http://www.fullinterview.com http://www.1000projects.com http://www.chetanasprojects.
PAPER PRESENTATION ON
ABSRACT: The oil shocks of 1970s led to spiraling crude oil prices in the world market which prompted planners to view energy security as an issue of national strategic importance. Energy http://www.fullinterview.com http://www.1000projects.com http://www.chetanasprojects.com security important achieving has bearing an on
economic development goals and improving the quality of life of the people. World’s dependence on crude oil
Bio-mass energy primary power power power etc as the for in The these sources generation stations. there is a need to develop alternate fuels like non-conventional sources. Out of these energy sources.http://www. So. In addition. responsible
engineers to make it http://www. conventional
sources is several times greater than the one. Many of the power generating plant are using non-renewable sources as their primary source. considering the aforesaid two concerns. Tidal energy.com http://www.com will continue for most part of the 21st century but the continued dependence on crude oil is loaded against it with inherent price volatility linked to finite global reserves. One of the best alternatives is choosing Non-conventional sources like solar energy. This one paper of describes the nonsources about the solar energy.1000projects.fullinterview.com http://www. But these may become extinct at any time and before facing the situation we have to choose an alternative to avoid the power crisis.com http://www.1000projects.com http://www. The power from the sun intercepted by is the solar
and different ways of using it to convert to electric energy.chetanasprojects.chetanasprojects. the best one which suits for our country energy. which we are using at the present. global warming. is also a major concern. Wind Energy.fullinterview. caused largely by greenhouse gas fossil emissions fuel from energy available as per the demand. from
. Introduction: As the power demand is going on increasing it for is our day-by-day.
the Aztecs of Mexico. Thus if we convert this to other forms of energy. In Greece there were two sun deities.chetanasprojects. which is many thousands of times larger than the present consumption rate on the earth of all commercial energy sources.com http://www. The influence of the sun also appears in other religions Zoroastrianism.com http://www.chetanasprojects. So.com the earth is Sun: As far back as 5. and many Native American tribes.com
.com http://www. There are some places in the country where the mercury level raises up to 500c during summer.000 years ago. our country is one of hottest country in the world after the continent Africa. Mithraism. As we know that the tropic of cancer passes midway through the earth.1000projects. the sungod Shamash was a major deity and was equated with justice.fullinterview. Roman religion. people "worshipped" the Sun.fullinterview.http://www. the Druids of England. the sun-god.1000projects. that the sun is simply our nearest star. http://www.
approximately 1. Apollo and Helios. We use the sun's energy every day in many different ways. life would not exist on our planet. We know today. Buddhism.com http://www.8*1011 MW. the Incas of Peru. it may be one of the most promising of the nonconventional resources. Hinduism. who was considered the first king of Egypt. if we use this energy as the for primary source energy
generation almost every house in our country can have power supply and is available at very reasonable cost.. In Mesopotamia. Without it.
Today. the sun or other stars are responsible for ALL our energy. we are using the sun's heat to do work -drying our clothes.http://www. called Solar
.com When we hang laundry outside to dry in the sun. Animals eat plants for food.fullinterview. How is solar energy collected? INTROD star nuclear because energy the were
uranium atoms used in created in the fury of a nova . And decaying plants hundreds of millions of years ago produced the coal.com http://www.a star exploding. people use the sun's energy for lots of things.com device that absorbs sunlight to collect heat) to cook food during an expedition to Africa.chetanasprojects.com http://www.1000projects. In the 1830s.1000projects. the British astronomer John Herschel used a solar thermal collector box (a fossil fuels is actually sunlight stored millions and millions of years ago. So.com http://www. Even nuclear energy comes from a http://www. UCTION: What is solar energy? Solar energy can be converted into other forms of energy. Indirectly.com http://www. Plants use the sun's light to make food. such as heat and electricity. Let's look at ways in which we can use the sun's energy which is also Energy. oil and natural gas that we use today.chetanasprojects.fullinterview.
The inside is usually painted black.com Energy Derivations from Solar Energy: Solar energy can be converted to thermal (or heat) energy and used to: Heat water – for use in homes. A PV cell may power your calculator. homes. they are still only about 1015 per cent efficient. Solar energy can also be used to generate electricity in photovoltaic (PV) cells.chetanasprojects. buildings.chetanasprojects. because black surfaces readily absorb heat. each with transparent cover to admit sunlight.com http://www.com http://www. and other buildings.com http://www.1000projects. swimming pools.com Solar energy can be used to heat a fluid such as water in solar collector panels. Simple types use flat collector panels mounted on a south-facing roof or wall. Photovoltaic cells are made of semiconductors. However. to those used to make computer chips. Water circulates through channels or pipes inside each panel. Solar energy can be converted to electricity in two ways: Photovoltaic (PV devices) or “solar cells” or Until recently these cells were very costly to produce.
. and then the hot water is pumped to a heat exchanger that extracts the heat for use within the house. similar http://www.com http://www.fullinterview.fullinterview.http://www.1000projects. Heat spaces – inside greenhouses. The water is heated.
Out of the 15 known electric generating units operating in the United States at the end of 2006. It is first converted to mechanic energy and later to electric energy.com http://www. When the heat from thermal collectors fluid is which used to heat a produces steam http://www.1000projects.com This into often that electric They change electricity.fullinterview.1000projects. in may be solar a
number of other
.chetanasprojects.fullinterview. No statistics being are road collected solar
sunlight directly PV systems are remote locations connected to the
used to power watches.chetanasprojects. Let in detail our that discussion starts how solar energy is converted to electrical energy. and lighted signs. 10 of these are in California and 5 in Arizona. used are in not grid. are also that is used to power generator. calculators.com http://www.com solar
on solar plants that produce less than 1 megawatt of electricity. so there smaller plants states.http://www.com http://www.com http://www. Solar Power Plants In this sunlight is converted to electricity indirectly.
established.fullinterview. and the cost began to decline.1000projects.chetanasprojects.com http://www. It was billed as a solar battery and was mostly just a curiosity as it was too expensive to gain widespread use.chetanasprojects.fullinterview. In the 1960s. http://www. In 1905. reliability the was technology advanced. During the energy crisis in the 1970s.com http://www. Albert Einstein described the nature of light which and the photoelectric effect on photovoltaic technology is based. When these free electrons are captured. Some materials exhibit a property known as the photoelectric effect that causes them to absorb photons of light and release electrons. Through the space its programs.com http://www. technology photovoltaic gained
recognition as a source
. the space industry began to make the first serious use of the technology to provide power aboard spacecraft.http://www.com Photovoltaic Cell: Photovoltaic direct is the of conversion The first
photovoltaic module was built by Bell Laboratories in 1954.
light into electricity at the atomic level.com http://www. who found that certain materials would produce small amounts of electric current when exposed to light. Edmund Becquerel. electric current results that can be used as electricity. The photoelectric effect was first noted by a French physicist. in 1839.1000projects. for which he later won a Nobel Prize in physics.
or be absorbed. they may be reflected.com http://www.chetanasprojects. of These energy to the photons contain various amounts corresponding the solar electrons When leave the their naturally electrons position.com http://www. carrying a negative
charge. array is upon Climate
the front surface of the cell more receptive to free electrons. Working Principle: Sunlight is composed of photons.com of power for non-space applications. pass right through.1000projects.
When enough sunlight (energy) is absorbed by the material (a semiconductor). When photons strike a photovoltaic cell. When the two surfaces are connected through an external load. so the http://www.com http://www. clouds.g.
holes are formed.. fog) have a significant
. travel toward the front surface of the cell.com http://www.
between the cell's front
negative and positive terminals of a battery. When many electrons.fullinterview.fullinterview.1000projects.chetanasprojects. or particles of solar energy.http://www. absorbed provide generate Only energy the to photons electricity. each
migrate to the surface. electrons are dislodged from atoms.com
conditions (e. surface manufacturing the material's Special
treatment of the material during makes
The performance of a photovoltaic dependent sunlight. the of resulting charge surfaces voltage like the imbalance and creates potential back a
different wavelengths of spectrum. electricity flows.
current photovoltaic systems power many of the small calculators More systems to power even to of electricity water. prepared wafer late to power researchers properly silicon the used
sunlight.chetanasprojects.com http://www. The environmental impact is minimal.com http://www.fullinterview.
. research is Further being
communications equipment. advantages photovoltaic systems electricity
conducted to raise this efficiency to 20 percent.1000projects. Beginning in photovoltaic cells were space satellites (learn more about the history of photovoltaic cells). The simplest photovoltaic http://www.chetanasprojects.1000projects. The success of PV in space generated commercial applications for this technology.com PV arrays can be installed quickly and in any size required or allowed.fullinterview. provide Some are: Conversion from sunlight to electricity is direct.com http://www. array its Most technology modules and.http://www.com effect on the amount of solar energy received by a photovoltaic in turn. U. our homes. complicated provide pump
performance. so that bulky mechanical generator systems are unnecessary.com http://www. The photovoltaic cell was discovered in 1954 by the Bell Telephone examining of a to 1950s.S.
are about 10 percent efficient in converting sunlight. and and wrist watches used everyday.
com devices that convert DC power to Solar Thermal Power Plant: There are two types of solar plants. Historically. Solar distributed collector power plants Solar receiver plants In this type of power collectors used. When DC from photovoltaic cells is used for commercial applications or sold to electric utilities using the electric grid. large A area plants. like batteries. solidstate AC.com requiring no water for system cooling and generating no by-products. http://www.chetanasprojects. are very is The may central power thermal power
required. collectors types.com http://www. Paraboloidal dishes Parabolic through collectors preferred because of low are with central focus. generate direct current (DC).1000projects. In the future located at sites that are also connected to the electric grid enhancing the reliability of the distribution system. Photovoltaic cells.com http://www. it must be converted to alternating current (AC) using inverters.com http://www. which is generally used for small loads (electronic equipment).fullinterview.chetanasprojects.http://www.1000projects.com http://www. sites PV to arrays PV has been used at remote provide may be electricity.
. Parabolic through
be of following
with line focus.fullinterview.
As turbine coupled is internally with the
tubes of liquid which act as solar receivers. Nevada
energy is sent to the turbine chamber with high speed leading to the rotation of primemover of the turbine.com http://www. Where
water returns to the boiler for re-use.http://www. The heat may of be the cooling for water of the condenser utilized some other purposes. This steam steam
City.fullinterview.fullinterview. There are two major solar power plants working on the above principle. which is converted to high-pressure energy.com http://www.com http://www. which is used to heat the fluid generally water which is stored in the storage tank.chetanasprojects. Basic structure: Large for parabolic collecting solar collectors are employed energy. the incoming http://www.chetanasprojects. a 64 near One troughs MW Boulder uses as solar heating generating capacity.1000projects.com
sun-tracking and are expensive. Solar distributed collector power plants: Nevada Solar One is a new solar thermal plant with located Solar parabolic thermal concentrators.com http://www.com cost simple plane as Paraboloidal collectors double use plane of single sunin mechanical energy to the turbine is converted to electrical energy by the alternator. This heat energy is let to the boiler with a feedback. Steam is condensed condenser in and the feed
tracking. These solar receivers are specially coated tubes
These plants have a combined capacity of 354 megawatts (MW) making them the largest Solar central receiving power plant: solar power installation in the world.chetanasprojects. Nevada Solar One also uses a technology that collects extra heat by putting it into phasechanging molten salts.fullinterview. which were
. Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) is the name given to nine solar power plants in the Mojave Desert.com There are several solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which supply power to the electricity grid.http://www. This energy can then be drawn at night.300 of these four meter long tubes are used in the newly built power plant.1000projects. There are also plans to build other large solar plants in the http://www. Using thermal energy storage systems.com http://www.com http://www.1000projects.chetanasprojects. Solar thermal power plants designed for solar-only generation are ideally matched to summer noon peak loads.com http://www.com http://www.fullinterview. solar thermal operating periods can even be extended to meet base-load needs.com made of glass and steel. built in the 1980s. and about 19.
which receives the reflected radiation from the heliostats around it. Component 2 is
.com http://www.chetanasprojects. The heliostats reflect sunlight on to the central tower.chetanasprojects.com Mojave Desert. This makes the Mojave Desert particularly suitable for solar power plants. Sunrays http://www.1000projects. These plants can generally be built in a few years because solar plants are built almost entirely with modular.fullinterview.1000projects. Isolation (solar radiation) in the Mojave Desert is among the best available in the United States. which is coupled to the solar collecting apparatus.http://www.com central receiving tower. The tower is installed with a boiler inside it. The operation of the plant is as follows. The Mojave Solar Park will deliver 553 MW of solar thermal power when fully operational in 2011. of the in Mojave plant The tower (boiler) is mounted on the top of the tower located near the center of the field of large mirrors called heliostats. readily available materials.fullinterview.com http://www. Component 3 is the power station. The above shown is the photograph showing the components power California. the
Desert.com http://www.com http://www. and some significant population centers are located in the area.
com http://www.chetanasprojects. The tower reaches up to a height of above 3000 feet. Solar tower: This is the other type of conversion of solar to electrical energy with the help of a long tower.
wonders of the world Pyramids. The working follows.com http://www.com after getting reflected some heliostats are focused on to the boiler.com http://www.1000projects. Thus boiler generates high temperature steam. Empire Tower. which is used to drive a steam turbine.
building etc. which is coupled to an alternator.fullinterview.com http://www.1000projects. The upper part of the plant is equipped with high sensitive
. electricity is generated.chetanasprojects. The base part of the tower is totally insulated with a polythene layer so as to avoid the loss of any cold of The above shown is called solar power tower which with is located in Spain built by Germans German the radiation and plant during night is as
conditions.http://www.fullinterview. The above shown figure is the height of the solar power compared like tower to when other Eiffel state technology. From this alternator.
http://www. On the other hand the surface area under the insulated area gets exposed by the sun and energy. The collected sunlight is used to heat up the water in the storage tank.1000projects.fullinterview. which collect sunlight directly.chetanasprojects.1000projects. it along with the heat energy of the bottom upwards velocity collectors. which is available for free of turbines are internally coupled with alternators.com generated by the tower reaches down the tower. develops The which heat steam is The installed turbines round are the rotates start with which the moving high inurn prime-
movers of the turbine.com http://www. This heat energy is transferred to the bottom of the tower without any transformational losses with the help of various heliostats fitted inside the tower.com http://www. The top part of the tower is installed with a storage tank.com http://www. Therefore.http://www.chetanasprojects.com
. As the the Limitations energy: Earth receives vast solar energy.
tower and all are rotated due to this velocity. of solar electricity is generated. it tends to remain in low-pressure region. which leads to generation of heat energy. energy.fullinterview.
the cost of supply was Rs.1 to 1 KW/m2.chetanasprojects. This policy industries
more and more on selfgeneration.http://www.com http://www. Delhi. http://www.fullinterview.com http://www.com system of energy conversion is noise less and
Rs. Low energy density 0.1000projects. Advantages: This cheap. In 2001-02. The basic weakness of the electric supply industry is nonviability of tariff.com cost. Energy uniform is not during of rays Conclusion: In the capital city of India.40. but they are the lucky ones.com http://www. A second weakness of the Indian situation investment transmission is under in and
distribution relative to
. Low efficiency.chetanasprojects.com http://www. They have long life.50 a unit while was the only realization
cloudy weather and not available during the nights. Pollution free. High initial cost. Free or highly subsidized supply for agriculture and subsidies to domestic consumers have resulted in uneconomic charges for has driven to industrial many depend consumers.1000projects. In some parts of India it can be days.fullinterview. Large area is required to collect the solar energy. Solar energy is available in most parts of the world but there are some limitations of solar energy.2. citizens can face hours without electricity. Maintenance cost is low. Highly reliable. Direction changes continuously. Energy storage is essential.3.
uk/e nergy/renewable energy.eia.com http://www.com http://www.http://www.1000projects.scien ceonline.chetanasprojects.h tml 3.chetanasprojects. The only problem in this procedure is the high charges.D. definitely installation
power demand in the future and this will be an SOLUTION. http://www.com generation.gov/s tory/chapter15. This is due to the lack of proper return in the investment of the power stations. if our engineers work in such a way so as to reduce that cost and in we meet further of the can the developments equipment.com http://www. So. com http://www.gov/kids/ener gyfacts/sources/r enewable/solar. http://www. http://www. This leads in to the increase price/unit for the 2.ca.com ENERGY
.html#sol ar 5.d oe.co.wikipedia.ht ml 4.fullinterview. www.
and making the cost unreasonable common man.Rai.ener gyquest. “NonConventional energy sources”.com http://www. References: 1.1000projects. Khanna publications.fullinterview. The use of solar energy for the production of electricity reduces the price/unit as low as 50 paisa. G.