or even LTE/3G/2G.LTE Discussion Questions In a Nutshell. LTE uses Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) on the downlink. 2. 10 MHz. 51 . What is Long Term Evolution (LTE)? Long Term Evolution (LTE). covering 1. depending on market circumstances. is a new radio platform technology with standards completed in March 2009 in 3GPP Release 8. after which time operators might deploy Fourth Generation (4G) networks using LTE-Advanced technology as a foundation. Reduced latency to 10 milliseconds (ms) round-trip time between user equipment and the base station and to less than 100 ms transition time from inactive to active • • LTE will address the market needs of at least the next decade. UMTS. 15 MHz and 20 MHz (1.25 MHz. Trials are planned for 2009/2010 with initial deployments in 2010 to 2011. What is LTE Expected to Provide? • • • • Downlink peak data rates up to 326 Mbps using 20 MHz spectrum channels and 4x4 MIMO Uplink peak data rates up to 86 Mbps using 20 MHz spectrum channels and 64 QAM Operation in both FDD and TDD modes Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz. following EDGE. LTE is part of the GSM evolutionary path beyond third generation (3G) technology. In the same way that 3G coexists with second generation (2G) systems in integrated networks. LTE systems will coexist with 3G systems as well as 2G systems. which is well-suited to achieve high peak data rates in high spectrum bandwidth. HSPA (HSDPA and HSUPA combined) and HSPA Evolution (HSPA+).6 MHz channels are under consideration for unpaired frequency bands) An increase in spectral efficiency of two to four times that of High-Speed Packet Access (Release 6).

Multicast Services eNB/eNode B The eNB is a complex base station that handles radio communications with multiple devices in the cell and carries out radio resource management and handover decisions. FDD Frequency Division Duplex/duplexing HDTV High Definition Television 52 . It is part of the CDMA-2000 family of standards. eMBMS Evolved Multimedia Broadcast. CQI Channel Quality Indicator DSL Digital Subscriber Loop-family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of the Public Switched Telephone Network.Glossary Term 3GPP Meaning 3rd Generation Partnership Project CDMA Code division multiple access (CDMA) CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code) to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel. EPC Evolved Packet Core E-UTRA Evolved UTRAN-the air interface for LTE EVDO Evolution Data Optimized-a standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals. There is no need for a centralized radio network controller in LTE.

vendors. MIMO Multiple Input/Multiple.HSPA High Speed Packet Access HSPDA High Speed Download Packet Access ITU International Telecommunications Union GSM Global System for Mobile-most popular cell phone standard in the world HSPA+ High Speed Packet Access-Wireless Broadband standard IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Last Mile Internet Access Refers to the telecommunications technology that connects the customer's home directly to the cable or telephone company LTE Ecosystem The LTE Ecosystem is made up of standards groups. and markets for LTE.Output MIMO uses multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to improve communication performance OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing PAPR Peak-to-Average Power Ratio POTS Plain Old Telephone Service QoS Quality of Service QPSK Quadrature phase shift keying RAN Radio Access Network 53 .

SAE System Architecture Evolution SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access-SC-FDMA is a multiple user access technique for LTE. Time Division Duplexing TDD UHF Ultra High Frequencies UMTS Universal Mobile Telephone System UE User Equipment VPN Virtual Private Network WiFi Wireless LAN technology WMAN Wireless Metropolitan-Area Network WiMax Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access-WiMax is the standard for Metropolitan Area Wireless Networks 54 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful