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Principles of Learning How it is supported in OL Limitations Based on experience

Importance Issues
(applicable to the 4 principles)
Notes References

continuous Internet connection Prensky postulates that in general, Anderson, Terry

Learner-Centered Learner-Centered system requirements - hardware Learner-Centered Learner-Centered we all learn:
software, memory, bandwidth 1. behaviors through imitation, feedback, and Parker, Nancy K.
Systems view of online teaching surveys, questionnaires different formats can cater UNESCO Education for All practice Athabasca U
(Bates and Poole 2003) virtual icebreakers combination of asynchronous to all types of learners DepED Education for All 2. creativity through playing The Quality Dilemma in Online Education
Plan, Design, Produce, Deliver and synchronous communication if including those with IDEA (USA) facts through association, drill, memory, and Revisited in The Theory and Practice of
Evaluate, Maintain individualized / community- 100% synchronous communication physical handicaps (visually- Multiple Intelligences questions Online Learning
~ audience and needs analysis first centered learning activities is not possible impaired, crippled, hearing- ~can be expensive with the use of 3. judgment through reviewing cases, asking
before developing the content combination of low and high tech impaired) and learning high technology questions, making choices, receiving feedback, Robert A. Reiser (Florida State U)
if 100% high tech is not possible disabilities (slow learner, ~Anderson: no single best media of online learning and coaching John V. Dempsey (U of South Alabama)
such as blended learning autistic, add, adhd) nor is there a formula; teachers must develop their 4. language through imitation, practice, and Trends and Issues in Instructional Design
skills to respond to student/curriculum needs immersion and Technology
body language, facial expressions 5. observation through viewing examples and 2002, NJ: Pearson Education
Knowledge-Centered Knowledge-Centered not evident in online learning Knowledge-Centered Knowledge-Centered feedback
6. procedures through imitation and practice Haomin Wang (Dakota State U)
resources in varied formats online posting, blogs, websites resistance among faculty and online learning can provide different ~aside from having the content, the next challenge 7. processes through system analysis, Deborah L. Gearhart (Dakota State U)
print, audio, video, hypermedia accessible anytime, anywhere institutions to threatening formats to suit the learner's needs and is to delineate which modes, methods, activities, deconstruction, and practice Designing and Developing Web-based
graphics, illustrations, models web-based lms/cms competition from virtual learning learning capabilities; authentic data & actors are most cost- and learning-effective in 8. systems through discovering principles and Instruction
demonstrations, role-play social media - facebook, scribd environments nonlinear hypermedia creating and distributing quality e-learning graduated tasks 2006, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
natural world, outoors, travel twitter, yahoo, msn, google, programs 9. reasoning through puzzles, problems, and
blogger vast resources can be overwhelming online learning programs can be ~Nancy K. Parker - quality dilemma in online educ examples Eric Hamilton (US Air Force Academy)
which can hinder successful motivating to learners re faculty & staff; standards, accreditation, licensing 10. skills (physical or mental) through imitation, John Cherniavsky (National Science Foundation)
direct access to vast libraries of learning because of multi- ~m-learning where the display screen is smaller feedback, continuous practice, and increasing Issues in Synchronous Versus Asynchronous
content and learning activities directionality of the topics can cater to the different and now providing a problem in text display and challenge E-Learning Platforms
organized from a variety of and hyperlinks learning pace of the learners spelling (texters tend to type shortened words) 11. speeches or performance roles by In Web-based Learning - Theory, Research, and
discipline perspectives by making it available online memorization, practice, and coaching Practice Harold F. O'Neil and Ray S. Perez (Eds.)
scaffolding from a teacher accessible anytime or 12. theories through logic, explanation, and 2006, NJ, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
may not be provided anywhere questioning

Assessment-Centered Assessment-Centered online learner is left on his own Assessment-Centered Assessment-Centered Forms and styles of games can be used online
to decode/decipher the text or off-line to effectively facilitate learning each
measurement and evaluation multiple time and place material can be automated accuracy of scoring especially on essays of these skills
checking of knowledge gained shifted opportunities for faster computation of connectivity
checking of skills gained formative and summative multi-sensory activities are not scores in multiple choice maintaining integrity after undergoing iterations Anderson argues:
feedback to teacher whether a student assessment by self, peers, and possible such as swimming, and other objective tests Parker-accreditations, licensing (ISO, Sloan QF, TQM) each of these activities can be accomplished
learned very well or not teachers cooking, baking, driving, traveling can provide accurate results current traditional quality measures associated with through e-learning, using some combination of
basis to improve the learning program (it can be done in a blended/hybrid skillfully designed online learning envi- accreditation or state-administered quality assu- online community activities and computer-
Marc Prensky (2001) learning environment) ronment with human interaction rance frameworks do not match this new climate of supported independent study activities
learning outcomes are best provides for the richest learning teaching and learning
learned through particular experiences impact on learning outcomes and academic work??? Using the model, Figure 4:
learning activities e-learning guidance needed one can plan for and ensure that an appropriate
mix of student, teacher, and content interaction
objective tests, online quiz, is uniquely designed for each learning outcome
adaptive testing, multimedia tools
~~~ an answer to Garrison's Getting the Right Mix
performance, authentic, portfolio
assessing collaborative learning

Community-Centered Community-Centered Community-Centered Community-Centered

situative, communities asynchronous and synchronous online learners and teacher ~Parker-learning technologies can promote powerful
cultural context (language, tradition) collaborative and individual geographically separated connections to content, context, and community
interactions in many formats can meet online to discuss
topics synchronicity vs. internet connectivity for computer
community of practice and
community of inquiry
still possible through online
updating and communication
of learners and experts
doing field work such as
being done in National
Geographic Society
(traditionally, learners need to be
immersed in a community to make it
situative learning)

also refer to Table 1, p. 67

Semantic Web 2.0 agents that update the online
Affordances of Network environment learning content (rss feeds)
and the attributes of the
"way people learn"
(Bransford et al)