History 1302 Week Two Assignment Due February 3, 2011

1. ______________________ __________________ was a sham construction company composed of directors of the Union Pacific Railroad who had milked the Union Pacific for exorbitant fees in order to line the pockets of the insiders who controlled both firms.

2. There is no evidence that ___________________ ___________________ _______________ was every involved in the scandals between 1868-9 but his poor choice of associates and his gullibility earned him widespread criticism.

3. The prototype of all the terrorist groups was organized in Pulaski, Tennessee, as a social club, with the costumes and secret rituals common to fraternal groups.

4. One of the reasons that the enforcement acts that were passed during the Grant administration failed to be as effective as hoped was due to the strong tradition in the South of states’ ____________________________ and local _________________________ as well as racial prejudice.

5. President Grant decided not to run in 1876 in part because many Republicans were not thrilled with a __________________________________________ President.

6. The Republicans turned to _____________________ ________________ ________________________ in the 1876 election who had made a name for himself as a civil service reformer.

7. The Compromise of 1877 was a deal made by a special congressional commission on March 2, 1877, to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876; Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was

declared the winner in exchange for the withdrawal of federal troops from the South, marking the end of _____________________.

8. The legacy of Radical Reconstruction included the _____________________________, _______________________________, and ___________________________ amendments.

9. ____________________________ who had nothing to offer the landowner but their labor, worked the owner’s land in return for supplies and a share of the crop, generally about half.

10. The postwar South suffered from an acute shortage of ____________________; people had to devise ways to operate without cash.

11. __________________________ had no incentive to take care of farmland by manuring or rotating crops because it was not their own.

12. The ______________________ included a rising class of lawyers, merchants, and entrepreneurs who were eager to promote a more diversified economy based upon the industrial development and railroad expansion.

13. The urge to reduce state expenditures created one of the darkest blots on the Bourbon record: ____________________ _____________________.

14. In the 1880s, southern politics remained surprisingly open and ______________________, with 64 percent of eligible voters, blacks and whites, participating in elections.

15. The ultimate achievement of the New South promoters and their allies, the Bourbons, was that they reconciled _______________________ with innovation.

16. __________________ ____ _____________________ was an African American woman that was instrumental in the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909 and also worked to promote women’s suffrage.

17. Booker T. Washington argued that blacks should first establish an ______________________ _____________________ before striving for social equality.

18. ______________________ ________________________ became the architect for the twentieth-century civil rights movement.

19. During the second half of the nineteenth century, three-quarters of those that migrated to the western United States were _____________.

20. The collapse of Radical Republican rule in the South led thousands of African Americans to move to the western United States in the late 1870s and early 1880s. These people are referred to as ____________________________.

21. In 1866, Congress passed legislation establishing two “colored” cavalry units and dispatched them to the western frontier. These men were nicknamed _____________________ ____________________ by the Indians and many of these men were Civil War veterans from Louisiana and Kentucky.

22. The 1851 ____________________________ _______________________ _____________________, in which the chiefs of the Plains tribes agreed to accept definite tribal borders and allow white emigrants to travel on their trails unmolested, worked for a while, with wagon trains passing safely through Indian lands and the army building roads and forts without resistance. Fighting resumed, however, as the emigrants began to encroach upon Indian lands on the plains rather than merely pass through them.

23. Indians out west were persecuted because they were the last ______________________ to western expansion.

24. A generation of Indian wars virtually ended in 1886 with the capture of _________________________, a chief of the Chiricahua Apaches, who had fought white settlers in the Southwest for fifteen years.

25. The demise of the buffalo developed due to overharvesting by white and Indian hunters as well as _____________________ factors.

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