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Ancient writers on " Gathas " Zoroaster. 9.. § 10. Discovery of Parsi and his mission. Tlie Parsis. § 4. §9. § 3. Uncertainty and obscurity of most the nomer. §7. . Principal tenets of their religion. — The — Avesta l)()oks. —§ Eugene Burnouf. § 7. manuscripts. The (songs) the oldest portion of the Avesta. 10. 17-33 The mands. Oppression and conquest of Persia by the Arabs.. Cong 2.LK Religious Survival Anquetil Dupekron § I. A NoTAi'. They The Veda and — religions that have sacred and their de- claim to be supernaturally revealed. language of the Sassanian period. . disadvantages. 11. descendants of the Persians — —§ § version of the country. The Parsis not heathens.\n I. 14. the Zend-Avesta the sacred books of — — Hindus and Aranians. —§ 13.CLASSIFIED CONTENTS. — — points concerning the Avesta. Advance and founder of results of Eranian 11. King Visluiispa. : the Parsis — PAGE 1-16 and followers of Zoroaster. — — sliips. "Zend-Avesta" a mis" Pehlevi " the Persian §§5. Scant information on Zaratluishtra — — — (Zoroaster) in the Avesta. — § 12. I. § S. His mistakes and the I5- Eranian studies. . 6. Anquetil Duperron for India. — J^ 11. The ^5 rRcjpHET OF Er. Their wanderings and settlements in India. —^ — §8. tiie friend . —^ — — 5. Self-exile of the Zoroastrians. His departure —§ Obstacles and hard- Ilis translation of He is attacked by William Jones. §4.. —§ —§ the Zend-Avesta. scholarshii). § 3. 16. § 2.6.

— § 23.^ 2. — some The III. the god of the thunderbolt. Impossil)ility of invention in a strict Zaralhushtra not an inventor.—^ 13. g 4. beverage Mantra and 17.— i^ 5. The Aryan Mitra.— § 6. 22. texts. the successor of the . — — i^ 7.' Crossness of some of these concepmythical epos. . —§ — departed the IV. and drink. Agni. — § 21. Soma. —§ of Eran. but a reformer. 18. sky-gods. The powers of nature the gods of the Aryas. The — — § — Ahi.— § 12. Survival uf part of the Zoroaslri. §§ . — — Mazda. Ahuratransformation of Aryan niyllis in Eran. 16. — § 20.iv CLASS//'//:D ami fi)llo\vcr CONTENTS. light and darkg II. and de- § 4.— §g 15. . Aryan-dualism. — of the Indian climate '.2. Aryan Myph^. Gods and demons. of Eranian tradition. § 14. 56-94 on the Enervating influence Ar)an population.— ^ 10. -5 3. It intensifies the feeling of dualism. plant. Spiritual velops the battle-myth almost exclusively. the supreme God and Creator. Bumlchcbh : its lateness and its contents. . The Pitris Aryan Myths in the Avesta cal Transformation § I.m literature. § 12. Indra. — Their Allegori. 1. tions. drought. King Yama and the spirits of the pass into heroic epos. the most ancient s. § 14. The Rig-Vcda. rain and ness. Richness of Aryan the Pitris. i^ 5. Aryan storm-myth. — —§ — — 19. the cloud-ficnds. The Airyana-Vacja.icrcd book of the Aryan Hindus. The and Eranians—sister nations of the Aryan or IndoHindus or first Aryan Kuropean race. The Aryan fire-god. Loss of the greatest of Zaratlnishtia.— light-god. Bracing and hardening influence of The nature of Eran all in ex- 3. 34-55 home tions concerning the religion of the primitive Aryas. The parts of the Avesla as we have il. and its indica- — — §3. • • sense. g 9. Efficacy of sacred texts of sacrifice. Aryan reverence toward I'itris. . Vritra and 13. — — Arjan Dyaus and Varuna. . the soil and climate tremes.

tiic successor of tlie Aryan Mitra. The — — — — — — —§ g Mazdeism : moral dualism." § 19. — : )^ 12. Marriages between near relation:. —§ 27. The — — 23. Poetical prologue of the Gathas. prophet's denunciations of the Daevayasnians. —^ — Ahura-Mazda i^ — is yVniesha-Spentas the first of them — iS. V. The Early period of the (jathas.12. Essence of i^ ^ 7.CLASSIFIED CONTENTS. § 20. AngraYima." Mazdeism . The hymn of questions. history in the Avesta. —§ —§ 2. Mithra. — at- j^ 13. i^ 4. The fall The Sagdid. — 8. An- — light becomes the god : of trulli. ^ 16. transparently the god of 11. The Amesha-Spentas. 22. and their power over Mainyu. — — i^ 15. and tiic tree of life — throponiorism subordinate in Eranian myth. the successors of the Aryan Pitris. Obedience. §^ 21. 24. 10.— i^ 14. tendants Victory. has created the others." §6. — i^ 9. or Kingly Glory. Simplicity and literalness of the Gathas." gods transAryan. Proclamation of the new religion. The seven Aryan Agni. His spiritual transformation mythical. j^ — 5." and their allegorical character. 10. tlic and ininiortalily. . Allegory a distinctive feature of the Eranian mind. or " Bountiful Immortals. the chief of stars and Eranian storm -god. The " Yasna the spirit of 13. — Tin-: Yasna oi'' Seven Chap'ikrs. The Fravashis. Uprightness. and and — — — § the Fire successor of 17. § 11. of Seven Chapters. 7. work. —§ —^ 6. Desire of the Eranian gods for sacrifice. g — Yama 28. " Daevas " fiends.sion — The Mazdayasnian " of Faith. i^ 25. Tishtrya.. The GAtiias § I. Aryan sky-gods. <jr sacred text.-. Slight deterioriation in formation and return to myth." of the of —^ the fiends. . The sacred mountain and The lieavenly sea. Atar " livareno. jiaradise celcslial i^ spring. the successor — Aryan Vima. The Manthra. — Zaralhush- " Devas. and (he Ahuna- Vairyn. 95-112 Mazdayasnians and Daevayasnians. or Fiendtra's 3. or the "Evil One. 8. 26. §§ g. " Ahura " formed into the Eranian and " Asura. their functions. Ilis allegorical etc." —g — 14. of V the I">aiiians. Profe. worshippers.

or corpse-fiend.KATlONS AND VkNDIDAH — l-'okKIC. 7.STA ^ I. —§ . vasion of Asia. g 3. — § High standard and their inin 25.— § 14. On — — 14. of Syria.\ I. Care of the ^t^ 8. in legislation. ^ 12. and pollution. § 20. Turanian influences encountered by the Eranians westward migration. of Jerusalem — — — The prophet Jeremiah. Sacredness of the dog. and of the soul death. l)urying a corpse. Destruction of Jerusalem. Jeremiah's 9. § 21. Battle — — . TnK Last Days OF t^ Jt'DAii . His campaign in and defeat of Josiah of Judah. On sickness. 16. I. fluences the Ave^ta. Dangerous sinfulness of carrying a corpse alone. among religions. Kigiils of purification. i^ 16. Mir. 33.. 111 N I NKI. — § Hebrew — § The " Khordeh-Avesta. g. of Megiddo. Impure creatures become clean by —§ — — physicians. § 5.. —^ the priestly legislation. § 19. Affairs in Syria.UKNCF. of the dead. jnirity i. affinities. i«f . § 7.nl Character of the Vendklad. RkVIVAI.. — § 10-13. — — — — — — — g 24. The siege of Tyre. — . Submission — — 169 185 2. §15. — tliree fiiiulanicii3. of Egypt plans an inSyria. Tlic Nasu. 28. 34. I'llK I AlllKX KlIOkDKM Avi. i^ I'ower oftlie 4. On Ihrifliness. ^ 17. cock. The Alhravans and ^§5. — § The Chinvat Bridge. Neclio II. Holiness of an agricultural life. — § First taking by Nebuchadrezzar. Of the — — §§ 30-31. Traces of these 29. — § 2. g 23. § 4. 32. Sinfulness of ^ 15. Its high place VII. § S. Nebuchadrezzar. ^ 22. body enjoined asceticism denounced. 10. The Median and Babylonian empires.6. Exposing Questions on Inipurily of the Dakhnias. 11. beauty of Mazdcism. 13. g§ 26. — Tlie —§ — Dakhma. § iS. — ij Zoroastrian sacrifice. tlic trials after 35. Signs of nomadic life in the Vendidad. Treatment of corpses in winter." Puzzling penal Heathen Revival. . t. dying. Battle of Karkhemish defeat of Necho by Nebuchadrezzar. 13-168 The principles priesthood. preaching and unpopularity. § 6.S — TlIF.

His constructions at Babylon. Nebui^ 2. Death of Kyaxares. § 14. and children's exercise boolvs. The new palace. Mutual influence of the Greeks and Lydians. Tiie great bridge and the embankments. the Doric migration and Ionian colonies. § 4. Languages — Indo-European influences. ^§ 9. Kandaules and Gygcs.\. § 10. Her wars against the Greek cities on the sea-shore. Peace and intermarriages. Late use of cuneiform writing in contracc-tabiels. RockAsia Minor. His works of fortilication.... ^ I. Vlll. Lydia. I'rivale i^ 25.Splendor of Median royalty. . Reading-jjtjoks. Nebuchadrezzar's greatness. — j^ — — — § 12. Hellas.VDiA AND Asia Minor IN THE East 1-3. X. — — § 27. . § 7. A Ya. 5^23. Their Inisiness — — letters. 5. — — 9. § 11. ^ 11.on the Great — The House — IX. Herodotus' account of some Babylonian customs. Aggrandizement of Lydia. Legends of . Ionian colonies on the shore of Asia Minor. Columnar arciiitectnre . — §§ 13. § 17. The Hanging Gardens. tombs of Lycia. 14.. § 13. — — —§ § 6. § 16. Legal transactions in property. — i- 2. § 12. The great walls. — — 223-260 — — The Median Wall. 22.Semiramis and Nitokris. Dignified and — —§ — 18. VU I. — — — — Their archive of private transactions.\y. 20t^ 19. ^ 18. — — — — — J»ap. War between Lydia and Media. §i^ Tablets of legal ])recedents. Invention of coinage by the I^ydians. . The temple of Bel-Marduk. Dattle of the Eclipse. operations.CLASSIFIED CONTENTS. independent position of Baliylonian women. Discovery of the lianking house of Egibi.vi. chadrezzar's fear of Media. Little dural. 3. —§ His insignificance.'ilily of a balance of powers. 10. § 26. Long duration of tlie firm. § 19. § 8. The Hittite element in Asia Minor. 6. § 15. § 15. § 5. —§ 7. 261-288 Astyages succeeds Kyaxares. § 16. § 17. — Thk ]5alanck of Power 186-222 of ^§ lon. .24. Media and the Rise of Persia § I. — §^ The countries of Asia Minor independent of ISaby- 4. i^ 8.

Tlic Me'lian — — tainly about their origin. Persia proper Character of the Persians. 10. Susa one of the capiof Sardis The — war. Delphic temple. Beginning and capture of Kroisos. 2. Aryan ami vm-Aryaii. 6. § 23. Fall of the Median — 289-332 Herodotus' gi^ 3. The double line of the nings of the Persian nation. — — — — climate — §13. Persian tril)es. Persian art. . Reunion of the tribes under Akhivmenes. and seeks to the 17. — of — tals the Persian at empire. Kyros. and the Persian line. The 5. The successors of Kebuchadrezzar B. Complete subjection of Elam. the Mcdcs. § lO. —§ — 21.ylon. —§ palace at Agbatana. The Persians.chistun. THK King. Alyattcs of Lydia succeeded by Kroisos.in. § 9.ISS/J'JKJ} COA'JENTi^. § iS. The balance of powers Kyros. fabulous account of llie birth and childhood of Kyros. and productions. The early Akhaimeniau house reconstructed from — i^ — XI. Subjection of the Ionian cities and the rest of Asia Minor.'\kii. Probable details. ^ 12. His embassy and of tlie 15. UiKcrtaiiily cimccrniny tlio Irilics. § 8. these documents.ab. First and unsuccessful attack on BabyIon. fall —§ —§ 14.vm inlrtHlurol fj CL. . ^ 14. § 19. Begin- § 12. thk §§ I. § 13. as showri in the monuments at Pasargadx. Akhajmeniau house the Anshan line. KuRUSH. — ^22.i. ^5 § 7. Uncer1$ — Meiles. § 9. . 4. Elam and Anshan. Aryan and un-Aryan. AtHis rescue from the temjited self-immolation of Kroisos. alliances. The priesthood call . Kyros' %\ ise rule. Their proljaLle un-Aryan i)ri{. § 18. —§ 11. The Magi tlie priesthood of Media. imitated from — Assyrian threatened by Kyros. Kroisos prepares to make war against — — art. 5. Accession of Nabonidus. pyre. Kyros' royal city in Persia. The Rock ami Inscription of r.— § 5. 7. Tlieir political power. — ^ 16. The — — — — ruins of Pasargadcc. The newly discovered cylinders of Nabonidus and 17. —§ gifts 16. ^ 8. Fusion of the Medes and Persians. The its ^ 15.menian ICmjiire. Explanation of the account. Extension of llie Persian Empire in the East. § 20. l>y — §§ 4. §11. I'ir^t and unsuccessful attempt of Kyros. He indisposes the priesthood of Babylon.

§ 27. —§ g. . His system of tax. ciZZ~ZAZ TIic last discoveries at Susa. Construction of roads. . § 5. and institution of a postal ser- Dareios' wise —§ . B. Obscurity of his last years. DaREIOS I. in IX Surrender Kyros. 529-522 r. ^ 2. and — §Kambyses of the crime and puts an end Record of 7- — religious rule in 3. Second Period home rule.ation.CLASSIFIED CONTENTS. conquest of Egypt. First Pkriop Civit. —§ 11. XIV. Breaking out of the civil war. I.. of liahylon and triumplial entry of Kyros. provinces. XII. XIII. § 3. § I. Revolt of Media. scription on the subject. : Years of Peace.dayasnian. —^ 24. 2. AiM'KNDix TO Chapter XI. He plans the g 4. 7. The Persians not strictly followers of the Vendidad. event in the IJeliistuu inscription. — § — Kambyses' tolerance and quest of Egypt. 3S4-411 § 3. § 4. The Jews support him. and death.s an<l delivers Ihe Jews. 344-360 — — — — § Battle of Pelusion and conAssassination Bardiya. I.c Accession of Kamhyses. His unfortunate nature and jealousy of his brother Bardiya. further campaigns. § § 6. — § 25. — § Tidings of an impostor persona general confesses ating Bardiya. Revolt of nine Accession of Dareios —§ — by llie seven Persian 5. Eist of nations. to g. Median pretender.C. THE Son of HvSTASrES. End 13. — — . — § — His reluctance return and mild Egypt. lo. of revolt. Capture of the war. of the civil —§ 12. his to his life.. Gaumata the Magian princes. ^ 8. He conciliates tiie piies'. Kambysks. AV^ars slain 361-383 § 1-3. Dareios § I. Tlie Behistiin inDareios a Ma/. § 26. . : 522-485 . j^ Sculptures at Behistun. — — —§ — — 10. — 6. Preparations 01 both sides.

XV.9. — 12. Great J^ 8. — i? 5- § 7. Of the Scythians. The royal tombs at Persepolis. Stairs at Persepolis. The Hall of Ilunilred the Columns. vice. tus' 8. Herodo- — — — §§ § 7. — §11. §§ 3. I. description of Scythia. 6. g 9. of liall at Susa. the palaces. 412-433 Dareios begins a series of foreign wars. the Greek cities in Asia and Thracia. 9. — . His the Hellespont.( A// SS/F/K n COA^ TEN 7. ExRevolt and chastisement of peditions in India and Africa. Dareios bridges and crosses the Bosporus and the Danube.6. § 2. Index 435 . — — His campaign in Scythia. The Nile Susa and Peisepolis. in Xerxes at Persepolis. — § 10. i5§ 5. Dakkios § I. 4. § 11. The knowledge of the Greeks about Scythia. —§ 10. —§ cannl and uniformiiy of coinage. —§ Conjectures about the walls of 13. Preparations against return across the Danube and — retreat and Greece.^ 4. liuildings of The iilaiforni at Persepolis. The audicnceEsther. — Dook i^ — palace of Dareios. Thirp ri:Ri(ii> : Forkign Wars.





^B^^JBL \^je'iWB>m^^ii .

Joachim. Stuttgart." Oxford. Leipzig. Leipzig. 1857. P'erguson. L. Paris. Essays on the Sacred Language. Maspero. JusTi. Dr. L'Avesta. : Harlez. Ber- KuHN. Dr. Das Emp^jrhommen EvERS. UNTER Cyrus 18S4. Vol. Abel. 5lh cdilion. 1879. Son Paris. The Yasna. The Zend Avesta Part III. 21 pages. Zoroastre euse de la Perse. 1S78. : Stuttgart. Visparad. 1S82. ique. 197 pages. l' Avesta. Paris. Zoroastre et le Mazdeisme. A. Eduard. and Religion of the Parsis. Martin. (Extrait . 18S0. Francois. James. trankes. 1887. 1881. 1879. E. accompagnc de notes explicatives. d'apres tions des peuples Orientaux. of the East. Jackson. Lenormant. Cyrus und Herodot nach den neugefundenen Keilinschriften. La Monnaie dans l'Antiquite. i vol. Les Origines uu Zoroastrisme. 3d edition. : Menant. Max. XXXL) . and Miscellaneous Fragments. Geschichte des Alterthums. 1851. 56 pages. Series.XVI FKIXCIPAI. Histoire Ancienne des Peuples dk l'Orient. I vol. Macut Berlin. V. A Hymn of Zoroaster Yasna Translated with comments. Paris.) Paris. Palaces ok Nineveh and Persepolis Restored. ^L C. Die Herabkunft des Feuers und des Cotter. WORK'S CONSULTED. Paris. 18S4. 2d vol. Vol. Essai sur la Philosophic ReligiParis. Haug. — 1st. Dr. la Bible et les tradi- Les Origines de l'Histoire. II. <lu Journal Asiat- Deux parties en 8'. et precede d'une Introduction a I'etude de I'Avesta et de la Religion Mazdeenne 2e edition. 1876. 62 pages I . Gahs. Les Medecins et la Medecine dans l'Avesta. vol. London. Hovelacque. Paris. DUNCKER. i vol. Second edition. de. Williams. vol. : der Persischkn nach den neucntdeckten Inschrificn. 1881. 1st. • Le Chien dans eloge. Afiinagan. I2th and 4th vol. Ferdinand. 1888. i vol. Writings. 187S. Meyer. 40 pages. 1880. Geschichte des Alten Persiens. XXXL lin. A. Les soins qui lui s(^nt dus. Geschichte des AlterthuSis. First edition. Mills. vol. i vol. G. i 2d edition. ("Sacred Books i vol. Victor. Avesta : Livre sacre dii Zoroastrisme traduit du texte Zend. Floigl.

Spiegel. London. The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World. I CI. a new Englisii version. Rawlinson. Oppert. i vol. 1S76. (Ancient from the Monuments. G. Series. i . Die KeilinschrU'Ten und das Alte Schrader. 1875. Kyaxares und Astyages. en Palestine. 3d and 4th vol. 1887. 1884. Unger. BahBooks of the East. 1865. 1881. Persia. Le Peuple et la Langue des Medes. H.PRINCIPAL WORKS CONSULTED. vol. dans 16 pages. 4 1875. Eberhard. La Bible et les Decouvertes 4th edit. 1880. ViGouRoux. London. 1884. Remains of Lost Empires. Fr. New York. Bayerischen Akademie dcr Wissenschaflen. le Veda et Paris. Ciiii's from a German Workshop. Agni. (Extrait des Annales de Philosophic Chreiienne. MuLLEK. Whitney. West. Leipzig. vol. 1S62. 18S3. Savce. 1'ahlavi Texts. Janvier. Oxford. I The Ancient Empires of the East. A. Biographies of London. : L' HoNOVER le Yerbc Creatcur de Zoroastre. I vol.) (" Sacred i vol.) F. 1869.) 24 pages. The Bundahij. J. 2d edition. i vol.. I'Avesta. Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion. 3 vol. \V. FIiSTORY of Herodotus. Testament. HI S. Die Altpersischen Keilinschriften. xvii Max. and 1S78. 1882. 85 pages. Vaux. Abth. De Iside et Osiride. New Words and the Home of the Aryas." man Ya^t and Shayast La-Shayast. V. 1873. George. (Aus den Abhandlungen dcr kon. Lectures on the Science oe Language. Girard de. Giessen. IMyer. 1873. Friedrich. XVL Bd. W. I vol.KTARCH. Wm. 4 vol. Pi. 1SS8. as illustrated by the Religion of the Ancient Babylonians. E.) Miinchcn. 1871. Vol. Modernes Paris. London. from the Earliest Period to the History Arab Conquest. RiALLE. vol. F. . W. Dwight.. Hibbert Lectures. 2 vol. Abbe 4 vols. New York. 2d edit. Eranische Alterthumskunde. Petit-fils des Eaux. York. Part 1. Oriental and Linguistic Studies. en Egypte et en Assyrie.

iroKh's consulted. and various periodicals. 8g pages.lianil- lungen zur Mylliologie unci Sagengeschichte dcs altcn Iran. shall be thoroughly eliminated Z. Tli. It is a defect very difficult to avoid in the present transition stage between the spelling sanctioned by old habit. II. Spiegel. De Ilarlez. in Rawlinson's " Herodotus. Numerous works on Ancient India and Comparative Mythology also pamphlets and essays by Sir II."the Babylonian and Oriental Record.u. however. C. . WiNDiscHMANN. in a final revised edition. The author is fully conscious of this shortcoming. . Dieulafoy. the "Museon. and others. Ilovelacque.XVI II pR/xc/r." and others. 1857. E. Pinches. which." " Gazette des Beaux Arts. Girard de Rialle. R." tlie " Revue Archeologique. Al. G. Fiiedricli. and the more faithful and rational transliteration — — which a finer scholarship is rapidly introducing. Chad Boscavven. Rawlinson." the Encyclopaedia Britannica. ZuROASTRlsciiK SruniKN. Leipzig. though utterly incorrect and misleading. Berlin. Rassam. St. the " "Journal" of the Victoria Institute. 1863. MiTHRA : ein Beitrag zur Mylhengeschiclite dcs Orients . This volume will surely and deservedly be found fault with by critics on the score of inconsistent spelling of Oriental and Greek names. W. such as "Transactions" and "Proceedings" of the Society of Biblical Archeology. A. Halevy.

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small as that fragis a chip from one of the world's noblest and mightiest nations. fourteen thousand of all. and still counted as one of the greater political powers of the East.THE STORY OF MRDTA. more generally known under the graphic but misleading name of " Fire- kind. if The at in entire number of Parsis now which represents about one the earth's of exceeds 100. the PERSIANS of old. population. I. there Worshippers. A NOTABLE RELIGIOUS SURVIVAL: THE ANQUETIL DUPERRON. — Aaiong still claim for their the so-called heathen religions which own more than one half of man- is none of greater interest and importance than that of the Parsis. though not extinct. It is for in that respect they form an almost imperceptible unit in the general sum. is. has degenerated beyond recognition under the . BABYLON." certainly not from their numbers this sect derive that interest and importance. AND PERSIA. a nation which. living scarcely.000. it ment humanity But. I. PARSIS.

Christianity. at least. is customary to " all sweep under the head except the three great " Heathen Religions Semitic religions: Judaism. the Sassanian dynasty. or the religion of Mohammed. enforced change of religion. fifty miles from ancient Ecbatana). under the name 2. enslaved. was vaguely known and reverenced by the writers of Greek and Roman anticpiity. since they earnestthe worship of the one true ly. won the battle. SpitAma ZaRATIIUSII TRA. it In that of the Parsis.2 MEDIA. is that of ancient Kran. It was in the year 641 vaders. for a long into a conquered. in in- the heyday of their fervor for the faith of which their prophet Mohammed had taught them to consider themselves the heaven-sent bearers. that the Arab 3. and time ruthlessly oppressed and ill-treated . A. the prophet of which. BABYLON. influence of foreign conquest.D. as must be shown by a brief view of their religious tenets and practices. appears decidedly rash. which changed the destinies of Eran. surely. and a horror of any kind of polytheism a form — of belief which. as well as by the later scholars of Europe. (on the field of Nehavend. of It ZOROASTER. And the religion which these exiled descendants of the ancient Persians have preserved along with purity of race and timehonored customs. the old and widely spread faith. and IslamIt is doubtful ism. should win them a place re- among monotheists. and mixture of races. how far so comprehensive a designation may be correct in individual instances. dreaded and victorious for four centuries under their last national kings. AND PERSIA. emphatically profess God. and turned its people.

effort was made to retrieve the lost fortunes of that terrible day. and abjuring all their own traditions. population. of all. very nearly ticipation in public life. their temples desecrated and destroyed. It was but natural that the religion of the van- quished should be fhe first object of i)ersecution at the hands of victors whose wars and conquests were all prompted by clergy were The Persian religious fanaticism. all events deprived of the protection of the law. however. with which closed an heroic struggle of over eight years the country's energies were broken. in the land. at least of well-protected It is no wonder that apostasy became subjects. and. their lives. thus were completely at the mercy of the insolent and grasping foreign rulers. at denied justice or redress whenever systematically they applied for either against a Mussulman. worst impossible. but wellnigh They were made to pay ruinous extra were excluded from all offices. the last Sassanian and no king.A NOTABLE RELIGIOUS SURVIVAL. . By this one act they could step at once from the state of down-trodden slaves to a condition if not of equality with their masters. for plunder. their sacred books likewise. From so many and unbearable ills. beliefs. and we may take it .. doing homage to Mohammed. and practices. from all partaxes. 4. the only escape lay in embracing the faith of these rulers. Compulsory conversion. and the faithful followers of the ancient national creed sub- jected to so many indignities and extortions as to make existence not only burdensome. persecuted. their honor. was murdered on his flight. 3 Yezdecerd III. Their property. ripe is scarcely likely to be sincere.

ligion unmolested." says a distinguished modern Parsi " remnants of the Zoroastrian population writer. exile. and suffered to practise their resmall remnant only stayed. they were born and bred.* were to be found only in the provinces of Fars and at and the reader will have an idea of the rate which that remnant has declined even in recent times. But even at the time of version of the c<)untr\' to Islamism.4 MEDLl. in hfs don. ciations Not first c^cncrations of new-made so onl}. Habit and asso- gradually endeared to them the faith in which. as life under such conhad become unendurable at home. tlic Parsis." " * Dosabliai History of Framji Kanaka. great than two hundred years numbers preferred every ditions Only. when it is stated that. BABYLON. 1884. the wholesale con5. the vast majority of these took the desperate resolution of hardship to apostasy. and of this remnant the fate was most " pitiful. for g^raiitccl that Mussulmans were form.in self-defence and in outer so their descendants. unlike their fathers.cal- ous followers of the Arab prophet than the Persians. In the tenth century of the Christian era." I. to going into foreign lands. some place where they would be seek of refuge in tolerated as harmless guests. and at the present moment there arc no more /. which was an fact in accomplished less after the conquest. A lacking the courage to sever all old ties and go forth into absolute uncertainty.on- . tlic AND BERSM. Kerman eight thousand. while about a hundred and fifty years ago it numbered one hundred thousand souls. it does not at present exceed seven or .

to the great furtherance of their commercial It was undoubtedly this new connnerinterests. From this time forth and through several centuries the Zoroastrian exiles. where they were hospitably received by the reigning Hindu prince. to conform to some of its customs. the city of Bombay. they began to spread even as far as Upper India (the Then. who now began Deprived greatly. After years wandering somewhat at random. intelligent. 5 The sclf-exilccl Zoroastrians fared better. they reached at last the peninsula of Gujerat (or Guzerat). industrious ways which characterize them at the present day. to give an account of the religion tliey pro: fessed. the western coast of India. of arms. prospered and with no call to use them had they retained them.. stopbut not attempting any perping manent settlement until they effected a descent on for many at various places. vasion.D. they did not stray far. they were once Pexjai. cial intercourse which iXx^w ihcm southwards. This time. by a Mussulman inwhich ended in the conquest of Gujerat. after they had agreed to some by no means onerous conditions they were to lay down their arms.A NOTABLE RELIGWUS SURVIVAL. and as they were in no way repressed or restrained. to be called Parsis. but betook themselves to NAvsAKi and S&RAT near the coast. where they came in contact with Europeans.). Agriculture and commerce became their favorite pursuits. they settled into the thrifty. to adopt the language of the countr}-. more driven fortli homeless. to the great centre of tiic western coast. however. 6. about 1300 A. where we find them as early as about .

" Mussulmans con- temptuously call them).500. 7. -ferred t deity. and A. just before the transfer of the city tlie territory from Tortut^uese to the The Presidency become the India of liombay witli its EngHsh crown. but est and knew that the Parsis did not zvorsJiip fire admired and honored it as the pureand most perfect cinblcni of the Deity. or Gebers. name of A PARsi GENTLEMAN (modern). very aptly cites the words of Eishop Meurin. 1650 AND PERSIA.H/EDIA.]\. as a deity. and that when they moved ried these fires with from place to place they carthem. capital has since head-(]uarters of the Parsis. "A . BAJJYLON. god . whose numbers in this part of the country and the whole of amount to something over 85. and the " Fire-Worshippers was universally bestowed on them. that they had sacred fires kept burning always in chapels. as the (" infidels." They * The I'arsi writer quoted above. It naturally enough. inthat Fire was their their " was. Only a scholarly few I. had a deeper and more corrcct pcrccption of what was 4-4 u to the mass an absurd super1 1 stition. followed a religion of which the most peculiar and striking outer feature was the honor paid to fire. It has always been known in Europe that the Parsis. in vindicating Ids brethren from the charge of heathenism. the head of the Roman Catholics of Bombay pure and un.

said to have received it from re- antiquity. archangels. llaine is is mentioned l^). ""^-^ ~'^ whose accounts -(fragmentary as they are) beliefs ''^^^1 lady (modern). scholars knew Parsis professed to follow of and undeviatingly the law Zoroaster.many true. who were. as and religious practices of the Persians they knew them the beliefs in their time. too. and with many natural iL-prc-sciilatiuii of certainly lliinsclf llic most sul>liiiic llini who ill Eternal Litihl. also knew that the Parsis believe in a number of spiritual beings who take care of the world under the orders and supervision of the Creator. in their turn." . and that they invoke all these beings in prayer somewhat as the Roman and Oriental churches do angels. is is classical authors. in six their spirits more exalted still and partaking in essence of some of the Divine qualities.A NOTABLE RELIGIOUS SURVIVAL. also in the existence and power of sainted souls. The name ilellloil and practices of Zoroaster. as it was handed down from their ancestors before the conquest. vaguely. the Per- sians of the Sassanian period. and that the strictly Lastly. it agree remarkably with of the modern Parsis. iiaints. assertions arc strongly con- mote Now these firmed b\' a great many pas- sages from Greek and of various writers of the Roman times.

8 MhDIA. and there seemed but little prospect that the puzzle should ever be solved. More manu- scripts followed. BABYLON. until towards the middle of the century that great university owned a nearly comBut what was the use. which he obtained from Parsi priests 8. a compilation of prayers and hymns. 2d. therefore. That it would be extremely desirable. SadEII. Both these points were partially settled by the happy chance which. to secure copies of them for the great European libraries. generally understood among tlic learned: must possess sacred books of great antiquity. to gain access to these books. if possible. was no one to read them? The very characters were unknown. and. contradiclions. George BouRCIIIER. and scarcely twenty-two. put an English traveller and scholar. /. in possession of a manudurscript. c. traced from one of the 9. in the interests of historical and religious re- That the Parsis search. he saw in this a hint of fate. containing and expounding the laws A one of the oldest and most remarkable religions in the world. in the order in which they arc recited at religious ser- vices. It was. a great work. Ambitious. coupled with 1st. and there happened to meet the eye of a young Oriental Anquetil Duperron. and was deposited at Oxford. . but always willi reverence. in the beginning of the last century. AND PERSIA. It contained the VenDIDAD ing a visit to Surat. Fortunately four pages Oxford manuscripts found their way to Paris. eagerminded. worthy of all his energies student. as one much holiness and mystery. when there plete collection.

and from the buoyancy which belongs to extreme youth. that most desirable of boons an object in Hfe. " I at once resolved to endow my country with this pecul" I dared to form iar piece of literature. luul he ([uite known the ninnber and the nature of the hardships which he was rushing to meet. and. who obtained from tile government his discharge from military . in time. from temperament. cient Persian language in Gujerat or longing to a noble family." Bethe command influence of high-placed friends.A NOTABLE RELIGIOUS SURVIVAL. But such a roundabout way and its inevitable delays ill- with liis youthful impatience. even though the}. and might. it is just possible that he might not have embarked in such blind wise on his adventurous errand. Only when all the arrangements were completed did he inform his elder brother of what he had done. he could Kerman. marched out with u[ his company one raw November morning 10. and learn the an- — . taking counsel of no one. the design of translating it. from national bent." he says. he committed the reckless step of engaging as a private in the service of the Cornsuited which was sending out a batch of recruits. and. given into his hand in short. and determined to go to the East with that object in view. just immediate passage. to secure an dismay 1754- .'uul tearful entreaties. have obtained an appointment at one of the counting-houses of the French East-India Company.were greatl\' mitigated for liiiii 1)\- the exertions of his friends. the year Anciuctil Enterprising and brave to foolhardiness as was. 9 and enthusiasm. unmoved by his pan)-.

we ask ourselves with a shudder what would have been his fate had he been counted among the his we read of every description. AND PERSIA. on a six months' voyage. most unsubstantial of goods. grudging neither time nor money. prospects in life. criminals. We accept the results of a great man's self-devotion. than Anquetil's own detailed narrative of his long wanderings and manifold adventures. account of the voyay. mostly on tropical seas. the wretched rabble of vagabonds. and scamps scum of prisons and regiwhich made up the Company's soldiery. The s^ood iiews reached him at L'Orient. It was well for him that it fell February. and ments. and he stepped on board the vessel free in man. at the risk of life and health. tlie seaport from which the recruits were to be shipped. and generally treated accordingly. MEDIA. by sheer personal exertion and perseverance. BABYLON. assistance even before he ant! left i)romise further his native soil. pursuing this. to the great mass of men. and care little to recall at what cost those results were obtained. and considering themselves repaid beyond any wealth if they succeed in securing . or. Yet there are surely some good lessons to be drawn from the career of men whom we see giving up home. fed. of a small pension. far more frequently still.lO service. friends. a out so for as . for it without any money. were housed. in the face of appalling working privation and hardships. II. for the sake of knowledge. The book is • but little read nowadays. at times more fascinating and thrilling. Nothing can be more entertaining and instructive. 1755.e and of the share of suffering which fell to him as one of the officers' mess.

lie was absent seven years.sta. early in 1762. more of them than the world knows of. When he re-entered Paris. was laid belengthy but exhaustive fore the public as early as 1771. father and son. — of them. victims of their enthusiasm and witness George Smith. successfully the best years of his achieved. This translation. II even but a portion of the knowledge they sought. Charles and Francois. The most arduous and adventurous part of his task lay behind him. . 12. and so many others. They work. and became generally. they succeed." witness the two Lenormants. it was solely owing to an exceptionally self-devotion . known under the name of ZknD-Avesta. they die. all smitten in harness by cruel diseases contracted in distant and uncongenial climes. PJiysicaL a)id JMoral Ideas of that Lazvgiver. But there was no time lost. in three quarto vol- umes bearing the " Zend-Ave. the Work of Zoroaster — Con/ai/i- title : the TJicological. he was barely thirty. Few suffered as many and varied ills. arc now. vigorous constitution. too. though incorrectly. and before him manhood.A NOTABLE RELIGIOUS SURVIVAL. to be devoted to comparatively easy and — that certainly pleasant work: several books which formed the — of translating the body of Tarsi Scripture. Sueli men there have always been such men there . Anquctil Duperron was emphatically one of the heroic Hand. and if he lived to achieve and enjoy. 102-105. many they suffer. at their noble tasks. the Ceremonies of the Religious Worship Esiiig * See " Story of Chaldca. his varied accompanied by a detailed narrative of wanderings and experiences." pp.

it was very clever.12 MEDIA. lie had therefore redeemed the vow to which he pledged himself from which in seventeen years before on first beholding the puzzling pot-hooks on the Oxford tracing. Here he was doomed to an unlooked-for and disheartening experience." . presented to the world as the works of one of the greatest thinkers of all ages. He objected that the writings. Traits Bearing tablisJicdby and Several Important on the Ancient History of tJie Persians. partly moved thereto by personal feeling against the author. uncertain and bewil13. Though so abusive as to be decidedly in bad taste. half the time to use a — homely expression.'' scripts The manu- posited full}' lie worked had already been dethe Royal Library. dered. there was here and there a little burst of enthusiasm. AND PERSIA. and now waited anxiously and with natural curiosity to see the impression which his labors would produce on the scholarly world of Europe. took a decided hostile stand. elder scholar of forger)'. while the English scholars. who had been guilty of some very ill-tempered and un- warrantable attacks on the University of Oxford. BABYLON. but the large majority of scholars held aloof. Their spokesman was William Jones. — " didn't make sense. A du " P- in the form of a pamphlet. Jiiui. and the h^rcnch was so perfect that it was some time before the nationality of the writer was Jones simply accused the suspected.who published in French an anonymous " Letter to Mr. True. then a very young man. or else of a credulity passall ing reasonable bounds. but already distinguished as a linguist and Orientalist.

They have long ago assigned to him his true place." he says. 14. or cheated them by palming off falsehoods on them. or high-priests. established the great and real worth of the work he For though it would did. . you should have left tribute to him. as to be utterly unthe monument at once of a great achieve- wrong ment and a great failure. even the least clever of charlatans could have written the nonsense with which your two last volumes Either Zoroaster was devoid of arc filled." offer " is is " (for rejecting the the uncommon stu- the verdict of another English scholar. He had neither the right method nor the right tools. . " The least reason I shall authenticity of the book) pidity of the work itself." On this theme the changes were rung for years with little variety and less good-breeding. carried out on such principles. enter nobody's head nowadays to deny the authenticity of the books he undertook to translate. and in both cases you deserve their contempt. . " we should never believe that to assert it. and also its shortcomings. . or he did not write the book ycni atcommon-sense. lie trusted entirely to his instructors. and when they " 1 3 were insufferably stupid and the whole college of Gebcrs were Though prosy. vindicated Time and more advanced scholarship have the memory of Anquetil Dupcrron.A KO TABLE RELTGIOUS SURVIVAL. him to obscurity if he did not write the Ijook. his rendering of them altogether available — is so faulty. You have then either insulted the public by offering them worthless stuff. the Parsi Desturs. did. If the first. and . it was impudent to publish it under his name.

scarcely less hopeless. indeed.14 MEDIA. as his Desturs gave it. in the person of another French EuGENE BURNOUF. then rendered that literally into French. later. and although the experiment really lay outside of his special line of studies." justice How — — 15.inv/. could he suspect that. Such a mind turned up only sixty years Orientalist. but growing more and more corrupt and unreliable? So he wrote down every word in modern Persian. their word-for-word translations into modern Persian. without understanding or deeming it needful to understand a single word of them.w axd Persia. r)Ut he was told that on their higher clergy rested the obligation to study the ancient dead languages of their race. n. he undertook it. He was aware. had spilt most of the contents. never dreaming" how unreliable their knowledge was. more to open the road for others and . and to do his opponents " half the time it did not make sense. a He thought he saw his way to more correct understanding of the Parsi sacred books. great and clear mind was needed to disentangle it and carry on the work which had been dropped from A sheer inability to grasp it. so as to hand down from generation to generation the sense and spirit of their religious law as well as its outer forms. that the mass of the Parsis hear and recite their sacred texts parrot-wise. by means of a more rational and exhaustive method. continuous. in carrying the vessel. and that their they main-stay was a thread of tradition. indeed. Thus it seemed as though one puzzle had only been exchanged for another.o. satisfied with scrupulously performing the ceremonies and rites of the worship they were taught.

the research was conducted. being called to India to fill a high official position. " 1 5 show them how. Curiously cnougli. was in a measure supplied by his bitter foe and detractor.A NOTABLE RELIGIOUS SURVIVAL. is shown thoroughness by the fact that it fills a quarto volume of eight hun- dred pages. Sir William Jones. this tool. and inspired his fellow-workers and subordinates with the same enthusiasm. The great likeness which was discovered between the ancient languages of the Aryans of India and of Eran suggested to Rurnouf that by bringing to bear Sanskrit scholarship on the Eranian texts.of the classical language of ancient India himself." published in 1S33-35. even while exposing his shortcomings.* * " Conimciitairc sur le Ya^nn. the of the Aryans of India scholar who. True." than with a view to follow it to the cikI himself. \\'hich was the means of establishing Anquetil's claim to Iionor and recognition. the traditional but mostly unintelligent rendering of the Parsi Desturs might be controlled and corrected. he broucrht to the task a tool which Anquetil had lacked a perfect kiiowl- — most ancient survivinfrlancfuacfe and the sister tongue of that in which the so called Zoroastrian books were originally written. . One chapter was all than they could at all he worked out accord- But on what scale and with what ing to this plan. and a closer comprehension of their Scriptures attained achieve. first took up the stud}. earning for himself the title of founder of those Sanskrit studies which were to become so principal a branch of the then dawning science of Comparative Philology. for it was this great cdcre of Sanskrit.

u\ll tlu' AXD PERSrA. takes the lead at the point to which our studies have brought us. in tracing the various still ele- ments whicli entered into ment. BABYLON. But the matter in hand is singularly arduous and obscure. and thus be prepared to follow that race's doings more understandingly and appreciatively. In many ways less uncertainty even about cuneiform de- cipherment. wisest. As it was the religion of the race which. "^^^^^^^^^ . in the order of history. we know enough to warrant us in pronouncing the religion so almost miraculously preserved by a handful of followers one of the finest. and even as matters stand now. )-et its progressive develop- many and dispute. we shall pause to gain some knowledge of it. even the trained specialist finds it im- a decisive choice. and although patient scholarship has indeed succeeded in restoring the U^st religion attributed to Zoroaster in its main features and general spirit. loftiest the world has seen. MEDIA. the lines hud down in this attempt of Burnouf's a nionunicnlal treasury was — of erudition and ingenuity. Still much is done every year. this work IhaL has since been done on field first carried out alont.l6 16. the ones of which — — passages sometimes we have man}' are the points under most important among which possible to make there is several conflicting versions.

and thasc The sacred bo(jks of a religion emits body all teachings in matters of faith. . and conduct.uid what he devotes his study. intrinsic differences. what they should do and avoid doing. A doubt as to the absolute truth of any statement. indeed. When aii}^ questo be obe\'ed without demurring. I.ut from their may be divided into two j^reat : classes that liave not. worship. tion arises bearing on religious doctrine in any way. TllK religions of the world. while the priest must life to perforce underst. the devout believer ought not to use his own judgment. conduct themselves on the momentous occasions of human these life. but as absolutely binding. or to its priviis the leged interpreters. They tell its followers what they should believe. or as to the necessity or righteousness of 17 C . how they should pra\-. theology. those that have sacred books. but to refer to his Sacred l>ook. to be believed without discussion. avksta.II. All instructions the fcdthful are not to take as simply advice for their general guidance. most commendable and the safer course.o mistakes from imperfect training and incomplete knowledge. This. Tin: ri:()i'iii:i' of kran — tui'. as the lay- man is liable \. the priests.ip.

-deviations from those laws would not startle them "in the same way that they do us. fraught with some portentous significance. could never be demanded or obtained by mere men. indisj^utable Every religion. either in acts of insubordination. who becoine the prophets. face-to-face intercourse. Such utter surrender of man's most clierished the right of thought and independent action. punishment in the next world. but never admit that such obedience duty. is a paramount and therefore. Knowing nothing of the laws of nature. and as long as he thinks it~ to his own advantage to do so.. but speak not from themselves. prescription contained sin. teachers. claims for them a superhuman origin: they are the Divine Word and the Divine Law. but would strike them at most as extraordinary occurrences. being devoid of all positive (/. — such unreasoning obedience. that has sacred books. Sacrctl JJuok is ail}' tlic mortal and. rights expressed earth. but in the name and. liABYLON. and lawgivers of their people. amounting ahnost to the aboHtion of individual will and intellect. cntailinij if AND in PERSIA. men were more simple-minded than they are tiquity now. supcrnaturall}'. r. liere on hands of the priests and the tjovernment which supports them. found no difficulty in believing wonders. as it were. 2. Man will obey his fellow-man from choice. under the dictation of the Deity. at the — the wisest or the most despotic. They were the more will- .l8 iVElUA. and. scienti6c) knowledge. revealed imparted directly by the Deity through the medium of some chosen man or men. with Avhom they are supposed to have In remote anmiraculous.

The Hindus treasured a set of books. 260. . c. their i)riests taught them.See " Story of Clialdea. to gather the inheritance of older nations whose greatness is of the past Assyria. and others. while the latter has survived. ghinpses of eternal opened lias Ijy noblest and wisest thinkers of a race.rilE to rKOPlIET OF KRAN. great Asiatic divisions of the Aryan stock or race. at the point we have reached. both The two followed religions which. The former by-many i)rofessed. were revealed to the founders directly and personally by the Deit\'. * . as is resemblances usually the case between mendjers of one family. Knowledge").'" 3. in that handful of descendants of Persian emiin India. extinct. that beinij the best of truths." pp. lesser in — size. as the repository of the Divine Law. Babylon. the}' individuals or nations. while the Sacred Book of the Lranians has long been known under "' the name is of " ZeND-AveSTA. ptjwer. as we saw. Ikit we are. 259. and influence. grants which forms the Parsi community and the daily dwindling remnant of their brethreri in Between both there are striking and not less striking tlifferences. the ever-revolving wheel of history is bringing u[) to the to[)." Neither of these is still re- ligions nuicli altered form. clivino oriijn chiinicd for the 1 9 \w\^ admit the Law the offered to llicin. directly concerned only with the race which. the Hindus and the Iranians. in a millions of the inhabi- tants of Lidia. " " which they called \'E0A (/. always been so far above the average standard of the times as to appear to the mass unattainable l)y the unassisted efforts of the human mind. be the old country. every rehi^ion. in this vol- ume.

and lani^uaij^e " Zend given as the name universally of the which the newly found books were written." which may be one. probabl}'.iUy Not so much from the difference of the characters. an enorPersian at all.aw and Commentary. Pehlevi a in its written form. l)ut a word. " has been named is Pehlevi " — the Persian of the Middle Ages. most peculiar language. 5. .20 MEDIA. which is not greater than the distance of several centuries would natural!)' warbut at first sight it does not seem to be rant That is." and the language of " the original texts AvESTAN.uul tlic authority of Anquctil Dupcrron successors in the field of ICruniaii re- search." fairly translated pretty for " Zend " is not the name " of a language at all. on his first . should be " the T. which explanation. it is Now becoming more and more usual to call the books " themselves simply AvESTA. ." a name which does not commit to any particular time or country. the title " "' Zeiul-Avesta " \vas accepted. a compound " AvestA-U-ZenJ). I'KKSIA. the title. but in several kLranian dialects of means different periods and. commentary. that these facts are distinctly understood. different countries. HAUYLOX. ANJ) . as can easily be proved from inscriptions. the books are not written in one uniform language. and which is of far — — later date." In the second place. When. a misnomer was unconsciously introduced which considerably delayed discoveries and added in subject. confusion to an already almost hopelessly obscure In the first |)lace'. while the language in which the Zend or commentary and glosses are written. especi.\. but rather Semitic.

and would alone go far towards proving the indebtedness of the ^•ounecr race of Central Asia to the ancient cullM)r where and in what way.\\ortls lunms. to put it more clearly. in reading to himself or alouti. r. It is riddle seems scarcely less strange." for instance.. when. Si." g. tlic — — —a way tliaf of using antl arranging those words..'' " id est " stand for the Latin. " " " that is. /. . alent. /." became Shahan" " Shah (meat) was substituted in reading "-gSsJit " to its Semitic ccjuivalent hisrd. 3. not b\' constant contact witli old . if tures of the West. the reader. which every indulge in language pronounces in its own wa\'. adverbs. .'" which was the written word. which ^^ exoiipli gratia^' " c7 cetera^' we fluently read the English words. arc I'a-.Semitic nati<jns. substituted to each Semitic word its Eranian (or Persian) equiv- would be written " malkd " " Shah (an old Semitic word). which is implies a knowledge of rather surprising." King of Kings. while the grammar and construction. c. We ourselves do something of the same kind. pronouns. on a very small scale." and so forth. forms like etc." not to speak in print " " " of the numeral figures (r. arc Severbs. c." or writing. etc. tion of the were Semitic to the eye that the words -which this : were Kranian in sound . and pronounced " " " Malkan malka. the exercise on such a scale as did the readers and writers of IV-IiKa i-]\'rsian To two languages. or. on meeting. propositions. 2.). conjunctions mitic.inian proceeding so anomah)us as to make it certain tlie residl could not possibl)' ever have been tht^ The soluliving language of an)' nation whatever.THE rROPITET OF ERAA\ mous 21 proportion of llu.. Thus " " " : king .

is doubt and darkness. 7.KRJA. the older the text. which is the period of . while the purely Persian part goes under the name of PAzEND. so that may more Huzvabe said that the most ^ ancient Sassanian writings are nearly all Huzvaresh.). it is comparatively easy to separate the original text from the Zend. as to keep writin.0 most interesting and important questions to which we have no satisfactory answers. P'rom what has been said it is evident that the books which we know imder the general name of " " Avesta are composed of parts belonging to very As the Pehlevi characters differ from different ages. but has been remarked ^ that. We should like to know How old is the religion of which the written law has in great part just been recovered? From : . could the Persians have acquired such familiarity with a lancfuajje than which none could be more different from the Eranian speech. is -' which have That also been distinguished by different names. of Aram.. It is clear that it is quite possible for a text to be written entirely in neither is Iluzvaresh or entirely in usually the case. tlnrefore. ninvi 0\\ Ah-P PF. I). -^^ the Sassanian dynasty (226-640 A. while the latest are almost entirely in Pazend. has l)een called IIUZVARESH. The written of Pehlevi language. Beyond It is that. just the • -. the Avestan ones. every thing. the resh it contains. of liabylon. of it which is written one way and read another part composed two very distinct elements.' v^ I/^ ' . Only it it Pazend..^ in that language and translating it into their own as tliey reatl ? (). -> like those of Nineveli. and to assign to the latter its proper time.22 MEDIA.

most likely to be confirmed in the course of further study. avIio (h'd invented y\n(l and preached lie and wlicn he did invent into shape? or only reform it and put it Wiien were the texts contaiiiin. have come down to us. 8. or fragments of them. meant essentially for general readers. and also magic.-. and which their authors themselves do not attempt to f. doctrine. unanimity of the testimony establishes a strong pre- sumption in favor of the real existence of such a person. to enter into the deIt tails and merits of special controversies. ranging r)Ut the all the way between 6. only cm the briefest and clearest possible form. of Zarat huslitra. whose existence it occurred to no one to doubt.^" the it. such results as are certain and such as appear most in probable. although so much can be said with certainty even . Most of the Greek and Roman writers whose works. name it. which Iiavc arrived at conclusions great measure confiictini."o W'as li\-e? there realh-a man of tin.T of wliich of (lio f. as neither of these nations was remarkable for great historical sense or critical discernment. — and besides. would not go for much. they place him at absurdly varying periods. l"ru(\ their testimoii}-. at soiiw time. written down ? All these points have now for )'ears bcn-n the sul)ject of rescarclies. .as yet not to be determined. as being supported by the greatest amount of intrinsic and circumstantial evidence. the prayer. taken sc[)arately. and the law.kajv. It is not for a book like the present. 23 forth ? countries of Eran did it i:. present.THE rKoriir. speak of Zoroaster as of a ^\ise man of the East and teacher of divine things.ive out as in a final.000 and 500 p.C.

. and.ding to a concourse of hearers the simple and broad principles of his creed sometimes he cries out to his God. BABVLOjY. They evidently present the teachings of a new religion in and purest stage. that prej-josterous. .ran. Ahura. sayings. for he has found friends: a Gfreat king has been moved to believe his mission. prayers. . times he speaks hopefully. loosely strung together in no parits earliest ticular order. They or belonging" to a different jiart of h'. and homeless wanderer among men. who grantcst happiness as a ." friend gives a present to his friend. contain real of the very few pieces of which the Avesta can boast. land shall turn? None of the servants go ? pay reverence to me. the other intiinsic testim(^n}' Q. Sometimes he preaches some in his own person. . O I implore for I have few men. . O Ahuramazda? know that am helpless . are in verse. There is a small collection o{ h)-mns called Gatiias (literally "Songs"). however. above extreme chites are equally one for its remoteness. among sermons.24 MEDIA. At other . is the wc derive from \hr Avcsta itself. tiic for its lateness. written in a [x-culiar Eranian dialect. living reality.RSlTi. now. How I shall I worship Thee further. poetical beauty In these "Songs" the prophet stands forth with an unmistakable. and bear the marks of far greater antiquity than any other portion of the book. his first disciples are in the prophet and among . either older than the Avestan gencrall}-. nor Whither do the wicked I rulers of the country. that strongly recalls Avith a pathos some I of the Hebrew Psalms: shall I "To what . bolli the AXP rr. expoun. Thee weeping. More conclusive?. as a persecuted .

conning the mighty. and not an cmpt}' name. self. solitude. tcnderest royal faiTiil}. 10. Still keeping strictly to the Avestaii text. antl making 3'ou feel sure that Zarathushtra has once been a living man. his sons. — meditating lu. anrl a " mountain of holy communings is mentioned surely a lofty forest retreat.THE rROniET OF EKJ. in a wooded and mountain- ous country. ings. . full}' life — perhaps a large portion and lifting his soul higher and higher. most human. before lie announced hammed had himself a seer and a prophet. the queen herself human sympathies. but beyond that nothing definite. Mo- beeii for years a driver of camels and a leader of caravans. of in answer to l""or is own seeking and questioning spiiit. lUit throughont this [)recious the grand figure stands out most real. where he " — spent a portion of his of it. and he was forty then. silent lessons of the desert and the stars. and his daughter. we find that he was born by a great water. his disciples seem to be speaking. probably a ri\cr. collection. also those of his wives. until felt himself face to face with the forth to teach his Deity. But when our curiosity prompts us to inquire for details. appealing to the noblest. nic'terials fail us The Avcsta tells us the name of his father entirely. and of his family or clan — Spitama .W tlio 25 and the mighty nobles of the land is his (Unvoted follower. again. for he is mentioned in the third jierson. came down and went it believing that he spoke not out of him- but froni what his had been given him to hear. and people. Then. amidst grand natural surrounda great breeder of thought and visions. for biographical facts.

which shows him to be descended from one of the very oldest legendary kings. and has preserved a long genealogy. howeven. without heeding tlic flimsy people. l^ut it fs admissible that the whole of Eran should scarcely have been united under one ruler in pre-historic times. probably a royal residence. then. We further know from the Avesta that the king who honored Zarathushtra and believed injiim was VlsilTASl'A. Let us. liad AND PFRSrA. II." —a designation evidently implying some great distinction. PABVLOy.of signs and fancy of later ages in the northeastern region. almost certainly king fmcr).2f> MEDIA. is that it should be placed someof .I^ranian sage in his human truth. is uncertain. famous in legendary tradition as one of the early hero-kings of Eran. As to the time. veiy possibly Bactria. too. Moses lived llic lirrdsman's life in tlic Avilds of stony SinaY before he returned to his in it out. it is likely that no positive date will ever be reached. and all we can with great probability conjecture. or was a native of some other jxart Eran and only came thither to preach. Whether Zarathushtra was a born subject of Vishtaspa. with high-lifted banners. when king and prophet lived. makes him of royal race. and told wonders \\ith which the puerile and the injudicious zeal of followers tricked out the reverend and majestic image. old in }-ears and his mission and worked lieavenly lore. I'^or }^cars. he content with such vague glimpses of ilu. So Vishtaspa will have to be imagined as of some one Eranian country. Tradition. " the capital of which is called the beautiful Bakhdhi. which was early a prosperous and powerful kingdom.

who recorded to have cata- logued the Zoroastrian books. but to have been tlestroyed at the time of the conquest of Persia by the Greeks under Alexander the Great of Macedon.. This soneously. is so remote as to be virtuall}' prc-historic in a land cntircl)' dfx'oid of monuments. course. three centuries before Christ. This latter fact sufficiently shows how impossible it is to ascertain with any degree of precision at what period the Avesta texts as well the Gathas as the later ones were written df)wn. beyond doubt. all of twent\'-one books. According to Parsi once was a large body of sacred indiscriminately and. called Zoroastrian literature is said to ha\'e consisted books. so easily accessible as to be comparatively modern in C^haklea and Ass}'ria. in a feast. No Greek. of tation capital after a burned down the van([uished Persian kings. and to have stated the contents of each book. of a is contemporary Greek (Hermippos). quite possible in that manuscripts may have the conflagration. embracing every. 12.THE riwrnKT or eraiy. After the great fne we are .C. erroattributed to the prophet himself. but as it is well known of that Alexander. written out on twelve thousand cowhides." was introduced. and where we ha\e no qrounds for even sup])ositions as to the time when wrilini. there are real!}' ancient. This date. the it is. 27 where beyond looo P. (parchment). fit of drunken exalPersepolis.possible branch of religious discipline. No manuscripts — — now extant tradition. That an extensive perished sacred literature did exist at the time is partly con- Hrmed by the testimony writer. philosophy.ever persecuted any religion. antl science.

28 tolil MEDIA. : and I shall strive that It it may be so. nor could they fail to add or fabricate their rule. a council of priests — elled many of the texts in a way favorable to their own overweening claims. incomplete. and the result is the Avesta text as we now see it.l . only sucl: portions will be preserved in tolerable entirety and uncorruptedness as are in daily use for purposes of worship and obscrv^ance. seeing. The ancient language chapters had fallen into disuse as early as Alexander's time. clergy. that sacred tradition and law survivtMl onl). wherefore it was found necessary to provide translations and commentaries in the then modern Persian It is not to be wondered at that the Pehlevi. some been —priest-ridden. remodtheSassanian peri(xl.JBVLOjV. in was convoked for the express purpose of restoring and committing to writing the ancient texts. B. portions that have come down to us are collecand invocations.in the memories of the ])riests for several centuries until. fragmenin the arrangement and order of tar\-.! was inaugurated by the procla- mation of King Shapur II. . and to suit their purposes Persia now became what it and establish never had an era of fanaticism to the length of persecutioj. Such exactly was the case with the Avesta. confused and even verses.tXP P /: A' S /-. from the disposition of the new reigning house. that their day of power had come. " Now that we have recognized the law of the world here below. they shall not allow the infidelity of any one whatever. which the faithful The tions of prayers . of a large mass of re13. ligious literature entrusted to the memories of that religion's ministers." stands to reason that.


are as follows : II. also of hymns of jiraise to various litnri^y proper . corrupted from " word which means (/. litany. the itself with HaOMA. Sacrifice. a much longer " the law against the Devas It is. and digressions : of various sorts. which is pressed out on tlie many strictly prescribed ccremoniea." and invited to assist at the sacrifice that is preparing very much in the — form of a III. which hymns. milk.t. properly. in a certain order. and fruit. Shapur 325 A. a code of laws and regulations tending towards the establishment of rii'hteousness and the defeat of the Powers of Evil. II. — — divine beings whom the modern Parsis regard as subordinate angels or good spirits. the service or arc to recite daily. altar Tlie . " text — Manthras — which are to accompany the very The YasNA. t\.. are gruui^ed under the title of Lesser Avcsta(KlI()Kl)KII Avksta). BABYLON. to which are presented offerings of meat.n/. the prayers and minute and complicated performances that compose the sacrifice. bread. the Demons). traditions. c. (about I. The ViSPERED invocations to all the divine and holy beings. The Vendidad. in small quantities.l). AND VKRSIA.30 MF. as well as some short prayers and fragments. and the juice of a certain plant. as being of less vital importance. in presence of the sacred fire.). but includes some interesting mythical legends. and to be recited The onl)' once a month and on certain occasions." i. who are honored under the title of " Chiefs of the Good Creation. principal divisions of the Avesta as it has stood since the text was defmitix'ely established and sanc- tioned under the Sassanian king.

exhortations. These three vocations. and form twenty-five chapIt also contains forms of confession. perhaps held soniewhat less later and greatly corrupted period. Fortunately it is . The Yeshts. divisions. hoh' than the other three books. as not being in It is to be noted liturgical use at daily worship. form the Khordeh or Lesser Avesta. that for tlie we would vainly look in the Avesta cosmogonical legends which usually fcn'm a of a nation's sacred lore.THE rROFIIEl OF ERAN. but intermingled. praise. and clearly showing a far These Yeshts. in reading and rendering them. short prayers for together each day of the month and others. inters of it. Vendidad. difficulty of 14. Yasna are not re- cited separately. for the same reasons. for no particular reason that one can see. When written out in this particular liturgical order they form the VendidAd- Sadeii. so that scholars. l)e seen from this brief review of jts contents. containing indeed distin- guished altogether by a polytheistic and mythologicharacter entirely foreign to the early stages of Zarathushtra's religion. hymns of praise. IV. and which we find in part such abundance and richness in the sacred records of thcChaldeo-Assyrians and tlie Hebrews. have the additional that. as suits the progress of the liturgy. with a few fragments. It will being entirely unassisted by tradition. etc. Vispered. very few of the Yeshts have been translated into Pehlevi. much cal interesting mythical matter. 3 1 Gathas arc comprised in the Yasna. Such a blank in our knowledge of so great a race as that of Eran would be an irreparable loss.

isiiri. Still. if the handling be modern.32 in a c. since a voluminous Pehlcvi literature. about the beginning of things. the}. This is tellic^ible li^ht why. as in is. Where smoothed be sure may that the original material is marred in the handling. and all belont^iuL^ to the Sassanian i)eriod. the order that rules the universe. but certainly containing much of the material of which the lost books of the c^ld Avcstan ernized literature were made up. although this book by its date is far removed from the time which the present volume is meant to cover (nearly a thousand years later than the latest the Avesta of bv the the . All these rather heterogeneous elements are worked into a system with a symmetry which detracts fr(jm the genuine worth of this compilation ficial by giving it a too obviously is arti- every thing and ordered and fashioned to fit. abundantly proved by itself.it MEDIA.fillL-d frtmi AND I'KKSIA. various hints which become inBundchesh. moreover. the material as certainly is old. if com- paratively modern. and philosophical digressions. chapters of a fanciful geography and astronomy clearly betraying the same mythical even origin. sources which. we character. even though m(jdand greatly transformed by ages of oral transmission and altered conditions of culture. HAIiVLON. and also the end and regeneration of the world.are beyond a doubt supplied from ancient traditions these sources are various books composing . an invaluable collection of mythical and religious narratives. Chief and foremost among these late growths of an ancient and much grafted stem is the BUNDEHESH. scraps of national heroic epos. arc not devoid of authority. mc.ji"c.

T OF ERA. date it. As of it who preached to the capital question whether the prophet that religion to Eran was the inventor or only a reformer. without refeninq.TIIF. the moral and .V. it is of a bearing too vast.. PROPiri-. 33 it will rcucli).to attempt an intelligent and intelligible sketch of that ancient rdigion. of : import too profound. ^*^<^ h^'* D .philosophical sides of which are mainly represented in the surviving books of the Avesta. not to claim a separate chapter. we could not.

" 34 . The is ever invented c.jrcat many and by varieties of belli arc accounted for t^rowth and transformation. nally the word. At least not the sense never really invents any commonly given to the word in our approximate every-day speech. an a pj'iori conclusion of the same purport." or more literally still. The result is so invariable and uniform as to warrant i. to where we have knowledge enough to enable us draw a conclusion capable of test and proof. ARYAN MYTHS. since an " vention is always. which is a Latin one — — come meant simply to find. c. 1. 2. when we do gain more knowledge. in every case where searching investigation is brought to bear on si'. /. an illumination of the mind. " " inrendering of the thing it stands for. we confidently foretell that. the results will necessarily agree with those that have been attained in other similar may cases. to " u2:)on something a most correct and precise . c\. in the beginning.III. an involuntary The inventor acact.fficient materials. Origii)ivcnio. no rclii^ion a lanj^natye. In the first any more than place. whene«ver we have to deal with insufficient materials. It follows that man in thing.

transforms. duce any thing absolutely new. spinner.spongeous stone and rocky rifts.dity. do nothing first 3. or beautiful. until they reach the common gathering-point. creates. answered by what has just been Zarathushtra was a reformer. And as one of the chief facts about every new religion is its attitude towards its predecessor. upon an 35 idea. tracing a river to its springs. the dyer. that dribble and trickle thiough . but he must have something to work upon. antl the articles of marvellous variety . arranges. color. that never existed at or wise. the weaver. new. he develops and works out into something serviceable. but they could texture. fountain-head there is is reached high the mountain w . to find I'A'cn in when the visible ilds. in any shajje whatever. and which it strives to supplant. Man never can procase. or silk. the next virtually questions "that arise are these: What materials did the master find ready to his hand? What did he re- what reject. the [^receding chapter closed said. what did he bring of his own ? And what were the compelling influences that called for the work? An incpiiry of this kind is something like tain. stumbles which. combines.stance — the flax.liV MYTHS. and in lie compares. But he in W) its final form. much more out for many arc the ooze their way through hidden undergrtjund passages. and design hiid not the raw material been given in the in. The question with which is or wool. if his gifts lie that way. the religion from which it si^rang. cidcntally finds something. To use a homely but very pertinent simile: the embroiderer produce in qu.AA'V. or cotton. all. And it is those unseen ri\ulets that . and in no sense.

the yellow. entirely to separate them from These two Asiatic branches of the Aryan tree are so closely connected in their beginnings.\J) I'KKSIA. 4. race the second the peohalf one — — to the much-mixed Ilamitic stock. —-the — to the Semitic division of the great white famil)-. the Aryan or Indo-European race. we find share. It is.36 MEDIA. present a subject of study in many ways more congenial. and we ual feel in far life. tlie more direct sympathy with it their spirit- workings blood and mind. Of these. that a study of the one brethren of India. The nations of Eran. which tion. scarcely possible.hts and deeds of three out of the dozen leading races of humanity. We have hitherto been exclusively occupied with the thouy. the sap that courses through both is so evidently the same life-blood. of which. from which both those branches originally drew their being.h which they i)ass. BAJiVLOX. that determine the purit)' and wholesonicness of the waters which are to slake the thirst of thousands. in the course of history next claim our atten- belonging as they do to our own division of mankind. from our kinship of easy to follow and to • however. ples of Canaan and the third — Babylonians. Shumiro-Accads of Chaldea belonged to. saw the moral and intellectual characteristics of We each reflected reacted on in their religions. almost necessarily involves a parallel study of the We must at all events pause here to attempt other. . A. while these again their tlestinies. Assyrians. tlavored by ct^ntaet rills ami driblets. tinged and with the various substances throuy. or Turanian. a sketch of the conditions of Aryan life. and Jews — . in dealing their with them.

even in it . have left monuments of any . primeval is home of the race was delightful supposed to have How been to further in God shown by this statement." It would of course be vain attempting to locate this region. since (iod liimself is made to say " in the Avcsta The first of the good lands and : countries I created was the the "Aryan this Home " AiryanA-Vakja. from which streams of emigrants could freely flow southward and westward. though it had no land charms whatever dear to its had I not made every dwellers. the Air\-ana-Vaeja. after separating from trunk and leaving the primeval Aryan home. dwelt for many centuries in another but not very distant region. 6. an un- (Hvided nation. /.-7A^ Arvvns.). It is very probable that the Indo-Eranians the main were a large division which. to which remoteness of time has lent a mythical vagueness . 37 5. c. of wliicli the race retained a dim but grateful remembrance in the shape of tradition. and well watered portions of the high tableland.//A'r. Neither tin: the i)rimeval Indo-Eranians nor their fathers." I. but the ancestors of both h'vcd. (Vendidad. in the hilly. but on the whole it seems most likely that the primeval Aryas dwelt somewhere to the east of the Caspian Sea. until their turn came. then the whole living world would have invaded the Airyana-Vaeja. attributed the same passage " I have made every : land dear to its dwellers. and llu-y split into the two great branches which were to spread over the lands of India and of Kran. There was a lime when Mraiiians and Hindus were not yet. wooded. Ar\as. in a pK-asant count r\-.

lived in. a time probably not very much anterior to Zoroaster and the Gathas. who have left such ample records of themselves. famous Ric.-Veda. It is the most ancient of the four. mii^lit pjathcr indications contheir mode of life and thought. since Ar}'an antiquit}' has nothing to show at all like the prodigious dates as high as 4000B. " the land of the Seven Rivers. 7. authentically established — — . it is not difficidt to reconstruct from them the simple creed of the of the Indo-Eranians. if not Aryas themselves. At the very earliest stage of their spiritual life which we can reach them. AXD PER STA. This is partly to be at ascribed to the difference of time. and take us back to the earliest times of Aryan occupation in the A northwestern part of India.C. religions than which none can differ more widely in scope and character. named from the river Indus and its principal affluents.OX. preserved by the This collection is the Ar)-an conquerors of India. the creed from which two religions were to spring: Hindu Brahmanism and Eranian Mazdcism. their concepcerning tions of the world thc\. but those which the settlers had brought from their more northern homes. BAnvr. As these hymns beyond doubt embody no new ideas." now Penjah. one of the Hindus' four sacred books. yet bear more palpable signs of an original common source. anil as kind from which \vc that rule ovci' a such. the Aryas already appear far superior to the Turanians. of the greatest value to us. as represented by those early Shumiro-Accads.38 MEDIA. goodly portion of the hymns are very old indeed. thousand prayers or Iniims. and the powers l->ut \vc have a collection of a little it.

In the ideas of these latter the and and sacrifice in those mercy by prayer of the former they must be fought and vanquished.'" who remained glimpse of the Aryas shows them to us at the stage which may be called that of pure natureworship. and life. in f^'cneral. and still more to dilTcrcncc of race. all these were by them . as divine beings. motherly Earth giving the Winds. TIL. gods. the lifeThunderstorm. as mankind some earlier races took the step to a hi^^her spiritual level than others. half pastoral.Y MYTHS. which they The beneficent Powers of Nature the bright — Heaven. and clime under which they were placed. the Spiritism or <:. denounced. 39 If for Chaldca. principally Darkness and Drought." Ch." Chaldca. never propitiherein lay one of the chief diffc^rences between Aryan conceptions and those of Turanian and ated — and Canaanitic races. or the flame on the altar and the the .-1. while those purely Turanian uninfluenced by foreign culpeople Our tures have scarcely taken that step even yet. inclined to : "••'' Sec " Story of " Turaiiiau Chaldea. far fewer in number.ol)lin-worship of early Shuniir and Accad have at sovic time necessarily been the religion of the crudest. to be abhorred. all-pervading Light. rudimentary manifestation of the n-liL^ious instinct inborn in man. were fientls or demons. — adored and entreated. . the kindly liearth .Sun in all his many aspects. and accursed./1/?V. half agricultural. as developed by the particular conditions earliest of land the led. Fire. a duty wiiich naturally devolves on their adversaries Powers that do evil to man are to be conciliated . The harmful Powers. the Waters. as manifested in the lightning.

thanksgiving. and a religion so plain and transparent that a sketch of — it can be given in a very few pages.i. his son. For DvAus is the word — Sanskrit to designate the visible Sky. Is . the earth-enclosing. Both names originally are really common nouns.-tpyroy. Varuna. the visible starry sky Fire. while Varuna. both under of the " name " . is Dyaus. and he is pre-eminently entitled. It names carry us back to the primethe times when those detachments " " " departed which reached Europe in their wanderings. personification . the luminous. Asura— VarUNA frequently also receives the epiThe sun is is thet of All-Knowing. Sky or Heaven in Greek. yet a certain supremacy seems to have attached to the Sky-god. in its celestial is lightning form. 8. in a slightly altered form OuRANOS to in used — — this is day means " clear that these val Aryan times. Hence the Aryas' simple and manly-at: titude towards their deities praise. and from being a mere his royal robe. and prayers for help. Omniscient. For he is far of a physical fact. in the oldest portions of the Rig.40 it MEDIA. of Wind and Storm to gather the clouds driven out of sight b}' the fiends of Drought. Lord DvAus and that of Varuna. and to pour down rain.vp pkksia. at a somewdiat later period. the natural business of Light to conquer Darkness. There are few facts better established than this. n. and mean the same thing. his eye. and. Although the' Indo-Eranian religion was frankly polytheistic. that the oldest known and most exalted Aryan god is Heaven. His name in the Sanskrit of the Rig-Veda which is older than that of any other Sanskrit literature.

9. together they watch the deeds and the hearts of men. Heaven and Daylight runa the Luminous Sky? There are indications of — — Varuna and Mitra having been associated wilh several luminous deities of rank somewhat inferior to their A own riod. and llie s[)iritnal wliich. the Law of the nn. deva'ation from which is sin and the beginning of all wrong and confusion. or Mitra-V. on the contnuy. who drive the same chariot. The sacredncss and significance of this lumiber is universal and unspeakabl)' ancient. equally all-seeing.iruna alone. all-knowing. . He cstablislicd lieavtm and eartl'i lie is the giver and keeper of the order and harmony wln'cli are . and it will probably be traced . Daylight personified. endowed with the higlicst moral attributes. this What more natural than Mitra-Vaconnection. Hence it is to Varuna that expressions of penitence and prayers for forgiveness arc addressed.V.t .l/]'7"//. (the AdiTYAS). becomes the Law of Righteousness. that they present themselves to the mind as an inseparable pair.iverse. between them is so close. The as(/. Vasociation runa-Mitra.Varuna as often as of V. and the sun is called the eye of Mitra. the Cosmos. 41 lie is. Together they are the keepers of the Cosmic Order and the Law of Righteousness. transferred from the material to and moral world. think the same thoughts. and to have formed with them a company of seven./A' Vl V . for he is the piinisher and the sin which he most detests is lying. The name of Varuna is coupled in a great many invocations with that of another bright being.iruna. r. Mitra " the Friend "). not onl\' in the Lulo-I'>anian pe- but in the primeval Aryan period.

There is to this day a large class of priests in India those — who have ficial fires. if not tJic oldest. AtJiari in means a frequent by-word consequently is one of the oldest ing") Fire is atJiaryii (" flaming. for there Aryan names of is a Greek word which points farther back than the Indo-Eranian That w^ord is atJiragcni. the son of the Asura Varuna. for the sake of llie lo.DTA." Sacred tradi- tion has transformed this mythical Atharvan into a high-priest. the name of a period.l. Interpreted. is ylTllAR" VAN. the wood of which was used in very plant." can mean nothing but " ivliat gi^'cs birth fo It was obsolete already in the classical identified. a creeper. litcrall}' he who has Athar. One wouUl luminous he incIiiH'd to fancy that these seven beini4S were \'. first bringer of fire to men and institutor of sacrifice in the form of burnt-ofTering. prinH'\-al AXP its IV'RSr. " the flame son " Varuna.'inq. Attiar = . it is Greek times.y. pale reflections of ihe Hrst of theni). PAnvrC^. special charge — who are called Atharvans.bi. (the}. itself. liunianity before first separation. ancient times to bring forth fire by friction.iruna-]\Iitra. invented sacred nun^ber. of Athar. descended from heaven otherwise Sanskrit in the shape of lightning. who on closer inspection resolves himself into the Fire-god. reall)' onl)' One of the many ( )1(1-Sanskrit names for LiLjhtnin<^. blazfor Agni I-'irc.42 to MF. and the plant has never been As to the sacredness of the element as universal and primevally ancient as that of the num- . and tradition lineal the of the sacred and sacri- makes them descendants of that first mythical high-priest. it Athar. the personified element of Fire.

The eternal conflict which to us is a scries of meteoro- phenomena. of Heaven. The two supreme goods. leaping aloft. which give all the others. which is to the Sun. as Lightning. plays a prominent part in the war which the bright Devas. en(learin<^ wor- assists ship. It is in the poetical descriprace displayed tions of this warfare that the all its Aryan gifts of imager}^ its exuberant epic genius.in rarc^ poetical moods. the conqueror and phantoms thiiv^s that lurk in darlcness. the givers of light.^J^y. was to the early Aryas. as the friend of man. a thrilling drama carried ow by living. In its Fire. Now is the war with the fiends of Darkness and Night naturally left entirely comparatively a simple affair. The arch-enemies of mankind are those powers that rob them of these treasures. (^r two distinct dramas. arc Light and Rain. who sits on liis heartli. the Son original celestial form. for the disperser of warmth all evil nf tlie sun. life. the most im[)ressionable and imaginative of races. and alwa)-s consciously. II. and plenty. are forever waging with the demons of Darkness and Drought. in his tasks. the Atmosphere. iaii)' fe'i'vcnt It and. has always l3ccn the object of a pcculif one may say so. the substitute for tlie h'glit of day. whose (lames. lastly as the messenger — between the two worlds. si)iritualize(l onl). 43 hex seven. mighty for good or for evil. the inexhaus- . Still. carry up to Ileaven the prayers and offerings of men. superlogical human rather beings. of and bad dreams.'iA' MYTFIS. with two different pro- tagonists. ami the battle-ground of which is the intermediate region between heaven and earth.

the success often seems doubtful. too. This difference in clouds. and desperate their acts of violence and resistance numberless also the shapes assume and no wonder. through to its culmination in the the thunder-storm. BABYLON. creating that fund of Siin-mylhs to which fully one half of the stories able. parched pining earth. su- . others keep it back. wickedly hide it. until pierced and torn asunder by the lightning spear of the angry thunder-god. and not all hy any means bode or bring rain. nnth somehow never much caught the fancy particularly stern feebly reflected in 12. and poctr).coiis or delicate poetry.44 MEDIA.or<. and practical its and so but spiritual is life. the . because. even though the Numberless victory can never be theirs in the end. Far more complicated the Storm-myth.KSTA. story of the struggle for the waters of licaven far its more varied and exciting many stages and incidents final battle-scene. however. which does not strike us except on reflection. If some generously pour down the precious. swell and spread with the treasure they cover and enclose. not the j^lacc to in enter into a stud}' of thcni. and the Sunrace. and will not give it up.of the world are traceis This. since they are chiefly they the personifications of different kinds of clouds. pure liquid that is life and drink to the — . for we are sources of Eranian religion now search of the of that is and epos. the advantage frequently remains for a long time with the hostile powers. For there are clouds and clouds. AND PF. are the wiles of the fiends to gain and keep possession of the waters. witli a variety tihlc imac:jinati<>n of the Aryas fillt'd it of incidenls rcpU'lc with j.

most watchful ple mode dependence on her ever).f Let us examine these into a person and a story. while the un[)cU-alonl\' and fertilit)' of their [)oeticaI fancy ncjt suggested to them a thousand similes. to feed the earth and all living things. Somewhat more elaborate and far-fetched. as striking as varied. Varuna. Wc thus have the heavenly Water-Maidens. leled viL^or a few of these creaticjus. //^//tv simplicity. \\hich com[)ared the light and fleecy clouds to herds of kinc la/. and 13. one of whose most sacred names is. but straightwa}' transformed each (. is the pcjetical effort which likens them to graceful women. in which one hardly knows what most to admire tlu: childlike. in other Uuid.mood.JA'V. so to speak. whose fostered the closest. reserving a thorough A exploration of this veritable fairyland of our race's childhood for another \olume. for the reason expressed above. as across a broad pasture. The fiends. as 45 pcrficicil our aUciUion to the outer world has sim- become. could not escape the observation of people who. lived on nature's of life lap.ily moving across space. and — more especially of the Supreme i\sura. and the iliviue Waters. to be devoted to ancient liidia.LV J/i"/7/S. Waters. because the most natund flights of fancy. but still perfectly intelligible. where it bloomed more luxuriantly than any must have been one of the earliest. verv consistentlv. the Asuras. As such they are the nKJthcrs of Lightning. " Son of the fore. — or their unfailing appro])riateness." ApAm NaI'AT. very few. It pouring down their milk the rain. wives of the gods. therewho withhold the rain and bring on the earth .

fantastic forms of monsters and giants. the for milk c>r. the bestowed on the devas who sue- . the god of the thunderbolt. together with his inseparable companion Va\U. maidens. if the . Then Indra. and cities. the wind that ever moves in the heights of the atmoshis — phere .n." the "coverer" or "enfolder. AND PEKSfA. the cows are brought forth and pour down their longedother image be adopted. BABVLOJV. as whoever has spent idle hours at sea or in the mountains watching them will not need to be There is not a child who has not discovered told. with battlements and towers. drawn by ileet dappled steeds the racing clouds of the storm. lowering clouds which rise at the end o"f the sky in the shape of mountain ridges l)eing or f(M'tress-walls. " Killer of Vritra. animal shapes. in Aryan mytholo"\'. mounts his chariot. or sluit them up — these in dark mountain caves. in mythical They either speech. the rocks. the wives are delivered. the walls are burst open. 14. after them ride the troop of the strong Storm-Winds. landscapes. — Vritrahan — most triumphant is title the highest term of praise. spirit them away altogether out of sight." and . To our Aryan ancestors the cloud that gave no rain was the most malignant of fiends it was to them Vritra. for the dark. stealers of cows or of \\'onu. resplendent in golden armor. and tiie battle begins. or in strongholds standing designations. But there is no end to the suggestiveness of clouds.46 tlu' MKDIA. arc. hoirors of drought and famine. in the sky likenesses. Not long can the mountain or the fortress hold out against their After repeated blows from Indra's onslaught. fiery mace.

eartlil)' and divine. alone can end the fray. : measure also grants it he is supposctl to help his bright dcvas in the good fight against the tlemons. It it is the dark storm-cloud of many coils. the exhilarating Soma-juice. This epithet became a special by-wonl fur Indra. Ilis songs of praise and thanksgixing encourage them . . cccd ill ^ 47 piercing his sliaggy hide. is forgotten. increase their vigor. usually -the indefatigable Indra who fights and him. where his original nature as cloud. in a variety of situations and combinations. — clouds winds and unwinds on top of the banked up against the lujrizon. which It is kills slowl}' mountain. This same serpent-fiend is one of the most active and ul)i(]U!tous. the Another is Am. lightning-spcar. "the and still more poi)ular cloud-demon serpent" who sits on the mountain and defies the stant iidversai'}-. fills the drink-offering. he in a spirit nified attitude the higher i)owers. .iiul again. notable j)eculiarity of the Aryan conception of nature. and of which they partake as friends partake of a feast in the house of a friend. just as food increases that of men . prayer and sacrifice are rec|uired. above all. is the extremely dig- A apportioned to man in his relations to As in every religion.and storm- demon 15. but in a somewhat different he docs not passivel)' entreat favor. as being the demon's most ccmi- whose own particular weapon. dcvas. and the story is told in a hundred more in ox less dramatic versions the Rig-Veda. the sacrificial offerings to \\hich he bids them as guests. in tpos and story. and letting out the imprisoned waters.A A' VAN MYTHS. and we iind him again .

It was poured into the fnc. transfigured. !}• cially is a plant with soft and flexwhich contains a milky juice. after wliich his onslauLdit is irresistible. Nothing extraordinary so far. a god so that Soma came to be not only one of the devas.1cc. strength. when used in moderation. frequently in poetical.RSIA. tluy arc actually dependent on it fur victory. Indra who is saitl to consume enormous ([uan tities of it. themselves.48 thciii A/J:/)/. by the presence of a foreign and higher element a god. mightiest. The Indian So. anel would he unable to overcome the fiends were they not liberalIt is espesupplietl with the wonderful licpiid. exhilarating virtue which seems to have struck the discoverers of the plant and its prop- of this observance . made them as .inVLON. an elevating. feel even prophetical. the use of which at sacrifices is one of the very earliest customs of the Aryan race. which burned the brighter for the alcohol it contained. is in the effect of stimulants. /:.MA ible stem. and that god — . the heightened vitality manifested in greater courerties age. gives an intoxicating liciuor. AND Pl. But the strange and distinctively Aryan feature juice is that the Soma plant and tlie Soma were not only held sacred. ness. inspiration. nay.iiul valor. as supernatural. must have descended and entered into them. Na}-. but actually worshipped as a divine being.l. with l. and most beneficent. This juice. The strange light-heartedthe temporary oblivion of cares and sorrows. probably in cpiantities sufficient to feel the intoxicating effects. most dread. but one of the There. they thought. . in'loosened. being pressed out and allowed to ferment. and the priests drank it i6. eloquent tongue.

49 the consecrated plant of sacrifice the god Soma. the friend alike of gods and men." The few other things * Darmesloter " : — . darkness. and defeat the demons by their own inherent virtue. Great as force that could compel the devas' assistance. but in its origin the notion has nothing im[)ious or unnatural. claiming nothing short omnipotence for certain peculiarly endowed mor. he asks for rain in times of drought.* "is generally in accordance to nature." text) thus became a weapon of attack and defence against the demons. the Aryas went even furposed ther: they imagined that in prayer. almost their submission. rejoicing and invigorated." says one of our tals — in most eminent mythologists. this idea of the compelling power of prayer was carried to inof credible lengths of absurdity.J/?VAJV dwelt in MYTHS. na}'. a weapon of irresistible might. he ascribes to it power to effect its object. Seeing that his prayer is invariably heard.}." i>aL.d it Aliiiiiiaii. they ditl not forget to provide their due treat of Soma. " Man's prayer.e it. to the sacrificial feast. is the power of prayer which is supto help the deity. or rather in the recitation of certain prayers and sacred texts. note r. to do battle against Vritra and y\hi and the cow-stealers with their bands of fiends. and sent them. At a late period of development. to a proportionately higher degree. . for in their — — crude anthropomorphism they could not but imagine that their devas would be affected in the same man- So when they bade them ner as themselves. The Mantra (" Sacred Word. Orma/. lay a 17. and rain viust follow on drought he asks for light and light must come after darkness.

it MEDIA. and other devas. From this — — ing not only beneficent in a general way.50 tli. the Mantra. Soma. — — If these rules be perfectly complied with. — though his soul maybe filled with . but like " demonIndra. faith . the Sacred Text (Mantra). B. to be individually invoked and adored. with the proper intonations of voice. quite independently of the If departed disposition of mind of the worshipper.inVf. prayer and sacrifice from both are worse than useless they most likely will act the wrong way and bring down disaster on the worsliippcr's head. is ever prone to admit rather supernatural than natural agencies. A A' P PER STA. liealth — that could not in fail to come to them in the conditions which their of race. in the smallest particular. killing" — its full power and effectiveness. all strictly determined by rules rules numerous. 1 conception there was but one step and not a wide one either to making of the hymn. and with their superiSo there was nothing to shake. increase tlio Ar\'. as be8. and \o\y^ life for themand victory in tlicir wars witli the natives of seh'cs. were the very thint^s the countries they occu[)ied. of cattle. the sacrifice will take effect. A —a primitive times. complicated.ON. the Mantra was to be recited at the proper time. life orit}' was passed.is [iraj-c'd and sacrificed for in those numerous and healthy posterity. and infinitely minute governing also every step of the sacrifice which usually accompanied the recitation. in order vritraJian. to insure . in the proper way. an independent deity. essentially It is to be noted that. not laws. unenlightened by culture. a Person. conse- quently believing in powers. for man. and their excessive scientific every thing to confirm.

iii spirit and object. and which we saw amply illustrated in the most ancient practices and conjuring-feats of the Shumiro-Accad sorcerer-priests. Agni.1/V7V/S. slightly transformed. and as the fermented intoxicating beverage at others they are addressed as the most s})iritual beings and invested with the loftiest abstract pn^pcrties: Varuna becomes the Lord that dwells in or above the sky. the purest and most fervent piel}-. the plant is brought from the mountains. through ignorance or ovcr- officiousness. arc beyond a doubt praised and invoked a way as to make it very difficult to draw the as line. but leave them ]:>}' in the hands of the priests. The gods whom they worship often bewilder us by their mixed nature. than any thing else. They may be considered as a remnant. perform for the layman the necessary ceremonies. 51 It is. 19. therefore. Soma. lire.IA' . and if meetl}' remunerated. right divine to wield the spiritual power. made up of material and spiritual attributes in such know where to one time Vdruna. safest for the layman not to meddle with these mat- ters at all. of that grossest and most primitive stage of religious consciousness which every race must start from. and see that he does not come to harm. light.yl/CV. While at that the visible. The old Aryas and Indo-Eranians had by no means shaken themselves free of this primitive materialism. material sky. the hater of . cut up and . instruct him as to his own share in them. pressed. Mitra. who are qualified will. whose rube the sky is. It will be seen that so material a conception and use of prayer and sacrifice are more like conjuring.

together with cattle into herds of real kinc..52 lies MEDIA. to the Moon.. together with Mitra. 170. the most important and interesting is that of Yama. be it sun-myth or stormm}'th. etc. Yama was originally one of the names of the *See " Story of Chaldea. AND PERSIA. from p. the Sun-maidens and Water-maidens into mortal women. giants and dragons. all-knowing. to Fire. and consequently must have passed through the Indo-Eranian period.* 20. of course." Chapter 111. Soma is the Healer. half all-seeing. which every race creates for itself by the simple trick of transferring the various scenes of the atmospheric drama. is closely matched in ancient Chaldea by the period of those beautiful hymns to the Sun. he is the keeper of the Cosmic Order and the T. weaves into this common fund of mythical romance the names and dimly outlined forms of its own ancient heroes. Each nation. BABYLON. This second. which have been aptly compared with those of the Rig-Veda. . material stage in the evolution of religious feeling. 21. from heaven and cloud-land down to earth. A mythology so rich in dramatic incidents and personages is a very hot-bed for the growth of mythical epos. transforming the gods into heroes. the cloudwild and the demons into monsters. the giver of life and immortality. beasts or or such circumstances of has preserved. the god of inspiration and heroism. Many its real history as tradition are the divine champions of the Aryan myth which reappear in such new garb In the epos of India and that of Eran. and the punisluT (if sins. semi-divine myths. Of these semi-heroic.aw of Righteousness.

337-339in Matthew Arnold." pp. four-eyed. and surrounded by the souls of the righteous dead. broadgiven two dogs. going from the midst of his * f Sec " Story of Chaldca. For the Aryas held their departed relatives in great love and reverence. the glorified i." whose business it is to go forth into the world each day. drinking the Soma cious and — in that drops from " its PiTRlS— Fathers " foliage. in the particularly and solemn as- pect of the departing. however. 22.* He was the first to go the way " that all must go to show the way to many. to scent out those whose myth. contained the consoling suggestion of resurrection and imniortality. consec|uently." f ing the first to arrive in he becomes master and host there. and. dying god. Then popular fancy goes pictur- esque touches of appropriate detail. Yet King Yama is by no means an image of terror. sacl 53 setting sun." in the language of the Rig-hymn. So Yama is hour has come. — c. join him in succession. by a natural transi- to King work to complete the transformation by of the Dead. receiving those the first man — the first who who died. as he sits with the the highest heaven under the wide-spreading gods tree the Cosmic Tree of Life. He was grad- — ual!}' transformed into the first lived. and drive them like sheep to the dread king's presence.JJ^VAJV MYTHS. which." . " Rcquicbcal. and. " the vasty halls of death. snouted. but rather an auspi- gracious presence. unconsciously borrowed from the same inexhaustible treasury of " brown. Be- who tion. and did not believe that the mere fact of dying.

embers of each particular family. which were the occasions of general meetings of the clans. by speaking. r. . of a clan or tribe. remembrance must have been revered by all the branches of the clan that festivals on a larger scale must have been kept in their honor. AND PERSIA. to which (he supposed invisible presence of the I'itris lent a mysterious These commemorative festivals v. ship. and kept alive the feeling of kinship and fellowship. severed :i man's connection with Each in- dividual family honored its own Titris. that and the right to assist in and determined by custom became law and the standard for the regulation of the right of succession.54 faniih'. but. on the other hand. and — honey. Families on these occasions partook of a common meal. it. BABYLON. which eked out whatever tradition had preserved of tlieir real exploits with mythical traits.IEDIA.reason that the remote ancestors 23. . beings mortal }'et more than human. The Pitris were supposed to be very powerful to do good or evil to their descendants. invoking their protccLicMi. them was strictly limited it so sacred. Such is the origin of most of those demigods. to depend for their own happiness and comfort on the affectionate of the living. fit subjects for story and song. and cakes.ere solemnity. and setting out for them offerings of simple food milk. the true import of which was soon lost sight of. assembling at stated times to commemorate their earthly lives. It stands to. calling to mind their deeds and good qualities. c. of them. Such ancestors frecjuently became tribal heroes. of a group of families connected by blood relation/'. the strongest possible bond between the m.

are the materials out of which races weave their National Epos and Heroic Poetry. Ikit a presentation of them does not lie within the scope If some of them confront us of the present work. tutelary deities. haloed witli the glory transferred to them from the divine champions of Sky and Cloud-land. and whose earthly careers. and claim our attention. ./f/rJ'. we shall account for thern as we go. The Epos of Eran is rich v^^ith such mythical heroes. the reputed ancient kings of the race. and knows of whole dynasties of who crowd them./A^ MYTHS. :>> the borderland between myth and hiswhose disembodied spirits were worshipped as tory.

the needs of men are few. enervating. 294. fruits. incentive to hard labor. it. abound in nourishmentand berries. as regards either shelter." pp.* necessarily convey some indications as to the physical conditions under which that race was placed. There is therefore. — I . The latter is very rich and produces a great deal work . and roots which grows wild. indeed. never. clothing. and on the other. Now the influence of India on its population is. ARYAN MYTHS IN THE AYESTA TIIETR AEEEGORICAL TRANSFORMATION. little or beast. diet the only rational one. and 56 ff.IV. owing to the climate. on one hand. on the whole. make as they spread through the land and dwelt in * See " Story of Chaklca. in exchange for very little the forests. for — man seldom dry up Ganges. The myths of a race — as apart its from — being religion and distinguished reducible to physical phe- Jiomena. which is so hot as to exertion unwholesome and a spare vegetable The Aryan conquerors. both as regards climate and soil. like the Indus and . sue- . or food. animated into personal life by poetical and epic treatment. while the riv^ers are numerous and the larger ones.

the different countries of Their westward migrathe general name of Eran.le under tral Asia. and were transformed into a race of. 2. somewhat physically. 57 much of their origigradually- nal hardiness and active virfor. effemi- nate men. < < o < whom leisure and habitual idleness of body developed an extraordinary faculty for spiritual contemplatio!! inordinate and an exuberfancy ance of — 1=1 which two qualities combined give color and tone to their entire religious mythology. Very were the influences to which that branch of the Aryan family was subjected which wandered into the region west of Cenwhich co. lost A VESTA. of dwindled stature and delicate in proportions. . and poetry.ARYAN MYTHS LV THE cumbed to these influences. and philospeculadifferent W < u Q < A W « sophical tion.

it became a and drought. A\D PERSIA. cold for the earth. the richest pastures. and where they founded prosperous settlements and states Bactria being the chief of them. there snakes had "to be guarded against and the fiercer wild beasts. Life was in this land a 9-12). densely away arid tablelands . sickness and venomous reptiles dwelt in the marshy lowlands.. northern tablelands. : " The centre of Eran was formed of avast desert south stretched far . a region of sharp contrasts." which we will proceed to borrow war with herself. The people of Eran suffered not only from tlie heat of summer. more favored districts. little differing from their older home. after taklni. shaded by groves. were tortured by gadflies in the heat here bears and wolves invaded the herds. Immediately on the most fertile valleys and slopes bordered endless steppes blooming plains. to the north and the favored districts might almost be called oases. . brought them to a region of novel and forbidding aspect. of woods and pastures. for the waters. llicni hills throu^li lands of and valleys and streams. pleasant lion." "cold springs. Here the dry si ill had tu bo . Mere the camels died of cold and slipped down the icy steeps into precithere the winds from the desert choked up the wells and pices Here was winter. the winters were severe. where nature seemed at — — — and of which nothing could give a more vivid picture than an admirable page from Max Duncker's "Ancient History. . If the mountainous countries of the northeast possessed the stateliest forests. cold for the trees " (Vendidad I. na). fight against the desert and to attend to agriculture. a fight for the preservation of the flocks and as soon as single tribes had begun to settle in the . fight against heat and against cold. were encompassed by sandy wastes. HABYLON. Here pastures and cornfields were buried under buow during many weeks there sand-drifts destroyed culture. " v.itli tlie worst of its plagues.58 MEDIA. there the cattle . . but also the desert were not from the cold of winter the scorching winds of more to be dreaded than the snow-storms of the .-contraries. the snow fell early. If the vegetation was most luxuriant along the edge of the Caspian Sea.

. It is evident tliat their — moral and religious sense must have been shajjctl by the same influences. doughty. and art a very secondary matter." Vol. indeed. . hardsiiijis and contrasts of nature must be added the contrast between the populations. There could be no lack of raids into the agricultural districts. 59 supplied with water there tlie crops had to be protected against the 'I'o these hot winds and sand drifts from tlie desert. Most of the native tribes of the central lield the tableland. indomitable fighters. brave. was deepened in owe particular channel. and. The strife which their existence in the land which they had pervaded made their own. The opposition between Light and Darkness. nature of the country from leading any life l)ut that of nomadic To this day a great portion of the population of Kran consists of n(jmads. of manly beauty of the heroic cast. It is entirely owing to them that the Eranians became what \vc find them at their entrance on the stage of history a people of most noble presence. pervading the whole creation. So while the settlers labored lustily. intensified in one particular direction. of a serious and practical turn.A/^V^jV . in the sweat of their brow. IV."* 3. of plundering and rol^bing. arc incalculable. they reached proficiency only at a very late period. 105 and fl. pp. were debarred by the herdsmen. and many of those who surrounding higlilands. far more given to the woi"k of life than to its graces and amenities. who thought agriculture and cattle-raising the highest and holiest of occupations. became to them the main fact of nature generally. in which. and robust. the others roved about idly with tlieir Hocks. The infliicnccs which such conditions of life must perforce have exerted on a nat'irally t^ifted and high-spirited race. earnest and honest of mind. and that as imitators. conse- vastly modified and It * " Geschichle des Alterthuuis. myths in 7VI/-: A VESTA.

ind Darkness. — of Light . Thus we have some difficulty at first in . qucntly. between the AND PERSIA. the Cloud-Serpent the Obscurer of Light. which formed the groundwork of the oldest Aryan mythical religion. which is the essence of a myth-making poetry. 5. which. as of every primitive religion in the world.6o MEDIA. the toying with fancies and images. 4. in the sister race of India. liAliVLON. crowded with hardships and difficulties. and gradually drove the other mythical agents into the — — background. With the Eranians that opposition became the one fundamental law. They drew the great Battle-Myth down to the embodied it in the contrasts with which land teemed. became the chief persons in wliom all good and all harm were embodied. had weaned them. to the absorption and almost exclusion many picturesque mythical details and incidents with which the poetry of other Aryan nations is adorned to overloading. powers — the gods and the demons. their and own way for the dualism which is the keynote of their national religion. There was no need of inventing new symbols to It was sufficient to emphaexpress this tendency. As we trace the ancient myths in what us of the Avesta. The hard struggle for a of the life hedged in with dangers. is a prominent ground- feature of the primeval Aryan conception of nature. the physical significance deshall cidedly predominating. thus preparing the earth. size the conflict. from the idling contemplation. The ancient Sky-god and his everlasting foe. is only occais left sional and subordinate. we are struck with the great development given to the spiritual meaning of them.

* with the same sense of " Lord. ing out It is little only long and attentive study. fev/ and between. and en- It looks like a palace that stands compassing tlie earth all around. shining in its body of ruby over Ihc three worlds.f . firmly established. shining and seen afar." And of all the by-names " omniscient. bringtouches scattered through the texts.ARYAN MYTHS IX THE identifying AP'ESTA. The Sanskrit ASURA becomes. by the law of Eranian pronunciation. built of a heavenly substance." given to Varuna. he is made to say : " I maintain lliat sky there above. that Mazda puts on end of it. the inspirer and maintainer of holiness and righteousness. that enables us to trace this grand spiritual conception to its first physical source. The very name of the one ic a combination of titles given to the other. And when these touches arc found. it is like a garment inlaid 7vitk . Ahura. all-knowing. . . such as he appears throughout tho Avesta. stars. the supreme God. Thus Ahura-Mazda literally means "the Lord of great knowledge. that of was adopted as one of the names of the Deity — Mazda. etc. 6l tlic AhurA-Mazda. made of a heavenly substance. witii ends that lie afar. conversations with Zarathushtra. the master of all. which are the accepted form of revelation throughout the Avesta. and on no side can the eye perceive the * There hepta + is the = Latin scptcm (seven) same exchange of letters in (Ireek and Latin Oreek Greek herpeton = Latin serpens. with the old Aryan sky-gods Dyaus and Varuna." The material attributes with which he is " " In one of those invested at once betray his origin. Creator of the world and of the other gods. . they are such as to far place the original identity beyond a doubt. Yesht XIIL .

-i. the a manner and pure Daylight (of with a persistency which makes the couple correspond exactly to the Varuna-Mitra of the Rig-Veda: (See p. the " (See pp. ! Ahura-Mazda .i.." while the Sacred Waters are invoked in a In^mn as follows — . " I desire everlasting to approach Ahura and Mithra with my praise." us in helpful ways. in the two. (Sec p. 46. : "We O worship this earth which hoars us together with ihy wives. eternal. 41).y/ox. serve . 11). the lofty.) whom more anon). ye Waters and you that stand in pools and vats." Still more conclusive is the text in which homage is paid to " the resplendent Sun." " to his most beauteous bod}'. flowing." alone of all the Yazatas or divine beings. . is invariably spoken of and addressed as " Ahura-Mazda. the lofty. to "I announce and complete my sacrifice to Ahura and to Mithra. 11). Atar. ." " O we worship you."--" we worshij) liis is entire body. 41.yp PF.i/." and honiac^e is paid' perfect. that . . which also belongs to Variina. 40. And before the battle the worshipper addresses to * Yasna I. and the and the holy" (Yasna L. . ye female Ahuras {Ahnnhiis . you that are showered (h:)wn. and so he said to be "the one of all whose l)ody is the most " the finest of body. well-forded and full- (See pp. 40. p.) The sky is also poetically called his botly.Rsr. Fire eye of Ahura-Mazda (originally the celestial Fire Lightning see pp.62 MEDIA. ! of Ahura).) is Lastly his name joined with that of MiTliRA. " Son of 42). To whmii but a sk}--^0(l can this maj^nificiMit dc- scriptidu apply? aside froiii llic star-broidcred p^armont. 40. ii. 45. and the holy two" (Yasna IL.

where he dwells in the shining GaRO-NMANA" (" the Abotle '' of Song"). when " and shoot . the high gods. great Eranian God. in its descent into the 6. 63 : the (Hvlnc couple the following. Ahura-Mazda's own. wc shall have to look up a bit of celestial geography. known in the Pehlevi period and to the Parsis in the corrupted form of Alborj. al- the 2. This is the Mother of Mountains. ami it is "connected with the sk}-. and. tive thus convincingly to trace out step b}' stcj) the proofs of the material and mythical origin of the . beyond the ridges that upon tiers. . poetical invocation " May Mithra and Ahura. rise in tiers plains of later Ariana. will Far away in the East. It rises from the earth.244 niountains that are on tlu. marking the stations of the race's immemorial migrations. earth have grown out of it. But we must leave him awhile before the race's religious consciousness reaches that highest point.ARVAX MYTHS IX THE A VESTA. is H ARA-Berezaiti (" Lofty Mountain the Holy Mountain. the ")." It is most instrucshar[) arrows. in eternal glory and is a scat There come neither nitjht nor . be}'ond the sphere of the stars and that of the sun. then to follow the process of evolution which raised him into the loftiest. to find our way thither. be pleasantest to seek the gods in their luminous homes. purest. most immaterial abstraction. into the sphere of Endless Light." Its summit is bathed *' of cverlastinu bliss. " when the nostrils af the (by clashing horses quiver. to follow up more traces or transformations of It Aryan myths in the Avesta. when the strings of the bows wliistle for help. come to us the poniard lifts up its voice aloud with another).

ahnvc Ilaiaand produce light for the world. which is no other than the old Aryan " heavenly ocean " or cloud-reservoir of the waters which derain. rise up. . 1 laraiti-lxireza. became the name of an earthly mountain range. Demavend. nAnVLON. . Alborj. still further modified into Elburz. towards the south. rise up above Ilara-Berezaiti" (the rest as above). nations when they reach the stage of transition from myth to reality that of transferring mythical. stretches the Sea VourU-Kasha. heavenly geography to earth —a : pro- ceeding which goes hand in hand v/ith the transformation of gods and myths into epic heroes and mythical legend. That of Takra is the centre of the world and around it the stars. that which skirts the soutliern coast of the This is a patent instance <jf a proceeding familiar to all Caspian. "Up! rise up. with its towering peak. along the way made by the gods. Mr.*) 7." the h}-mn " U]) ! : Berczaiti. scend on the earth as The same hymn con- tains an invocation to the Waters. At the foot of the celestial part of the Hara. the moon. lliou swifl-hoiseil sun. darkness. Hence mons). with a mysterious sacredness superhuman adventures and awe it the Eranian Epos. in is eyes. no cold wind and no hot wind. AND PERSIA. rise up (if CJaro-nmana) along path made by Mazda. . and roll along." (" Watery because of the clouds. thou moon ! . O man " " thou art to abide in there the rise — ! (the rest as above). which shows a remarkable comprehension of the continual interchange of moisture between the sky and earth : " As the Sea Vouni-Kasha * is the gathering place of waters. and mayest thou. ye stars . in the Eranian's is the scene of various . the watery way " they opened. The Elljurz. and the sun revolve.) " " rise uj) above Ilara-Berezaiti Up rise up. . no uncleanness made by the Daevas (de- and the clouds cannot reach up unto the It has several notable peaks. shrouded. (Vendidad XXI. . no dcathful sickness.64 MEDIA.

and from it derives its heal- As for the ing and death-removing properties. of Ilukairya down to the sea V'ouru-Kasha. which rushes from the peak HUKAIRYA. All the shores of the sea it is Vouru-Kashaare boiling she runs over." boiling over. who have their several mansions there. which God as " himself planted on " high Haraiti (the same Hara-Berezaiti). abundant. of the Ilara-Bcrezaiti. the White Hauma or Gaokerena. The siunmits of Ilara-Berezaiti being the abode of the gods. " " — 8.ARYAN MYTHS IN 7/IE A VESTA. ! Tliis sea is. that is as large as the whole of the waters that run along the earth that runs powerfully from the height . known afar. in its most direct. they are carried down to earth by the rain. 65 go up the aiJrial way and go down on the earth go down on the earth " Rise up and roll along and go up the aerial way. and supplies all the rivers of the earth with pure. and wholesome waters: " The large river. moreover. rank- .. the llaoma that grows in the mountains of Eran and from which is pressed the golden-colored liquor used at sacrifices is the earthly representative.. and placed in the centre of Vouru-Kasha together with which contains the another all divine plants tree seeds of the that grow on earth. seeds of the plants. Anthropomorphism. everlastingly replenished by the bountiful flow of the celestial spring ArdvI-SOra Anaiiita. . . all the middle of down there. when And the waters of this same celestial sea everlast- ingly feed and protect the Tree of Life and Immortality. Of this heavenly and immortal Ilaoma (Aryan Soma). it is but right that there also should be the store-houses of the choicest blessings which the gods bestow on men the waters and vegetation.

and that. AND t)f I'EKSIA. for. earnest-minded sister race. " entitled the swift-horsed. is an image as old as the first attempts at imaginative poetry and the theme of a stories. form. so that.lliYLOX.inian A is the vcr}' essence and later anmn." and all the worshipper shining. the tendency was all the other way from anthropomorphism to spirit- — ual abstraction. almost smothered Religion. playing on finite variety of it the in- changes which we shall find in the There is only one Rig-Veda on this one theme. matter-of-fact re- mark it that its light purifies creation. however. ing by-word.^ the Aryas of India. ''' sober. not rise up.r. The heavenly the favorite heroine of Aryan natureEranian has preserved only the shortest is * See " Story uf Chaldea. she myth. should the daevas (demons) would destroy all thmgs and the heavenly Yazatas (good sj)irits) would find no way of withstanding or repelling them." is is Thus That the Sun has a chariot and horses an understood thing ever since poetical forms of speech first began Eran retained the standto crystallize into myths. Iiulii-l''. in her character as the fairest of hundred maidens. 33I-334.66 est MEDIA. generally retain only a few characteristic features. lintlu speculation. Again — the Dawn opening the gates of heaven and preceding the Sun on her golden chariot drawn by fleet horses. finds to say in praise of it is the. Therefore Aryan divinities when the Avesta. . without. " short. during a long In the period of time. Mythology entirely outgrew and." pp. I li. swift-horsed Sun. while the mythical exuberance they turn up of incident in and description we saw the Sun greatly cut down. insignificant yesht (hymn) to the undying.

" and is said to wake men to their work and at iM'cak of day. touches both ends of this wide. the takes hold of the beautiful suniinits. in a prayer to be recited and where she is called " the beautit ul Dawn. the val- draw up many troops salt where the rich in pastures and where the deep lakes with Avide-ilowing rivers swell and hurry. in golden array. traits in like' it comprehend the mythical must be borne in mind that Mithra. Far more accentuated and developed is the mythical individuality of the Kranian Mithra. In order to fully it. the shiniiii^.) is devoted to longest 9.. '" all the Karshvars. 67 mention of her. waters. him. of which Eran the largest and central one. the " fcjrc dawn and the gloaminj llie 'I'hc first. . is Light.aa'vjjv aiul driest myths in the a vesta. . " He who moves along brings glory. in where array. twilight. after the setting of the sun. l)ewho foremost. " Who goes over the earth. all her breadth t)ver. hciivcnly goils swift-horsed sun . fills da)-. which " the sun. whose ends lie afar. yield plenty to waters stand where . high mountains.i him (heavenly space) whence also he is said to precede the sun at his rising and to follow after his setting he is the morning and evening. and surveys every thing that is between the earth and the heavens. of the ileet and i^litterin^ horses. who readies over the Ilara. the cattle . and finest hymns (Yesht X. to give light within the house. whence his standing surname " lord of wide pastures bot'. and The is earth is divitled into seven regions or Karsuvars. and fioni thence looks with a hcneficcnt eye iant chiefs over tlie abodes their (jf Aryans.* a Yazatu unseen. of the uii'lyiiii. the pure light of the space apart from the splendor i^f his Aryan namesake. round earth. when One kA the separated from his original companion.

essence Light. the lord of wide pastures. is the natc. fully wrought. and the cross-beams of the yoke are fastened with hooks of metal. . beautiall are yoked to the saioe pole. and a patron of warriors. lias built llic . . lO. the Maker. Aluira-Mazda. with gold . with a silver helm. . on heavenly food. strong. in a beautiful chariot wrought by the Maker. longing fur the When will that Bull. enly substance. . living " Four stallions draw that chariot. hrii^lit stars revolve. l!ie loril of wide pastures. being flee in hi. who gives victory in a righteous cause is : He "A the poniard. .s ural foe of the daevas. he is the ])rotector and rescuer of the heavenly cattle which the demons is are forever stealing and driving into their robber holds.6^ " iho l'"or MEDIA. " With his arms lifted of the Immortals). . " up towards Immortality (towards the abode Mithra.r helj>. warrior. the fiends of Darkness. who from before him or fall under the strokes of his never failing weapons. This most primeval of Aryan myths reproduced with beautiful entirety in a verse of Mithra's Yesht. and lie up a dwelling on mountain around which the many surveys the whole of the material " world from the Ihuaiti-ljarcza. who kills with the warrior of the white valiant . the hoofs of their liind-feut are shod and wear the yoke. Mithra. biing us back and make us reach the stables ? When will he turn stables : us back " on the right way from the den demon") whither we were driven ?" of DruJ (a name for therefore essentially a warrior. the mightiest of warriors. in fear. . Ilaia-Ucrczaiti. Ahura-Mazda. inlaid with stars and nUxtle of a heav. from the shining Garo-nmana. a golden cuirass. "The cow driven astray invokes him f<. — i. BAliVLON. Mithra. and undying. of their fore-feet willi The hoofs are shod silver . all of the same while color. whom AND DERSIA. drives forward .

and. n"i}'tli. him thousand senses and ten thousand eyes to see. and.pliysical [). and Evil. equation between the Visible. sicU: is won- AND therefore Mitiira is ALL-SEEING AND ALL-KNOWING Ahura Mazda gave derfully easy and l. Wliom all (his moving world. above all. and Faithlessness.iii of the The is transition to the . and Darkness and Lie is This most simple and primary conception. . and Wrong. loncj spcnr. . creation of Mazda. and the victor}' from the He who is the material into the spiritual world. Lie. C^<^ shnrp. the most energetic." II.spiritual looical. MiTiiRA IS is Light./fAT. %\ho. . and all the evil brood of Darkness. the nio' t valiant. nf llic MYTHS [X THE llic A VESTA. the most liend-smiting of all gods. He who eludes or breaks the bonds of a contract is a " deceiver of Mithra. Ahiira-Mazda has lo quick arrows. the swiftest of all gods. . mainlain and look over . because the most obvious. Light of Absolute Truth is of his nature the foe and destroyer of Deceit. wakcfully Ljuards the lie who stands up upon llic cnrlh as . as a practical application. The Daevas are Darkness. in all probabilit}-. perhaps the only absolutely universal one. the supreme guardian of covenants and punisher of bad faith." his wrath and the curse of all Undegood men is the " ./A' horse. . So imicli fur the obviotisl). the championshii). at once transfers the struggU'. . he is the undeceivable watcher of men or else lie has ten thousand ears and ten thousand spies. LkjIIT. and. man all tluMVorld over. . . whose cause is the protector in o[)en warfare of all righteous. the very first."— but Mithra is ceivable. Light a yVLL-PKRVADixc. the strongest of all gods.s Mm IRA . never sleeping. Truth Good. and Lkhit is is Truth. and Livisible that occurred to thinkiivj. cstal)lislicil .

nor all the lies that are told. straying way. .lit the foolisli cxil-docf. even though makes no wound the wind drives away the — He takes away the spear that the foe of Mithra flings. <mi '" n. . . which rules the relations between friends and kindred. . . however swift they may be to relent. backward it . father and son. Compare Story of Chaldea.DiA. between partnet"s. letting tears run over their chins. between husband and wife. cannot outride him running. . on is tlirit furtli." of the covenant. he would not ' hear so well as the heavenly Mithra. ." they stand on the road.un'f. reach the body. ami his wiath slow Those who lir unto Milhra. . . . and Persia. Sad is the abode.' lUit I think thus in my heart Should the earthly man hear a hundred times better. ." 171.s and paralyzes: "Oil wlialovor side side Milhra stantls tlicrc is one ^\llo lirm lid to IVTitlirn. the hearing from their ears. ani^rv . right way. both good and bad to meti. . driven along the vales of the Mithra-deceivcrs . . . strength from their arm's. spoken or unspoken. . led astray from the That careless Milhra docs not ' : done. it and even though il he iUmg well. riding. .' who has a thousand senses and Nor is the * faithful " observance of contracts or p. . driving. master and This is wliy Mithra is said to be " pupil. . sad. where dwell The grazing cow goes a men who have lied unto Mithra. thinks thus see all the evil that is : in his heart " The man without glory. the eye-sight lie gives from their eyes. whom lie rout.ox. to k-eep in his hands both peace and He stands a watchful guardian trouble for nations. lii. unpeopled with children. the swiftness from their feet. between nations.inil ollVnded. " sees every one that tells a lie.yo sure to Mi'. herds of oxen and male children to that house wherein he has been satisfied he breaks to pieces those in which he has been offended. . cannot outrun him The spear that the foe of Mithra flings darts cannot outdrive liim.

. For Mithra stands both for tlie and 12. sharp-jawed boar. spirited A to do battle against human followers : the Powers of Evil and their " Ilis chariot is Mazda opens a way. . . all weapons. ings Before him and close by him run two dread beVeretiIRACIINA (Victory)." Mithra is well armed for the fray — "Swinging in his hands a club with a hundred knots.s heavenly chariot. Behind him drives Atar (Fire). neitlier one lliat thou liadst entered thou liailst into with one of the unfaithful. . . pursuing. holy Sraosha (Obedience to the Law of Mazda) . beneficent. Juson all sides of him the Fi^avasiiis of the faithful tice) . . seen afar. the most victorious of ." It is * meaning noteworthy that tnithra at last becomes a common noun. nor the one into w ful illi tliat entered faith- one of thy own faith. . .. at his left drives the tall and strong Rasiinu (Uprightness.shining. . all in a l)laze. that kills at one stroke." and used as such in every-day speech. . . strong and swift to run. (the Spirits of the Departed). that rushes forward and fells men down red brass. embraced and uplifted by Holiness the Law of that he may go easily four heavenly steeds. . . and rushing forward. the strongest of all weapons." .'rcat before iis."* Yesht picture is that whicli tlie p. 7 I promises confined to fcllo\v-Ma7. " contract. . . escorted by his helpers and friends. and the " Strong — Cursing Thought of the Wise. white. of Mithra goinc:^ fortli in liis bring./IJ^yjA' MYTFTS ly THE A VESTA..(layasnians ("worshippers of " Mazda ")." both described in identical words as wearing the shape of a " sharptoothed. . It is expressly said tlic : r>rcak not the contract. At his right hand drives the good. a hundred a clul) cast out of edges. swiftly carry him along the heavenly space. for the unfaithful. endowed with knowledge.

consistently wath the spirit.'i. and Persia . Curse of the Wise. or moral qualities personified lastly. \'ultiircfcathcrcd. This picture of a god riding to battle. a weai:)ons are describcil as inq- " wcll-madi'. and one such instance is sufficient to illustrate the difference between the two notions and the " . his chariot. the " ! lord of wide pastures. it presents a feature characteristic of the race." It w'ould seem.72 MFDr. etc. ual transformation of the myth. c. that they fly of their own accord. caused a complete revolution. is a his thoroughly Aryan one." This is not Myth— it is Allegory. in his anger 13." and not passed over in the Rig-Veda. a thousand two-edged swords and as man}.old(n points. Upideas. But in the case of the Eranian Mithra. from the way it is put. rightness. and which.tnvroy. in its develop- ment. they are abstract : Holiness. loo.and as " go- through the heavenly spaces and falling on the skulls of the daevas.. The anthropomorphism of the conception is rank. with a full description of his armor. arc is a wcll-sujijilicd armory: there thousand bows with thiir arrows. Well may the worshipper exclaim " Oh : ! may we never fall across the rush of Mithra.maces of iron. a thousand spears and as many steel hammers. to do havoc on the fiends. i. witli i." . Each Aryan god has one is own "turn-out. Obedience to the religious Law . Such self-acting divine weapons are very plentiful in the Aryan mythology of India. self-sped. All these Ilis cliariot. It will have been observed that the followers of Mithra are no mythical persons. no phenomena of nature turned into persons but. his band of followers. B.

to the contemplation of high moral abstractions. Vcrcthraghna. no longer m)'thical!y. demon-killer of them all. but allegorically. is the indication of a very serious mind and the key to the transformation which the myth-religion of the ancient Ar\-as underwe^nt at the hands of their sterneu' Eranian descendants. The original identity with the old sky-god once having subsided out of sight. In one of 73 INTitlira's the mcaninc.e genius of Victor}'. They sought to cxpr(\ss his various attril)utes by a variety . an abstract idea which a for tin. band.of the two words. till these seem almost tangible. preserved onl)' in a few traditional and unccMiscious ject forms of speech. the champion deities. word capital initial converts into a piM-son . 46. Mytli and Allegory meet. 14./A' MYTHS TX THE A VESTA. The most notable instance of ." l^ut that is a common noun word itself which means " vic- has a m\'thical import. realities.) This original meaning must have been quite forgotten before the the title of " name changed " into a tory in general. (See p. This tendency to close the eyes to the evervarying l^lay of physical nature and turn them inward. honor given to various fiend-smiting" but most frequently to Indra. common noun meaning "vicand became personified once more.^AT. or rather it is shown how easily and smoothly M}'th can glide intoy\lU'gor\'. is certainly an allegorical personage. his spiritual nature became the subof earnest and jjrofound speculation. vcrctJiragiia tory. th.such allegorical transformation is that practised on Ahura-Mazda himself. being none other than the ICranian transliteration of the ''vrifra//(1ii" (" Vritra-killer ") of the Rig-Veda..

the inevitable istcriiig spirits. Ahura-Mazda being one of them. and b)' dint of being prayed y^-r.74 of MFDTA. The former. the Spirit of Evil." etc. but have certain clearly defined functions assigned to them in the general guardianship of the world. ..IXP PER^rA. such as (i) good thoughts. when the AmeshaSpentas are not only separate and individual spirits." S[M:\'r." " Bestower of Health.\rNViT. names. When they are invoked or referred to. though lie is said to have created the others. such as " " or Maker r." of tlic " Pcrfccl llolincss. it is often quite difficult to distinguish whether tlieir names are are seven used in their literal is sense or as persons. lastlw "the r)(n(Ticent Spirit.OX. came to be pra}-ed /6>. as full)' designating his essence and natuie." " Keeper and tlic Maintaiiu the I5est of Sovereigns. anthropomorphic tendency asserting itself. created by him. or to be awarded by'him. and opposing him to the Other One. It is only in time that it hardens into solid personifications." "Creator. as his ." material world. Certain qualities and properties seemed especially to belong to him. as (6) immortality . where the allegory is period. Ahura-Mazda's^/y/^.Immortals.///. however. (3) excellent sovereignty.\-M./This. — the the in heavenly council of the Bountiful Amesha-Spentas (the Amsiia- SPANDS or archangels of the modern Parsis)." lie who does not deceive and not deceived. . (5) health. always very transparent. (2) perfect holi- ness. most frequently the case in the earliest that of the Gathas. (4) piety. a name which is used prefis all erabl)' to others. They number. BABVl." " AII-\\\-al. brought about one of the most characteristic institutions of Mazdeism.

and Sl'ENTA-AkMArrr. 75 Before we examine as a it tlie nature of the Amcsha-Spentas their chief and maker. of conciliation. KiisirATllRA-VAiKVA. — "Excellent Sover- eignty. Piety. — "Holy silver. and that at a ver)' early . specifying their original meaning and development. uncreated. tinu of peace. and therefore is beneficent. in realit}' the cially as regards religious Law itself.STA. 4th. and gives the wisdom of moderation." to the law of Ma/. Asha-Vaiiisii'I'a. "creator of all things. and the guardian of order and law. which." that conforms in cv^ery particular. — nevolent Mind " — that state of mind which is con- ducive to peace and good-will toward men generally.da. in thought. espe- observances later the protector of Fire. and in deed. merciful.'\hura-Mazda. MYTHS IN THE into AVf-.--the "Good Mind" or "Be1st. Becomes the protector of metals. especially gold 5th. possibly because royalty has always been in the habit of reserving to itself the wealth drawn from the earth. Spenta-ATain\-u. as the embodiment of Purity and Worship.AffVJjV 15. the Order which rules the world.. or the Spirit of Ivirlh. VoHU-MANo. At a later period he became the protector of cattle. — " Best " or " Perfect Holi" . of ritual and priestly functions. can prosper only 3rd. in word. Also I-larth personified." patient and humble simple-mindedness. ccnt Spirit. moreover. later body and their relations to will be well lo rc:view them individuall)-. cattle-raising being an essentially peaceful and kindly in avocation. ness. ." 2nd." the power which coincs from God. the Ikmcfi.

where not a spring or well but is shaded by its palm or plane tree. and its healing properties. have al\va\s been a meet symbol of immortality. piTSdnifirs l)<)lli the )'oiinL." a divine couple almost never mentioned or invoked separately. 6th and /th. both in itself and as provoking and fostering vegetation.Spentas were originally one with AhuraMazda. running water. and find att lihutions arc casify explained as a reminiscence of a rather Aryan dcit\-. on being asked by Zarathiishtra which — — — . \\lion"i we in llu' ]\. remained closely united in tiic functions assigned to them in the mathat of guardians of the waters and terial world. said to give food its rich and pleasant taste.iL. naturally commended it to the care of the Genius of Health while the trees and plants.s. and who.nl\- period. Maurvatat and AMi.•jG Mi'DiA.KKr. where the course of the tiniest streamlet is marked liy its fringe of verdure or foliage. i6.o\\ a>^ Axn pensta. carh" as the Gatha.'cr I'~ra'iian Earth and th^: \irtuc of devotion." who are also couple. The wholesomeness of pure the plants on earth."-Vcda under the nann. And one must have travelled or lived in lands of drought ami barrenness. \Wv lu-r namesake. It is quite evident from several passages that the Amesha-. and wlio. sometimes no wider than itself. BAnyr. " Healtli and ImmortaHty. name. fully to realize the aptness of the conception which unites the running water and the growing plant into the inseparable " Haurvatat and Ameretat. with their latent and ever-replenished vitality.of AramATI. . fniialc Amcsha-Spcnta. whose niisty sex. who.\r. Tlir (. l^y a process at once loijical and poetical.

tliat is the most glorit)Us. O Zarathushtra Here : ! is Asha-Vahishta. as much worthy of pra)-er. ivJtoi [created Mitlira.AA'y. . AIntra-JMazda. my creature. yj all holy words is the strongest. the is — that S[)itaina Zaralluislitra ! who arc llic Amesha- that is tlie best-healing. the most fiend-smitiiig. . I created him as worthy of sacrifice. singly and by name. . lord of wide pastures. .Spcntas. iiaiitely. as myself. in is C) Zarathushtra. . ." (V'eshts XIII. thus Here is Vohu-mano. that is the victorious. the most effective. companion and e(|ual as the " Aryan Mitra is of Varuna Verily. and no Power or IJeing could be allowed tcj exist who was not created by him. iio . .) The most 'File decisive evidence : contained in the following" passage w tliought.) consequence of the same afterthought originally as that he his made : to say of Mitiira. even though they share the In the same spirit Ahuraact of creation with him. my It is creature. arc deed. . thinking of good worths." etc. is made to present the ImmorMazda. wlio are all seven of one whose fatlicr and commaitdcr 's the same. the most cllcctivc. (Wsht I. Who are the makers and governors. seven of one speech." (\'esiit T. and wliose ways are shining.LV of MYTHS IN THE A VESTA.) The lines in italics liave clearly been added when the conception of Mazda's supremacy had reached the height of an almost absolute monotheism. . . and XIX. the shajicrs and overseers. in one hymn. all Maker. most most fiend-smiting. Who see one another's souls. replies: "Our Name. " tals to his prophet. tliinkiiig good thoughts. thinking of good deeds. O . is . who are all seven of one luminous ones. the keepers and ])reservers of the creations of Ahura-Mazda. thinking of Garo-nmana. the strongest part of tlie lloly Word. the of .


'I'hus ai^ain,



wh.il Ljiadiiall}-

and consistently




bccamu the leading idea of Mazdeism, every god, however powerful, however

" the " created gods ceased in time to be thus styled, and, together witli all beneficent spirits, were gathered under the designation of

exalted antl reverenced, is frequently accompanied, as a reminder, by the epithet " created by Ahura."


it is




— the YZEDS, Angels, of the modern


Mithra, W-rethraghna, Sraosha, Atar, etc., arc Yazatas so are the Sun, the Moon, and all good spirits,

whether representing natural forces or abstractions.
Their number



the light of

sun waxes warmer




then up

stand the heavenly Yazatas, by hundreds and lliousands they jiDur its glory uj)Ou tlie eartli made Ijy the Ahura."



the landless Light, eternal and unGaro-nmana, the abode of AhuraMazda, the abt)de of the Amcsha-Spentas, the abode

— "the





the other holy beings."

17. As Ahura surely was himself, once on a time, the original one " Bountiful Immortal," so this title was probably bestowed on other beneficent beings,

number seven, a dim reminiscence of the Aryan and, possibly Adityas, of whom Varuna was the chief, (see p. 41)
before the ancient sacredness of the




Ahura and

his six doubles.

In one the

passage Atar



the most

helpful of

Amesha-Spentas," but it is a solitary, tpieer survival. " and His proper titles are, "Son of Ahura-Mazda " most great Yazata." As the one who is nearest to man, who sits on his hearth, the kindly bond of family


myths in

tjik a vesta.



addrcssctl and spoken (jf with a respectful tenderness, an affectionate familiarity, which



sometimes very pretty

in its na'ivcte.


lifts up his voice to all tliii,>c for From he cooks their evening meal anil their nidrning meal. Atar looks at the those he wishes a good offering.

son of Ahura-Mazda,




hands of

What dtjes the friend bring to iiis pass hy friend ? What does he who conies and goes bring to him wIkj stays And if the passer-by brings him wood holily Inought motionless?








then Atar, the son of Ahura-Mazda, well ]ileascd with him

and not angry, and fetl as herds of oxen grow for thee,


thus bless him
. .

' :


anil increase of sons.

thou live on in joy of thy soul all the nights of thy life.' blessing that Atar speaks unto him who brings hin_i dry wood, well e.xamined by tlie light of the day, well cleansed with godly intent."

niayest This is the



to the


Athravans the officially instituted was committed the care of the priests






the ptiblic places of worship, each relii^ious duty was to tend the

of his



hearth, to trim and clean it, ami never out. This was a more arduous task

than appears at first sii^ht, as the flame was to be fetl not only constantly, but daintily, with small (juantities,


continually renewed, of driest, finely-cut chips the best, and in part frai^rant, wood, such as

well examined by the light of the day, and sandal, well cleansed," so that no impurity of any kiiul

besides which a had to get up three time-s in the good Mazdayasnian night (as the Pan-^is do now, for that matter) to look

should pollute the sacred element




llie fir^t jiart of the night, Atar, the son of Ahura-Ma/.da, the master of the house for help, saying Up arise, thou mai,ter of the house put on thy girdle and thy clothes, wash thy








MEDIA, liAnyi.ON, A A' J)

nie Iniiii

hands, saw wuikI,


mc, and



clean wood, carried


thy wcil-wa.shcd hands.

Here eonies

Aji (tlie Fiend-Serpent, Darkness), made liy the daevas, who alwut li) strive against nic and wants Id jput uut my Jife."





the second," anel "

in llic tliinl

pari of

the night."
In tlic [icrsistcnt cnniit}- between tlie demon A and Atar, whicli endures thrtjughout the Avesta Aji

(with the exception of the Gathas), we easily fecognize the struggle between the Aryan Fiend-Serpent

Ahi and the Storm-god, as embodied in his principal weapon the Lightning. In one of the Eranian ver-


conflict, very dramatic in form, the even resumes his Vedic name of " Son of the Waters," and is called indiscriminately Atar, or

of the



it is where the two ever(sec p. 45) adversaries do battle for the light which

hides in the sea Vouru-Kasha, the Cloud-Sea. The transformation which this simple myth one of tlie
oldest — undergoes from the


spiritualizing process of




very remarkable





a literal sense,

and sacred splendor the HVARENO, or " Glory," a peculiar and visible golden sheen, which must be imagined as surrounding the head and shoulders of
persons endowed with it, after the manner of the halo around the heads of saints and angels in modern

becomes a subtle

This au ful Kingly Ghjiy," paintings. a portion or reflection of the eternal,
Endless Light


— probably



dwells, — belongs,

place, to

Spentas, and to

Ahura-Mazda, to the Amcshathe Yazatas, then " to the Aryan




nations, born and unborn," and lastly to every lawful Aryan king as a sign of divine grace, and perHe to haps, in mythical times, of divine descent.


"cleaves" is assured of wealth, of power, prosperit)', and victor}-; himself unconquerable, he exterminates his enemies, l^ut the Ihareno cannot be seized by violence or usur[)cd by aliens; and, if a

king endowed with it tells a lie, it straightway passes away from him. Certain Yeshts give instances of

both these occurrences, taken from the rich store of
the national mythical epos. The most amusing is the story of that " most crafty Turanian ruf^an, Frangrasyan," who thrice stripped himself naked

and plunged into the sea Vouru-Kasha, "wishing to seize that Glory that belongs to the Aryan nations." But the Glory escaped him every time, until at last he " rushed out of the sea Vouru-Kasha, thinking " evil thoughts," and was fain to confess I have not been able to conquer the glory that belongs to the Aryan nations, born and unborn, and to the holy " A most ingenious, half mythical, Zarathushtra half allegorical rendering of unsuccessful Turanian


But the Eranian Storm-god par excellence is 19. TlSTiTRYA, the star Sirius, known also as the DogStar. The Iranians very curiously associated rain with certain stars, which are said to contain the
"seed of the waters." Over these and, indeed, it would appear, over all the stars Tishtrya is set as

— ratn




sacrifice iinlo 'rishliyn,










stars lliat




seed of






Aliiir.a-Ma/da has established as a lonl



all slars.





This star presides over tlic doi^-days, which, in cHmcs, arc iinmcdiatcl\' followctl by iicavy rains. Hence its risinp^ is invoked with passionate


the people of a region where the streams and dr}' up in the rainless season, while most of tlu-m do not flow into other streams,

or lakes, but are greedily and profitlessly sucked by the sand of the desert.



unto Tishtrya, the bright and glorious



long flocks, and herds, and men, looking forward for him and When shall we see him rise iiji, the deceived in their hope. bright antl glorious stai* Tishtrya ? When will the springs run \\\\\\

waves as thick as a horse's






will tliey

never come ? " We sacrifice unto Tishtrya,

bright and glorious star, for

long the standing waters, and the running spring-waters, the When will the bright and stream-waters, and the rain-waters.
will the springs, with a up glorious Tishtrya (low and overflow of waters, thick as a horse's .shoulder, run to the


for us



beautiful places and tlie plants, that they



to the pastures,

even to the roots of

may grow with

a powerful growth


rising is chiefs of


unto Tishtrya, the bright and glorious star, whose watched by men who live on the fruits of the year, by the

deep understanding liy the wild beasts in the mountains, by the tame beasts that run in the plains they watch him as ho comes up to the country, for a bad year or for a good year, thinking How shall the Aryan countries be fertile ? " in themselves




The dog-days

are the hottest


driest of the



the time



great conflict the Drought-Fiend, a conflict in

which he

several times worsted before he cornes

off victorious at


The god appears









different sliapcs for ten nights in tliat of a l)cauliful for ten in that of a goklen-horncd bull, and youth,


ten as a l)eautiful white

horse with

golden ears and golden caparison. It is in this shape that he gives the final battle to his (h-mon antagonist,


— Vouru-Kasha, —





meet him


the Cloud-

the shapi; of an ugl\' black

horse, with black cars



hoof againsi, hoof.






And llicn tlie Dacva together for three days and three iiiglUs. he A])aosha proves stronger than ll;e briglit and glorious Tishtrya overcqmes him. And Tishtrya flees from the sea Vouru-Kasha. ^ ,


cries out in

woe and





(Yesht VIII.)


cries out


for sacrifices to be offered him, to " to liim, and, having received them, strength

rushes back to the sea Vouru-Kasha.




only Black Horse.

at the third

encounter that he

finally routs the

He makes the sea boil up and down he makes the sea stream and that way. All the shores are boiling over allthe middle of it is lioiling over. And vapors rise up above the middle of the sea Vouru-Kasha. Then the wind blows the












clouds forward, bearing the waters of fertility, so that the friendly showers spread wide over they spread helpingly and friendly over

the seven Karshvars.




(Veslit VITT.)

Ihit there


not water enough for


the Ar)-an

countries, and the distribution of it becomes the occasion of another confiict between the warriors of

heaven, the Fravasiiis of the faithful (Departed Spirits, corresponding to the Pitris of the Hindus,
.see p.

good, strong, l)encficent Fravashis of (he





helms of brass, with weapons of brass,

armor of brass



MEDTA, n.tnyLOX,
in tlio



biittlcs niul l)ringing tlicni

fur victory in garmciils of lighl, rxrr.iying ihe forwards, to kill thousands of dacvas. . . .
. .

Wlicn the waters i-oine up froui (he sea Vouru-Kaslia, then forwards come the awful Fravashis of the faitliful, many and


many hundreds, many and many


many and many

tens of

thousands, seeking water for their own kindred, for their own l)orand saying tlnis ough, for tlieir own town, fnr tlicir own countr)-,
: '



own country

liave a goo<l store






They tight in the battles that are fought in their own place and land, each according to the place and house where he dwell of yore and faiihful, lights they look like a gallant warrior, who, gir<kd up

for the

hoard he has treasured up.

And those of them who win, bring waters to (heir own kindred, to their own borough, to their own town, to their own country, sayMay my country grow and increase ing thus





As tlic Fravashis arc also supposed to own people in their earthly wars, and to




sorts of


offices for the material


be seen that prudence no less than affection prompted their living descendants to pay
in general,

them honor and


ficult to propitiate.

them gifts. Nor are they difFor they are gentle, and ready
their friendship

is good, and abode where they long they " never do are not harmed by its dwellers," and they " harm first," though their will is dreadful unto those

confer benefits




like to stay in the

who vex them." The

last few days of the ycar(ioth -20th of March) are specially devoted to them, and at that time

" they come and go through the borough Who will go along there for ten nights, asking thus









jiraise us ?


will offer us a saerilice



will meditate

upon us


will bless

us? Who will receive us with meat and clothes in his and with a prayer worthy of bliss ? Of which of us will the hand, And the man who offers name be taken for invucation ?'
. .



a sacrifice, with meat and clothes in his hand, and a prayer

worthy of bliss, the awful l'"ravashis of the faithful, satisfied, unMay there be in tliis house harmed, and unoiTendcd, lilcss thus flocks of animals and men May there be a swift horse ami a solid chariot May there be a man who knows how to praise God and



rule in his assembly



21. It


not the Fi-avashis alone


ask thus

openly and eagerly for gifts and offerings. We saw the .Storm-god Tishtrya crying out for sacrifices to " bring hini strength," when sorely pressed by the Drought-Fiend Apaosha. So does Mithra, wishing
for strength to perfornl his

appointed wurlc, ever cry

out to Ahura-Mazda


If men would worship ? were invoked by my own name, as 1 would come to the faiththey worsliij) the other Vazatas, ful at the appoiiileJ time of my beautiful immortal life."


will offer


a sacrifice





with a sacrifice in which




Ardvi-Sura Anahita, as she drives forward on her chariot, drawn by four white horses, and holding the reins, longs for the worshi[) of nu-n, and thinks in lier


will praise nie



will offer


a sacrifice, with libations cleanly prepared

strained, together with the Haoma 22. The old Aryan conception of the efficacy, the compelling force of sacrifice, asserts itself with great

and well" and meat ?

emphasis in the Avesta, where we see not only the famous mythical heroes sacrificing hundreds and thousands of bullocks, horses, and sheep to various deities, principally Haoma, Ardvi-Siira Anahita, and

when asking




offering sacrifices to

of the Ilara-Berezaiti.

special boon, but the each other uu the heights Nay, Ahura-Mazda himself





or that

no exception, and is said to offer a sacrifice to this to request his or cli\-init}' by him created


her assistance


the protection of the material world

against the evil powers.

This glaring inconsistencycan be explained only by the different stages of a

which Ahura-Mazda was a god among

other gods before he became the

One Supreme God

and Creator.

Nor has


l)clief in tlie

prayers and sacrctl texts the abated in the Eranian period.

cimjuring efficacy of

Mantiira at The Manthra


again and again spoken of and invoked as a divine So are the Gathas, and also certain prayers person.

which arc considered as particularly holy and wonBut the most jDotent .spell (jf all, the der-Avorking. most healing, most fiend-smiting, lies in a prayer known under the Parsi name (corrupt) of HONOVER, called in the Avesta the AiiunA-Vairva, a prayer which a devout Parsi even now repeats dozens of
times every day on every possible occasion of life. This famous prayer is Avritten in .so obscure a

language that a final and satisfactory rendering of it has not yet been achieved, though every Avestan scholar has attempted a translation. The discrepancies

between these translations are so great and the

sense remains so uncertain
possible to


still, that it is scarcely a selection between them, and to

them all would be confusing and unprofitable. The most extravagant magic powers arc ascribed to this sacred text, which Ahura-Mazda is said to have
first uttered "before the creation of heaven, before the making of the waters, and the plants, and the





four-footed kinc and the lioly biped nuui, and before the sun," and to have revealed to Zarathushtra, who recited it first to mortal men.
" This " is the most emword," Ahura-Mazda is made to say, of the words which ever have hcen pronounced, or w liich are phatic

now spoken,

or wliicli

siiall lie

this utterance is

such a


spol^en in future, for the eminence of that if all the corporal and living

world should learn it, and learning it should hold " would be redeemed from their mortality




names of Ahura-Mazda, the Amcshaand some others, share this power of incanSpentas, tation, as we saw above. (See p. 76.)







which gradually permeated the whole mythic system of Eran, here found a most grateful field. The conjuring spell hurled against the physical fiends representing the evil powers of material nature, were changed into the spiritual weapons of prayer and

obedience to the holy Law, used with





Sloth, and,


every man's


the Spirit breast. That

— Anger, Rapine, of Lies, — who dwell

infallible stic-

the club, ever

which the Ya/.ata Sraosha carries (the personified Obedience to IMa/.da's Law), he " whose very body is the Law," and \\h<) therefore is the most activel)^ militant adversary of the
uplifted agains the daevas,

a house."

It is in this

said to smite the fiends

sense that the Aluina-Vair}'a is " as hard as a stone large as


he hears

recited, the


himself cowers and writhes and shrinks, and hides in the bowels of the earth.


Serpent, Ahi, the mythical Aryan

of AngraMainyu.88 MEDIA. Life. " of spiritual transformation. the Beneficent or Life-giving Spirit. being an artificial construction. material or spiritual. and therefore would not admit that it could have been created two the All-good and All-wise Being. and Good the other all Darkness. Truth. the exact counterpart of Spenta-Mainyu or Ahura-Mazda the one all Light. AND PERSIA. henceits forth personated moral c\'il in all and began to be called " odiousness and opposition to AngrA-Mainyu. grew into a separate abstraction. as b\' we see them. And them. henceforth the world was divided between Both being possessed of creative power. and as every system. and Evil. In this manner those profound but simpleminded thinkers got out of the terrible puzzle of . from being one of the names of the original Serpent. The must have existed from the beginning. are nothing but the manifestation of their eternal lation enmity and conflict. all that was good in it. AngraMainyu (better known under the corrupt later form. : . was the work of Spenta-Mainyu all that was evil. now called Ajl or " AjI-Dahaka (the Biting: Snake "). and the world and life. touched by the same magic rod ugliness. for they could not comprehend the necessity of it. accounting for the existence of evil in the world. requires symmetry." in direct Spenta-Mainyu. By this time system-making had become a habit of the Eranian mind. Death. spirits independent of each other. BABYLON." the Destructive Sprit. dragon lliat t^uanls the fastnesses where the stolen cows or maidens are locked away. When moral specuhad attained this height the race was ripe for . Lie. an Arch-fiend. Aiirlman).

the great shep- herd ". To the title c. to give the gradually evolved sciousness the form and consistency of to purify it and separate it from the dross of ancient myth that still clung round it and clogged the spiritual progress of the aspiring but inconsistent carry out popular mind. a prophet. ancient i:i itself. then the first mortal and King of the Dead (see pp. is given with great completealthough the different traits and incidents are scattered in many places of the book. it should end with a review of such Aryan myths as became the groundwork of the Eranian Heroic Epos. shows traces of a late rehandling in the way it is told. the Eranian rendering Aryan myth of Yama.Mazda. but Yima tieclined. but in a very fragmentary condition and too much out of the scope of the present work to be considOne. not deeming himself fit. 52-53). one of the richest in the world. and is too imIt is the portant and interesting to be overlooked. " is Maker of the material workl Zarathushtra made to ask of Ah ura. as it would be spoiled by being myth of of the picked to pieces. ered. 26. 'llien Aliuia- . the first king.AJ^VA^V MYTHS /:V THE A VESTA. The story. however. originally the Setting Sun. ness. so far as they have found a place in the Avesta.f this chapter. new a 89 confaith. There are many such. but must be given as we find it. and proceeds to tell that he offered Yiina to be the preacher and Ijcarer of his law to men. " who was the first ! O " mortal before m)'sclf. whom thou didst teach the law?" Mazda answers: "The fair Yima. YiMA. \\ith whom thou didst conAhuraverse.

and that was during a thousand years. which was . Then Yima. neither hot wind nor cold wind. to bear flocks and herds and men." before. Of these. but over the daevas. and ruled not only over men. ami watch over it. blazing fires.90 MEDIA. at as main^ as he wished. he of the many flocks. asking for various boons which they granted. In his reign there was neither cold nor heat. and make it thrive." And the earth. and there was great fatness and abundance of flocks in the world created by Mazda.uk' him rule his woiiil. speaking O Spenta-Armaiti (see p. and Ahura- Mazda brought him He sacrificed a golden ring and poniard. He became tlie sovereign lord of countries. herds. kindly open asunder and stretch thyself afar. with men and dogs and birds.* on the sacred height Ilukairya to Ardvi-Sura Anahita. and for red. So were things while Yima ruled. Vima accepted the task.^ Maztla b. n Any row axd rERsrA. 75). and Mazda's Kingly Glory (Hvareno) was around him. plants and waters w^ere free from drought fathers and sons walked about equally perfect in shape. When six and there and wish. That was tlie Golden Age of the M'orld. * So Darniesteter. that of \-outhsof fifteen }'ears. neither old age nor death. Vayu. and there was no more room and men. being warned by Ahura-Mazda. flocks. ox-<road. at Yima's bidding. three hundred years had passed away. pressed the earth with the golden ring and bored it with the poniard. hundred years of his will plougli and an DeHarlez renders "a golden . and the earth was replenished with flocks and herds. Herds and people were free from death. Haoma. thus : " grew one third larger than it was came flocks and herds and men.





sway had passed away, Yima again bade the

earth open and stretch, and again


nine liun-

dred years had passed away, and each time the earth

grew by one third of its original size. When lie had reigned a thousand years, Ahura-Mazda called a great meeting in Airyana-Vaeja, and came thither with all the gods; thither also came Yima with the most excellent mortals.
Aluira-Mazfla spake unto Yima, saying O fair \ima, son of Vivanghat Upon the material world llic fatal winters arc go'




that shall bring the fierce, foul Irost, that shall make snow-flakes fall thick and lie deep on the higliest tops of mountains. And all the three sorts of beasts sliall perish those that live in tlie

ing to



wilderness, and those that live on the tops of the mountains, and those that live in the bosom of the dale under the shelter of stables.

Before that winter those


now with

floods that stream, with

would bear plenty of grass for catsnows that melt, it will seem

a happy land in the world, the land wdierein footprints even of sheep .'" may be seen. Therefore make thee a Frtn? (an enclosure)

Here follow minute





so and so," which, being complied with, are repeated word for word with change of tense past instead of

— after the future,


of ancient epic narrative.


give the narrative as the
a Vara
. .





And Yima made


to be an

be a fold for flocks.

There he made waters flow

abode for men, to in a bed a hallira

long (about a nnlc) tiiere he settled birds by the everlasting l>anks that bear never-failing food. There lie estaldislicd dwelling-places.

There he brought


seeds of

men and women,*

of (he



[lut in tlie

the later



in the shaj>e

ground and grow in due time. According to of the Bundehesh, the fust human couple grew of a shrub, then bh^ssomed into human form and


So arc the



animals supi^isetl
stars are



come from


saw above that the

said to contain

the seeds of the waters.






greatest, best,
secels of

and finest kinds on tliis eartli there lie brought the every kind of cattle, of the greatest, best, and finest kinds on this earth there he brought the seeds of every kind of tree, of there he brought the greatest, best, and finest kinds on this earth


the seeds of every kind of fruit, the fullest of food and sweetest of All those seeds he brought, two of every kind, to be kept odor.
inexhau^lil)lc there, so long as those


shall stay


the Vara.

Anil there was no huinpbackeil, none bulged forward there

no im;

no poverty, no lying, no meanness, no jealousy no decayed tooth, no leprous to be confined, nor any of the brands \^ith which Angra-Mainyu stamps tlie bodies of mortals. r'very fortieth year, to every couple two are born, a male and a






it is

for every sort of cattle,
live the

and the men

in the

Vara, which

Yima made





Some commentators say they live there 150 years, The latter come nearothers, that they never die. est to the mythical truth of the story, as there can be no doubt that Yima's Vara originally answered to

— the souls of the departed. The Avesta narrative — to the old myth, a late adds, — that aevidently bird appendage Law of Mazda the wonderful brought
into the


seat of bliss,



inhabitants to the Pitris

Vara and preached



The mythical




several such wise

speech-endowed 27. There is another version of the ejul of Yima's rule, a more human and very tragical one, which has been adopted in the Heroic Epos of Eraii. It is also mentioned in the Avesta. There came a day when Yima fell and sinned. He " began to find delight in words of falsehood and untruth." In fact, it is
Ikit w hat the lie stated plainly, that he told a lie. was the Avesta does not inform us. Epic tiaditii^n


however does.

Seeing both

men and

daev.is subject





to his rule, his heart


and he

declared himself to be a god.




Mazda's Kingly Glory (the Hvareno) flew away from him in the shape of a raven one of the visible forms whicli Vcrethraghna, tin- (icnius of Victor}', is

said to assume.


also taught





cent animals and eat their flesh, which \\as another grievous wTong. Three times the Glor}' flew awa)-

from him




his sovereignty,

wandered about

an outcast, and




finally perished miserably, being two, according to the Avesta, by his own according to the heroic legend, by his mor-

the wicked usurper ZOHAK the Persian form of " Aji-Dahak," the primeval Serpent corrupt being, like the other personages of the heavenly drama, brought down to earth and presented in a


It is

Aryan myth

very curious that one detail of the old of Yama should have survived in Eran, in the practical form of a religious ceremony, which
enjoined on the followers of Zoroaster, and observed by them to this day. The reader
will re-

member Yama's dogs, " brown, broad-snouted, eyed," who scent out those who are to die and



to the presence of the dread king, at the same time guarding them from the dangers and fiends that beset the dark road they travel. (See p. 53). The

Avcstan Law^ prescribes that " a yellow dog with four eyes" shall be brought to the side of any person that has just died, and made to look at the corpse,
as the look of the four-eyed



supposed to drive


the impure demon, (Nasu), that strives to enter


MEDIA, n.invro.y, axp


and take possession of the clay tenement, which,

from the






property of Any,ra-Mainyii, in order ihence to

becomes the work

contamination and harm on






supposed that

procuring the animal in " yellow dog following cjualifying concession with four eyes, or a white dog with yellow ears." The latter variety being more generally on hand, there is nothing to prevent conscientious Parsis from

difficulty was found in question, the law makes the



performing this time-honored ceremony, which they call the Sagdid, and of the mythical origin and import of which they arc, of course, profoundly
* For the the Lesser Avesta quotations from the Vendklad and the translation of Mr. James Darmcstetcr has been and will be used







Mazdayasnians and Dakvavasnians, Worsliippcrs of God and worshippers of the



is tlie

division of

mankind according

to the Zoroastrian faith.

There can be no middle

way. Whoever is not with Mazda is against liim. Whoever does not enlist to fight the good fight with Spenta-Mainyu, the Spirit who is all Life, necessarily swells the ranks of Angra-Mainyu, the Spirit who is all Death. The material world is divided between

them, and




are but the visible

manifestation of the w^ar they wage against each That war has its parallel in the spiritual other.

There the battle-ground is in every man's breast, and the stake is every man's own s(Oul. But not without the man's consent can the stake be won l)y cilluT; it is with him to choose. And ashe chooses and al)idcs hv his choice, so will it fare with him when his day of combat is done, and he eilluT crosses the Britlge of the Gatherer,"" and passes into the abode of God that dwells in I^iulless Light, or


* 'I'lic IJridgc CiilNVA'l", which is Uirow n across s]iacc from one of the highest peaks of tlic Tl.ira-ljerezaiti to the ( Inro-iimaiia, for llic soul to pass after death. Tliis is the last or<lcal, w liicli noiu' Iml llie

godly successfully pass through.





misses his foolinc^, and

dragged down into


"abode of Lie," which is Endless Darkness. 2. Towards tliis loftiest and purest, while




the doctrines that the ancient world

taught, ter.dcd the evolutior. of the priinex-al Aryan iJualism of Nature, as it was effected in the

Eranian spiritual consciousness, moulded and directed b\' the pi^cnliar conditions of ha-anian life. That this evolution did not waste itself iii vague and profitless repinings and sjiecuiations, liki; the streams



the barren sands,





works, like cloud-fed springs that are gathered to a head and flow forth, a mighty and life-civin<r rivei, into the haunts of men this is
positive faith, fruitful in

due to the genius and preaching of Zarathushtra.

He laid before his people their own thoughts in all the pure transparency of crystal waters cleared from muddiness and unwholesome admixtures in the

own transcendant and searching mind. He guided their groping hands, and made them
of his

grasp the truth for which they were blindly reachHad ing. Such is the mission of every true prophet. he could the people not been ripe for his teaching, not have secured a hearing, or made himself underthe people, on the other hand, could never have worked out unaided the ideal to which they were vaguely and only half-consciously drawn. They listened and understood, and were won, be-



cause, to use the expression of a great writer," they
* Voltaire.
lie says of tlic hero of one of his stones, that he re" of which he seemed to have on a certain idea,

flected jirofoiiinlly

the seed in himself."

in ihcnisulvos



the seed of the thoughts whieh the

prophet expounded to them. Even if we lack data to determine the time of 3. Zaralhushtra's life and work, tliere is sufficient intrinsic evidence in the Gathas, which were most
probably taken down partly from the prophet's own words and partly from those of some of his immedi-

show that he lived at a period which must be considered an early one in the history In their slow advance to the West, the of his race. Eranians were continually liarassed by fleetly mounted Scythian hordes (Turan), and encountered
ate disciples, to

scattered tribes of the same hostile race all along the broad and irregular track of their migration. These savage nomads, ubiquitous with their small, untiring steppe-horses and their unerring lassoes, were the standing terror of the Eranian settlers, whose paslures and farms were not for -one moment secure from their raids. In the national Heroic hLpos, which is the l^attle-IMyth of the Skies transferred to earth, the I^ranian hero-kings answer to the Aryan gods, whose names they ofttimes bear, and their Turanian adversaries lawless invaders, iniquitous '' And usurpers and tyrants, to the vVryan demons. in the time of the allegorical transformation of myths, which already approaches the historical period, we see Violence, Lawlessness, and Rapine,










of Vivasvat.

in the Also, Thractaona, son of Alliwya Trita, son of Aptya Epos 'riiraelaona Ijecomcs the famous I'er.sian liero-king FKUUnm,


him under Mt. Demavend

\\ho van<iuishes the wicked usurper Zohiik in the Elburz.


Aji-Dahaka, r»ul chains


characteristic features of




tlu- Turanian nomads embodied in the person of Aksiimaraiders, Dafa'A, the first and worst of daevas after the ArchFiend himself, as Sraosha, the personified Obedience

to Mazda's holy





of the Yazatas.


Deliver us from Aeshma," therefore has a twofold purport " Deliver us from the raids


of the Turanians, the foes of the honest herdsman and tiller of the land," and also, " Deliver us from

the temptation of ourselves committini;- violence and


That the Turanians were accounted Daeva-

yasnians, worshippers of Fiends, is self-evident. But not they alone. Scarcely less hated of Zarathushtra


his followers are

such communities of their own


race as resisted the proijressive


towards spiritual and enlightened monotheism, and persisted in sacrificing to the gods of the old Aryan There were doubtless many such, nature-worship. and it is certainly to them, their leader, and their priests, that Zarathushtra alludes when he speaks of
the evil teachers that corrupt the people's mind, of the persecutions which made him and his followers

homeless wanderers (see p. 24). Nor can the prophet be said to advise his own disciples to deal with these
unbelievers exactly in a spirit of charity. Not only are they bitterl\% wrathfully denounced throughout the Gathas, but their extermination is demanded in

no equivocal terms he who hurls from power or " from life " the evil ruler who oj^poses the progress

of Righteousness in his province, will treasure up "a store of sacred wisdom"; any one who brings






liarm on the settlements of
let his evil


prophet's followers,

deeds recoil on himself, let his prosperity be blighted, let him perish and " no help come to him to keep him back from misery. And let this hap-

On the other hand none, pen as I speak, Lord not even Turanian tribes, if they will be converted, arc excluded from the community of the pious. An important and authentic precept for this triumph of religious brotherhood over race-feeling is established by the following explicit statement
! •



Whfii from anioni;



and kith





shall arise





settlements of Piety with energy and


with these shall Ahura dwell together througli his Good(z'ohn-Diano) [which will abide in them], and tu them for
grace deliver his commands."

(Vasna XL\'I.




Mills' translation.)


There can be


hatred ami contempt with

doubt that the feelings of which Zarathushtra in-

spired his followers against those of the old Aryan religion were amply reciprocated by the latter, not

only by such as still lived or roamed side by side u ith them in the cultivated regions or the wilds of I'lran, but also by those who had already descended
into India.

This supplies us with the most natural

explanation of some facts which would otherwise be difficult to account for the use by the Zarathushtrian

Eranlans of the word dacva with the meaning of "diinon, fiend," while Sanskrit ^/rrvi' continued in the
sister nation (d

India to tlenote the gods ol Light, the bright and beneficent Powers, as it had done in the joint Lido-Lranian ]K'riod, and probal:)])' in the

primeval Aryan time>,

— together


the corres-


use by the Ar}';in







sense of the Sanskrit Asiira
latter fact tlerives its

(=Eranian Ahura). This sii^nificancy from the circum-


that the

word the same

older v\r)'an Hindus gave 1(j the meanin;^' as the Eranians, that of

divine," and used

as the loftiest title

of several of the deities, especiall)' of their Sky-c,^ods the primexal Dyaus and his successor Yaruna, to


a certain notion of

supremacy or overlord-

ship seems to have attached from the earliest times. ylsiira is used in this wholly reverential sense in the
greatest part of

taken place already

the Rig-Veda, but the change has in the later hymns of the collecas the


appear — Powers of Evil — they remain throughout the

where the Asuras



later literature of India, religious


hymns were gathered

in their

order, according to the latest

and profane. Now, present form and and most moderate

between 1500 and 1000 i;. (J. This gives us an indirect but not unimportant hint as to the l)robable time of Zarathushtra and his refcjrm.

Nothing can be more impressive or majestic

than the purely fanciful scene in which the prophet and his mission are introduced to the world. It is a
sort of Prologue in

Heaven, enacted by the denizens

of the spirit-world. Geusii-UrVAN (literally Soul " of the Steer"), the guardian spirit or Chief" {ratii) of animal creation, and especially domestic cattle,


his voice to


endure at

heaven and complains of the and sufferings which he and his kind the hands of men, while it had been foreinsti-

him that they would be benefited by the

Asha's teachings. should be justice. Where olence." Then the Spirit of the Flocks moaned aloud: "Woe is me and is the powerless word of an un warlike man all I am to look to. and liis decision brings scant comfort to the (luardian of the T^locks. then asks: men who would take kindly care of us?" among Whereupon Mazda answers and liere lies the gist of the poetical apologue: "I know on earth only one man who has heard our decrees Zarathushtra He will announce from mcMiior}' my and Spitama. tlioiic. . for iie informs him no special p'-otector for cattle. since they liave been created for the use of the tiller and herdsman. as lie wills. benevAnd thus the Spirit of the Mocks departs. the Lortl (vMuira). so shall it be.i knows best the and adds : deeds of daevas and men. Geusli" Hast thou no one Urvan. that thou. in despair. personified as one of the Anieslia-Spcntas) man will repli\\s that. by giving him th. . lie .eir milk and their flesh.h no rcNilh. both those that have been and those that are to be. knowest best." Mazda then speaks. b}' his own Mazda's and Asha's ordinance. () Mazda. know else . whom. the)" arc to sup[)ly with meat and drink. manner they should behave to " Mazd. lOI Aslia (Ivighteousness and tution of agricultur(\ Order. has to decide . He.THE GATFTAS. yet people in general diMi't always know in \\-hat their inferiors. and power ! . mure disappointed than con- . when I endow him with sweetness that there is — — — — — of speech. who Ihit is I efficient help? . when I wished ! for the protection of a mighty hero? to lend ni}- WHien cattle will he ever come.benevolent be hard on his cattle.

that what was secret until now may ajipcar in the light. and the sacred truths and ordinances (Asha). f " I. of — — who had believed in ViSHTAsrA. in the beginAnd. and as we read the famous Chapter XXX. soled. p. probably is Kava in its to Mazdeism. we arc prepared to sec iMophet enter on his mission.v. . these two. nie.vn rERSiA. O ye . in deed. and Truth should be the happiest mental state. The two Spirits. Now shall I proclaim unto yoxi. of Yasna. holders of the false gods and religion) should be the worst that of the followers of life. the wise have made the right choice not so the senseless. ])ut the text speaks for itself. of the true religion) * Freely given from the translation of iKartholoniac. i. knows '^" thai the Word is far mightier than sword. in thought. between ning. understanding. Good and Evil.o. And when these two spirits had agreed to institute the spring"3. of the it and pure stage. . f From Bartholomae's translation "Arische Forschungen. There is no thread of narrative to inform us of the course of the events." III. before each man decides for himself Tietween the two ' " teachings.uny. we shall give u n curtailed. After this preamble. . what the Sermon Mount almost to our own religion. As this discourse the king. ing up and the passing away of all things [to create Life and Dea'h]. . and to decree that in the end the lot of the followers of Lie (drtijvan. in speech. "4.t.I03 ^rrniA. c. — {as^iavaii. skilfully created. . all that here approach the songs of praise ami the sacrificial rites whicli ])i(ius men pay the Lord (Ahura). what the wise should lay to their hearts Hear with your ears that which is best. as can be inferred from one passage. in in " Arische Forschungen. nor tin: 7. first is him. the Twins." IL . and test it witli a clear 2. we have no difficulty in imagining the preacher addressing an assembled multitude of men people and nobles in the iDresence.

In tliesc niayest thou have a share.ie {(iriij). opposed to vohn-mano )." . and the piety that in the go hand in hand with the true religion. () y\sha. Ahura-Ma/. (^ i\la/. evil).siinplicity. came with Khshathra. and the bliss that must come to tlie holders cf the true faith.* " The 7. Therefore will we belong to those who are in time to lead this g. and outdo all other liin^'s in wealth." R. with you. " S.scnce of Mazdei. and Asha. and cattle. But when the vengeance comes for their deeds of violence. the plunderers and destroyers of tlicir settlements. The " benediction. and thus deserve a share dominion of the earth. Good " O. as yet. they joined with the enemies of the Zarathustrians.da.THE GA TITAS. men. <?. (]rant us then. that every man may be enlightened whose understanding. the peace of mind.stibHme . elected the Right {t7s//a). your assistance. judges falsely. W'j have lu-rc the es. faims. And they assembled in the house of violence {cicshmd) to destroy the life of man (/. t'len. that thou inayest outdo all others in wealth. and thou also. you lay to your hearts these ordinances which and the good and the evil.) ' . amounts to this: Mayest thou be endowed with the sovereign j)Ower. who wish And to his to side do right in the eyes of Ahura-Ma/. those who keep If. in plain words. surely the sovereignty will be given by thy Mind to those who will have helped Truth (asJia) to overcome r. so that they chose the Worst Mind {ako-mano. {askavati). All further devel* This last sentence would seem to be addressed to the king. the goo(l teaching will assemble unhindered in the beauteous abode of Vohu-mano. it will go well "11. Vohn-mano and Aslia. "5. and with him all those " 6. For then the blow of destruction shall fall on the while life liar. he who is clothed willi llic solid heavens ns with a rol)e. as it shaped itself ill the mind of the fouiidef. (driiJ7>a>i). and Araniaiti the eternal. it.sni in its .da. " 10. on to perfection. O Mazda instituted. who made the eartli her body. daevas also made not the right choice (between good and as they were debating. Mazda.da. while the holiest Spirit {Spcnia-iMainyti). and ye gods. for.. and the long torments which await the followers of falsehood.s absolute i)ui*it)'. folly overcame them. I03 Then of these two Sjnrits tlic lying one elected to do evil.

as free agents. but from their contrast with tlarkness. and now begins the warfare in which nothing is indifferent or purposeless. Good b}." must freel}' choose It his side. warmth. cold.Y. then. fight on it. material and spiritual. Truth by Falsehood So far there is no right or wrong.iBYLO. his belief 9. for wcr can its : contrar}' health. whether of the spirit world <ii. but ov\y from tJic evil cJioice tJuy viakc when. and together create the world. The l^uaHsm here announced twins. " having each taken his part.the material world. and abide the consequences. other words. must be balanced by Death. each man for himself. But now comes the choice. know a thing onl}' by how should we know light. well be said opnicnts as given in the rest of the Gathas may to be but cominentan-. B. the uncompromisingly abhorred fiends and demons of later Mazis deism. the choice is before them is as before the in two Supreme Twins. AND PERSIA. are not presented by the prophet as evil originally and in themselves. in sickness? Life. and in which all mankind. Little could be added to the great Declaration . imr separated. noteworthy that even the daevas. the result is c)f necessity a mixvisible and invisible liostile . to be foes for evermore. ture of opposites.I04 MEDIA. . So absolute the free-will and responsibility of every being. Noiv the twin spirits. only necessity. become the Spirit which is all Life" and the "Spirit which is all Death" (life and death being considered the supreme expressions of Good and Evil).I'lvil. not is absohite in : the two Spirits are the beginnin|j. ^\'ith()ut ex" ception. but every move tells for one or the other..

as a friend grants it to a dear frientl '") such is the strain that runs through all these ancient — hymns. deeds of men be rewarded life (The " best I will already before the liest "—future life.THE GATHAS.7//) ? On which side stand the wicked a friend of Truth {as/ia). O Mazda. of r\iith l^nowii as " I05 of Yasna. . profound conviction of his lieavensent mission . () Lord — arc those things proclaim really so? Will the righteous acquire holiness by their good deeds? ^^'ilt thou award them the kingdom (of heaven —. . . point of doctrine. the unbelievers. who of False-And are ///(^ not ? thy benefits vain ? (liy wicked. . O Lord. I will through the goocl mind to bliss? to . — (" A I am I tli\- chosen one from the be- consider as m}' opponents ") ginning of personal feelings in the da)'s of peroutpourings secution and distress. The questionings. " This ask thee tell it is whom thy faith is declared ? me right.Khshathra) my those. ? How come will to soul attain {vohu-mano) Will picly {dnnaiti) . lending them interest. O I-ord (Aluira) life — will the good comes ? . Some bear upon points of doctrine. and keeps on a loft}' level I'arely maintained for so long a stretch in these often crude literary efforts. O Lord — who of . the longings of the prophet's spirit are put in the form of a series of (juc^stions addressed by liis him to heavenly : " " friend and teacher. some on the issue of a coming struggle " This I will ask . One of a thoroughly human.) especially breathes the purest poetical feeling." "This which I will ask thee tell it me right. for the good. and grant ! me assistance. the doubts. living them (chapter XLIV. tell it mc risjlit. those to whom hood I am speaking here (</. appeals for help and enlightenall others — — ment often v^ordcd with great pathos and tenderness (" To thee I cry : Behold.c Giithic poerns. . .) . who make attackinjj and robbing the followers of Ahura-Mazda) ." \w Chapter XXX. !))• ransacking the rest of VV.

a fell defeat. tell it me right. and ileal unto llieni il so thai death and destruction ? " This I will ask of thee . See Bartholomae. accordiut. .jiromise of thy on the unlielievinjj.O. whose glory they in- Some directly proclaim " This I will : ask thee . the characterand the tone of Zarathushtra's own drift : a great directness of speech. *" Earth and Heaven p.. Who O Mazda. besides the doctrine. . a studied teaching avoidance of even the familiar language of poetical as tending to perpetuate that spirit of mythical redundancy which it was the object of his reform to eradicate. Who created the blessed Armaiti and Khshathra lie made Maker lo.hleonsncss ((/."Arische Forschungen. the son to the () image of the father? — ! ? * I will proclaim. the two fleetest of things . Beneficent Spirit (Spenta-Mainyu). Tn which . " in this j)lace. 163. lell it me ri^lil.I06 MEDIA.f///?) shall procure the triuniiih of Rit.. . Nor are passages wanting imagery. ImIIk. and the dawns that call the wise to their work ". art the of all things.Y. ? . and the space above. Created light and darkness ? Who sleep and wakefulness ? Who the noontide and the night. ? (_) Lord . AjVD PERSIA. O Lord : — Who sustains Who skilfully Who the earth here below..'/(/' ) over the Spirit of Lie teaching. BAFV/.ive the victory? . that they do not fall ? to the winds has yoked made the waters and the plants ? Who ? the storm-clouds. that thou." of the qticstioiLs arc a poetical form of homage to the Creator of all things. . doubtless the priests of the nattiredeities of India and the unbelieving Eranian tribes. inflict may. ." These specimens of the Gathic hymns are suf- ficient to istic show. — canst thou of indeed protect me when the two hosts meet the two wilt thou t." H. shall I "How How I turn from us llio Sjiirit of \.\cl {(fruj) (rr. where he denounces evil in direct terms the false and teachers.

the cardinal virtue of the the Mazdayasnian." " as/itr. Most noticeable is tlic 10/ prophet scarcely lapses even into the religions allegory which supplanted the Aryan niythnlog)' in the later develev^cr fact that the of Mazdeism.'' piety dniiaiti used as common abstract names." a sort of Iu"anian Saint champion " on the other is the Michael. Yazatas." There is no — worship Ahura-Mazda's F^ire. mentioned in an\' sense but the direct one " " of violence or " spirit of violence. and Fravashis) in the place of the ancient nature-deities. peopling the unseen world with a theological hierarchy of Archangels. Nor. the " fiend-smiter. Angels." ). and Saints (Amesha-Spentas. of " as a " Wn\\ " spiritual We sec " gocnl mind." rightrousncss. faintest trace of superstition or idolatrous " in . the heaththe reverence paid to . the demon-host. Aeshma. " at all in the Gathas." the special oppcnient of Sraosha. }'et is spoken of onl\' as such. icating drink of the same name are not encouraged . but there meat-offerings is no on a tiresomely minute ceremonial insisting no mention of cither Mithra or Ilaoma. opment The Fravashis do not occur nor the Aniesha-Spentas persons. even in a remarkable passage where all six arc menticMied " as the gifts of Ahura-Mazda." the symbol and rallying sacrament of a pure faith sac" " rifices and are spoken of. antl not allegorized into the Chief of the Yazatas. in their tlirect ami proper meaning. t)f later leader all hand. not as nanies of allegorical persons. Thus obedience to " Law of Mazda {sraosJui). the leader of the Yazatas.THE GATHAS. — Aeshma-Daeva. " (" I'o/ai-niiriio. enish rites connected with the use of the intox.

Zai"athushtra. when sliall the seed of E\'il. . . ! O Mazda the men of perfect mind come? And they drive from hence this polluted driiuhen joy whereby the Karpans (hostile priests) with angry zeal woidd crush us. indeed.. "The Sacred Books East. which the soul of the righteous cross with ease on " And though Ahura's own abode of bliss. while the wicked fall from it into the abode of Lie forever." as an act of impiety. ardent and powerful supporters of Zarathushtra. the 'Yasna of Seven Chapters. lo) as expressing abhorrence oi witli tlie rites. All the actioii is made up of the o'crtions II. and classing them sliall sacrifices to the daevas. the latest translator of " In the Gathas all is sober and real the Gathas^ the Karpans." f Two great nobles and chiefs of Vishtaspa's following. Except inspiration. vol. When. In short. whose daughter one of them married. XLVIII. and by whose inspiration the tyrants of the provinces hold their evil " ! rule the prophet repeatedly speaks of the " Chinvat Bridge open (Hridge of the Gatherer). and are aspa. XXXI. . iJjamare as real. and passions of living and suffering men. . Frashaostra f alluded to with a simplicity as unconscious as any their passage into : . the " Garo-nmana. etc. . characters in history.. there which those " is interpreted " one passage (Yasna. * L. is AND PERSIA.I08 MEDIA." "With II. and no sters fabulous beings defend them. BABYLON.' in " reof the Mills. to use the words' of an eminent scholar." he abstains from imaginative descriptions that might too easily slide back into mythology and polytheism. . there arc no miracles. . are no mythical monno dragon threatens the settlements. of .

ed. . his race. — . which. all the sweetness of faThen begins the w'ork (jf adaptation the miliarity. — — posed of average minds. after the first enthusiasm has cooled and the novelty has worn off. in a lesser. iiMil^s IO9 in the same scholar. — when his work is changed beyond recognition. degree. ancient forms and usages and scarce a lifetime has elapsed after the reformer has passed away. mankind in general so arc. ancestr^U. feel but ill at ease on an altitude that makes too great Then there arc their spiritual powers. who learn from him and them the herd is comloftiness founder or reformer. and practice of the doctrine and those who still call themselves his followers." it is The for fact is that relii^ion shows how impossible any or doctrine to maintain itself on the level of absolute and purity on which it was placed by the lie is one man in a nation. " which ranks next antiquity to the Gathas.THE G A TilAS. but the all liistory spirit chany. we atnios[)herc cHstinct from is ah'ead)' pass into an them.ld religion there is a gradual revival of ancient ideas. on iJic ivholc. association. as the strain is irksomely felt. Still. new poetry. the old habits. there is real progress : the new spirit remains. half unconsciously fitted to the (. 'I'he (Halect still hngers. above and ahead of his time. the standard has been ami a new ste[) taken towards the ideal a step which can never be retraced. his first disciples. reassert themselves with all the sacredness of early demands on nay. his immediate Ikit the mass cjf those followers. have become a medley of what he taught and the very things against which he rose in protest. nay. . raised. ancient is . which.

his abstract specula- have become greatly materialized... have gathered round the substance which Revelation. heaven and to the stormy wind that Mazda made. of the Amesha-Spentas Fire has the fully organized become the object of a special worship somewhat idolatrous in form and surest sign of future decadence the mythical taint begins to crop up in the worship and — — sacrifice expressly paid to natural objects: fice "we sacri- to the hills that run with torrent. " " the Wives of Ahura that the Waters are called " " The Fravashis. to both earth and . and to the peak of high Haraiti. The at- tributes of the Deity and the qualities it vouchsafes to its pure-minded followers Good Mind. BABYLON. . set apart in the body of the Yasna-liturgy under the name of " Yasna of Seven Chapters.'^ and the lakes that brim with waters. Of this process of adaptation the collection of prayers in Gathic dialect. Piety.MO MEDIA. . — have — become . alone engrossed the prophet tions . and to the land and all things good. and the allegorical forms of speech in which he but sparingly indulged have crystallized into personifications solid enough to start a new myth-development. though of course impossible to surmise how long an interval separates them from those older Gathas is which may be said to embody the Zoroastrian Set forms of invocation and a regular working ritual. AND PERSIA. and female Ahuras (see p. body ." it offers a striking illustration. 62). presupposing a strictly organized class of priests. Righteousness. etc. 12." We have here the whole Aryan nature-pantheon in subdued form indeed so strongly does the old mythical habit of speech reassert itself.

not even to avenge life and limb. one of the most primeval were not restored in the coarse form which Zarathushtra seems to have particularly denounced (sec p. 'i'o householders piomise that they may roam at will and abide unmolested wherever u[)on the earth they may be dwelling with their herds. I believe in the good. Ill mentioned in the orijjjinal Gatluis.Ma/da." that the rites We shall sec. 13. a followei of Zara1 thushtra. " 3. Nor will I heieafter bring plunder or destruction on the MazdaI yasnian villages. profess good thoughts. (fol- Lastly that . holy Aiiuaiti. " S. I confess myself a worshipper of . I confess myself a wor. Ilaoma reappears. robbing and stealing of cattle and the plunderir. Alnira. in Amesha-Spentas. some of the principal verses will prove of interest : "i. Humbly with ujjlifled hands to Asha I swear this.g and deslruetion of villages belonging to w orshijipc-rs of forswear henceforth Mazda. the true quired Avestan Creed. I riirsc Ihc dacvas. however.^hlia. all may siie abide w ilh nie. . a fnc Id the daevas. . " Ilaoma golden-flowered grows on the heights. good words. are and "worshipped" toi^ether with Ahura-Mazda himself and the Bountiful Immorinvoked tals. although their number Saints. professing and confessing the same. Ilaoma that restores us that driveth death afar. of this. The Yasna has document profession of faith which was refrom each Mazdayasnian convert. iVlthough too long to be reproduced — the preserved to us an important here entire. of IkjI)' is restricted to those " " of the lowers and propagators of men and holy women tlie new rchgion). a believer a jiraiser of the <if Ma/ila.THE not once here G A TilAS. . good deeds. " I 2. io8).sliipiicr a followLT of Zaralliu. Aryan deities.

This notion the clanship. but absolutely enjoined and invested with a pecidiar sanctity.^nian iolit. the highest. i>rofij. AX/) /'/-USIA. BAnVI. ami the rii^hteous niarriai^e among iclii^ion. if mankind be descended from one coui)le. Besides. and which has drawn much censure on its followers: the custom of intermarriai^e between kindred.ss atiuor. source in possibly had its the necessity of drawing' the family ties.112 "i|. bet. as cstal)lishcd liy Kindred is . by Mazdeisni. that most intellectual and The probabilities arc certainly not immoral people. V. It is not only permitted. W. which Aluira and Zaralhushtra. it should be remembered that it was not regarded with uniform horror by remote antiquity. the defenders of this to us abominable custom. . . wliilc Ljinlcd with not to weapons. Anyhow.ion which. A.niA. New York. of Columbia College. and w'as in general use as late as among the Egyptians. as closely as possible. if not originated. . and most excellent among those that are and that arc to be. 14." . the first marriage must have been one between brother and sister. This is the profession of the Mazdayasnian * religion. and also of fostering matrimonial alliances within the circle narrow at first of the faithful. in self-defence. that it was a very ancient Eranian custom.sanctioned. 1 Mr. resorts the IMazdaya. .OX. confirmed by the new religion on practical grounds. — — *Translali(jn of Mr. I'hc last voi'sc cnntains an allusion to a sin^^ular custom. even so near as brothers and sisters. claim-that. Jackson.

VI. contain much that is excellent antl wise under 113 I all . The Vcndidad. its Still there in essential features the spirit of that teaching and the regulations . minuteness and puerility of most of the observances : prescribed. Eranian bearers has wandered far from its and has assimilated many foreign elements in its wanderings. The most cursory perusal of the book shows us that the relicrion carried westward into by its cradle. is devoted to only one subject. but that a most important one the means of maintaining the ideal Mazdayasnian purity and of fightIt is the extreme ing and defeating the daevas. 1. the only book of Avcstan law preserved entire out of the mass of Avestan literature. together with the importance given to mere points of material detail. the Vcndidad takes us another world. Il'" with tlic " Yasna of vScvcn Chapters" wc ah'cady pass into an atmosphere distinct from that of the Gathas (sec p. io8). which produce so startling a contrast between this later development of Mazdeism and the pure abstraction of Zarathushtra's is own teaching. MIGRATIONS AND FORETHN INFLUENCES THE VENHEATHEN REVIVAL THE KHORDEHDIDAD — — — A VESTA.

(3) The elements air. seems to have been at first confined to the northern Eranians. that . water. even in its extravagances: (i) There is only one thoroughly noble and honorable calling. It is a duty to tend them and a sin to neglect them. Angra-Mainyu made all the noxious creatures. earth.Oy. we must bear in luiiul that Mazdeism \\\ this particular form was m)t by any m(\'ins adopted by all the followers of Zarathushtra." Ahura-Mazda made all the good useful creatures foremost and holiest among these arc cattle. and to have become^ i^cnerally enforced only at the revival undcM. therefore. They are classed under the generic name of Khrafstras. and make it at once intelligible. rubbish nf priestly tlisciplinc.114 tin- MEDTA. and must not be defiled by the contact of an\' — — thing impure. the guardian dog and the vigilant cock. wears a cloth before his mouth. for as much land as is reclaimed and made productive or used for pasture. i>f the national religion Three fundamental principles underlie this priestly legislation. It is a duty to destroy them on all occasions. serpents. BABYT. and ants. and fire are pure and holy. indeed. " " (2) The . 2. The priest. included in the doom of destruction together with wolves. while officiating before the fire.the Sassanian kings. the lizard. and animals like the frog. Heretics and wicked men also flies. Moreover. and. AND rP.RSTA. sometimes come under this denomination. entire creation is divided into and "the bad. and we are surprised to see the most harmless insects. and that is agriculture and cattle-raising. especially the Medes. just so much is wrested from Angra-Mainyu and his daevas.


" without the evidence of a passage (Fargard /." presumes to perform the ceremony for any of the faithful who have incurred unclca'nness. Every thing in the Vendidad.AII " OR " KI KK-ALTAR " OF MODERN TARSI''. as well as in the later purely liturgical portions of the Yasna. "not knowing any the is Ahura-Mazda of the harm that done rites of purification according to the law of Mazda. AND BEKSIA. This would be obvious enough. cle- his l)rcath ma)- not sully the is supremely holy ment. 3.) where Zarathushtra is made to com- — — plain to person by — layman or heretic —-who. BABYLON. altar.Ii6 MEDIA. even 8. 3!D). AhuraMazda expressly states that "sickness and death. " ATESH-r. . c. betrays the authority of a long-established and all-powerful priesthood. and the " " litany known as the Visi^cred (see p. chapter" IX. to this day by ever)Parsi while tending the sacred fire of liis own honic- Such a cloth worn or even saying his prayers.

on being asked that he shall " pay?" of The worshippers first . Slil-.N liV AN<JI:KT1L DUI'ER- KON AT SURAT. unto the ravens. committed any other evil deed.IAR . they shall cut off his head. the soul goes f The punishment atnnes for all offences.* with these words If he has has repented of all his evil thoughts.da. — THE LESSER A VESTA. they shall flay him alive." /. and Although there no worse pidhition these birds are "made to Paradise free from taint or guilt.TIIF. words.. VRNDIDAD. gives the following directions Mazda shall bind him they shall hind . because they are necessary to remove the p<j]luiinn fmni tlie face of the earth.' " f tlian liuuhing a corpse. arc stronger than they " were before in consequence of such sacrilegious in" What is the penalty terference. . i.aii hR IIKK-AI. by Aluira-Ma/. and. 11/ and the working of the fiend. pure. it is lemitted by his rci)entance ' : for ever * and is for ever. and deecK. corpse unto the greediest of the corpse-eating creatures made by The man here Aliura-Mazda. : his then they shall strip him of his clothes. and they shall give over his hands ' atesh-c.

which. tree that Originally the twigs for the Baresnia were to be cut. or nine prob- — — divining-rods.IlS MEDIA. in twigs. slamls forth. The modern J'arsis have.' wliite robe. f This tlie identical Haoma-sacrifice of the modern witnessed and described by Dr. a bundle (jf five. Martin Haug. beside the dicsJi-gdh. "shown to the fire. on tt)p of which burns the fire of dry. in flowiiu. frosts. fragrant chips. and the juice — of which is far less intoxicating. uneven abl}' in luinibcr the other the Barcsina. however. is 4. only a small was drunk by one of the ofificiating priests. etc. Parsis. without which the priest never in public* Near the atesh-gah stands a stone table. appeared though ignored and prophet. with cerfrom either a tamarind or a jiomegranate tree. The as Atlirax'an lie — Firc-pricst — iiulccd a majestic fi<^ure. set forth with the sacred utensils for the performance of the daily Haoma-sacrificc." KJirafstragJuia (the ment of unknown form for killiuL." a metal vessel placed on a low stone platform and filled with ashes. Besides. seven. the lower part of his face veiled. one that grows in Eran. . ants. nABYLOX. as substituted flexible rods of brass wire. trimmed and replenished. has resumed probably its abolished by the reli- place of honor in the gious practice of this essentially Ar)'an people.' snakes. that the sacrificial drink was prepared from another plant than the Hindu Soma. It should be mentioned. very prosaically.). or any had no is thorns. continually In one hand he holds the " an instrukhrafstra-killer. nor is it subjected to a process of fermentation. AND PEA' SIA. or "fire-altar."f The mystic rite is thus shorn of its coarsest and most ob* tain ceremonies. quantity after the liquor had been consecrated by being raised before the sacred flame.


noxious feature. "the Holy One who driveth death afar. and the sacrificial vessels —-mortar and pestle. in which Haoma bids Zarathushtra " Pray to me. the Haoma. Such.i. IX. as a The Yasna and Vispcrcd continually invoke and . together with the BareSMA (bundle of sacred twigs)." ajjpears to Zarathushtr. all of which. in a poetical introduction to the long and elaborate hymn to Haoma (Yasna. too. cups. BADYLON.). symbolical offering and for so to speak. etc. llic AND PERSTA. glorify these parts of the daily sacrifice the HaOMA. in liuman form.nded in iiUoxicatioii in which it too and becomes purely syniboh'cal." tells . XIX. The — sacred mortar. the heavenly Haoma. are " exalted as the most fiend-smiting of weapons. clothed \\ ith a body of marvellous beaut)'. " the men. the sacred cup. more- over (representing the \'ari(^us kiiuls of human food). some small cakes. consisting of a few bits of meat (to whicli the modern Parsis have substituted a httle milk in a cup). huh'a. and of him of the heroes who. Spitama. while the prophet is '* tending the sacred fire and chanting the Gathas. presented. strainer. Nay. and the Zaotiira (holy water).I20 MEDIA.. consecration. and prepare me for the taste " {i. are not consumed in the fire of the altai'. at the sacred hour of sunrise.). and some fruit. the Words taught by Mazda (manthras). but only held up before it. my best weapons " ! Zarathushtra is made to say(Ven- didad. cake and fruit). the Myazda (offering of meat or milk. e. often (. prepared him for the incarnate world. these are my weapons. press and strain the juice of the O plant first Haoma). incarnate." Whereupon a dialogue ensues. is the character of tlie otlier offerings.

.' . III. who on the place wherereplies (Vendidad. yield most manure. the holy meat." the perfection of a farm. and fruit where he waters ground that is dry. grass.l the right. . last Purushaspa. ami wlierc tiie house with cattle. wife. . hued. beautiful in form. the father of Zarathushtra himself." and with bending sprouts. having heard the wondrous revelation. 89-93).Tin: VEND/DAD. wiili the right arm and tlie left. — TI/l': LESS/a^ Al'ESTA. most happy?" asks Zarathushtra of Ahura-Mazda.) faithful steps forward with the holy one of the : " It is wood holy his hand. goldenThis long . . . where and where they It is tJiere is most increase of llocks and herd.> . the king of the golden age. go on thriving the dot^. a ideal of a prosperous and holy " It is where one of tlic faithful erects and chihlren. . the baresma. healing. C) thou man who dnst till Unto him thus says the Earth arm and ' . 121 and obtained as a reward glorious and renowned sons. . the wife. unto liim will she bring forth plenty. " Which is the first place where the Earth feels 5. The first of these was Vivanghat. in . the hre are thriving. father of the great Yima and the (see pp. the . like a loving bride unto Jier beloved. wellPraise to Haoma speaks: ! endowed. . the child. : me with the I left arm an. narrati\-e is one of the few passages in the Avesta wlueh are brimful of ancient mythic lore. or dries ground that is too wet cattle . . fulfilling the law with love. bringing forth mumier of food. The feels description of the other places where the Earth most happy presents the complete Eranian life. . who. " Good is ITaoma. . with the right arm and all tlie left ' here shall ever go on l)caring. . till " lie who would " with the left the earth " — it is stdl Aliura who speaks^ the right. bringing forth profusion of corn. and every blessing of life where one of the faithful cultivates most corn." mortar.

being ground. evil words. works of husbandry." sow corn is more meritorious Therefore. that throats. when there is plenty of corn. over shall thou \^•ait there for the refuse lliat is l)roui^l)t those wlio have ]irofusion of wealth. anionic those w . to than "a hundred acts of adorati(jn. rational of religious laws proceeds. This great truth is thus for env}'. " " thousand sacrifices. . ' : tlic taitli. a thousand oblations. the daevas groan when wheat is coming forth. strength to do ' . the daevas are destroyed. the priest teach his people this holy saying: No one to do works of holiness. the left. In that house they can no longer stay from . the daevas start up faint the daevas' hearts when the corn . AAT> PERSIA.lit. ( ) Spit'inia Zarathusliira ! willi the arm ami the willi tlic liglit ! arm and . sowing corn the daevas by the toil of " the left — — and routing arm and the right. then when the euniing forth. house they are beaten away. 31). prosperity there sides. and evil deeds.' . When IS barley growing rank.. " unto tlue. ten 7. T!y eating every material creature " lives. . with admirable consistency. to enjoin proper care of that necessary servant " Then — the body let : who does not eat has strength . uiito liim thus says tlio Karth () thou man the door of tlic stranger. sows corn sows holiness" Where there is plenty and no room for wickedness no room — and all evil passions. the right arm and the left." requires bodily So this most practical and strength and endurance." and holiness But. truly is Avestan phrase: . ever shall lliou stand at lio het^ for bread . BABYLOX.122 " left MEDIA. Ho wliii (IdLS ant liU iiL. wherein wheat is thus coming It is as though red-hot iron were turned about in their forth.' 6. honest toil expressed " corn is in (piaint. by not eating it dies away. lirought by "He who III. rapine. . is (X^ciididad. beleaves no time for evil thoughts. violence.

"X'eiily lias I say unto tlicc.) . he who with the good . * Herodotus tells us that in his time jmzes were given in Persia by . it adepts at ascetic practices. false teacher). Angia-Mainyii. with thinnest S}-mmetry. It this spirit much man who can himself )vith meat is more than he who does not do so. filled . So that we are told (Vendidad. may :|:This thrust. and is the immediate cause of death. who does not eat. would be directed against the JManichaeaiis.s of " praised Mazdeism — not encouray^ed. or Buddhists." wdio has man's neck.) that water and of tiicii fire kill no man . Spitaina Zaiathuslil Ijcgcts iu> sons . from almost every. . that can strive against the winter-fiend. No." a noose round every f AsTO-VlDHoTU. or throws him ashore" ously killed or die fire Iniriis up the botly previ- by the fiend. if the passage be comparatively be pointed against the Hindu 15rahmen. ra . tlenounced as a foolish and wicked error. while sacred texts of the the king to those who had most children Pehlevi period expressly declare that "he who has no child. that strengthens the hands (. pervades the Vendidad 8. man of he who has riches fills him who And.":f (Vendidad. both great If belonging to Sassanian Mazdeism. or man down.f the Arch Enem}'. other religion — mortification of the flesh " abstinence and ascetiherein but — and Avestan they are condemned.--TIlE LESSER AJ'ESEA." . V. the bridge of paradise shall be barred to him. . a Persian sect. is .THE J'EiyDlDAD. " the flood takes the is Asloup." the bone-divider. Not cism 1 23 — the so-called or differs onl)' arc iM'acticc. two men. strive against the onsets of the Death-liendt garments on that can strive against the wicked tyrant and smite him on the head that can strive against the ungodly Ashcmaogha (heretic. ! llic man who house far above wlio lias none he who is he wlio keeps a has ehildren is far far aliove above the childless has none. () a wife is is far aliuve liini him wiio * . IV. which enjoined fasting and abstinence of every sort. . that inevitable characteristic of a system of universal dualism. the holy eleit ments could not do the work Vidlintu who " ties the noose.C). ancient (li.

Zarathushtra proceeds to in(|uire what are the places where she feels sorest grief. the question. revolting way in — . : . the following replies ". that the essence of all impurity is death.. among others. for the name of ill become the singuhir and. that the elements are pure and holy and must not be defiled ." — which the Mazdayasnians of Northern Eran disposed of their dead. whereon corpses of men are deposited. to us. This brings us to the contemplation of the most extraordinary refinement of logical consistency ever achieved by human brains. " the Spirit who is all death. after the manner of . What is presence of a corpse pollutes the air to bury the earth or sink it into the water were equally legious. religiously followed therein by their Parsi descendants.lliVr. . the cemetery. The exceedingly complicated of — . AXJ> J'/:A\S/. . the Ahura-Mazda. exactly matched by responding opposite set. Given the two absolute premises: ist. " becomes an to be done with the dead ? and difficult one. It is lie . form aiul substance. P.. most of those Dakhmas. So. to burn it it in sacri- in the fire. after ascertaining from Ahura-Mazda what are the places where the Earth feels most happy. is Every set of definitions.124 in MEDIA. The Dakhma also called by the modern Parsis "the Tower of Silence" is the burying-place. has left it.OX. . as the work of the Angra-Mainyu." and who the human body gift " takes undisputed possession of the moment that the breath of life. 9. or " " burial would rather. 2d. the place wherein most corpses of dogs and men It is the place whereon stand buried. of its cor- queries and answers. and receives.l.

naked). and " wherein afford it. clothetl \\'\\\\ the light of heaven (/. an inexpiable crime. c. out of the reach of the dog. lest the dogs and birds carry portions of the flesh or bones to the water and to the trees and thus defile them. the wolf." and there be fastened by the feet and by the hair with weights of brass. stone." Such is of Silence. is fininded on the very correct conclusion tains and carries pollution and must Ije c<nisidered as? infection. is the law the corpses sliall be taken to a distance from human dwellings and holy things. — THE LESSER A VESTA." . : — — tiiat it is moisture whicli re- . indeed. I 25 the Hindus and so many Indo-European nations. or lead. : : if they can afford it. Only one way is open to let the bodies of the dead be devoured by wild animals or birds. and be exposed where they know there are always corpse-eating dogs and corpse-eating birds. if they ground. involving no end of calamities to the whole country. down the deatl they cannot man on the sun. Such.rriE VEND/DAD. not pollute even the site of a Dakhma is pure once more. to erect a building for the purpose of exposing the dead. of stone and mortar. A corpse of a year's standing and dried up doe. rain-water cannot stay shall lay '" . pass. the origin of the Dakhmas or Towers give the description of one of in these '^ unique cemeteries last the words of the iiiiiiulc tlis- This like many other jircscriptions. on his carpet and his pillow. when the " hones are reduced to dust for it is said The dry miiidis nut with the dry. We clause. . where no men or cattle " on the highest summits. and beholding the 10. The worshippers of Mazda are enjoined.i sanitary provision. if possible into the wilderness. the fox. would be the lieiL^ht of impiety.

This pit forms the centre of the the corpse has been completely stripped of its flesh by the vultures. or Towers of Silence. Framji Karaka. Dosabhai 200 and ff. luhich is generally accomplished with in an hour at the outside. they are thrown into the pit. for the bodies of the dead. so that by the si<le of the wall used for the bodies of males. the si/c is same number of pa'j'is in each concentric row. paved with stone slabs. and when the bones of the denuded skeleton arc jierfectly . and channels arc cut into all \.-j" upon one . the next for those of females. the bottom of is which tower. These receptacles.126 MEDIA. 70 feet diameter of the " bhandar. which is covered with sand to a height of built five or seven feet. . they fix ground and enclose it by a thread. 16 feet .. but When nails in the the Parsis begin to buihl a Dakhma. sunk into the ground at At the mouth of each drain charcoal and sand are equal distances. . or pavis. placed for purifying the fluid before it enters the ground. They commence from the wall of the bhandar and pass beyond the outside of the tower down into four wells. thus ol)the serving one of the tenets of the Zoroastrian religion that mother earth shall not be defiled.\\c paz'is for the purpose of con- veying the licjuid matter flowing from the corpses and rain-water into a bhandar. . f Dimensions of the ." vol. or deep hollow in the form of a pit." 20 feet maximum height of tlie tower. * jjp. . plan. height of granite platform. " History of the Parsis. they diminish in from the outer to the inner ring. are their size may and does vary. Parsi writer AND lias PERSIA. are sej)arated from each other by ridges which are about one inch in height.' The wells have a pcrmealile ' bottom. . 62 outer diameter (from the outside of the wall). When dried up by the powerful heat of a tropical sun and oilier atmospheric influences. 8 feet. BABYLON. entirely paved with large stone slabs and divided into three rows of exposed As there are receptacles. and the third for those of children. : feet . I. where they crumble into dust the rich and poor meeting together after death in one — common level of equality. Four drains are constructed. been ciuotcd once tintj^uislicd ''^' who already " : A circular j-ilatforni ahout 3110 feel in circumfcrcnco. indicating thereby . Dakhma at Navsari interior diameter. These Dakhmas. caUcd /avis.


). reminder of the equality of all men before the laws of nature. is The attempt also entitled to respect. the custom II. n. ]i:\iiicular ]iorlicin of . places their doctrines. . to carry out the exaggerated notion of the purity of the elements and the impurity of death with the most rigorous consistency. it without repulsion for tliemselves. involves the priestly lawgivers in endless contradic- them in the most puzzling predicaments. and claim plate that it is at all events the most perfect solution of the sanitary question — which it undoubtedly is.round it.128 thai only MEDIA. tropical climes. tlial .OjV. unless they draw the line somewhere on this side of what may be termed the reduction ad abstirdiivi of tions. especially in solemn As a hot. is Iron nails arc used.inV/. PERSIA.* l>y The structure separated from the adjoininLj c." diggint. yet moist. while one of wood cannot. that existence threatens to become impossible.ioiiniI he set apart fur the (lead. contained a special chapter of the is Vendidad (Fargard V. and an efificient preventive to the vanities of funeral pomp and posthumous distinctions. AND . . the i. Metal is clean forever and ever. wherein Zarathushtra * made Ijc Thus also the stretcher on which the dead arc carried must supposed to retain infection less than any other substance. According to the laws of purification a tainted vessel of metal can be cleansed. Init remains unof iron. . become conscious that so many occasions of They pollution arise which are wholly beyond their control. ^liall . a trench all rouml It is evident from the tone of lliis passac^o that the author entirely approves of this i^ecuHar treatment Certain it is that the I'arsis contemof the dead. about one foot dee[> and wide. This they do in in the form of an extra revelation.

W W H < o o CI .

? the son of Ahura-Mazda. as Wc a si')ccinu'n " : There tlie dies a man in tlic depths of the vale : a hird takes (light top of the mountain down into the depths of the vale. to the unclean remains.. in the form of hypothetical cases. by birds. and makest them llow That thou. thou Holy One Is it true that thou. give the first part of this curious dialogue whole. Ahura-Mazda. lo here is deposits dung. " There winds. Ahura-Mazda. people guilty of death). e.130 to MEDIA. by wolves. AND PERSIA. and then he lights it on the shall fire. to the bones Ahura-Mazda. by winds. for Ahura-Mazda to solve. and it cats up tiic corpse of the dead man there tlien up it flies from the depths of the vale to the toji of the mountain. " What is the penalty that he pay is no sin upon a man for any dead matter that has been brought by dogs. ! it " Now. sendest the waters from the sea Vouru-Kasha ! " O down down down ^\ith to the corpses to the the wind and with the clouds. of the that tree it hard-wooded or the soft-wooded. birds. makest them flow back unseen? And . makest them flow ? ? . . being For. " shut out from the way of " holiness. whose souls will cry and wail (After death. by Ahura-Mazda answered: flies. propound nice and puzzling points. or by flies. Dakhmas. the trees there. Zarathushtra next takes Ahura-Mazda himself to task for apparent violation of his own laws : iMakcr of the material world.) In like manner the agriculturist is not to be held responsible for any dead matter that any animal may have brought into the stream that waters his field. to the tree whereon the bird is have wood for the fire. how soon this material world of mine would have in it only Pcslioiamts" (/. a man coming up from the depths of the vale to . and upon vomits. the top of the mountain sitting. were there sin upon a ! " driven away from paradise. it drops pieces of the corpse. he hews the he splits into logs. He fells it the tree. that thou. by wolves. it flies to some one of from . or by man for any dead matter that might have been brought by dogs. he comes to from that tree he wants tree. BABYLON." .

" first. and as fit to water the roots of the sacred trees that grow there (the Gaokerena and the tree of All-Seeds. their thousands and their tens of thousands. is in tlie feeling Although the existence of these constructions a matter of abso- lute necessity." Nay. turns unseen to whence it came (by evaporation). Dakhmas on which corpses of men are deposited. althe building of Dakhmas has at all times been though humors. to kill their fifties and their hundreds. 65). as the trysting places of all the fiends " where the — troops of dacvas rush together. . Thus from fevers. It is 13 I To which Ahura-Mazda thou liast said." and. we are told that the man who gladdens the earth with greatest joy is. replains that. they arc denounced. the hour when the sun considered a meritorious act of piety. — THE LESSER AVESTa. it O heavenly reservoir. on unimpeachable hygienic grounds. from which rain down again upon the earth. second. ." And. called it runs back into the sea Vouru-Kasha as pure as ever. The same inevitable inconsistency shows itself about the Dakhmas. tlie Dakhmas arise the infection of diseases. to bring food to men and cattle. 12. man from There death has most power on is down. . Thus the fiends revel on there ." he who most corpses of dogs and pulls down most of those . we saw above that the sites on which they are erected are numbered among those places " where the earth feels sorest grief. . answers: " even so as " ! but exrighteous Zarathushtra when the rain-water. and to is hrst cleansed in a special the sea PriTlKA. thus polhitcd. as long as the stench is rooted in the Dakhmas. . sec p. he who digs out of " it men.THE VENDIDAD.

si/. which have to be met in some way. is VH. saying: ' Hail. and I. his sins in his soul shall the Not for thought. and deed are atoned for. stones. but there may arise even worse complications. (Vendidad. shall rejoice in him.OX. AA'D PERSIA. to say. Fargards V. the moon. at least thirty paces from the water. two spirits wage war with one aiiolhcr. and there temporarily to place the in a grave dug half a foot in the ground be frozen hard. and the inhabited parts of the dwelling. or the darkness is coming on. body if it dry earth : — . word. or half the height of a man if it be soft.): less considerable distance be reached ? "O maker of the material world. and the sun shall rejoice in him.inVf. covering the grave with dust of bricks. what shall the Mazdayasnians do?" Ahura-Mazda's instruction is. and it is raining or snowing. cannot Zarathushtra places the case before Ahura-Mazda.132 " tra ! MEDIA. when flocks and men lose their way. even so much of his l)ody. the stars. O man ! tliuu who ' ! hast just passed from the decaying v/orkl " into the undecaying one (Vendidad.il world. O y\luira-Mazila made " Spilama ZnrathushDaklinias. and VIII. thou Holy One ! If in the house of a Mazdayasnian a dog or a man happens to die. and w hen he enters the blissful world. Ahura-Mazda. but. no calamity equal to the presence or vicinity of a corpse . Urge every one " in is llio mateii. in men be done winter Central Asia — when — those die at all seasons.e to pull down as the He own who should pull down thereof. stances tion of And yet — such the tyranny of circum— not only must the earth endure the poHuDakhmas. and men go on building them. to choose the most sequestered and driest spot near the house. built at a more or from the villages. There is no desecration. the fire. or Ijlowing.) 13. and what is to terribly severe winters of the Dakhma. B.

justice be held responsible for it. sound as it is in itself.THE VEA'DIDAD. . is the sin of wilfully inflicting such grief on her by burying the corpse of a dog or of a man and as . — 77//s' LESSER A VESTA. 14. make a breaeh in the \\ail of the house. Provided always that he is a professcr of Mazdeism and has been taught the law. stones. Proportionate to the merit of relieving the " Earth from the pollution which is " sorest grief to her. strike the walls with them. (^Fargai'd V. " And they jj. This principle. . not even death in this world. and the wind to dry up the waters off the earth.iu I 33 sliall let the lifeless ixxly lie there until the birds be- the plants to grow. culmi- . where they know there are always corpse-eating dogs and corjiseofT.) Ahura-Mazda directs that in every borough there shall be raised. and cannot in 15. the floods to flow. . . strong and skilful . if the offender does not repent and disinter the corpse before the end of two years "For that deed there is nothing that can pay it is a trespass for notiiing tlian can cleanse from it which there is no atiMiement for ever and forever" which means that the offender's soul must go to hell and stay there until the general resurrection. for contrariwise he does not know that he is committing a sin. nor. take the body to the building of clay. houses for the dead. and they shall call for two and those having stri[)[)ed their clothes men. : . can atone for the latter." Ill another place." large enough that a man standing erect in such a house should not strike his skull. . in " the three small prevision of such an emergency. . . Then the worshippers of Mazda shall to lly. so no punishment. should he stretch out his hands and feet. any sin or guilt is removed by the former act. shall eating l)irds. and mortar.

when applied with the tenacious but one-sided logic of the race thus it is : only the corpses of Mazdayasnians and animals belonging to the good creation of Ahura which defile the elements and endanger the living. and tlic sick. unapproached by the inmates save in case of absolute necessity and with humiliating precautions. from the light of the sun.134 MEDIA. indeed. as a matter of salvation " : Ahura-Mazda does not allow us have. scarcely permitted to touch water even to drink. arc treated : more like crinn'nals than suffering brethren sequestered in rooms built for the purpose.) 6. — and covered ^\ith coarse clothes thriftily kept on purpose for such occasions. BADYLOA\ AND PERSIA. Very nearly one with prescriptions for the filled about Vendidad is and purification atonement every kind of uncleanneSs. the spring of with its last breath . Thriftiness." The same 1 said of an Ashemaogha half of or heretic. V. not even so to waste any thing of value that we may much as a small silver coin's weight of . it can do becomes clean by dying. The corpse of a Khrafstra is harmless: " as its life was incarnate death. for fear of defiling the pure element. such as having the food passed to them in kulles — ^\ilh \er\' long handles. awa}^ from the fire. (Vendidad. nourished s[jaringly. kind is looked upon in the light of possession. nates in strange anomalies. as the food lliey took would strengthen the fiend who has taken up his abode in them. accordingly. is enjoined on the faithful 17. involunSickness of every tary or unavoidabl}' incurred. life it that was in it is dried up so no more when dead is — killed it while alive.

. Geschichte tier Perser. .i'ka. has been very plausibly remarked that " in the fly which is attracted by the smell of dead flesh they saw the fiend A\hich takes possession of the corpse " in the name of Angra-Mainyu. rtishing upon it frt)m the regions of the north. have a place in the happy go away into the world of fiends. world. not even so niucli as a 13$ maid lets fall in spinning. do clothe their dead." The nu)dcrii Tarsis. the offspring of darkness. nor shall he. deals in- and uncleanness" on all around. pollution. who takes possession of fiends the bod)' at the very instant that the breath leaves " it. worn-out material. personified in the Di. the foulest of ." and thence. remove from the centre It — the corpse. is not a pious man whilst alive. as from a citadel. — THE LESSER A VESTA. and fection. . the older the better. onl\' well washed. " even so much as a maid lets fall in spinning. " Khrafstras. He made shall when dead.") It is to exorcise the Nasu that the sagdid ceremony is performed (see pp. " realm. as nothing could cleanse them of the pollution of such contact). for each man it neighbor. thread. indeed.uj Nasu. Whosoever throws any clothing on a dead IkkIv (because it would be wasted. but the shroud must be made of old." (Justi. way by which mountains of IIlU where its entrance is in the the daevas. 93-94).* in the shape of a raging fly. further to his still.THE VEN-DTD AD. into that dark of darkness. . onl)' imparts the tmcleanness grows weaker with each of infection. 18. and " those same " four-eyed or yellow-eared dogs must be made '^ to pass several times along the lies in the Nortli. But the most horrible is and dangerous of the fiend of corruption and contagion.Mount Akk/. even to the tenth row of those near the corpse.

The enumeraof these different spots of the human body. a liquid equall)' held sacred and cleansing l)y the Ikahmanic Hindus. and lastly it dry with handwashes it again. BABYLON. the urine of cows or steers.13<') MEDIA. 12-13). llic taken to the Daklima before men or As for same way. and strikes one. the Druj Nasu is supposed to leave that part and rush to the next nearest. in the usual dialogue form. i:)urification. time with water. as the most ludicrous and puerile piece of all It is in reading such passages as this that one understands the objections raised by Anquetil Dupcrron's enemies (see pp. The performance The . by means " of good waters reach repeated this or that part of the bod)'. together with the repetition of the formula of extion pulsion. purified washeshisor her absurdity. tlic dog being an eminent])' sacred animal). this is repeated sevtakes nine nights great purification Of course these ceremonies are (the Barashinlni). eral times.\\ govicz. The person to be. continues several pages. corpse has those Ijclmi AND PKKSIA. it must be through confessed. beginning with the forepart of the skull. have been compelled to touch a corpse. from which the until Nasu in at length flies off " to the regions of the north " her proper shape as a hideous fly. and still observed by the Parsis. (whether of a dog or a man. they have to undergo flocks arc allowed to tread the \\\\o a thorough process of ablutions. The purifications prescribed and regulated in the Avesta. entire body \\\\. are very pecidiar and exceedTheir essential feature is the abluingly disgusting. the left toe is reached.\\ gojncz. then rubs fuls of earth or dust. the As " from spot to spot. tion \\\\.

17).THE VENDIDAD. and must be set apart from all and for ever . unprotected of another Mazdayas- Therefore a man who would . Never is the when nian. ed the privilege. when in I he shall be put to deatli the same manner as the unlicensed purifier (see p. siderable (piantity mixed with ashes before they are allowed to touch water. and enter into him. clothes. Gome./lSSEA' . and the mothers are made tcj swallow a con. The directions concerning the intercourse. in both passages are identical.l. even fiercely. it finds one by the presence and prayers corpse-fiend so ilangerous as of the faithful alone. there the "carrier-alone" shall be human established and shall be sii[)plied with tlie coarsest food and the most worn-out clothes. their modes of treatment. alone were irretrievably lost upon him. so to spealc. and we saw above the clergy guard- 16) how jealously. and all holy tilings. — TIN'. drinking vessels. and there he shall live until he attains an advanced old age. and the fees they are entitled . 1 37 by priests. the water. yet we find a short chapter of the Vendidad on physicians. Although diseases are looketl upon in tlie Avesta as forms of demoniac possession. 19. 1 I. treatment of a "carrier-alone" are the following: an enclosure shall be erected on a dry and barren spot. just as we use a disinfectant the lips of new-born children are moistened with it. a Nasu incarnate. his death atoning for The his offence both in this world and the next. and for ever carry a corpse the Nasu would rush make him unclean he would become.':: is used to purify houses. at a distance from the fire. pcrforiuccl aiul dircclcd (p. words used 20.WES'/.

expected. the Eranians: the}' were to try their skill first on aliens.ite . one who heals with herbs." If cover. remarks: " so he will not harm that he will not relieve. henceforth at his will attend worshippers knife." " he is unfit to and a second and a third practise the art of heal. the precedence is given to the treatment by spells.138 to. the reciting of sacred texts As might be — manthras : " If several healers offer themselves together. it is this one who will best drive away sickness from the body of the faithful. as they were allowed to practise subject to a sort of examination which docs credit to the shrewdness of that cmiiiently practical people. . and one who heals with the holy word. . with the sceptic sln-ewdness " It may be born of more fastidious times. is If Mazda the ." of Mazda and heal them with the At all events this is a notable improvement on the . ulio were abandoned to the tender mercies of the graduating students much as condemned criminals were sometimes used in the " Middle Ages for experiments in anii/id vili . namely one who heals with the knife. A advises to give the conjuring doctor a trial by all " healers with the means. . followers of false religions. AND PERSIA.. worshipper of the daevas and he die. He may . per of for it . As to the surgeons the knife " — they do not seem to have enjoyed unlimited — confidence. . and wound him with the as he shall ever attend any worshipknife. : — If first prove himself. MEDIA." — he treat knife a worshipjier of the dacvas and lie reand a second and a third " then he is fit to practise tlie witli the — art of healing for ever and for ever.. ." commentator. On worshippers of the dac-vas shall he he treat with the knife a — ing for ever and for ever. BABYLON. but l. he shall pay " same penally paid for wilful murder.

" man. . and the explanation placed " in of of this extreme solicitude is the mouth Ahura-Mazda himself: ! Alnira-Mazda have made and sharp-toothed. O Spitama Zaratlu:shtra I. possessing equal rights to " The corpse of a tlog or respect. mares. when he is of sound mind. torn to pieces . neither shall tlie tliief nor tiie his jiouse without . in such phrases as " " lUit that a man the murder of a dog or a man. being warned driven away. he . the wolf shall wolf steal any thing ])e smitten and . chariot and four. awake from " at Ids voice. legislation is the exceeding honor paid to We have repeatedly seen the dog associated with as equally sacred." for the duties of a physician were not separated from those of a veterinary — surgeon. I have made the dog strong of Ixxly against tlie c\il-doer and watchful over your goods. : . . not enough we find several chapters devoted to the treatment of the -animal in health or sickness.THE VENDIDAD. wakeful. born to take his food from man and to watch over man's goods. If those * See " Story of Chaldea."' — THE LESSER A VESTA. self-clolhcd and self-shod." value of a "he shall heal a sheep for the meal of meat. watchful. lie is ." 21. And whosoever shall The dog. two dogs of mine. ." p 163. The only fee required of a priest was " a holy blessing. Chaldea and later 1 39 in use in ancient Baby- — and graded according to the rank and camels. . the shepherd's dog and the house-dog pass by the house of any of my faithful people. sheep. let them For no house could subsist on the earth never be kept away from it. is . Not the least peculiar feature of the Vcndidad the dog. treatments lon. " he shall heal wealth of the patient. asses. flees away. so that while the lord of a province (a king) for the value of a The fees are all valued in kind : oxen.

" ported this. Jl. mad " dog. " explained. Iml for llinse " AXD PERSIA. Aluir. ought to be sup"Young dogs." for six months. llii- two iloi^s of miiK-. house-dog or a shepherd's the ghost and the soul parts gives up dog from the body. they shall put a wooden collar round his neck and tie him to a post.UiVLON." not only will that man be severely punished for the deed. disinterested — — "watching' . so that the bones stick in his teeth or throat and the food burns his mouth or his tongue. and if he fails in . as for wilful murder. it is a sin of the first magnitude to give a dog too hard bones or too hot food. man and his goods none of " that the dog shoidd be tended which he receives and fed with "milk and fat with meat. slu'plicrd's dog liousc-dog. until they are capable of self-defence and self-subsistence. And 1 1 is because of his tlependencc on service." and if they fail. he shall pay the penalty it is Lastly — .i. must be looked after exactly as a woman she and her litter must be supported by the man on whose property the whelps were born. but his soul shall not in the other world be defended from the howling and purif " a man shall smite a it so that suing daevas by the dogs that guard the Chinvat If there is in a house a scentless dog or a Bridge." and giving bad food to a dog is accounted as great a sin as serving bad food to a guest nay. lest he come to harm and the owners of the house be held responsible for In like manner a dog-mother his death or wound. children for seven )'ears. manner as they they shall attend to heal him in the same would do one of the faithful.140 made by and tin- MEDIA.

here the cock calling me ." The stray dog who has no home or master is ranked somewhat below those canine aristocrats. ' .shall first washed hands. the bird of Sraosha. O man And ! the time has not yet come. if he shall cut off its car or its paw. ' : says. . ' : then bedfellows address one another Rise up. and thereupon a thief or a wolf break in and carry away sheep from tlie fold or goods from the house without llie dog giving any warning." remarks Diirmesteter. . Whichever of the two first gets up. the bird named rARuDARSir.. np his voice ! I.s that .. ". is . enter ])aradisc. the shepherd's dog and the house-dog still he is entitled . . the man shall pay for the lost goods. as soon as it has awoke : ! . male and fe- A female fiend..THE VENDIDAD. " If a 14! man becomes unlit shall smite a shepherd's dog or a liousc-dog so tliat it for work. and he shall jiay fur the wounds of the dog as for wilful wounding. he is compared especially used for the Sagto a holy man of the wandering " class. fer to Of greater the merits of the cock.o here is Arise. : ". l)ring clean wooil unto the . who lulls to sleep Sleep. and obscure. the messenger \\h() calls men to the performance of their religious (lutic. * And whosoever will kindly and i)iously present one of the faithful with a pair of these my Tarodarsh birds. sleep on. with wellI*"ire. a sort of begging friar. coming upon you. immoderate sleep. 22. she again the whole living world." Other animals are mentioned in the same chapbut the passages are fanciful interest are those that re- ters as varieties of dogs.' whichever of the two shall first. the son of Ahura- Mazda ". C) men against the mighty Dawn Bi1s/iyaiis/(i* the long-handed. The same author informs us that " the young dog enters the four nionths. . personifying sloth. up.. — THE LESSER A VESTA. . lifts . the router of daevas.. — — to respect as he is more aid . community of the faithful at the age of when he can smite the Nasu.. .

I. " be but a hut can such a movable " house of branches or a tent.) what should be done with the corpse of a dog or a man. shall directly go to jiaradise. — — . the nomad's temporary shelter. that : " If they find it easier to remove the they shall take out the dead.? Now we know not only what." " What 24. migrating condition.142 male. in a general way. as though AND BERSTA. 3d. dead than torei>!ove the house.dcism of in had undergone Gathic period : lofty simplieity the an excessive development . BABYLON. permanently settled nation. for in- which prescribes (Vendidad. and shall perfume the house with sweet-smelling jdants. alteration whieh tlie Ma/. the dogmatism and discipline 2d. if we remember that the race of which the Avesta is the memorial did not work out its spiritual life as a ments." 23. il is MEDIA. the adoption of certain foreign ele- The latter fact is easily accounted for. the revival of certain old heathen associations and tendirection of dencies . fluctuating. This is abundantly shown by such passages as. let the house stand. the direction of the Eranian migration was from east to west. VIII. whosoever shall give my Parodarsh liird his iill of Ahura-Mazda. they shall let the dead lie on the spot. they shall take away the house. need not interrogate him any longer he . but we also know about what time they began to reach the term of that migration. but while still in a nomadic. and shall //" they Jill d it easier to rc7no7ic the house than to remove the dead. lie had given a house witli a luiiKlrcd cohimns. Tlic merest i)ei'iisal of tlie X^Mldidad Rufficcs to show the tlirecfokl [xoxw 1st. if there is no Dakhma within reasonable distance stance. compact. yVnil meat. they shall perfume it with sweet-smelling plants.

' j'^ .f w OS a > MiiM^ J M ¥ 'mi w '.."-..' ./ \ ......'.' r.:-..-A'. «•! %mh^»-4m'-m-'&ii /^ ..<v. ..„.'„ : I y lilt'..

and flowing from no-Aryan sources assuredly the use of the Baresma.oN." accordance with what we know of the Turanian religious \k system .t. the belief in numberless hosts of fiends always on the watch to pounce on men and draw them to perdition. further led to suppose that portions at least of the advancing Medes must have passed through or near the territories of various savage and semi-barbarous people in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea. and p ersta. corrupted itself a transformation of an older Eranian name district and Van — the — Uru- meaning " Dominion mental proof that known among as Medes Fire.nr.ianjAN." We have monuEranian branch then already (Mai)AI) were dislodging the tribes of tlic selves attacked the eastern ridges of Zagros. the treat: ment of diseases by conjuring-spells. n. r. the exaggerated reverence paid to the elements. 194. are in perfect * See " Story of Assyria. Now all these customs and conceptions.* and were probably mentioned already under that king's We are grandfather. . and were themby the Assyrian arms as far back as the ninth century B. the cistern spurs and valleys of the Zagros region.144 .^rr. classical antiquity as IIVRCANIA.. the region known to later. under Raman-Nirari III. foreign to the Aryan spiritual bent. the great Shalmaneser II.tnvi. and the still more rugged highlands between the Caspian Sea and the great lakes of Urartu niich now known as Adkrfrom the classic AtropatENE. the treatment of the dead. All this knowledge enables us to do more than guess at the origin of certain observances prescribed and certain conceptions inculcated in the Vendidad.C.

.o K C O W w Q a.

ions kind Avhich the Eranians sweepingly designated as " Turan 25. and it was no more than sound policy to conciliate the new subjects. dislodged or reduced under their rule. For a long time Mr." Chapter III. " (the Yellow Race). will scarcely prevail in the end. Guyard. in the course of some three hundred }'ears. however eminent. Haltvy stood entirely alone he was. whom a military rule unsoftened and unaided by is . Pognon. since they were comparatively few in number. joined by the late S. There moral influence would surely have been insufficient to keep under control. This presumption would but for the violent opposition f now be it considered an established fact Mr. but it was a step which could not be achieved without * See " Story of Chaklca. has met from the Assyriologist and strenuously denies the Turanian element Still this minority. as irreconat least as respects the Median cilable vis they seem at first sight — conquests. of thcni AM) J'KKSIA. however. and another French Semitist. in some cases. that the populations of the Zagros and Caspian re- which the Medes. in the tribes . some indeed are extreme]}' familiar to us from the texts and spells of Shumir and Accatl. Uesides. the views held by the two opposing camps are not. I\Ir.* and the presumption is very strony. scholar. who conquered by the Medes and even in ancient ShumiroAccad itself. nothing unnatural in the fact that the Aryan conquerors should have been influenced by the people amongst whom they came indeod the contrary would have been rather remarkable.I4C> MEDIA. For the conquerors to impose on them their own religion was the first and most necessary step towards asserting that moral influence. BABYLON. belonged in great part to the division of mant:. now supports his views. --• ancient Chaldea. _ . f in opposition to them- selves. Ilalevy.

ever supplants an older one without it sueli grows making them. C. point by point. divining. ""The incantations.f than follow his conclusions. " Les Origines du Zoroastrisme. This question of Turanian influences call trace- able in the Avesta. in familiar — bepropensity of things to deterioration inevitably and practices comes tainted with the very beliefs — which it is its loftier mission to abolish. ' : ! O Fever. I say avaunt I * See " Story of Chaklea. has been made the oljject of exhaustive research by Mgr. O O O Sickness." Moreover. the Eranians were fond of novelty and prompt to imitate. the French We can do no better translator of the Avesta. religions. No new religion. Accadian formulas O Death. assuredly have tlieir origin in Such long and monotonous enumerations as the following Media. as as far will the peculiar character of a popular work allow. however su- perior. etc. already 1 47 es- long tablished. tliee. Thus we saw the rudimentary goblin-worship of Shumir and Accad with all its train of degrading superstitions (conjuring. lUinicroiKS concessions to the local. . I say avaunt ! to thee." See also the same writer's t monumental " lultoductiuu" tu his translation uf the Avesta. and such is the innate concessions ." pp. Pain. recall the to thee.) incorporated into the far higher and nobler religious system of Semitic Babylonia. spell-casting. with the lower standard. notoriously 26. I I say avaunt to say avaunt ! ! Disease. a question so important for the comprehension of what we might stratification of the religion tiiat the geological grew out of the Gathic revelation. To thee. — THE LESSER A VESTA. I say avaunt to thee. ist.THE V EN-DID AD. de Harlez. of which the Vcndidad suppHcs a few Shumir and Turanian specimens. 235-237.


I ilrivc








pain and fever,


away the

disease, r()tteiine>s,

and infection


Angra-Mainyii has created by his witchcraft against tlie bodies * .'" (Vendidad, XX.) " I'lie nuillitiide of tlaevas in tlie Avestan world, the behef in

tlieir unremitting action, in their continual attacks, in the necessity of incantations and conjuration to defeat them, the superstitions such as that al)out the parings of nails being turned into weajions for the


all this dark and gruesome side of Zoroastrisni is certainly the product of Chaldean and Turanian habits of thought. To the Chaldeans disease was the work of the liends magic words

were the surest cure. Just so the Avesta tells us that the best ." physician is he wdio heals with the holy word (niantlira).

is proljably dtic to the same inAll Tufaniau peoples have used diviuini^ rods, and the peculiar direction to the priest to hold the bunch of twigs extended before him during di-


The Baresma


vine service points to the notion that it keeps the evil spirits from his person and from the altar. This
also explain why the Median priests, the Magi, were never seen in public without the Baresma. Here another question suggests itself in con-


nection with the outer fornas of the Mesopotamian
religions, about which so little is known from lack of documents. There is, on Assyrian sculptures, a very peculiar object, which frecjucntly recurs in scenes of worship and sacrifice, where it appears deposited on




that follows,



Story of Chaldea," Ch.


"Turanian Chaldea."
Every Mazdayasiiian dug on purpose

in a hole

in the earth, reciting certain

directed to bury the parings of his nails prayers at the

If he neglects this precaution, the nails shall be in the hands of the daevas so many spears, knives, bows, falcon-winged

-same time.


The combings of hair and the hair that is arrows, and slingstones." cut or .shaved off are to be buried in like manner. (Vendidad, XVII.)




use of


or the nature, has never

Ihit on ehjse iiis[)ection it yet been cxplainech looks extremely like a bundle of twii^s, uneven in Is it not number, tied together with a ribbon.

rather likely that it may represent the sacred divining rods and be the original of the Avcstan l?ar-




were a ciuestion certainly well worth





11, 1..



" Tlie l)clicf in the Druj Nasii, or corpsc-fiend, in the irreme3(1. diable pollution caused l>y corpses and all that follows therefrom concerning the funeral rilrs and [luriticalions, the setting out of the dead to be devoured by wolves and vultures these conceptions and

customs belong neither to the Aryas, nor to the Chaldeans, nor to the Accadians. They must have originated in a mountainous country, very little civilized, and under the inspiration of a Turanian [leople.

The Greeks

expressly tell us where they were in force. have ascertained that only the Bactrians and Caspians lowed them, the former partially, the latter entirely.''








In-corni' a

by word

savage fierceness, and

Ilyrcania, has it was tm-


MEDIA, n.iPvroN;



doubtcdh' a portion of the vast extent known as

furtlier points

Mgr. de Harlez

out that



— wlio as rain from the sky, — who from — the earth, — who creep the door serpents, — who who steal the from the father's knee,

closcl}' corresponds to tliose evil spirits of Shumir and Accad from wliose persecution men arc never


in at



withhold from the wife the blessinij of children.* Besides, the Nasu-Druj is not alone here, as in

Turanian Chaldea, their name is Legion. Chapter XI. of the Vendidad, which is entirely composed of incantations and exorcisms to repel the evil influence from the house, the fire, the earth, the tree, the cow, the faithful man and woman, etc., gives a long list of fiends whose names have not )-et been identified or explained. Mere, as there, too, the North is the fateful in the north lies Mount Areregion zura, the meeting-place of the daevas, with its gate (if hell opening from the west. 27. The excessi\X' reverence shown to Fire and expressed in observances so strict and ritualistic as


have gained


the Zoroastrians the



from superficial observers, also The to have been a later development. appears word Atiiravan (" Keeper of the Fire '"), which
designates the priest throughout the later Avesta, does not occur once in the Gathas. The priest is
there designated



Master of Wisdom,"

a descriptive periphrase " Messenger of the

— such



the worship of the elements

a well-known

* See " Slory of Chaldea," pp. 155, 156.



,"—*.'_ -^








rccjartls specially

Turanian feature, and as

that of




that the





in full

Caspian Sea tains and valleys, uniting the foot of the Caucasian range and the head of the Zagros, abounds in under-

force in the region bordering on the from the west. That maze of moun-

ground springs and reservoirs of naphtha a perfectly inexhaustible wealth of fuel, which a very little labor could bring to the surface by means of pipes, and
utilize for entertaining



Thus the


by the nature

name — Atropatcne = Aderbeidjan — to our own day. " " Gebers or " Fire(See p. 144.) Some few so-called " worshippers still linger among the mountains of vVdcrbeidjan and Upper Kurdistan, attracted by the flame which still glimmers on the top of some of the ancient
Fire-towers, the gigantic Atesh-gahs or Fire-altars constructed in the times of their fathers' glory; unique

absolutely suggested the country, and is accordingly intimately associated with that country even in its

of sacred fires

and most impressive constructions, now mostly



sacred flame, kindled


the pure


air, high above all defiling contact, nourishment by a pipe that passed straight up through the centre of the building, directly from the invisible store below. Truly, few forms of worship more to our imagination and our sense of appeal

moundrew its

awe than the homage paid symbols on the stainless mountain

to this purest of tops, by white-

robed Athravans, raising their voice in song amid the silence of a wild and undesecrated nature. 28. More traces of Turanian influence might eas-








be adduced, but they arc too indistinct and sub-

allow of discussion in a nurtly popular work. There is one, however, too [leculiar and strikini;' to be passed over; it is the strantje transt'ormatioii untle to

dergone by the Fravashis, or glorified spirits of the departed, who, as we can establish clearly, and without straining a point, originally answer to the Pitris " the of the Veda (see pp. 83, ff.). That of the host of
good, strong, beneficent Fravashis of the faithful, those of the first and sainted champions of the true faith sh(nild be honored with a special reverence, is

and natural, and there


nothing startling


(over twenty pages) which recalls them all by name, repeating the same form of invo" cation, beginning with the Fravashi of the holy Zara-

the long

thushtra, \\\\o


thought what





spoke what
ing with

good, who who first knew and





taught,"' proclamation of

— andgood, enduniversal



We worship the Fravashis of the holy

men in women



Aryan countries, Arwan countries,



of the holy
. .




of the hoi}- \\omcn of the holy men, the lioly women in b^rom these unsubstantial spirits to all countries." " the host of heaven]}' warriors, with helms of bvass,


the Turanian coun-



with weapons of brass, with armor of brass,


struggle in the fights for victory in garments of light, arraying the battles and bringing them forwards, to

thousands of daevas," who help their own peowars, who fight for the waters to be disple tributed to their clans, the transition, by a bold
in their



touch of aiithromorphism, is easy, tlic proceeding;" familiar and llioroui^hly 7\r\-an. ])ut when, in the

same h\'mn

(Veslit XIII. ),


find a


strinc^ of

invocations to the Fravashis of the
to be born, nay, of animals

of those

and inanimate objects, when, indeeil, Ahura-Mazda and the Amcsha-Spcntas arc said to have their own respective Fravashis, we are no longer in an Aryan world. Here are some of
the passages






we worship


Fravashi of

the greatest, the best, the fairest, etc. \Vc worsliip the t^ood, strong, beneficent l'"ravasiiis of th.; Amcsliaihose S]ientas, tlic bright ones, etc. wors]ii[) llic souls
. .

Ahura-Mazda, who



of the

lame animals


those of the wild animals


those of the animals

that live in

the waters

those of the animals that live under the



those of the Hying ones

those of the running ones
. . .



of the grazing ones we worshij) their Fravashis.* ship the good, strong, beneficent, l"'ravashis





of the





of the holy, strong Sraosha,


the inthat of


a mighty-speared Milhra, the lord of wide pastures


and lonlly god,



that of the

Holy Word (Manthrathat of the earth

that of the waters that of the sky .Spenta) of the ]ilanls that of the Bull









sacrilke unto the

Fravashis of lliosc that have been
I'Vavashis of all nations, and ninst


of those






friendly to those




most jiowerful amongst
are those of the


I'"ravashis of the

faithful, ()


Saviours not yet born, w ho the Fravashis of the living are more powerful than those of the

of the jHimitive law, or those of the Of the others, are to restore the world.



sec here in the Avcsta


beginning of a de-

be imagined as distinct from the Fravashi. " fin the fulness of time three i)rophels, or .Saviours," miracuborn from Zarathushtra are to appear on earth, l<j jjiepare the lously


world for







vclopmcnt wliich

is worked out far more thorou^lily the Ikindeliesh and other Pehlevi books of the

Sassanian period, and whicli would be inexph'cal>lc but for the affinity which the student of ChakU^ui

cannot but instantly detect between these doubles and those which the primitive faith spiritual



Shumiro-Accads ascribed to every individwhether human or divine, and to every material

phenomenon.* The influence is unmistakthough there is far from Turanian goblin-worship to the nobler form which the same conception assumed when received and reproduced by the more
object or




In their last development

the transformed Fravashis came to be, as one might say, the pre-existing prototypes created in heaven

— the abstract form, to be at some earth,




ever to be born or have visible shape on time incar-

in a body. The most intelligible and exhaustive definition of this class of beings is that given

by Dr. E. W. West, perhaps the
levi scholar:



.A preparatory creation

greatest living Pehof em-

— fravashis spiritual counterparts

bryonic and immaterial existences, the prototypes
the spiritual and material

or guardian angels creatures afterwards

produced." f
29. We lastly come to the affinities, between Avestan and Hebrew conceptions, which arc many and striking. The almost identity of the Angra" * Sec, in Story of Clialilca," the explanation of the expression " the son of his god," jip. 17^1 ff., and Turanian spirit-worship in the same chapter, pp. 15 1 ff.
f In a

note to Chapter


nl the iSiindehesh.






well as the close

Mazdcism with the HibHcal vSatan, as approach of Ahura-Mazda in sub-

limity and supremacy to Jehovah himself, (not Yahveh, the tribal god of the early Hebrews, but Yahveh, the One God and Lord of the L^reat prophets), has long been acknowledged l)y the

greatest scholars; some of whom'"' arc much inclined to attribute the similarity to direct Hebrew influi\ll that can be said here on this very farences.

reaching subject is that we have historical evidence of the possibility of contact and intercourse between
the I'Lranian and Semitic minds at least as early as the eighth century W.C. since we know that Sargon

of Assyria, when he carried Israel away into captivity after the fall of Samaria, sent a number of Jews


the cities of the Medes." f Also, the scene of the dramatic story told in the Book of Tobit, as occurring" in the reign of King Sennacherib, is placed " " in Ecbatane, a city of Media," and in Rages of " ]\Iedia (Rhagae), where we are shown Jewish fami-


residing permanently, keeping their law, and The fiend transacting the varied business of life. Asmodeus, with whom \-oung Tobias wrestled for

his wife,


no other than the Eranian Aeshma-Da-

eva, very slightly disguised



by foreign pronunciation. the Jews borrowed from the Medes, the reverse

is b\' no means improbable. Only we must remember that i\hura-Mazda stands forth in all his great-


Foremost amoni;

these, indeed too al)solutely

Friedrich Spiegel

also, witliiu

and swecpingly nuieh more reasonable l)ounds ^t[];r.





Story of Assyria," pp. 24S, C49.

with another. consequently anticipates by several hundred years the possibility of Hebrew contact and influences. or code of punishments. whole book provisions. or looked like. but in no case its original and fundamental conceptions. the [irinieval Zoroastrian revelation. — were to be rcxcivcd by i. or givc7t by unclean animals or insects " Ch pronounced as in Church. khrafstras — to —given case " so many blows or stripes " which in * the culprit. Omniscient L(^r(l. c. The fact is that. applied first wdth one instrument and. ness. sarily condensed. To these. The penalty always consists of a certain num- in equal ber of stripes. 30. being so wildly extravagant as almost to warrant the severest strictures of Duperron's eneits mies. AND PERSIA. therefore. as the in One God. number. Mazdeism may have owed some later developments. but not therefore sketch of the Avestan legislation (as much of it as has reached us) no mention has been made cjf any penal regulations. as embodied in tlie Gathas. and the Sraosho- tain portions of the Vendidad. scholars are not yet agreed as to whether the stripes every other line after perusing cerwhere they occur at — so many with the one. BABYLON. as many -with the other him. tlie Creator. Furthermore.158 MEDIA. although the Vendidad does contain such a code. it is the most incomprehensible part of the . some finishinL^ touches. It may have been noticed that in this neces- incomplete." . The names of these instruments Aspahc-ashtra Charaiia* — become very familiar — the . but no one has ever yet found out what they really were. z/they have been rightly interpreted.

" Intruduction lu the Zcud-Avcblu. fifteen. "The Pehlevi Commentary. * es- Danncbtclcr.* " expressly ment the atonedistinguishes three sorts of atonement the atonement by the Sraoshob}' money. seventy. Darmestctcr. ninety. Justi. fifty. " — THE LESSER A VESTA. and several more advocate the — — other. 31. Altogether this is certainly one of the most puzzling and unedifying portions of the Avesta. every sin (and every good deed) has its value in money fixed. while most other Avestan scholars Anquetil. such as from ten. and may " thus be weighed in the scales of Rashnu (the Angel of Justice). . now :imong the." De I larlez. up to two hundred. Ilaug." further — And " In later Parsism. It has been calculated that a stripe is equal to about fifty cents of our money. One is that corp(jral i)unishment. fines." we are told.THE VEA'IJIDAD. though extensively used East. : Charana. Spiegel. as throughout the was very early commuted to the payment of even according to a corresponding." the act of " good penance being turned to the profit of the " " bad creation by so much damage done U) the so many creation. us to feeling and reason equally revolt and prompt look for some other interpretation. and in one case ten thousand (for the killing of a particularly sacred ani" mal. strictly graded scale. As long as we have to do with a reasonable five stripes to gradation of punishment. xcix. called water-dog. Parsis. there do not seem to be any objections on but when it the i)lea of humanity or possibility . comes to a thousand stripes. and the atonement by cleansing. I 59 would mean khrafstras killed. hold this latter view." but not yet perfectly identified). thirty." p.

and are fain to confess our incapability of identifying ourselves with all the workings of our far-away ancestors' minds. I had always held the view that : the practice denoted in the Sraosho-Chamna was much the same as has survived in the honors of the modern i'ersiau bastinado.iving \\\> the ghost." and think the punishment a maxijust. and that . nunlcrn pecially when wc consider what sccnis tonuiaiul uninitiatctl cn'cs the preposterous disproportion between ulTenee and punisliment. and to give power to the Evil Ones. nianskiut^hter. six hundred for killing a stray dog. one thousand for a hedge-hog. but when we find the same punishment two hundred awarded for giving bad food to a shepherd's stripes " feel uncomfortable. thus sums up the [iropcr atlitucle towards " The I do as to the all such not feel at lO. - * A young Aveslan schular. AXD PERSIA. seven hundred for a house-dog. and ten . throwing on the ground a bone of a corpse.OOO stripes query special questions all certain in answering. Williams-Jackson (of Columbia College." as Darmestetcr says. and premeditated homicide." " or i. performing a sacrifice in a house where a man has just died. A. we and when it comes to five hundred stripes for killing a puppy-dog. Mr.l6o MEDIA. and even moderate we can understand mum of two hundred stripes for any act that defiles sacred things. accordint^ to the injury " " suffered. B.IBYLOX.. V. give it up. etc. dog. New York). We can understand the inlliction of from five all the way to two hundred stripes for assault and batters-. from drawing blood to "a broken bone. such as tilling land wherein a corpse has been buried within the year. eight hundred for a shepherd's dog. because such pollution was believed to affect the whole community. — — we thousand for the mysterious "water-dog" (otter?).

.^riJE LESSER AlESTA. we may think thus and tkus //ere. right ground to hold. M . chapter (Ch. that reaction against the pure spiritualism of the Gathic revelation of which we saw the first indications in the " Yasna of Seven Chapters" (see pp. 90. is 200 be literally taken. and are said to be not only subject to Ahura-Mazda. and must abandon them. It is more liberal to avoid as yet being dogmatic in this field. spirits. learn is tlic ?" — (From a private This the letter).THE VENDIDAD. IV. form the so-called KlloRUEH-AVESTA ("Lesser Avesta"). we attempted to trace out the ni)'thical elements contained in tlie Avesta and to connect tliem witli the trations were nature-myths of a primeval Aryan religion. isn't * '' sacrifice to it month may . Where progress is being made each . We ' We We sacrifice to the sacrifice " Verethraghna. in a prccctlin^. but in a errors of our views. 100. 32. ]>Ia) iiig iiuniljcrs . 1 It is now hence uncertainty. . unto the powerful Drudspa (same as Geush-Urvan. . llie . the illusdrawn almost entirely from the Yeshts> or hymns. ' series.' particularly what he says about the money payments. made l)y Aluira. The idea is nearly what .* the tendency is there and the saving clause is tlic c.000. hard at best. . 50. it bears witness to that heathen revival. but created by him. l6l When. to have decided views.xtranrdiiinrv figures 10. awful Ilvaieno. clc. while. 5. in the present condition of Avesta subjects. 30. \\ illi wore 011 liule more llian Oriental regular . . with a few fragmentary collections. ^'et in spite of tiial. niiglil liy the other jiand. being undoubtedly a late growth. and more decided No matter that the former signs in the Vendidad. . . which.). . made by Mazda. see objections . yet unmistakably polytheistic in tendency. ff. expressed Darmesteter in the Introduc- tion. gods are now called Yazatas. 108. . . . day.). . It is therefore unnecessary here to dwell on this portion of the book further than to point out how that.

see p. I " When star Tishtrya. . . . ally It is continu- expressed in the Gathas. * See De Harlez." pp. the movement towards monotheism. proclaiming tlicm to he creatures of Ma/da. BABYLON. Uires . to fall back again into spirit-winsliip. As introduced merely as a salve lo conscience.!'. lOo). who keeps : the flocks in health. and the ICraiiian heroes into the dualistic order of things." holy. Such is the case with the belief in a future life. an existence after death. mitst be affected by these successive evolutions before it reaches its final form. 317-319." l}j. : " Zomaslrisin at liist wliiili the ("lUthasgivc us llic allcinptcd a iiKasurc fur . but. It is to be expected that every conception. . proi)er belongs to the first or second phase — rather to the second. and revived early traditions. Zoroastrism ligion passed . quite in accordance with the spiritual character of that stage of religious thought. does not assume thei"c any material it even though the Chinvat Bridge is remade by Mazda and . de llaiiez says in his niaslurlx' suniniiny. Eranian retiien rose towards from polytheism to dualism monotheism. nothing better than to force the genii into the heavenly hierarchy. " . the lord of wide pasAnd again "I have created that says Ahura. " Les Origiues du Zoroastrisme. which we can credit the Eranian mind. re-handling the stories about ilicni as needful.lC2 MEDIA. ." created Milhra. of l)iil reaction of its tlic na- tional spirit restored the worship of the ancient genii Ut former Later Ma/. Three grades are distinguishable in this evolution. AND PERSIA. more tlic radical reform. ui)"'" Ml. . even the most inherent and deeply rooted in the Eranian spiritual consciousness.ileism found splendor. features. which is to bring the reward or punishment earned by every soul during its This belief is as old as any with earthly career.

and sometimes almost seems to be conceived rather as a state of mind than an actual existence with sensations and feelings. and tlioughts. While mankind were delivered up to tiie childish terrors of a future with horrors visited upon them from without. XIX. so far as we are aware. 13. the celestial mountain. but expressed there.THE J-ENDIDAD. the nature of the bliss or suffering which awaits the departed spirit is left vaguely undefined. can never lose their importance. XLVI. LI. (Ilell). wliich. (Vasna." " The . Every detail of the thoroughly worked out vision is real and thrilling in the extreme. tlie abode 11. The ancient dreamlike speculation has already materialized into the very beautiful and poetical vision which later Mazdeism presents the faithful. the early Eranian sage announced the eternal truth thai the rewards of Heaven and the punishments of Hell can only be from uitluii." reiilete (L. Mills . Nor are to heathen features wanting: the mythical dogs that guard the bridge and escort and defend the righteous spirit. " The f . while his soul rages fiercely on the open Chinvat Bridge. with clear and well-established details. — 77//: LESSER A VESTA." rigliteous nuiii's cunseieneo will truly crush the wicked man's. f Not so in the Vendidad.) truth is that the mental heaven and hell with which we are now familiar as the only future states recogni/ed l)y intelligent people. for the first time. f(jrever their liabilatiun he. 1 63 peatcdly mentioned*.) (\'asiia. the god Mithra. It is given in the Vendidad (Ch. Introduction to his translation of the Gathas.) in the consecrated form of a direct revelation to the partly prophet. — . 11.") . and what * " ill is wanting there is completed in And when Lie's tlicy iipiiroach tlicrc where the Cliinvat sliall liiidije is. are not only used and expressed iu the (kUhas... in spite of their familiarity. as the revealed picture of the trial and judgment that every soul is to encounter.

lliat they have once to leave made tliat : by Ahura.). . Aliuraman and upon the j. C) Maker holy Zarathushlia. and when is gone. ])y combining a beaulifully complete narrative. should upon the wicked daeva-worshijiper wlio lives in sin. SluniKl I 1 uiyc upon urs^c llio t. they drag him with that noose down into The good and evil spirits struggle on the bridge for the poshell. such a word may be applied to a vision of the future. tlie corn tlieir wealth?' Ahura-Maz(hi answered 'Thou " ' sliouldst. quitted. and all tlie rest of to leave the waters that run. w hen the dawn appears and briglitens up. tliat they have grows. so that. they ' When the man is dead. soul in those nights tastes as much of pleasure as the whole of the living world can taste.) During three nights the soul is said (Ycslit XXII. tliou Holy . the noose falls from his neck if a wicked. and Vayu.* The soul enters the way made by " Time and open both to the wicked and the righteous. . * Every one has a noose cast around his neck : he has been a righteous man. reach the all happy mountains. I /-• ) Z ON.' of llie material world. . evil-doiui. its seat near the head of the body it has just " his If the deceased was a righteous man. last n.odly lieliind tiieni the earth woman. ' : tlieir life in llie mateiial world. to have ). O One ! where arc the rewards given that. daevas assail him. and makes Mithra. XIX. Rashnu. A ND PERSIA ." session of the soul.1 04 ME ni. when Ids time is over. and the sun is rising then the fiend named VezareshA carries olT in bonds the souls of tlie wicked daeva- the third night — worshi[)i)ers who live in sin." During these three nights the relatives offer prayers and fices to sacri- Sraosha. " Zarathuslitra asked Alnira-Mazda Ma/.da ! . then the hellisli. one of the the two. if we obtain Vcshts (XXII. in have won for their souls ? " Ahura Mazda answered . the gixl w itii beautiful weapons.' (Vendidad. " if : Commentary when a man dies.\.<'(lly 'O ilmu all-knowiiit.

." world . XIX. from that decaying world into this undecaying one ? pass the souls of the righteous to the golden seat of Ahura-Mazda. the south. containing the entrance to hell. TIfnv hast thou come to us. of good religion. to the Ciaro-nmana. . At tlic 1 65 end of the third nii^ht. .. . . " from the region of the north and d.) She makes the soul of the righteous one go up above the llaraabove the Chinvat Bridge she places it in the presence of Berezaiti the heavenly gods themselves.aevas always come retire thither when ballled and driven away.) Chinvat Bridge. strong.. XIX. who art the fairest maiil I have ever And she answers him: 'O thou youth of good thought." (Vend. Mount Arczura. is in the north. . — TFTE LESSER A VESTA.'\mesha-Spentas." by Mazda) comes the wcll-shxipen. when the dawn appears. ' to the golden seat of the Amcsha-Spenlas. Up rises Vohu-mano from his golden . XIX. What maid art thou. "And the soul of the faithful one addresses her." a sweet-scented wind." (Yesht XXII.) In the Yesht it is one of the faithful that had de- parted before him * The south fiends' is who welcomes the righteous soul. . since the The mountain. and good deeds. " . white-armed. the abode of Ahur." (Yesht XXIf. hcautifiil of body. the abode of all the other holy beings. it seems to the soul of the faithful one as were brought amidst plants and scents it if it seems as if a wnul were blowing from the region of . of the size of a (Vend.) " Then head of tlie . as fair as the fairest things in the " with the . science. sweeter scented than any other wind in the world. . the abode of the . ' : . the lioly liridgc made .) dogs at her sides. And it seems to the soul of the faithful one as though he were inhaling that wind with his nostrils. (Vend.) maid in her fifteenth year. and tall-formed maid " fair.. T am thy own con' asking seen?' . ' the auspicious direction.THE VEN DID AD. the sweetest-scented wind ever inhaled?" (at tlie (Yesht XXII. and he thinks: " Whence does I that wind blow. thou holy Vohu-mano exclaims seat Cladly one. good words.a-Mazda.

to read the whole disturbed. as the whole living world can nights a foul-scented wind meets it from the region taste. it is confronted by the man's evil confirst It tastes as " word. of this description. says the dreary way. over again. that " the main fact about a man is his religion. " : AND PERSIA. to act up to their religion as a stand- . where the body and the soul part from one another. 35. word for wicked three soul. Let him cat of the food brought to him. If Carlyle's saying be true. interposing like decaying one ? a courteous host. .lf>6 MEDFA. who will not have a wearv cruest " the material world into the world I-'rom the decaying world into the \\x\- who has just gone and distress." of the north. may be very sure that the beautiful creation is the spontaneous one." After enjoying the exquisite poetry and imagery 34. : " Ask liim not. though quite in accordance with the rules of a system of perfectly balanced dualism. BABYLON. In reality it is not so. for the much suffering during the science in the shape of a hideous hag. We have now arrived appear in at the end of what may at first sight the light of a long digression. tlic and asks full Mow and didst thou full come from abodes of cattle of the wishes antl enjoyments of love? I'^'oni ? of the spirit But Ahura-Mazda. fear full -of . For nations are more apt than individuals A nation sets up its religion. . only reversed. it is somewhat of an anti-climax. and so on to the end. and that the n^y pen- Wc dant has been added in the days of symmetry and dogmatic rehandling of older materials." it is truest when extended to nations.

A\'hich would in the dross contained the book. its historical mission and influence appraised. — TflE LESSER anl AJ'EST. not by the fallings-off and short- comings of individuals. but from the amount of its amount of ancient pure spiritual food it contains.THE VEXDIDAD. also the practical help it gives towards righteous and happ)' living. The first is averse towards the closer of the great to the l<"ravashis. V>y those ideals. or have struggled for the good. nor starts occasioned — disturbance. has never been surpassed: . a nation should be jutl_L. more from necessity the — — pose than choice. There are two short Avcstan alone suffice to atone for all texts. frir conciseness. by the leaps and convulsive by moments of passion and general Nor should a religion be judged by the or mythic dross clinging to it. and summed u[) by some great teacher and leader. or will struggle. and establish a moral elevation that can hardly be overrated for the people who could think and feel thus. worked out collectively and nnconsciousl}' by its members.i. l)orn at any time or ii^ any place.): " worship the souls of the holy men and women. not by the shallows and lowlands in which existence drags or at least feebleness of puron. of superadded theological dogmapuerilities tism and priestly discipline. just as an individual's intrinsic worth can be fairly estimated only by noting high-water mark his spiritual consciousness reaches in moments of insight and uplifting. (Yesht XIII.ed. and depth of thought. whose consciences hymn We struggle. comprehensiveness. [6/ cmbodyLnc^ its loftiest and liolicst ideals. by that standard." The other text is a pra}-er (in the Lesser Avesta) which.

. the Rranian race and by their religion hold a very high standing indeed and a thorough comprehension of the latter will be of no . . .l PYLON. AND PER STA. taking up the thread of historical narrative where we last dropped it at the Fall of — Nineveh and the Assyrian Empire.i6S " MEDIA. and tJiat underunderstanding . Give US knowlcdcjc.ood meuior}' and then the that c. staudiiig.oeth on <. which we now little prepare to follow. n."rowing. which comet Ji not through learniiii^. . " help in duly estimating the former's triumphant progress through the ancient world. sagacitj' (|iiickncss of tonp^uc holiness of soul a c!. J udged all these tests and standards.

as of returning life. J been 69 . spectres of : former energ)' b\' into a brief spell of greatness. an actor hissed off the stage. appears once more. but undaunted and aggressive as ever. Of the number was Syria." p. While Asshur.i." one with another (Jeremiah. for the last time. h •' Psammetik. the deliverer of Egypt.* * Sec " Slory of A^syri. 1. 395. Once more the procession of familiar names Hamath and Judah and DamasMoab and Ammon and Edom.). and tottering still. but was now to abandon. passes before us cus. the still throbbing heart. lay in the throes of dissolution. XXV. stricken and fro crestfallen.might " reel to and and be inad. like 2. on the scene which she had swept triumphant through so many centuries. roused " a draught of that wine of fur\'. in Asia. the last ebb of animation feebly surging in Nineveh. with wounds scarce healed.VII. THE LAST DAYS OF JUDAH. I\gypt too. passed over the remoter provinces as the pressure of the iron hand that held them down relaxed in death." which the last of Jerusalem's prophets was bid to cause all the nations to drink that the}. —a stir. the dying giant.

to proceed to the Euphrates. and from the hostile attitude of one of them. their dreams must have been of total emancipation. and a warm welcome from the Syrian princes. Necho's plan probably was to assure himself of their allegiance. wlio im- mediately set to work. but that others were beforehand with the Egyptian. That obstacle was now removed in. the princes may not have been so ready to welcome him. . his rear securely covered by a breastwork of tribute-paying friends. could be counted upon. terference from Assyria was the last thing to be feared. 41S. and. 3. even though probably a That such was their feeling. rsammetik's lon<. we may conclude from the fact that it took him four years to get to the Euphrates. to the main business of the camthe actual conquest of Assyria itself. recorded * Sec "Stoiy of Assyria. 423. foreign rule for another. King of Judah. " his own equally open country to be in readiness for an invasion. years of warfare had not brought luni farther tlian but he had l)een interrupted by the downpouring of the Scythian and Cimmerian hordes and the necessity of retreating into the Philistine cities. Nkciio II. Moreover. succeeded 6io by liis son.I/O MEDIA. There paign is no reason why this plan should not have been — successful. judging from precedents. and that Necho's progress was not a peaceful one.. Now that their colossal foe lay at the last gasp. icy with rcgartl to Syria. not of exchanging one milder one. Josiah.to carry out his fatlier's polTrue. in AND PER SIA. FAnYLON." pp.

against tle was fc)ught in the valley of Megiddo. f and the descent of the Scythians. at length in the P)iblc books. Manasseh's grandson.THE LAST DAYS OF JUDAH. w^ere unequal to appear. he grew up into a religious reformer. enjoyed a pretty quiet time. had broken thousand years before.! come Early moulded priests 638. and " there was great mourning for him Wee[) )'e not the Pharaoh's : " See " Story of Assyria. and Jeremiah). Since the unexpected from Senwliolc. . a child only eight years old. a great aanite league." " . nacherib's host in /Oi. See "Story nf Assyria. to the double influence of the and the prophets. A bat- Here where. to the throne in hoi^. and Josiah himself fell on the field. of the Egyptian army he roused himself from his peaceful and pious occupations to oppose the invader an imprudent step.'"' Judah had. fortune again jirospered . Dhutmes HI. whose holy zeal restored the worship of Yahveh in more At the approach than ancient purity and splendor. Josiah." 27. ji.']. who came to humble himself at the victor's feet in in his camp by the Orontes. 342. on the with the exception of Manasseh's short-lived rebellion. and taken. the the (^mtlu- ^fegVdd°[ j^l[^^Vy 'eog b°. since his material means — it would it. but was by him deposed and carried captive into Egypt. and successor JKIIOAIIAZ." f See ^ jip.c!^ Egyptian arms Necho's victory was comHis son plete. Second deliverance Chronicles. i>p. 305-311. 171 (Second Kings. found no favor e)'es. 341. the advice of his wisest councillors. The now reigning king.Story of Assyria. 4.

XXII. already a renowned warrior and accomplished general. l)ut l)y his )'oung son. ^r^-605'Bx'^nd — he how long is took him. Nabopolassar. been hastily summoned to His father. ^^octh awa}'.. axp liini . Pharaoh. jEllf)TAKIM. hut \\cc\) sore for return no more. lo). year before under the united efforts of the Medes under Kyaxarcs and the Babylonians under Nabopolassar. met the Egyptian force near Karkhemish. Necho followed his in pursued way Euphrates. with threatening The Babylonian army. . Tiic victory of Karkhemish would have been followed up more vigorously and immediately. and taken much liis Having appointed another gold and silver out of the land. n. In 605 he reached the great river. to reign in Judah. soon after he started in pursuit of the routed Babylon. but here he was confronted by a foe for whom he was little steps. probably conquering the countries as he went. of Josiah's sons. had died after * See " Story of Assyria. Dhutmes' and to the Things had gone faster than he liad exand differently: Nineveh had fallen the pected. Nebuchadrezzar.myrox. we have no it heard of no more. for the dead. fangs and ominous growl." pp. commanded not by Nabopolassar. who was old and prepared. after this disaster. but the strong and victorious lion of Babel. Karkhemish Neclfoby ''^'"'<^' . 427. 6. infirm. pfrsia. for he shall native country" (Jeremiah.* It was therefore not the worn-out old lion of Asshur whom the Pharaoh encountered.1/2 MEDIA. had not Nebuchadrezzar. neither bemoan him that nor sec 5. IIow Necho rctumed hint. 428. Completely routed to the Nile it.

burdened themselves with its wars. possessed over the entire mountain-land from the Caspian Sea to the Mediter- ranean. made up the new and. down to the (kilf. and such power or claims as Assyria of Nairi. from the highlands of Urartu to those of Masios and Amanos or. was a new and vast inheritance which Nebuchad- rezzar was called upon to receive and organize. the Medes' vast dominions in their native Eran. sea.Tiff. with Chaldea proper. retained the long-disputed Zagros region. if inferior in ex- was superior in so far that it was more homogeneous. the land that might be called Assyria proper. one culture. and though a competent regent was appointed hy the priesthood. especially . The Babylonian Empire was formed of the rest of Mesopotamia. true to the tendency of his people. the ancient empire of Asshur had been pretty ecjuitably divided between the two the kings of Media and Babyprincipal champions lon. in transferring to themselves the possessions and claims of As- syria. and almost one language the Semitic. which had always been drawn on in a westerly — direction. for a short while. down to the alluvial line. The former. — It will be seen that bcAh these empires. all that — This. 1 73 a short illness. joined to lay east and north of the Tigris. antl all that la)' westward of the Euphrates to the tent to the other. including countries of one race. LAST J\iyS OF JUDAH. the presence of the new king was urgently for a It required. For at the division of spoils which followed on the destruction of Nineveh. in other words. and affairs at home time took the i)recedence over foreign wars. This em[)ire. powerful Median Empire.

it seems.G. in desultory . at this time.nty over the lands of S)'ria. So that his coming in 600 E. As for Elam. and the other.174 the MEDIA. as it forego a matter of vital importance to IJab^lon. wisely hastened to tender his submission. Nor would that question be left in doubt long. to Asia Minor. and the other 7. to hold control over the two great caravan routes the one across the desert to the Phoenician cities of the sea-shore. This detach- — — ment was commanded by of Persia . Jehoiakim of Judah. empire. as it was not likely that the king of Babylon would surely not : suffer the rivalry of Egypt one moment longer than he should be kept busy at home. was more like that of a sovereign returning to claim his own than the invasion of a conqueror. Aryan Eranians like the Mcdes to whom they were subject. to have been already was — occupied in part 1j)' an advanced detachment of a new nation the PERSIANS. One thing must have been clear to them that the question for them could only be between two masters. from these cities. and Nebuchadrezzar seems to have spent the next thrcV years in Syria. It is never hear of Elam. Through all this time we more than probable that it was tributary to Media. both from a military and commercial point of view. and did not court notoriety. We are not told to whom Judah Syrian princes paid tribute during the five years that elapsed between the battle of Karkhemish and the unexpected coming of Nebuchadrezzar. through Damascus and Karkhemish. which could not possibly the sovereiy. but not for in an)- fift}^ a branch of the royal family years yet were they to come forward way. southern AND PERSIA. liABYLON.

all attempts which could only bring destruction on the city. he scoffeth at kings. Besides. and he derideth every stronghold. but with infi- all nitely greater violence. warfare. I 1 75 by a contemporary — raise iqi tlic (. shall sweej) liy as a .sparing the king himself. and hasty nation. . not . he catcheth them . made him bitter enemies in the ruling classes. . their facc^s are set eagerly as the east wind. nay. He god. 8.'liahlcans. cursed in the name of the Lord. . . revolt. then disappointment. reproving their evil ways. The leading spirit in Jerusalem at this time was the i)rophet Jeremiah. uot theirs. in his drag . as the broken people. though it had prevailed under the pressure of imminent danger. his in is his net.' taketh men even he whose might is with the angle. death and ruin on the His preaching was considered unpatriotic and was far from popular. He . . therefore he rejoices and glad. ])rinces are a derision unto him • Yea. Like Isaiah. vinced that Judah's only chance of safety lay in abject submission and discouraged. They come. So the policy which he advocated. . They are terrible and dreadful. . : . . and arc more fieree than the evening wolves. The same pitiable old farce with the tragic ending was enacted once again forlorn hopes centred on promises from " Egypt. antl they gather captives as the sand. . tliat bitlcr march lliroiiLjh tlie hrcadlli uf tlic earth. They fly as an eagle that hasteth to devour. . . and gathereth them . wliicli dwelhngs that are . all (if tlieni. he opposed and denounced He was profoundly conplans of resistance. graphically described the prophet Ilabakkuk: " Lo. wind . was soon abantloned. . Their horses are swifter than leopards. the accusations and invectives which he never ceased to hurl at the wealthy and powerful. for violence . to possess .THE LAST DAYS UF JUDAJI.

— and retribution. . swift and 9.• ites. . burial of an ass.1 . appeared Tliree years after his submission Jciioiakim Nebuin arms and refused the tribute. a passage Jehoiakim meantime had died. They shall not lament for him. and other loyal Syrian nations. yet would I pluck thee thence and I will give thee into the hand of them of whom . HABVLOX. "he shall be buried with the drawn and cast forth beyond -the Nor had the prophet any but gates of Jerusalem. From Jeremiah it would appear that there a revulsion of popular feeling against him.bauds oi Ciialdeans. Moabites. . terrible. First taking of Jerusalem . faikcl lu l^^vc AXD rKRSIA." did not attempt further resisteighteen years old) ance. from the river Eulands. . who had other matters on t hauds just tlieu. and only when he had driven out the Pharaoh so tlujr" oughly that he came not again any more out of his " when he had taken. but went out to Nebuchadrezzar's camp and afraid. seut at^amst Judali by Nebuchadr r^^ t rezzar. gave himself up. JEIIOIACHIN saith (also called JecoNIAH) : "As I live. 1 phrates to the Brook of Egypt.' ." did he join the besiegers before Jerusalem. i i his .176 " rcccl MEDIA.000 captime. Ammon597 B. and his servants. ^ ^ i\ 1 • \ . support. Jerusalem was not destroyed yet this but its population was thinned of 10. though Jeconiah were the signet upon my right hand. the Lord. with his mother. . ." words of wrath for Jehoiakim's son and successor. . .C. • 1 ." and chadrezzar. all that pertained to the king of Egypt. had been which had vented itself in indignities perpetrated on " his body. thou art The poor youth (only ." says in the prophet . • . . his princes. .

who were taken to Babylon together with the king and his Nebuchadrezzar made an uncle of Jeconiah. Jere10. tives. even though his life be the forfeit speak " I am become a laughing-stock all the day. then there is in mine heart as it were a burning fire shut up in my bones." " all of including a thousand craftsmen and smiths. 1 77 " chosen among the mighty men of valor. but it miah's persistent warnings scarcely sufficed to hold it in check. them strong and apt kiel The prophet Ezebatch of captives. making him very glad. . a son of Jchoiakim. . en- made him swear the oath of allegiance. Four years now passed peacefully enough." was one of this first Zedekiaii. and in Judah. and dissensions. all the more that they were counteracted by other prophets.THE LAST DAYS OF JUDAH. was a peace fraught with fears. and I am weary man-child . to speak in public. nor speak. And if I say him. king tered into a covenant with him. and a derision all the I will not make mention of day. every man mocketh me the word of the Lord is made a reproach unto me. forebodings. But the consciousness of his mission was strong within him and banished fear. The spirit of Judah was not broken yet. house. — . some said within two At times Jeremiah was actually forbidden years. " the man who brought is tidings to his father. ." but he must. who foretold that the yoke of Babylon should be broken and the captives should return after a short interval. curses the day that he was born. and popular feeling was all for revolt. Bitterly he complains of the persecutions to which he was subjected. saying — : A born. for war.

and live. and I cannot contain. zar. . tion and the kingdom which will not serve the same Neljuchadrez. for in the peace thereof And yet was the prophet's shall }'c have peace.178 jMEDJA. and serve him and his peoi^lc. . and to clear himself from any suspicion of complicity in a conspiracy which could not be II. — . ." to plant gardens and eat the fruit of them. in the fourth year of Zcdckiah's reign. about this very time. that will not put their neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon. . that nation will I punish with the sword and with the And hearken not unto the famine and with the pestilence." . saying Ye shall not I have serve the king of Babylon. Ammon. messengers came from the kings of Moab. for they prophesy a lie unto you. " not be diminished. When. \\\v. Zedekiah went to Babylon. BA/U-I. I have given these lands into the hands of Nebuchadrezzar the Idng of . my servant. seek the peace of the city and And. not sent them. and from those of Tyre and Sidon. And it shall come to pass that the naBabylon. . to " build houses and dwell them. . prophet opposed their errand with even more than his usual lie "gave them a charge vigor and explicitncss." saying : " Thus all saith tlie Lord of Hosts." to marry and multiply and " " he added.0A\ and PERSIA. Jeremiah sent written words to the captives in Babylon. and Edom." pray unto the Lord for it." with forbcarinpj. . . . Bring your necks unto the yoke of the king . unknown to the king. the God of Israel : . to propose a renewal of tlic usual combination. . . . exhorting them to bear their lot in patience and to in make the best of it . it was probably by the advice of the cautious prophet. unto their masters." of Babylon. And when. . Not content with preaching in Jerusalem. words of the prophets that speak unto you.

I will punish the king of Babylon and his land as . as he did so " Thus shall Babylon sink and not rise again. him away Nebuchad. written after the final catastrophe had been enacted. . Jeremiah manful And aged to convey to his captive brethren the assurances of coming retribution." 12. expatiating on the future ruin of Chaldea with vindictive delight." even while preaching resignation and cheerendurance under the hardships of captivity. . I have punished the king of Assyria. breathe this spirit of revengeful exultation throughout. in 589. the lions have driven .for a few years more.THE LAST DAYS OF JUDAIL soul filled 179 with wrath against the conquerors. But when. as the fit retribution for the woes brought on Judah. . . in the usual last The passages the sublofty strain of prophetic poetry. and he took comfort in the prevision that their turn would come. He " wrote in a book all the evil that should come upon Babylon. Behold." and gave the book to one of the royal officers. and are full of dire predictions. the king of Assyria hath devoured liim and last this rezzar king of Babylon hath broken his bones. bidding him read " out " all these words when he should have arrived at Babylon. the prophet succeeded in putting off the evil hoin. chapters of Jeremiah. even while prevailing on the unwilling king to go to Babylon on his humiliating errand. Thus. then bind a stone to it and cast it into : the midst of the I'Luphrates. . saying. imminent peril. stance of which can be summed up in the following extract : — " Israel first is a scaUered sheep . at his own. the grandson of .

Great was the joy chid all city. the temptation was too strong for the war party in Jerusalem Zcdekiah. succeeded to the throne of Egypt and immediately showed signs of meditating a Syrian campaign. The Pharaoh. IT. in 594 and been succeeded by his son Psamof who did not come out Egypt at all during his short . I set before you the way of life and the way of death. openly rebelled." Be13." I myself will fight against you with saith the Lord an outstretched hand and a strong arm. but Jeremiah sternly to those who were sent from hope. : He that abideth in this city shall die. Egypt. and no messages or enquiries could draw from him " Thus any but the one obnoxious advice. however. PAJiY/. he shall live.. AXD PERSIA. but unable to withstand the pressure of popular feeling. and by the famine and by the pestilence. : ever Jeremiah inveighed against this recklessness. fore her army had crossed the frontier. by the sword. as usual.OX. was not ready in time. Behold. saying in the doomed * Necho had died metik rei-n. now made up for lost time by rushing onward with such energy and swiftness as to claim the Chaldeans' immediate attention. It was not long before NebuchadMore than rezzar was reportctl to be on the march. (the Greeks call him Apries).* IIopiiRA." submit. Ncclio II.I So MEDIA. upbraiding the king moreover for his iMcach of faith. But he that goeth out and falleth away to the Chaldeans. so that they raised the siege of Jerusalem in order to hasten southwards with undivided forces. Nebuchadrezzar already stood under the walls of Jerusalem. perhaps rather unwillingly.

The • to pass according to the prophet's of Egypt was struck 1 -NT one 11 blow and JNebuchadrezzar of Jerusalem byNebuchad11 rezzar. and the court of the guard. quarters.C. to their own land. bade him remain in the there he stayed in to protect palace. : for all the people. to Egypt. And the Chaldeans shall come again and fight against this and city And to a they shall take it. : some dungeon and the hands of as these ple. at Riblah on theOruntes. who said This man weakeneth princes the hands of the men of war that remain in this city. same words. shall return army. but keep an eye on all llic lands of Syria and the cities the land of whence he could .^ returned with all his army and besiejied ' down 1 1 1 1 Destruction 1 • 11- . For at 1 it came host 1 words. speaking such words he seeketh not the welfare of the peo- but the hurt. At last the king. and burn it with fire. llaiUcitli. when Nebuchadrezzar ordered him to be treated with honor and set at liberty. the king to enquire : l8l " of him Behold Pharaoh's which is come forth to help you. filled with mire. not only overlook the operations against Juilali. he steadfastly repeated the same message in the of the king. Jerusalem. however.THE LAST DAYS OF JUDAH. asking " Is there any " word from the Lord? he replied " There is: thou shalt be delivered into the hands of the king of Babylon. establishing in his own head- ^586 B. unable him otherwise." When secretly rescued by the command and brought into his presence. until Jerusalem was taken. by order of the " of the city. 14. : : . at some distance." In vain his life was threatened almost in vain he was lowered by cords into a noidaily ." secret message from the king.

According to the account given by Jeremiah." he writes. . BABYLON. The walls the temple and of Jerusalem were broken down the royal palace built by Solomon were burned en. than . . The hands of the pitiful women have sodden their own children . and all ." At last a breach was made in Chaldeans gained possession of the wall. city they say to their mothers. poured out Her noljlcs were purer than and snow. hunger was the worst. Tlic sioL. . milk. their treasures carried away and works of art were those that were cumbrous by reason . a half " The priests ami tlie ciders. . . while they soughl them meat to refresh their souls.e lasted nearly a year and and the horrors of it pass description. and scattered. "gave up the ghost in the city. Their visage is . and the one of the gates. They that be slain with the sword are better than those that be slain with hunger. overtaken. but were pursued. They had actually broken through the lines. His sons were slain in his presence. . it is become like a stick. . As to king Zedekiah. is corn and wine llieir soiil is ? Wlien into their niollicrs' bosom. he was taken before the king of Babylon. .l82 MEDIA. their skin cleavelh to their bones it is withered. where he suffered the most barbarous treatment. -. (in the Lamentations). they were whiter blacker than a coal . . The young children and the sucklings swoon in the streets of the . they swoon as the wounded. AND PERSIA. they were their meat in the destruction of the people. Where . after which his eyes were put out and he was carried in chains to Babylon. as well as the houses of the wealthy inhabi- tants. . . . out into the open country. tirely. The king and his men of war then made a bold sally and attempted to cut their way through the besiegers. of the sea-coast. to Riblah. there to end his days in prison. .

We have already seen that the Hebrew proph- times. like the pillars of brass in pieces. and their captive prophet accordingly denounces her and calls down destruction on her head : " Ik'causc tliat Tyre lialh said against tlie Lrokcii that was the gate of peoples . I she is Jerusalem. Thus the defeat inflicted un the Pharaoh Ilophra did not result in the Chaldean depicts in invasit^n antl total destruction which he Egypt. -XXVIII. was inevitably to overtake the various states. ets. The Jews suspected the proud queen the seas of being at heart rather pleased than grieved at the disaster which struck them from the of roll of nations. which formed their political world. were sometimes misled. in the course of history. ch. iSj and the brazen All the people of Jerusea. who were left behind to be vineand husbandmen. magnificent dirge over (Ezekiel. XXXII. were broken salem were carried into captivity." p. is his eloquent prophecy of tlie of Tyre XXVI.* Ezekiel especially repeatedly falls into this error. and other passages. which Nebuchad- rezzar proceeded to blockade as soon as he had done with Judah. by their eager impatience to see the wrongs they were powerless to avert avenged on their rivals and enemies by a higher power. i'Zy).). Alia shall be replenished now 1 * See " Story of Assyria. great and small.THE LAST DAYS OF J U DA//.) his otherwise No fall less i^remature (ch. with the exception of the very poorest. into appointing too early a date for their destruction. . dressers 15. of their size. although deeply versed in the politics of their and foretelling with unerring insight the ruin which.

/i.thus saith the Lord God: Behold.C. as the sea causelh his waves to come up. and will cause many nations to come up against thee. behold. in place of the "rebel" who was deposed. laid waste . for the time being. I am Tyre. I will bring . 16. king of Babylon. his being deprived of it . takes a peculiar view of the event. from "the north. .'nician capital suffered severely is most probable.st so 1^'^S ^^^'^ "°t ^"^ ^^^ conquest even then. when the sea remained open ? It seems to have ended in a capitulation.r34 that she is MEDIA. shows that the blockade could not have been very close. since the siege is said to have lasted nigh on thirteen years. seeing his prediction. AND J'EA'S/A. and with chariots. and make her a hare rock. the very fact that it could la. . XXVI.) also scrape her dust . O For from her. nor his aimy. Nebuchadreezar. from Tyre. And they thee. The prophet Ezekiel. king of kings. and with horsemen. How should it. . That the rhtx. Then as a * the prophet promises the conquest of Egypt : compensation By the long friction of the helmet and the sliicld-slrap. against I will shall destroy the walls of Tyie. hand. caused his army to serve a Tyre every head was made bald. and every shoulder was peeled* yet had he no wages. 2-14. and speaks in a of for the one of disappointment of " great service against . and break down her towers. therefore . On the other ^jfee^°^Jy^^' 585-5^73 B. the people of Tyre acknowledging the king of Babylon's ovcrlordship and accepting a new king from his hands. He appears to have considered the sack Tyre as a reward due to the king of work he did as instrument of the Babylon Lord's vengeance against Judah.UiYlxKV. only half fulfilled." . .. . upon Tyre Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon." (Cli. with horses.

he was not a conqueror after the pattern of the Assyrian kings. and take her . inclined by preference to works of peace. and take lier prey . not of choice.si)oil. was always with him a matter of necessity. Nebuchadrezzar a never invaded Egypt. thus saith the Lord God Behold.THE LAST DAYS OF JUDAIf. and its capital Babylon. therefore. good general. He was a statesman as well. it be the wages for his army. I will give the land of Egypt unto Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon. because they wrought shall for me. and he shall and carry off her multitude. . " : 185 Therefore. and gave the most unslackenhig attention to the establishment of his home-rule at Babylon on broad and solid bases an object which could be best Though — achieved by a continuous personal residence in his own native state. War." \\\\\. and he strove to ensure gen- — eral peace even by acting as peacemaker between his neighbors. I have given liim the land of Egypt as his recompense for which he served. Chaldea.

it at all. Judah Their position made it a necessity for whoever ruled ill Mesopotamia to take and to hold them. They really were part and parcel of the Assyrian inheritrfnce. of which the course of the river 186 . 2. like the kingdom of Van and the other principalities of Urartu on one hand. Cilicia and Cappadocia on the other. while some had never been subject to nearness . such countries as were separated by natural barriers from what may be called the Semitic and Canaanitic such as lay in and beyond the highlands of region — Taurus and Nairi.VIIL LYDIA AND ASIA MINOR IN — THE THE ISALANCE OF EAST. i.. POWER GLANCE at the map shows that the doom of and the other Syrian states was inevitable. A archy at Babylon entered into that inheritance.e. but only endangered by its these were the countries of that advanced part of Asia Minor. and when the founders o{ a Chaldean mon1. it was but natural that the)' should reach out for the seashore and keep a heavy master's hand on all The case was different with that lay between. Of these countries some had been only partly subject to Assyria. in Asia Minor and the mountain land between the Black and Caspian seas.

at a moment exchanged her independence against Ass}'rian protection. Much less were his feeble successors able to attend lu any thing but their most immediate interests.\rmenians ever since \ Ibid. in the course of the seventh century ij. of.LYDIA AND ASIA MINOR 1 8/ ITalvs (tlic modern Kizil-IrmAk). according to Herodotus' just remark. 368. of sore distress. almost makes an island. the Ilittite Alarodians were supplanted by that Thraco-phrygian branch of the Aryan race. and w In'le the Scythian invasion was acting on the totter- We — — ing empire as an earlh(|uake on an alread\.f and has been . 37S-3S2. pp. which is represented in the enumeration of the Japhetic family given in Chai)ter X. as Togarmah. son ' of G6mer. Asshurbanipal became too much engrossed with vital struggles nearer home against Chaldean Babylon and Elam and the advancing Medes to repress the risings of his outlying subjects and vassals. changes were taking place in and be)ond its northern boundaries. For." pp.c. which it is impossible to trace in tliose um-ecorded years. 367.ruinous building. Thus we hear no more of Urartu. familiar under the "Sec name of Slory of Abbyria. ." saw that soon after that passing triumph. It is certain that. the submission was only temporary and almost innnediately repented 3.. it is very certain that the Assyrians never saw the ^gean Sea (that part of the Mediterranean wliich flows amidst the Greek islands and along the — Ionian shores) if — any more than the Black Sea. And L}'dia. of Genesis. but which we find accomplished when the darkness is lifted and some degree of order restored.

1 88 MED 1. was still in more favorable conditions. one more unthe other. in his usual discursive but always charmingly entertaining way. which had ruled the country through several hundred years. enlarging her territory at the expense of her neighbors. was so anxious to convince his friend that his praise of her was no exaggeration. and also the is improbable in itself.inv/. Gyges murdered Kandaules. 1. not neglecting. being governed by a wise and enterprising royal house. and p ersta. and probably married the murdered man's widow. being violently in love with his own wife. so that he should see her through the chink when she disrobed at night. by 4. and.oy. and how the king. n. The Mermnadai were a native Lydian family who had been raised to the throne by a revolution. is given l)y Herodotus. the support of some troops from the adjoining land of Caria. and who fell in the struggle. He tells us. Gugu (Gyges). however. Lydia. This dynasty was that of the Mermnad^E. though there absolutely no real authority for it. and thinking her beauty peerless among women. how Gyges was Kandaules' bosom friend. we saw calling in Assyrian help against the Cimmerians. the last king of the preceding dynasty. from its greater remoteness. the founder of which. In vain Gyges protested against being forced . them to the world the Greek writers introduced that name. made the best use of her opportunities. The favorite version. The story of this revolution is believable than least told in several ways. to create for himself a claim. that he insisted on placing him be- hind the door of her apartment.

must bring on '* the queen's deadly vengeance. so tlie fjueen sees liim. is — also reported. to be seen unclothed.r. to first flew to avenge their king." Herodotus. . however. Book T.. S-14. into an action which." says the historian. among the Lydians. she to make no sign. Cli.. and as he was gliding out at a the queen's back was turned." Gyges had to comply. sent for the unwilling culprit and placed before him the alternative. the Orientals). and the new so her.'"' 5." adds the " and indeed among the narrator. ther the Lydians nor their princes took any account it was lous incidents which ported in * Of all the more or less fabuGreek historical gossip has reconnection with this revolution and change fulfilled. but the matter was referred for arbitration to the oracle of the Greek —" a until Sungod Apollo. The deed was done that very night. 1 89 if discovered. in his own shrine at Delphi. even for a man. either to die on the spot. she just sight of liim. The miraculous finding of tlie ring on a dead giant's lingrr in a cave. wliich lie uses on tlio occasion. A very popular tradition tjivcs Gyges an invisible-making ring. hut is a little too quick in turning on liis finger. he chose life and crown for himself. only adding that vengeance should come in the fifth generation " of which neiprophecy. The oracle was given in the usurper's favor. the husband who had king proclaimed the next day. liim For. it is reckoned a deep disgrace. Herodotus adds that the people at arms. Barbarians (/. then to marry her and reign. or to kill moment when beyond pardon affronted After some hesitation and entreaties to spare his foolish and unfortunate friend.LYDIA A AW ASIA MINOR. but had the presence of mind caught The next morning.

which have been mentioned in a preceding volume*. sculjDtures. Aryan ele. of well-joined timberwork. firstly those rock.OjY. There are few regions is of which the early his- tory so inaccessible as this of Western Asia Minor. with inscriptions in a hitherto undeciphered la'nguage. we can see from these reproductions.IQO MEDIA. were wood. being which. as of elaborate imitations of the dwellings of the living. roof-gable closely copying the joining. For Lydia. or. some like the tombs of the kings of Lydia are constructed im the primeval form of — — high mounds or "barrows. and unlike any others in the world." pp. pillars. Literary sources we have none. They are. Monuments have been discovered not a few. 6. but of a peculiar nature." containing a good-sized The rest and sepulchral chamber in solid masonry. . ments. secondly. and offering a deplorable want of variety. represents the front of a house windows. AXD PE/CS/A. — — even the dovetailing of the timber and the protruding * See " Story of Assyria. The tomb usually porch. such are found in bewildering numbers in Lycia are — — hewn of art. at any rate. '562-366. save Greek histories and legends written down so late as to be much posterior even to the period at which we have now arrived. These tombs are real works in live rocks. Of these. a large number of tombs. of dynasty. was at this time already deeply permeated with Greek influindeed their population was ences and culture much mixi'd with rircek. this last statement is the one which there is least reason to doubt. nAnVr. door. like most of the adjacent countries of Asia Minor.



Face page 190. .S AT MYRA.


. is left open. if large. not only arc the panels . from the height at which these excavations arc hewn in the (juitc. There is no dcnd^t but that the entrance was closed with a well-fitting slab or block. but the rapacity of generations of . or. - entrance into the grave-chamber behind.LYDIA AND ASIA MINOR. 19. indicated.) One . door. (See ill. or ncarh'. except where steps have been cut for the puri)ose. LYCIAN KOCK-rOMlJ AT TELMESSUS. 191 ends of the beams that run through the building the copy is perfect in every detail thus where a closed door is represented. to serve as 19. perpendicular rocks. can have been reached only by means of ladders. part of one. which. but frequently the nails also that studded the original even the knocker.

at (The blork has been detached some time. and slid down to the foot of the mountain. 20.192 MF. 19 and 20) to highly ornamented porches. which might well be supposed to contain valuables of various kinds. plunderers and conquerors was sure to be attracted b}' these retreats of the dead. ranging from plain timberwork (see ill.invroN. r. and in no case have the modern explorers found the rock- J v/ i^'^^:/. LYriAN ROCK-TOMB AT TELMESSUS.) claambers occupied by their silent tenants.DTA. These rock-hewn house fronts vary much in elaborateness. and ffrsia. the architectural .

in the shape of lion heads. but imitators not only among the among the Persians. yet that such is the case in T-ycia.sarcophagus (the model being. 25. 23. (Sec we ill. have been cleared by cutting away and removing the blocks immediately surrounding them and the four sides are covered with sculptures referring to the fate of the soul after death. Chap. and above the opening of the grave-chamber see the sacred cow.) Some of these monuments stand isolated. presenting copies of entire wooden houses. like the houses. (See 24. 26. or assuming the form of towers.LYDIA AND ASIA MINOR. XIII. shows four ill. (See further on. which. and 27. It is easy to see that these 21 and 22. nor can one help surmising that each particular rock-toiul) may have been a conscious imitation of the deceased's own dwelling. not facades only (see ill. carry the soul away in the shape of a new-born . is provc<l hy ill. hut itli of a character unmis- takably identical \\ earlier rock-lombs. the emblem of life-giving nature. left side). 193 figure decorations of whicli betray (Sec differ- and thoroughly Greek period of art. a grateful and consoling reminder.) c^f man}' centuries.) Some few of the isolated tombs represent lid a . This original variety of sepulchral ences cover a span monuments found Greeks. representing rural and excessively rude constructions. evi- dently of wood. The winged death-goddesses.) The sculptured handles. monument child. the Harpies. in Lycia it rises above the graves. 18. character and a late ill. Such is the famous tower-shaped at .)* *It seems scarcely cre<lil)Ic lliat a certain style of Imilding should endure ill the same locality through thousands of years. Xanthus. that of the dwcllini^s rci>roduccd in the O . though rock-hewn.

23 —I -U o u .

those inside the porch paiiiteil <i /rcsco. outsiJc llie KOCK-TOM15 AT MYRA.) .Iij5 (Fii^iircb 22. in llic house bculptured rock .

* 8.e." i. owing to the familiar alphabet. make up for it by presenting us with a double set. native. see that the alphabets used for the have much resemblance.. Interesting and important as these sepulchral arc. although they can be deciphered with but little difficulty. from such slight and scattered data. while there is great uncertainty about those of Lycia and the neighis boring Caria. i. indeed. Man).e. and Greek.' in spite of all the atlenipts that have been made to show the contrary. The languages of this group of nations. It is evidently impossible. from which of ancient : the Greek language descended. We what has been called " bilingual tlu> inscriptions in two languages — inscriptions. they do not suppl}' us with what wc find no clue to help us date the most archaic of them. Even these slender resources..of the late ones. mainly from scantiness of material.196 7. establish the existence of at least two different groups among the languages Asia Minor in historical times those of Phrygia. and others in the west and the northwest are found to incline towards a very ancient Aryan philological type. to gather materials for any thing that could be called history. MEDIA. 11. Mysia. yet perhaps not quite ini- * Professr A. in one of his latest works. as these arc not generally furnished with inscriptioiv-. such scraps as the few inscriptions have preserved. monuments seek. Saycc." . however. BAnVLOX. The same two languages remark applies to such Phrygian inscriptions as have been discovered. have From these we not been reconstructed to any satisfactory extent.. the Pelasgic. AND PERSIA. positively declares that the I^ycian language "is not Aryan.

O H 0^ u o .

owing to Pro- He has shown.198 MEDIA. with their inscriptions in characters identical with those found at Hamath. at leaving their traces not only in those sculptures. at one time covered and ruled the whole of the region between the Black and Mediterranean seas. its complicated combination of religions and cultures as different as the races which originated them. . 5. the Hittites. in very broad outlines." ill. misty past and the dawn of recorded historical times. BAliVLON. with its division into numerous more or less independent states. represent all by the writers Western Asia Minor pied. a comparative study of the peculiar rock-sculptures Boghaz-Keui in Cappadocia. we can partly bridge over. 136-139. during a number of centua report which modern science ries. repeated tiquity. in is undoubtedly a part . — as Asia been occuhaving — of which of classical an- immemorial time. p. though still greatly mixed with myth. by Turanians The immense chasm sees little reason to dispute/" between this remote. and whose *See '^ Story of Chaldea. at Karabel." Chapter II..dit of history. its mixed population. practicable to reconstruct. the periods of formation through which Asia Minor must have passed before it stands out in the full lit. and in many more places of Asia Minor. but in several sanctuaries of their religion. by fessor Sayce's Hittite discoveries.f that this powerful and gifted Hamitic race. 36. especially pp. devoted to the worship of the nature-goddess common to them and their Canaanitic and Semitic brethren. near Smyrna. The oldest traditions. f See " Story of Assyria. AND PERSIA. at Ibriz in Cilicia. and probably somewhat beyond. as far east as the Halys.


Z C u y. ti u Q O o o II .

The Amazons were this is said to have founded cities. 36.000 women. gave rise to the Greek legend of the Amazons. 430. GRANARY IN MODERN LYCIA. here named MA. had one of her principal temples served by no less than 6. It is jn-obable that the llittite rule and reached their widest westwartl expansion suoii after * See " Story of Assyria. 205. fabled empire of these much.f culture 9. we may be isted. Wherever the case. classical period. at KoMANA in Cappadocia.famed warrior-women and we know that the goddess.See A." p. 206. and 360-3O7. Kyme. and several other [ilaces along the Ionian coast come under this head. times stretched farther towards the lilack Sea than at a later. at no verygreat distance from the present ruins of Boghaz-Keui.* The — the head-quarters. Smyrna. a province which in very olden lb.LYDIA AND ASIA MINOR. Saycc's . II. so to speak." pp. 30. sure that ancient llittite sanctuaries ex- Ephesus. " AnciciU Enipircs oi the Eabt. in that same neighborhood. 20 1 temples. of the legend —was placed on the banks of the TlIERMODON. with their crowds of ministering women. |-.

202 the MEDIA. and maintained their about the year lOOO B. fifteenth century li. they had already begun to recede before the aggressive advance of Assyria.* and apart from this movement. during the sure of Semitic elements century ranging from somewhere in the tenth — i." pp. . as in Syria " The Land of Khatti of the inscriptions. but by no means peacefully.See " Story of Assyria.C. AXP FKKSIA. free cities which was a couple of hundred years later to glorv in the common name of 1 1 ELLAS.^ 27. to the middle uf the ninth or Asia Minor was subjected to a continuous flow later. and the presuntil — — But even in generally. republics. at least in supremacy " Asia Minor. UKANARY IN MODERN LYCIA.C. of Indo-European influences from a far more congenial and civilizing quarter the continent and — — Southern Greece and Peloponnesus. An and rather motley assemblage of small states.c. The * . changing the face of the islands of 10. 360 and 267-369. BABYLON.. soon after lOOO L.C. important revolution was then slowly. Asia Minor the great Thraco-Phrygian migration had overspread the forgotten Turanian subsoil and Hittite cultivated ground with an Indo-European toplayer.

> en < (I. O w K b O O o o O o oo M O .

204 people. as They poured into the Sicily is from that of Ital)'. including the peninsula of Attica. there was highlanders. for times untold. torn from the Greek mainland. even to extermination." about a hundred years to reach the Corinthian Isthmus. mountain-lands where they developed the stern third tribe. a great stir among them. all highly gifted. enformer owners. Where they slaving its to work it for the conquerors. they began to descend southward. that short and narrow causeway which alone prevents Peloponnesus from ance. into the milder. were to be differences and hostilities merged of the the i)roud and all-embracing nationality Hellenes (whom we have learned from the Romans to designate. the AciLEANS and the lONIANS.. they appropriated the soil. "were as yet broken up into a variety of tribes. in cities they established an iron rule. the love of war. BABYLON. less correctly. . whoso in AND PERSIA.C. had. Moved by awakening ambition of conquest and power. It " The took this movement. were in possession of the Peloponnesos and of a considcr^ible strip of sea-coast north of the Isthmus of Corinth. perhaps also crowded by their increasing numbers in their numerous but narrow valleys. and contempt of trade and crafts so generally characteristic of Some time about looo B. A dwelt DORIANS. the higher belt of Epirus and Thessaly. as GREEKS). more beautiful land by the sea. and all descended from the old stock of the Pelasgl Two of these. who were now expected waged war. and wherever they met resist- passed. they being an island. known in history as Descent of the Dorians. MEDIA. the in and rugged temper.

o _ o .

a spurt. ox'erflows on all sitlcs. their watchfulness and energy and made popular risings hopeAchaean commonwealths and more recent Ionian confederations of free cities had but one alternative before them submission or selfbanishment. And wherever a handful of sad-faced emigrants raised their huts and tents. while. DA BY 1. across the long and narrow gulf. ing. of Macedon and Thracia on the : other. and landed them at innumerable points along the shores baffled conspiracies less. Many such detach- ments stopped on this or that of the many islands which seemed scattered broadcast over the blue waters on purpose to receive them. Their genius for war made them proceed after a uniform and systematic fashion that crushed resistance. on the coasts of Illyria and Epirus on one side. AND DEli SIA. as far as the mouth Sea of the Bosporus. Thousands of people. bearing with them out of the old life nothing but a few family relics.were no common invaders. of all stations in life and all pursuits.206 MEDIA. led by noble families of oldest and most firmly established standand the age of colonies began.0 X. There was no : getting rid of the Dorians. for the). nay. and also in ships. and there their adv^cnt produced the effect of a heavy body falling into a vessel filled licjuitl and the with liquid there: is a splash. a little of their native earth. peninsula through this entrance. being equally possessed of the qualities that organize governments and ensure the duration of states. the inside of the Black itself. The ancient : — of the surrounding seas at various parts of Sicily and Southern Italy. chose the latter Greek ships bore away detachment after detachment of exiles. .

along the shores of Asia Minor. rians themselves. yet ensured defence and seclusion if necessary. none rose so rapidly or prospered so luxuriously as the colonies. since the new-comers did not plant their tents in waste and unclaimed lands. and continued through more than two centuries. by no means a secondary consideration. The emigrants selected the sites of their settlements with admirable the skill. mostly at the mouth of rivers Kayster. where they could not expect to obtain a in firm footing without encountering resistance Both the part of the native people. of the Dorian conquests. fire. Of all these outposts of Hellenic culture. in the colonies becoming so many stations of Greek commerce and Greek culture. Hermos. 207 of ihc sacred kindled at the old city- an amazingly short time. I r. on commanding prom- — on points that invited commerce. an immediate consequence began soon after looo B. So that after a while it became customary for Greek cities to scud out colonics without any mournful occasion. but the midst of populous and already civilized countries.LYDIA and a spark hearth. the foot of sheltering ontories. Many. tliore. and were not . founded chiefly by fugitive lonians.. — AND ASIA MINOR. indeed. then a thriving city. Carians were nations renowned in on the Lydians and war. were founded by the Doperity. the M/EANDER— at the mountains. simply to extend their influence and increase their own pros- by opening out new channels of trade and enterprise in distant and only partially explored countries. blossomed and prospered first a settlement. The movement. to which they their gave name.C.

compare (For the AVr^/^/w-winged bull's heads^within " Story of Chaldea.2o8 likely to MEDIA. BABYLON. of their choicest territories. 164.) tWCCn them. flourishing. Even reli- gion does not appear to have formed any impass30. AND PERSIA. with the. opposed. with which they seem to have." p. their sea-coast. Yet we have no knowledge of the positive wars which must of necessity have accompanied the establishment of the Greek settlers. individually mutually pro- tected. Nor do they appear to have been as long and ^^ fierce as might be expected. un- allow strangers to have possession. the Greeks found of the ancient Hittitc nature-goddess. STATl'K OF THE ARTEMIS OF EPIIESUS able barrier be- ihe disk. Epiiesus. mingled by intermarriajTe and social intercourse. and apparently un- molested by thesurrounding population. in when it real shows us con- the Greek cities clustered well organized federacies. and the mouths of their rivers. for history begins. At SMYRNA KYME sanctuaries Myrina. . to a great extent.

being moreover attracted by the surpassing loveliness of Greek culture and myth. * See above." The Oriental origin of the conception embodied in the goddess is sufficiently shown by the uncouth but transparent symbolism of her statue in her great temple at Ephesus. and the tatingly adopted deity. which became as famous as that of the Ephesian Artemis. merely changing her name to the familiar one of their own Artemis. the Greeks easily identified with their own youthful and radiant god Ai'ULLO. under the name of tem" ple of Uidymcuan Apollo. travelling semihuman solar hero. a revised edition of the Syrian Melkarth and the Babylonian Izdubar. When the Greeks came.LYDIA AND ASIA MINOR. " f Sec" Story of Assyria. himself an inheritance of Phoeniciiu and Chaldea. 90 ami Story of Chaldea. 365. 3G6. they fell into the .E. or their toiling. they at once adopted the sanctuary. and he had a highly revered national sanctuary near the place where the Greeks built MiLETUS. yet so expressive of what it is meant to convey the idea of nature as the source of all life and nourishment.f The Lydian name of the sun-god was Sandon. . to 209 unhesi- them so novel. VII. too. The sun-god : of the Asiatics. This sanctuary was served by a native hereditary priesthood of the family known as the BranCIIID. Herakles." Ch. 20S. Nor were the people of Asia Minor at all unwilling to acknowledge the spiritual kinship on their own side and so it came to pass that." and was left in the charge of its high-born guardians. the queen of Ionian cities. and " Story of Assyria. in his different aspects. foreign to all Greek principles of beauty in art (see ill. 30)." p. p. Amazonian worship. ." ])p.

and Lydian . through those of their considered to possess the gift of divine inspiration and to deliver the messages ministers who were god or interpret the signs sent by him." Gyges. The temple and oracle of Apollo at DELPHI was the most widely famed and revered. well minister justice worth looking at." with the exception of a certain king of Phrygia who. the Lydians far ahead of the new-comers. and became a favor" ite resort of the Barbarians. according to the same historian. especially those of dyeing wool and weaving. c. AND I'EKSIA. JiADYLON. and presents to the most renowned centres consulting" the Greek gods throLigli their oracles — /. the first of the barbarians whom we know to have sent offerings to Delphi. was ." whose lavish offerings of the we may greatly enriched its treasure-houses.2 10 MEDIA. Herodotus specifies the gifts sent by Gyges to the Delphic shrine. in gratitude for the verdict which confirmed his title they consisted in a large quantity of silver'and "a vast number of vessels of " gold. were probably In point of material civilization. even before his time. at the They were posearly period of Greek emigration. sessed of great skill in various industrial arts. This is why consider the report of Gyges referring his claim to the Lydian throne to the arbitration of the Delphic Apollo as the least doubtful of the statements made concerning the revolution which transferred the royal power to the dynasty of the MermnadcU." sent thither and dedicated to the — 12. luibit of sciuling of Greek worship. god the royal throne whereon he was accustomed to sit and to ad" " an object." Herodotus adds.


more spiritual on the (jreek side and more material on that of the Lydians. The country. the first ing money. not against other merchandise. 13. or other luxuries. of the Mermnadaj. convenient in shape and volume..?^' for exchanging merchandises. exchange of one commodity for another. etc.212 MEDIA. AND PERSIA.. carpcth aiul rugs enjoyed a reputation wliich vvc see suixiviny. that the credit of this invention : is due. of art luxuries for tl>e necessaries of life.C. after so many ages and vicissitudes. in the great demand luive for Smyrna The influence. ]3ut in the transactions between merchants of the same nation or of different equally ci\ilized nations. rugs. BABYLON. the seventh century 1. i. Even so late as this. e. more(jver. and tions direct — supplied. of raw materials for manufactured products. to whom exchange was the only intelligible and safe financial operation.. even to our own day. the need of some less cumbrous means of doing business had long been felt. . and that led to an invention which opened a new era to social and inter- national intercourse and made a revolution in the commercial ways of the world the invention of coinIt is most probably to (})'ges. must been mutual. which at any c. barter. so simple in its principles. It consisted in substituting ///rf//^?. aboundetl in i)recious metals. then. but against something of equal value. a vast proportion of the active trade between nations was still carried on on the primitive basis of barter. i. This must have necessarily been the case especially in the commercial transactions between civilized na- and savages or semi-civilized peoples. yet so portentous in its results.

w w H M X H < Q O H w < /^ O 111 erf D H Z M o <: a! CO CO CI .o o 7.

determined b}' general agreement.* paying his Hittite hosts. A certain ness till number of rings of gold or silver did the busimuch better and could be put away and kept needed for a purchase. or of — or any other ponderous and that his measures of grain. 222-224. take in exchange for it articles that.. and consequcntl}' represent- many ing a certain. for transfer of etc. for the field courtesy. cumbersome wares customer might happen to have on hand .) which shows us Abraham. each weighing a certain fraction of the standard weight.moment couUl bo in its turn cxrhanpfcd for wli. gold and silver. XXIII. it only remained to divide masses of it into a great smaller pieces. Henceforth the merchant who sold a rug. perbar. or a dagger. — such as land. or a haps. bulky — was immense property early was made use and how it we see from that curious statement in Genesis (Ch." he requested of their " such as are current * See " Story of Chaldea." pp. of. Of cinirsr llic intrinsic value of such a nu'dium of cxcliangc must he a u!ii\'crsall\' acknowledi^ed one. well-defined fraction of the standard unit value. was not forced to take in payment a number of live sheep. houses. or of sheepskins. value of a given weight of the metal had been settled. . 400 shekels of silver. The facility thus offered . or a wagon-load of hay. disposing of his surplus stock or grain. with the merchant's. nor need a farmer.itcvcr wares the owncrncedcd. were not at all what he wanted. or a vessel of fine glass. It has from limes immemorial been found expedient to invest with such standard value the so-called preOnce the positive cious metals. a contemporary of the Elamite Khudur-Lagamar.

used this manner — with well-defined unit-\vcic. in conmiercial trans- money" ? They mit^ht — but ini. or inferior. should it. of the fulness of the Who weight and the purity of the metal? cordingly wc sec that No one. Guarantee and trust this is the mutual contract be- — tween ruler and ruled which at once converts a mere merchandise into money or state currenc}% There was just this one step to take.ht of standard value divided into corresponding. nor are trust. And it remained with the seller to accept or reject the bars or rings. Nor can we well account for the fact so momentous an improvement should have been Lydia rather than anywhere else.fractional weic^hts evitlently — actions. Gold and silx-cr. After this manner by weighing were all payments made. stamp each coin with a certain device and becacuse they are 7varrantcd of legend which private persons are forbidden to use. Now wc oil do not weigh the coins we pay and receive. We We are bound so to take them. 215 a 14.I.s be for o//c thing: is to assure the seller //uy arc not warranted. those matchless traders. by our governments. and rinL.i in jtr/A^o/:. Ac- Abraham 'racighs out the 400 shekels which he pays for the field.. the quality pur*. and it seems strange tliat have missed th. " called answered the ])urposc of mone}' Can."()ts. and the quality of the metal was tested by means of a — — touchstone. who receives them in payment. according as he thought the weight full or short. YD IA . made in the large quantities of [)recious metals except by which this .at the Phoenicians. then. good weight and standard purity. in token thereof. who. thost^ bars.lA'/) Asr. take them we allowed to reject them..

Y AND LATER I.YniAN COINS. obtainable a of pale gold. is known under the special name of ELECTRON. centage of mixed with washing. largely by the easy process of silver ranges This mixture. which flowed through the capital. in which the proportion of from twenty to over forty per cent. Sardis. of the river trouble of pickincf accessible veins of easily tlic in tlie principal Lydian moim- SrrYLOS. KARI. but the sands PactoLOS. yieUlcMl. ore worked precious tain ridges. carric^rl along a bountiful per- Tmolds and 33. PAPVLOA^ AA'P FRRSTA.2l6 MEDIA. peculiar kind silver. whether .. country almost ^\•crc f<>i" them Not only up.

the use of steam and electricity we owe two to re" miite antiquity and to Oriental nations. but sui)erior Numto silver. The blunder that had been made by former kings. as found in Lydia. and sounder statesmanshi[) which were exerted. Of this electron. also of pure gold and silver coins. IMiFiDON OK Arc. wc see the well-drawn device of make a lion's heatl. Only after a series of grad- improvements.LYDIA AND ASr. and have been found within a circuit of thirty miles first Lydian coins were made." Thus it is that of the half-dozen great inventions which. both ancient . the ual — — The invention. steady policy of at A aggrandizement was inaugurated b\. When the dynasty of the — the alphabet.r. The probabilities are that Pheichm was the first to appreciate the new invention and to introduce it into his own country. round Sardis.os. bers of them. or a lion and Inill royal Lydia its appearance. the change made once in the greater energy. as it has been at various times. and very rude they were. which was considered the inferior in value to g<:>hl. however. came to 15. ambition. both in foreign and domestic affairs. can be said to world have changed the face of the coining.i MINOR. printing. who seems to liavc lieen a contemporary of Gyges. gunpowder. or imitated artificially. and late Greek authors speak of ancient coins which " they call gold pieces of Gyges.the annexation of Mysia. remained associated with the name of the former. Mermnad. in — the throne itself felt the person of Gyges. 21"/ natural. in suffering the Greek settleterritorial of coining for the Greeks and modern. under Gyges' fourth descendant. showing only the square. * Several writers. punch mark. each in celebrated turn. has Kroisos. cdaim the invention and attribute it to a Greek tyrant.

resumed the thoroughl}' na- war against the Greek cities. actually sending out colonies. nicnts to 0x1 011(1 their chain of nian\.i. Then Sad}Mttes. others repulsed them. was still as imconqucrcd as ever half a century Later. . as the Milesians were masters of the sea.os began a systematical attack against the Greek cities. r>ut the cities had become populous and strong. and generally living its busy. n. the fatal issue for the Lydian Icing." pp. Imildings were scattered over stroyed all the trees and all the corn throughout the land and then It was idle for his army to sit down returned to his own dominions. however. axd p/:rs/. nor did he even hear away tlie doors. country he neither pulled down nor burnt. but left them lie cut down. Some they took. Moreover. which had defied Gygcs. which weary his soldiers' new and most inbest described in : Herodotus' own entertaining narrative " When tlie harvest was ripe on the ground.\\ it h the firm intent I snbject to L)-(lia.* Mis son Ardvs. invented genious mode of warfare. before the place. and his grandson Sadyattes. mencing with hose nearest tohini. and (i}'c.nr. when freed from the inroads of the obnoxious freebooters.i. the operations were unexpectedl)' interrupted by that Cimmerian invasion of which of malxing them we know i6. under Sadyattes. and MiU'tus especially.vc(l. however. was to be retrii. 378-381.2iS AfF.un'LOA'. lie mnrclicd into liis army Tlic Milesia to lliat tlie sound of pipes and tlie har]is and flutes. The reason * See "Story of Assyria. prosperous life under the very eyes of the besieging^ tional Lydians. and valiantly held their own. not to a is strength and patience. that the country might repossess itself of the mouths of its own rivers and the harbors of its own sea-coast. and utterly destanding as they were.links all alonsr the sea-coast. com.

2ig not demolish their buildings was. however.YDFA that lie fli'l AXn ASIA AfL\-0/^. which was to end so tragically alre. reached its The Lydian monarchy had culminating point of gl<jry. Kyaxares demanded that the deserters shoidd be sent refusal to back to him. probably a picked guard composed of survivors of the massacre which delivered the Medes from their troublesome guests. Of these eleven . and. six only five of Sadyattes the other son Alvattks. crossing the Halys.c." 17.nly in the next generation. tate was anxious to cross the slight dividing line and therefore looked grimly and threateningly on the Which of the other. it was confronted b}' the formed Median monarch}'. sought the protection of Alyattes. on the Lydian's do so. and that the only f[UCstion was two \voukl find a plausible pretence for aggression ? Chance gave this advantage to Kyaxares of Media. This was kings. left him secretly. gradually absorbed all the surrounding countries of Asia Minor as far as the river Halys. . to the reign to that of his belong the greatest of the Lydian fall Under hint the dynasty of the Merninad.T. declared war. and. years. thai the inhabitants be tempted to use them as homesteads from whicli to go forth and till and sow their lands. dary. which had reached newly the same line moving towards it fioin the opposite There can be no doubt that each potendirection. niiglit the war for eleven years. which now marked its eastern bounThoj-e. : A body of Scythian soldiers. in the course of which he inflicted on them two terrible blows. and so eni h time lie invaded their counIn this way he carried on try he might find something to plunder. being discontented with something or — other. who had been some time in Kyaxares' service.

which would probably have been decisive. 8. wliole. 585 B c. when the sun suddenly was obscured. on tin. and the Greeks claim that this particular one had been predicted by one of their wise men. but which soon grew It is probable that he found into a vital conflict. Still L)'dia stood her ground most bravely. An uulookcd for accident gave them — & Eclipse. havinp^ before closed the conflict against the Greek cities. were very muchbehintl their time in knowledge of all sorts.YD PER SIA.220 1 MEDIA. |-|^g \iC'~A.ON. But the Medes. TllAi. and so. satisfactory to himself: the smaller cities had submitted to Lydian supremacy and agreed to pay tribute.E. and he would surely have annex'cd at one stroke the whole of Asia Minor. nAnV/. some time Al\-aUcs was read}' for liim. on one side. attention to a war from which perhaps he was not averse in the beginning.S OF Miletus. in a manner. but the final victory was about to inclme towards Kyaxares. A. but for the timely interference of neighbors. and the success of the war ke]:)t evenly balanced between the two adversaries through five whole years. An eclipse of the sun was even then no very terrible thing. / rx -i A fc> great battle was fought. Death of Kyaxares. who saw great danger to themselves in the sudden aggrandizement of their rising Battle of the i-jy^i. for that mat- . possible opportunity. Init with the proud and unconquerable Miletus he had been fain to make peace and to enter into a treaty of friendship and He was therefore free to give his whole alliance. and aspiring power of the Medes in the young a more formidable foe than he had counted upon. and such darkness set in that the day was turned into night.

Babylon. Amytis or AMUIIIA. a general panic. S<j 22 1 there was was the bulk of the Lydian army.LYDIA AND tcr. a country that had recovered its independence by the fall of Assyria. Western Asia was now pretty evenly divided between them. at all events. and both armies refused to continue an engagement begun under such disastrous auspices. among which she now numbered most of the Greek colonies. and maintained it. 428. was already queen of Babylon. as well as by her dense population and the exhaustless wealth of her cities. was given in marriage to AsTYAGES." p.* these three great powers Media. and Lydia. like Lycia. Here was a chance for peace-makers to Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon and SykNNESIS. AryeNIS. and to prefer an alliance to further hostilities. King of Cilicia. against all the task of reconciliation. and against whom any small principality had little chance indeed. was amply made up for by the extreme fertility of her dominions. 'ASIA MINOR. be heard. lier flourishing trade and boundless natural resources. undertook to have sjjoken to willing ears. which could not but carry all before it. the daughter of Alyattes. now formed a triple alliance. Thus a real balance of powers was established in the East the first known in- — stance of that jealous policy which has * See now for so ' Story of Assyria. eldest son of Kyaxarcs and ares' presumptive to the Median lunpire. They seem comers. for what might be wanting to Lydia heir — in mere extent of territory. . to respect each other. and arranged a marriage which was to cement the friendship between the twu kings who had learned. As Kyaxdaughter.

as Kyaxares died in 584. because. within some thirty years. at present generally incline to give it the latest possible date which would be 585. AA'J) PERSIA. has been 19. and it was found very difficult to determine which was the one predicted by Thalcs.222 MEDIA. influenced by various historical and chronological considerations. Scholars.tBYLOxX. Iuii\)i)ean states- Iuiil. — . unfor tunatcly. however.' been the leading principle of men. there have been several eclipses about that time. The date of the Battle of the Kclipsc the subject of unending discussion. Jl.

which quarimpending becomes the object of more jealous and suspicion.A1JVI. watches with a double eagerness not to miss it himself and to prevent any of the others availing him: self of Moreover. I'. too. liut even as they make the agreement.IC possessions and power are nicely bal- anced by common consent.()N Tin-: GREAT— THE IIOUSI'.cnil. supervision Usually. it will be put forth and prevail by naturally 223 . all the watching and fencing serves but little in the end. each knows perfectly well judgthat they will all keep ing from his own inclination — — to it just as long as they will think proper or until a tempting ojoportunity offers.IX. the natural consecpience An assois mutual watchfulness and suspiciousness.i<. and not one moment For this opportunity each of the associates longer. for where strength is. the members of which agree to be content with what they have and not to seek aggrandizement at one another's expense. P. there ter is usually a sense of danger from some particular quarter. I. \Vili. general principles. ciation is formed. as a balance of power is more frecpientl}' organized for the unavowed purpose of restraining the excessive growth of some alarmingly vigorous and enterprising neighbor than simply on it.

which could not be said to be ended even yet. who. No one felt this better than Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. and centred all his care on the consolidation of the empire which he never doubted but he would transmit to a long line of descendants. a necessity as unfailiny. and more still. adventurous recklessness. the Eranians' turn now in Western . BABYLON. their forward push was irresistible and could be restrained only temporarily. than the same race could be kept alive by all possible propping and supporting once its day was done antl its possibilities exhausted. it is that races and nations have their turns. though by no means the ganizer first Median king. forswore the de- — — lights of conquest for its own sake.2 -'4 MEDIA. we find ing against — his name given as ISHTUVEGU on cuneiform monu- . the far-seeing. was in its prime of vigor. the great orand conqueror. and youthful curiosity to see and take more Fresh from its long migralands. And a lesson whicli history teaches more glaringly than another. tions. His son and successor. who. Kyaxares was dead. and that when a race's "turn" has come.Vsia. as the law of nature which makes the Ljreater weight draw down the scale. was considered by posterity the founder of the monarchv. if there is all it the opposition in the world could no more hinder appointed course. if only he could guard it from Media. drew the line at invasion. of whose eventual advance he felt so sure that he spent his life preparit. with a wisdom born of age. from taking it and running its It \vas The race wary. the age of his race rather than his own. AND FERSIA. the 2. whom the Greeks have called ASTYAGES.

the course of its bed was slightly altered.ire tlie figures given liy Herodotus they are more modand seem more probable llian some given by later writers. as great men's sons usually are to their fathers. with an elaborate and complete set of hydraulic works. by works of fortification on a gigantic combined them with works of and adornment. of waters which he thus obtained. but created a new system of canals: four he cut across land. to unite the Tigris and Euphrates. and branching into a network of smaller canals and ditches for irrigating the In order fully to control the increased mass fields. most northern of Babylonian cities. being as inferior to Kyaxares. to fill or empty it as needed. being made to wind * in a sinuous line by means of excavations . he had a huge basin or reservoir dug out near Sippar. 225 ments. () . exposed to become a dangerous centre of operation in an invader's hand. some thirty-five miles in circumference and as many feet deep. public utility it and skilfully the 3. With this view he not only had the half-choked-up canals of ancient kings cleaned out and their sluices and dams repaired and put into working order. lie first of all undertook to fortify Sippar. of course. yet the Babylonian never relaxed in his vigilance.* provided. on the left bank of the Euphrates.BABYLON THE GREAT. made erate These . he sought — to avert scale. Kver alive to the danger from the north. each wide and deep enough to carry merchant ships. and did so in a way which at the same time furthered commerce and agriculture. was Nebuchadrezzar's brother-in-law and not formidable in himself. To complete the subjection of the mighty river.

so as to allow his workmen to construct the mighty buttressed piers of quarry stones clamped with iron and soldered with molten lead.226 at MEDIA. 4. but in a case of desperate emergency whole regions could be flooded and thus made inacRut even this did not seem a cessible or untenable." p. some distance from one another. but gave fuller control of tlie river. which is very great high-water season. AND rFJCSiA. from river * See "Story ff Assyria. evils of spring floods. a provision of Thus. and he deter- mined to strengthen it by the more tangible addition of a wall. i. by the same act which remedied the water was laid for distribution in times of drought. — — the four they present obstacles which it would take time to overcome. and to hne the banks with masonry of the best kiln-burned brick. and so perfectly did they work together. tlie This broke in the the force of current. BABYLON. which he built across the valley. sufficient safeguard The boundary so slightly marked by the alluvial * had never been line much respected. that celebrated bridge when Nebuchadrezzar built across the Euphrates in Babylon. . he could empty his the bed of the river. and not only made navigation up the stream easier. It is evident that these waterworks canals and the reservoir at Sippar wer^ at the same time part of a very efificient system of defence against Not only did possible invasions from the north. So admiup were these various forces calculated and balrably anced. to the king's anxious foresight. when a great part of its waters had to be chverted into the basin of Sippar in limes of inunda- tion.

he gives of the condition of the other works. even those of Sargon at Dur-Sharrukin. strong and proptM'ly artillery. it is evident that he considers llu' completion and adornment of this his patron's Ziggurat and shrine (temple of Nebo) as one of his best claims to fame and the favor of the gods. V. its thickbuilt entirely of . manned. In all Nebuchadrezzar's inscriptions that have 5. who saw some portions of it standing still and calls it the " Median Wall. — — repaired almost every great temple in the land and built not a few new ones. to river. 22 "J somcwHat below that line. — an in the vastness and originalit}." values its height at a hundred feet. build walls across the of Britain as a defence against the inroads of the northern tribes.BABYLON THE GREAT. not so much in splendor as conceptions. before the days centuries later and several narrow part we see the Romans." p. been found and we have a great many he espeHe seems to have cially glories in his constructions. pp. the finest strate- gists of antiquity. asphalt cement ness at twenty. 72.-93- .'hat he did at Babylon not only surpasses all his. A wall — childish as sufficiently of tlic contrivance warfare appear in our time of if scientific — wasmay no mean defence." But v. From the detailed account in which he found the Seven Spheres" at Borsip and of "Temple the work he did there. This of Nebuchadrezzar's was burned brick held together by and Xenophon.of his originality due probably to that '"^"'^ * See "Story of Chaldea. 280-283. but above that formed by the canals and the now well fortified city of Sippar. but eclipses those of all former kings.

its own consump^ This vast space also would serve to shelter the of an population of the surrounding villages in case It has not been possible to trace the line of invasion. enough grain and fodder for. had gone through a conflagration when besieged and taken by Asshurbanipal. this outer wall. perhaps. — such as the new palace. queen 6. In this. the public works he undertook. Of some of his greatest constructions. Hence. the great city walls. and must have been in a sad condition when the Chaldean usurper made it once more the seat of empire." p. a distance as to enfold a large portion of the land. h-owevcr. which was to be cultivated so that the capital could closure of mighty raise tion.* This was the first contingency to be guarded against.ON. Babylon. the of reconstructing it in such a manner as thought would make it a capital not only in size and magit was to be at once the nificence. but in strength of cities and the most impregnable of fortresses.RSrA.underlies most of requirements. the inner one skirting its while the outer was moved to such outlines narrowly. AND PF. he especially mentions that they were begun by Nabopolassar.2:^8 MF. 3(^6. but left unfinished at his death. then rebuilt by Esarhaddon. he appears to have followed a line traced out first by his father. DAnVT. and the embankments of the Euphrates.DTA. . The last time that Babylon had been taken it had been reduced by famine. bcscttinj:^ idea of coupling adornment with military which consistently. sacked once — by Sennacherib. For this purpose the city was to be protected by a double en: walls. which received the name of NlMlTSee " Story of Assyria.

after wliich As ihey proceeded to construct the wall itself. but which. and when a sufficient number were Then they set to buiUlcompleted. seems to have considerably astonished him : familiar to us. Herodotus stops to give a very faithful and vivid account of the local mode of construction. and interposing a layer of wattled reeds at every thirtieth course of the bricks. (he cutting moat was turned." reports about the height and thickness of this celebrated wall vary still more considerably. not impossibly Borsip itself. and the reports of ancient writers are somewhat conflicting. Herodotus says it was 350 feet high * (apparently includ* Calculation of Mr. 370)J. 229 TI-Bel. p. llie soil w liich lliey got from was made into bricks. The Oppert (" Athenieum Fran^ais. of course. which was also well fortified This is the highest estimate. . took exact scientific measurements after the manner miles." 1S50. using throughout fur their cement hot bitumen. nor consequently to determine how many square miles it protected. it The mitti-Bel rampart lowest (and later) gives forty miles. The Niwas protected on the outside by a at the wide and deep moat. pasture land. at the same time. which it same time had In mentioning supplied the material for the wall. baked the bricks in kilns. tliey. now so described to him. Herodotus gives somewhat over fifty English But it A large figure certainly. of our the circumference as modern surveyors. when "And here I may not omit to tell the use to which the mould dugout of the great wrouglit. nor the manner wherein the wall was fast as they dug the moat. ing and began with l)ncking the borders of the moat. must have embraced suburbs.BABYLON THE GREAT. as none of them. it has been ob- scarcely surpasses that yielded by the circumvallation of Paris and besides the arable and served that .

chariot to turn. Paul's of London. No. which were built at rcguhir intervals on the top of it). I. The estimates of various later writers range all the way between that exorbitant figure and that of 75 feet. he described as being "of less thickness than the but very little inferior to it in strength. Then there were the * See Geo.. BABYLON. vol. surpassing in height the extreme height of St. speaks of Babylon as "mounting " " up to heaven." Of these there were a hundred in the " circuit of the all wall." p." walls which enclosed the two the old one on the right bank. first. named Imgur-Bel." of the broad walls of Bab}'lon and " her high gates. nigh '^^ miles long. Herodotus " (third edition. 299. even with the knowledge that the walls of Babylon were num- bered can among the well make us " Seven Wonders of the World. two facing each other." The second or inner wall. And the contemporary Hebrew prophet.230 MEDIA. and they were 7. Now no effort of imagination. AND PERSIA. For the fact remains undisputed that the Nimitti-Bel rampart was stupendous both in height and in thickness that towers were built on the top . Jeremiah. like the ill. with a thickness of 75 feet. Rawlinson's " p. and that there remained room between for a four-horsed of it. 34. note g.ate of lialawat. on the edges. ing the height of the towers.of the royal palaces." on fifty realize a city wall. with brazen lintels " and side-posts. of brass. <. See . according to Herodotus. 1875). " f Story of Assyria. 190 and Probably cased with worked brass. very possibly too — moderate." f This outer wall Herodotus calls the main de- fence of*the city.

or gliding down the current. or working against it. for convenience and defence. There were many landing-places. Only where the streets abutted on the river and these were disjoosed at regular intervals. as a further safe- guard against surprises. 23 1 Euphrates.BABYLON THE GREAT. that the by permanent means of Nebuchadrezzar built the great communication. and the new one on the left. The Euphrates flowed along imprisoned between a tlouble wall. and removed for the night. to gain a firmer seat and full control of this all-important thoroughfare and an entire new quarter was built on the left bank around . in straight lines and at right anthere were low gates to allow pedestrians to gles — — . the new and magnificent both sirable. And as it was depalace. but no quays or broad paved walks bordered with handsome buildings. ^\•hich fol- companiment of a beautiful lowed its course on either bank and close to the edge from end to end of the city. which were in the daytime. -but so that it could two sides should be united be kept open or shut off at will. such as in our ideas appear as the necessary acriver in a great city. of burnt brick like the others. 226). and the river was gay with hundreds of boats and barges darting with their load of passengers from bank to bank. of platforms laid made of from pier to pier This was effected by means beams and planks. — tended across the river. bridge mentioned above (p. and made for it was part of the of each a respectable fortress plan of reconstruction that the city should be ex. Of course one solitary bridge could not suffice for the traffic of a [)opulation which can- not have been under half a million.

as well as by the cement which joined them. 3 inches. and which drew by its excephandsome. UABYLON. AND PERSIA. it is the as the Kasr. What best served the purpose and which is considered the finest was the accumulation in the rubbish of countless fragments of painted and glazed tiles. showing porhere a lion's tions of figures. neatly moulded and stamped travellers' attention 34. not the best that England produces in our excepting of identification day. . in the world. foot square . The site of Nebuchadrezzar's own palace — "new palace" — has mound known tionally been fully identified. one of the first explored. human and animal .) bricks.ZZAK. descend to the landintj-placcs. BRICK OF NEIiUCHAURl. the 8.232 MEDIA. The general effect must have been peculiar and ratlier gloomy. (One thickness.

The in Jewisli historian. well-defined flat-topped outline. As we in are told by ancient were that the outer walls of difficult the palace adorned with hunting scenes ference was not to draw. JoSEPHUS. not with its angles.f But the researches undertaken by Mr. there a horse's hoof. the in- of these fragments are large enough to show the number near the top and part of the inscription white.BABYLON THE GREAT. The most characteristic from its of liabylonian mounds. H."lll. although oriented. was the amazement ci^s when on of the deciphera cylinder of Nebuchadrezzar. 4.. Rassam a few years ago (1883-84). paw. with such rich and varied rehe thinks sults. all the art work to have been done beforehand. fifteen days I Even supposing all eouipleted the splendid work!' the materials to have been brought together. has a short memorandum to the effect that " the palace was built in fifteen the first days. What.." a statement which appeared so palpable an exaggeration that not much attention was ever paid to it. and is still known as BabIL. who lived century A. contrary to custom. there again a beard or writers filleted 233 bit of curly- hair. what a command of human ! labor docs not such a state- ment represent 9. then. f Ihid. and only placed and put together in this space of time.* For a long time it was supposed to be the Ziggurat of the celebrated its sides temple of BelMarduk. with to the cardinal points. on blue — ground. pp. is also the only one that has retained the old name.D. 2S4 ff . now in : London. liave somewhat shaken that belief : * See " Story of Cha!(lca. many Some colors. they read these words "//.

pined for the mountains of her native land. whereupon her royal lord. of the city. not only purer air and i:)leasant shades.234 MEDIA. but a vast and beautiful prospect. If this pretty legend be true and why should we deny ourselves the pleasure of believing it. " Assyrien f 428. *See Kaulen. according to him. her terraced bower. . while the back presented a perpendicular wall. could be but a poor substitute. ordered the construction of an in artificial terraces. could ciijoy. with a chivalrous gallantry that would have done honor to a far later time. in the wearisome flatness and prostrating sultriness of the Chaldean lowlands . disposed with a la}er of were planted with the handsomest trees. Amytis. unci Babylonien. of course. A daughter of tlie great Kyaxares. with their cool shades and verdant bowers. a villa-like residence was erected fur the queen." p. probably not much lower than that of a very different nature. for which. AND PERSIA. on the topmost terrace. being covered hill. that the constructions entombed in this mound were Sloping towards the river and on two sides. represents one of the few truly poetical creations of the age poetical alike in its nature ." p. since there is nothing to disprove it? the woman so loved might well feel — — compensated even in for the loss of her native scenery the Zagros wilds. some 500 feet square. amidst which. 76. where she earth. See " Story of Assyria.-f. '^^ — chadrezzar's Median queen. and in the circumstances which gave rise to it the It is said tliat Nebufamous Hanging Gardens. which. this mass of solid brick masonry. BABYLON.

z. .

It is said that the earth was carted up in loads and spread out on a layer of outside. actually came upon water which still partly filled it.236 MEDIA. and we have seen in a preceding vol- ume that similar constructions — terraces upon arches." with the walls of Babylon. cut through limestone. n. was not an innovation. along that of Artemis at Ephesus. and a few other monu- worthy ments. this Paradc'isos. the bearing groves or gardens and forming artificially watered slopes have been portrayed long before — Nebuchadrezzar on Assyrian wall-sculptures. and twenty-two feet in circumferenccj as could be verified from the remains. as the Greeks called it. and Persia. the pillars sixty feet apart. disposed somewhat on the principle of the Ziggurat. Yet.\nyi. The terraces are described by Greek and Roman writers to have been borne on arched vaults supported by pillars.0N. plates of lead. or rather. poor as it may have been when compared to nature's own mountain architecture. The terraces were four in number. the temple of Bel. with the h\'draulic machinery for raising the water through pipes from the Euphrates. and having cleared one of the rubbish that choked it. and so that the contrivance should not be noticed from the Mr. all of well cemented bricks. from canals which brought the water within easy reach. On the whole. On the topmost terrace was the pump-house. . Rassam found some of the pipes. for the protection of the masonry from the destructive action of the moisture which had to be kept up around the roots of the trees. as a piece of human art it was a marvel which the Greeks thought " of a phice among their Seven Wonders. 10.

a -a S U 1/3 '^ uT o '^ bo 9 CO a to isi\2 .a z " >. .

masonry. . a stadion (600 feet) in length and breadth. beyond doubt.* II. which was also remaining in In the middle of the precinct there was a tower of time. Outside the temple are two altars. Bel-Marduk). which is offered every year at the festival of tlve god. In the same precinct there is another temple. BA PYLON. the god comes . Both temple and Ziggurat. are thus described by Herodotus : " The sacred precinct was a square enclosure two stadia (1200 feet) each way. upon which was raised a second tower. and inside the temple stands a couch of unusual . and on that a third.s. . and was closely connected with the religious traditions of the Holy Mountain and Sacred Tree. f When one is about half-way up. down in person into this chamber. . It is also on this great altar that the Chaldeans burn tlie frankincense. type of both Ziggurat and hanging gardens having been carried north in remote antiquity from ChaKlea where. C)S. with gates of solid brass. and ill. . "Ziggurat Restored. until furtlicr discoveries. ure stamls a large golden talkie and the throne whereupon it si'. where persons are wont to sit some time on their way to the summit. size. and so on up The ascent to the top is on the outside. . ." pp. * See " Story of Chaldea.238 MEDIA. by a path which to eight. the latter with a chapel on the top stage. They declare —but I for my part do not credit it — that . with a golden table by its side. and sleeps on the couch. and the base on which the throne is placed. On the topmost tower there is a winds round all the spacious temple. are likewise of gold. 70. richly adorned. my solid towers. on which the full-grown animals are sacrificed." f . If the mound of P)abil has been correctly identified as the site of the of the great hanging gardens. it originated. e." . . Sec " Story of Chaldea. . 274-280. to remain doubtful. which it is lawful to offer only sucklings the other a common allar. one of solid gold. on . but of great size." ill.. AND PERSIA. one finds a resting-place and seats. that temple of Bel-Marduk will have. "all af gold. in which is a sitting Before tlie figfigure of Zeus" (/.

all agree: that it was of stupendous height. even when the work of destruction was not accomplished or helped by the hand of man as was too often the case in these countries. historian. It was thus that all these costly and stupendous. exposed as they were to continual invasions and change of masters. the young conqueror died before he could accomplish even so much. but unwieldy and perishable structures collapsed and literally crumbled to dust and rubbish the moment they were left to themselves.* As different writers have said different things about it.000 men during two months. as the removal of the rubbish would alone have employed 10. The wonder is that Herodotus should have found I^abylon still so much the city that Nebuchadrezzar left it. " used to reports. On one thing. And besides. stand the sanctuary of Bel. who lived only one hundred years after Herodotus." Alexander of Macedon. and Diodorus was Cxsar and of Augustus. and that the ChaJdeans used to take astronomical observations from the top of it. Diodorus of Sicily. for. as the height of the structure made it convenient for them to observe the rising and setting of the stars. nothing certain can be found out concerning it. in the hundred years that separated him from that — * of Julius Herodotus died about 425 H C. 239 Four liundrcd years later the great temple was " In the middle of the city." the only a memory. and the building itself has broken down with age.BABYLON THE GREAT. however. already found the temple a ruin. but could not spare the time and the labor on the work. a contemporary . We are told that he intended to repair and rebuild it.

: majesty?" How well these words. claims rodotus.186). 1 84. 198) ascribes to the latter. of still more or " The legend Semiramis (see apocryphal. that there certainly was intercourse between Babylon and Greece at the time. surveying the unspeakably gorgeous prospect around him and at and exclaiming " Is not this great Babylon. the temple of Bel. the erally. reported by the . BABYLON. and the turning of tlie Euphrates. for a certain queen. AND PERSIA. the great capital had been taken tlirice l)y force of arms. Story of Assyria. on the other hand (Book I. 13. 12.. and the other. and the bridge.240 MEDIA. once after a long siege. and for the glory of my his feet." less her the building of Babylon genthe construction of the hanging gardens. monarch. NiTOKRIS. and among these of at least one illustrious name a brother of the poet Alkman. even mythical. but to two queens. of whom nothing whatever. which I have built for the royal dwelling-place. has become proverbial from: the celebrated passage in which the prophet Daniel presents the lifelike picture of the king walk- — ing upon the terraces of his palace. It is curious that the works which we know to have been carried out by Nebuchadrezzar sliould have been credited by the Greeks of ahnost the n^^xt generation not to him. The pride which Nebuchadrezzar took in the city wellnigh created by him. as well as the basin at Sippar. since we know of Greek volunteers serving in to be Nebuchadrezzar's army. if not exactly unreal. Hegreat walls. p. contemporary records know This perversion of history is the more wondered at. by the might of my power. one of them entirely fabulous.

Gerrha.. openly or in secret. in no other city. In Babylon alone I raised the seat of my dominion. on the Arabian coast of is his admirable home-rule. opening a most convenient thor- oughfare by water.. which. . . of fortifications — — the gulf.. power of my majesty encompasses its walls. 170-174. victories. and we would not know that he had reduced many Arabian his peoples to submission but for some vague passages in the book of Jeremiah. shining as the clay. accord with the tenor (A certain tlie passages in the great king's inscriptions. and of a colony. Hebrew tlie 24I eye-witness. . of .BABYLON THE CRKAT. through more than three centuries. that the main feature of this great monarch's reign When to his vast system and irrigation in the north we add the improvement and regulation of the drainage of the Chaldean marshes by the mouth of the rivers. The restoration of the Chaldean monarchy in more than its ancient glory that dream of national revival and greatness which the princes of Kaldu had pursued." The temples of This excessive pride in his works is betrayed in all inscriptions. on the other hand. and the adornment of his cities. It is obvious. the foundation of a commercial city with harbor Teredon or TiRIDOTIS at that of the Euphrates." for which Rlerodach- — * See " Story of Assyria. are strangely silent about his wars and." pp. . however. for the transport of wares from Arabia and India all the way uj) the Euphrates to Karkhemish. we shall sec that he did as much for trade as for agriculture. T^or astonishment of men I built this house awe .. the great gods I made brilliant as the sun. national defence. ".

The same traveller describes the houses as being mostly three or four stories It is probable that our curiosity on many points will never be satisfied. and above it another tunic made of wool."' had at len. In fact. and the Sargonidcs. and his heroic liousc nf liit-Yakin had plotted and fouglit." reiLjns of Tii^lalh I'lleser II." where they ended in the low gate already mentioned (see [). private royal buildings. but also " cross streets which lead down to the waterthe side. all We only know from Herodotus that the streets lines. Babylon.^th become a reahty. And if the glory was fleeting. for a long time we had to be content with scraps of mformation from Greek sources. we vainly seek a trace. AND PERSIA. and shoes of a peculiar * See " Story of Assyria.24^ MEDIA. squares. things resumed t!ieir down which they were drawn by natural 14. also from Herodotus " The dress of tlic Baljylonians is a linen tunic rcacliing to the feet. the empire short-lived. and A\hcn he course on the incline died. gravitation. cannot stay or turn the Nebuchadrezzar and his current of historical law. however great his genius and power. sulTeretl and tlied. like the : following. and until quite lately we knew scarcely more of the Babylonians' private life high. BABYLOX. Baladan people belonged to a race whose day of leadership was -done. . ran in straight not only those parallel to the rivers. than of that of their northern neighbors. has survived only in the ruins of her principal public or Of her streets. 231). besides which they have a short white cloak thrown around them. it was because one man. like the great cities of Assyria. dwellings.

" and makes llie eus- . He also notes some of the more remarkable customs of those which would be sure to strike a traveller or be pointed out to him. wear turl)ans. Herodotus says " the marriageable girls. such articles are often found in the ruins. also that of holding a matrimonial auction once a year. forming a circle arotiiul we recognize seum alone counting over — them f * For llie Then 163. . contains two details which guarantee its faithfulness. and a walk- ing-slick. and arc thought to have served for the very purpose mentioned by Herodotus. a herald or public crier calletl their origin of this meaning and all custom see " Story of Ciud- dea. even without his knowing a word of the language. marriageable girls being C(jllected in one place. superficial as it is. habit to use a stick without an orna- This description. for the passers-by to advise them on their case*. fashion.s. a lily. discoveries . and bcarin^t^ on the merely outer traits which would naturally strike a foreigner. Tlicy liavc long hair. Such is the custom of laying people in the street when they were very ill. for ment. public and private. that of the Ih-itish Musix hundred. amounting to several tlKJusands. and anoint llicir I'-vcry one carries a seal. 243 . a sort of fair. wliolc body witli ]icrfunic. a rose. . carved aL the top inlo an eagle. being amply corroborated by in modern carries. As to the ornamental knobs of the walking-sticks." it is not tlieir tlie form of an apple. the use of which accounts for the enormous general ntimbcr of specimens which has been found. at which." f p. scattered in various collections. the seals which every (jue the familiar seal-cylinders. the men assembled to inspect them.Babylon THE great.

fetched the highest prices. . beautiful came first. il may have existed as a local survival from barbarous antiquity." remarks Herodotus. all When the pretty girls were disposed of.hcst bidder. manners. marriage portions being offered with them. asking who would take her with the smallest dowry. She was knocked down to the man who contented himThe marriage-portions self \vith the lowest sum. and customs have edge received an important and unlooked for addition. the plain ones had their turn. It is but lately that our materials for a knowlof Babylonian life. and thus "the fairer maidens portioned out the uglier. as later writers mention il. Still. to the iKuiics aiul offcrcil hiy. and where every great success is a piece of luck and a surprise. one by one." who are a standing feature uf all ages and countries. a field of research where so much is due to chance. them for The most AND sale. of which an account follows further on.244 MEDIA. packed full of small tab- tom universal. as proved l)y the vast number of documents on jjrivate life. not the least of these was the discovery of the secret archive of a family which has been called THE Banking House of Egibi. who thinks the whole arrangement a wise and admirable one. In 15. as they. PERSIA. piously preserved by some of those worshippers of " the good old times. The herald began with the most homely one. of course. but for them the proceeding was re\ersed. were furnished out of the money paid for the beautiful damsels. Already in 1874 some Arab diggers disinterred from a large mound known under the name of DjUMDjUMA several well- preserved terra-cotta jars. BABYLON. It was most certainly not so.

OA^ lets THE GREAT. vol. evidently the founder of a firm possessed of immense wealth and influence. Chad I'. and bearing the names of the contracting parties and of witnesses. varying in size from one square inch to twelve." and carried the to a dealer in llaghdad.. lie So- ." are which. from the loan of a few mancJis to that of many talents. ciety of r.nABVr. As these documents. 245 this jars covered with writing. it has been found possible to make out a genealogical tabic of the firm. which come under the class between modest citizens of known carefully dated. or grand- — — son. centuries. Among these names. transacted several money affairs of every sort and magnitude. VI. from witnessing a private will or a contract of sale or partnershi[) Babylon or some neighto the collecting of taxes from wliole boring cit}-. provinces farmed to the house by the government. and the year of the reigning king. This table shows lliat t " Transactions of * Sec ]iaper Ijy Mr. giving the day and month.il)lical Archccology. The tablets were about three thousand in number.-" the head of as "contract tablets. They liad learned by time the vaUie of such " fmds.oscawen. though far from suspecting what treasure he had stumbled on. or descendant of a certain Egibi. S. nership it in appears. always figured the name of some son. It was found on examination that they were documents recording all sorts of commercial and pecuniary transactions. cither as principal or WM'tness more often the former. through many generations. intleed and which. generally took his sons into parthis own lifetime. 1878. from whom George Smith bought them for the British Museum.

p. and thinks they A\'ill }-et shed many a light on the life and doings of the Hebrew exiles in Babylon and other Chaldean cities.C.. tivity by Sarc^on out of Samaria. having weathered the storms of the two sieges. founder. 16. through several more similar political crises. jip. probably of those carried into capHe remarks. was entrusted to this through several centuries.'?46 MEDIA. However that may be. at tlic " I''t^ibi. and the crops of corn. also. protected by their exceptional position. Egibi and climax of wealth and power under Nebuchadrezzar. a century after its foundation. They collected the taxes with which land." " Professor Fr. Delitzsch tells us. 12): "Thou shalt lend unto many nations and thou shalt not borrow. 168. Sec " Story of Assyria." tlie reit. it would be curious to note at point how early a date the blessing uttered on the race in Deuteronomy (xxviii. the firm of " Sons" had reached its under Sennacherib and Asshurbanipal."'' from which fact he infers that the L.." in the Calvver Bibel-Lexikon . as they were to pass unscathed.iiu is the equivalent to the Hebrew YAKf-P. "All the financial business of the court." ." began to take efTcct. 247. to be injured.^n of Sennacherib. (Jacob). If this philological is established. firm *See f article " Gefangenschaft. which made them too useful. dates."reat banker must have been a Jew. indeed too necessary.f that many of the tablets bear unmistakably Jewish names. in AXD PERSIA. about 685 come to the conclusion that the Professor Friedrich DcHtzsch has quite lately name K(. Zeitschrift fur Kahchriftforschtiug for 18S5. nABYLOiV. 169. was probably the head of the house ]i.

reign King Alik-sa-an-dir. This would give these Babylonian Rothschilds a known and provable duration of very nearly four centuries. Dareios Hysta.. e. it which present a very com[)lete skeleton. and that. us among of these.BAB YLOiV THE GREA T. it was thought that the palmy days of the firm extended only to the reign of the Persian king.. and continues to act until his thirty-fifth year. also tlie dues public roads and the irrigation etc.. But Professor Delitzsch informs II. 247 for the use of the canals. Alexander the Great. 17. with their dry records of transactions branches of social life and mutual relations. Rassam added several hun(in 1882). who appears in the first year of that king." At first (in 1878). 245) went no further a certain Marduk-NAZIR-PAL. crowd the courts of this treasure-house to transact their business. from the highest court-officer to the lowest peasant and slave. dred tablets to the batch first purchased. House Itgibi. these insignificant-looking little cakes of clay unrol before us a vivid picture of Babylon's national life.SPIS. there are some dated from the i. etc. that Mr. would be . — power and literary Georg Ebers. The in all Egibi tablets. etc. the pride of Egyptology. we sec people of all classes. Many an — like epoch not half so remote in time cannot produce one quarter so much documentary evidence. If there should ever arise among Assyriologists a scholar gifted with imaginative talent. Thus. such a scholar will find ample material for historical romances of real value in the materials extracted from the jar-safes of the. and the than genealogical table (sec p. were burdened.

lpy/.OjV.24^ MEDIA. ing at Ur . in use much before the invention last Lenormant quotes such a document Nabonidus. n. drafts.. w^ith their natural accompaniment. were of coining. 117. as represented inscriptions stifY and cylinders.* living * " La Monnaie dans rAntiquite." vol. I. while the what might be called idioall know how much easier book-language than every-day of even a modern people. by the royal wallThese monotonous and productions continually repeat not only the same words.1 delightful and not over-difficult task to clotlio with ihc flesh and blood of poetically created living persons. since to have done the business of money-lenders and per- Egibi & Sons the title of " " haps notaries public. Yet it is certain that the bank deposits. Fr. p. the public documents arc written in an official private tablets represent matic literature and we . but whole sentences and set forms of speech. In short. Large portions of them arc very much like blank forms in which the names only have to be filled in. The greatest difficulty at present would be the number of unintelligible words. It stands to. and conventional style. with all the facilities speech and assistance we command. It has been objected that to give the firm of it is to learn the is misbanking-house the bulk of their tablets shows them leading. AND PERSIA. . (of the reign of lon). the Baby— by which kingperson a liv- —a of real banker's draft gives to another an order on a person To another such draft or cheque at Erech. and cheques. 1 8. let alone a dead one. reason that the language of every-day life and business transactions must be very different from that of historical annals.

\. " if wc stop to consider the yet. from which had robbers." not the payee it is a cheque such documents were negotiable." remarks Lenormant. Every thing made it desirable : bersome nature of metallic values. This rise to is so natural that a re- newal of the same conditions gave * " T.ntii|uile."f — — These are real banking-operations. the soiulcr '-'^ Kutha) and tlic payer (at Borsip) arc named. by means of caravans tlie Their trade. //'. and which it is quite startling to see in familiar operation among their ancestors or kindred over twenty centuries before them. geographical position of their countries. in all directions. the idea of the draft-system must have dawned on the mind of the creditor. the number of beasts of burden rec|uired to carry great quantities of it. these nations to invent the draft or exchange system so much earlier than others. could be indorsed and exchanged for their value in gold or silver (discounted). i. p. to traverse. jip. X J/>.BABYLON THE GREAT.." vol. results. p. 122. c. .a IMonnaie •j the same I. like our own let: exchange or cheques. the invention of which has always been attributed to the Jewish financiers of the Middle Ages. but be sent he exchanged against silver. deserts infested by nomadic In such conditions. 119. wc shall lie able to account for this at we shall understand the causes whicli led first sight strange fact "And .. and that in very ancient times. is shown by a bilingual text (Accadian and Ass)'ters of rian). after a dans r. as well as the unsafe roads. of 249 (at the reign of Nebuchadrezzar. was necessarily carried on by land. I20.. 121. one of the merchant's first cares was to find a way to avoid the transporting of money in cash to distant the cumto find such a way points. Therefore. yet to which says: "His mandate not paid. as soon as there was a creditor at one end of a caravan line and a debtor at the other. hut " That to bearer.:}: conditions under which the commerce of the Assyrians and peculiar Babylonians was carried on.

or on mortgage of property. strictly speaking. houses. long oblivion.250 ArF. n. should the payment not be such as that. under which head the borrower frequently included his children.nlin. and often with the provision of made on time. penalties. in tlic Middle Ages. etc. these sidc-s. — or longer dates.v. the debt There are usually sevshall be increased one third." & There is no reason to suppose that the fn-ni liyibi Sons did not transact business of this order. . nay his own person. with the interest ''• money. .-uvn Persia. and they would thereforc»bc. witnesses : who loan was made on security given by a third party. but in the more perfect form which has prevailed down to oiu own times.invLo.nri. re-invented the letter of excliange. entitled to the name of " banking-house." even though their principal business was lending money. hampered Iiy Ihc difilcultics of transporting coined money and lieset by innumerable risks. was Ti Wc are told that. * This convenient arrangement to l)oth as many of the government taxes were paid in grain. or in grain. together with recording loans obligations wc would call — are slaves. when (lie Jews and llic Tt. which by did on a large scale — no means confine their operations to the exchange and transfer of values. eral those the scribe put down the name of could not write and they made a mark in In many cases the the soft clay with their nails. the most numerous. furniture. sometimes even computed in days of work. if not paid on a certain day. if tabulated. horses. those them — at shorter in cattle. It is certain that the documents recording the land. which they like modern banks. sales — of 19.n merchants.

25 I tablets mis:^ht give the average price of every article for it was not unsold in J)aln'lon. with the stances — provision that whenever the original owner claimed the slave sold on this understanding. have a contract by which a certain Iba. of nice points of legal form were just as apt to get Thus we people into trouble then as nowadays. Sometimes a condition of the transaction trade. . the purchase- money being meanwliile. In wealthy establishments this power was usually given to the If a freeman. by con- which case a sum of money is usually agreed on to be paid to the owner should the slave be lost. that slave should be returned to him or her. "by the ter. in killed. on paying a small sum for them. the arm. or even hired . and there seem to have been speculators who made it a regular trade to train and hire out slaves. the shoulder. on the wrist. bu}-s some property on behalf and by authority of a man and his wife Bunanitu is the name of the latHad the scribe omitted the clause. refunded. transactions could equally well be performed through by power of attorney. as ignorance or neglect a third person. or injured. tract. with tlieir master's name. This facilitated another transaction.BABYLON THE GREAT. common for people to rent out their slaves. . it behooved head-slave or steward. If children had been born the purchaser could keep them if he All these chose. is that the hirer shall teach the slave a Slaves were frequently marked probably branded for identification. the agent to be very careful. which must have been very con- — — venient for people in temporarily straitened circumthe conditional sale of slaves. son of Silla.

now known as tablets of precedents. in its private. .252 MEDIA. we find there social. but to give precepts or rules for the conduct Had we the his various occupations. 1884. and are bilingual. but has not received a letter of authority concerning it. Man in T'rivate Life. tion for the agriculturist. VIII." These tablets." . son of Silla." the accumulated fruits of perof man in haps centuries of experience and observation. accompanied by an Assyrian translation. or has not shown a duplicate of the tablet." and liad aulhorit}' of wards chosen to den). AND PER STA." * entire collection. The lawyers ful whether such a code existed at all. of tlie Soc. embraced the whole range of human life.or repudiate tlic purchase." in his name house and 20. . of Bible vol. These texts or sentences are said to be not exactly " laws. much valuable material. seem to have formed a continuous series. Archeology. and public capacities. " One tablet gives instrucwhen and how he is to Conduct of " * See the Accadian Precepts for the paper of Mr. the law being explicit on the subject: "If a man has contracted for a field and . house in the name of another. PABYLON. the man who wrote shall lose that the tablet and contract field. Wta. and judges looked for guidance to some very ancient " documents. George Berlin." in "Trans. the text being in the old Accadian language.. Not that we can boast the recovery of a com- It is even very doul)tplete code of Babylonian law. we should probably find that these " rules and precepts. several of which have been found and deciphered. flic employer after. As it is. would have been compelled to keep and pay for it himself.

stands out clear and " significant : lie (the father) makes him (the child) Icairii inscriptions!' Then comes another line: '•'He wakes Iiii/i hike a chief wife. Beginning with simple rules. i.. . the husband cannot remove her The bride. which consisted in double the usual sum 5 and J^. /. and brought a dowry. Then it originally Ccune. if there were no children. This union was indissoluble. 253 his house and barn. and describing which accomi)aines the declara(§ 2) the ceremony and 4 speak of the first act of the tion. was to be remain the head a free-born maiden. After mentioning (§ i) what time a child shall be declared a freeman.e. the source whence 22. ever. " answerable is henceforth 6 state that the child for his actions and will bear the consequences of his sins. 21. it ends with what might almost be called criminal laws. . as can be inferred from the " lines HencefortJi. as a last act of parental authority. howof the child are hopelessly injured child when he became . on *' : the death of the husband.^ paying tribute." who seems to This was the teife. follows the second part of the t-iblet. i'. returned to her and to her children. build what are his relations towards his landlord in sueh and such a circumstance. I'rcparc and sow his fields. to her parents. which." have been chosen and asked frcnn her parents by the father.. of age. ^\•ho was to %vho possesses his hearth of the household for life. or." The paragraph on the nursing and education one line. §^ 3 a man.BABYLON THE GREAT." The most imi)ortant is the tablet which instructs a man as to his private life and his duties towards his relatives.

BABYLON. is exposed in the middle of the town (proba2d. bly pilloried). nij> husband not thou art having has said. he has Lastly. the nails he shall enl father : ' ]iiui. denies him. or only undergo an ordeal. or if the slave runs away." remarks Mr. is responsiljle fur the translation.'' For the same offence against his mother. so that the slave dies. at a pciial legis- conlaininy. ." . represented on the l)as reliefs as shaved.. father and the mother who deny their son." This clause probably answers to our provision of " alimony to be paid by the husband to his deserted There are also penalties against the or injured wife. a punish" When a zvife. in the river they plaee him. wlio. . a son. he to be thrown into the — ' whether to ment. ii should be remembered. ' ' ' has said.i AND PERSIA. is die. If a husband is ill-treats his wife so that she river. {i. breaks down from exhaustion or * •' Long nails. .''' . half a maneli of silver lie zveighs.'" " When a hnsband my wife not thon art 4th. refuses her her rights). e. 3d. besides being enslaved and expelled from the house. "seem therefore to have been the mark of freedom. lation. if a man ill-uses a slave whom hired from another. for vioney he shall sell him. under penalty of being reduced to servitude " WJien a son to his father my and sold as a slave thoH art not has said.254 MEDIA. rudimentary attempt is A son forbidden to deny his dut)' to his ' father. her husband not specified: done zvrong to her. as long hair and beard were among The slaves and people of low condition are always the Semites. 1st. George llertiii.

BABYLON rUE GREAT. Now A\e have seen above (see p. . still — (" set her face to go doivn to cDiother house ") — again. she took with her not only her own dow ly. witnessed and attested. especially in the peculiar details. Lyon. most interesting documents is a will in One of the due and legal form. more liberal clause That law was completed by the following if a widow wished to marry : At her death. by which a man pro" It sliDiiUl Ijc noted lierc translations from the-docunient on high Assyriological authority tliat the mentioned in ^ 22 must be taken very guardedly. a position not only honorable and influenbut almost entirely independent. 255 that man " " weighs half a to the master of the slave. and we it is lose the conclusion of the regusupposed that. The text is defective and the translation necessarily so. G. the general sense being tolerably well established. The interpretation of this tablet is still so obscure lliat one could not well say too little aljout it in a history of Babylonia." (Dr. illness. and as by no means " final. Here the tablet is broken lation — though it off. to be logically first consistent. D. enacted that the husband's prop- erty should go to his children alone.) Tliis apjilies particularly to the special — provisions. The laws of fair test of property and inheritance are always a the position which the women occupy in a commonwealth. but all the pro[)crty which her first husband had left her. in a private letter. as a measure of corn com- pensation. It is — women tial. her dowry was to be divided between the children of both marriages.* rather startling to find that these un" doubtedly very ancient texts or precedents "—a " " veritable custom-law {Joi cotttiiniih'c) secure to 23. for every day. 253) that a woman's dowry by no means became her husband's property.

She proved that the purchase w^as made with her dowry." he gave her a document witnessing that he had traded with her dowry." discussed the The tablets. Make a decision. by laying claim to that very house and land. to which her husband added a that. vidcs for his wife he leaves certain property to be her by his three children. It is very entertaining to again. widow. : AND PJiRSIA. Thus Bunanitu — the same woman whom we saw sip power of attorney. when she dies. jointly with her for the purchase of some property in Borhusband. held in trust for it reverts to the children. rights before the royal judges. see the same persons turn up again and now . . and gaining their — suit too. and is followed by a general settling up I of all the family affairs. giving a — I'eappears as a suit against her brother-in-law. and decided in favor of the widow. and. She is to ha\e the use of it during her life. have brought it before you. and " on her request." The judges " heard their w^ords. A large number of the Egibi tablets. as well as of the older contract tablets. 24. matter is related at far greater length in the original document. wife's — show us women not in every kind of comin which the husband frequently appears merely as witness. and wrote upon it the curse of the great gods . only concerned as principals mercial and legal transactions.256 MEDIA. . BABYLON. sum which he borrowed. and that the " He sealed his tablet purchase Avas their joint act. or even as his but personally pleading for their agent. and to secure her interests for future days. w'hen she enters a civil who wished to despoil her and her daughter of their inheritance.

Another class of documents. now as witnesses. while still the another tablet gives us his own marriage contract.'\ " (I. This shows that the house Egibi. Thus money which Bunanitu's husband added to hcr dowry is said to have been borrowed from a certain Iddina-Marduk son of Basha.cUii) from Tcldina-riha(?) (to) Rcimit his son. and there is no doubt that by carefully studying and it would be possible to trace the fortunes and mutual relations of various families sifting their archives. Scant room limits us to assistance. call the capital thus formed " iiiotJicr of business^ 25. even the trouble of inventing a plot for his story. 251). will through several generations. of which quite a number have been deciphered of late. had its well-established circle of permanent clients. to add a picturesque local color to his narrative— such as when two men entering into partnership and bringing each so much to begin opejrations with. as principals. ^«r of corn l)y tiic liands of some one whom. is will be to in- our novelist a rich and choice the daily creasing collection of private letters. to a great extent. JSeljo peace and is life for my son may tliey bespeak. This fascinating task devolve on the future novelist of Assyriology. addressed but one specimen.JBABYLON THE GREAT. and spare him. (Bel) and son. 2 or 3 lle^ my knows that there no corn in the iioiise. whose name we find as witness on the bill of sale (see p. which feast. thou know est may my son . 257 now as agents. like modern firms. It is a request for by an aged father to an absent son : " \Obversc. He will also find numbers of expressive and peculiar idiomatic forms of speech.

. Eefore the soothsayer one mouth of the ravens one led him away The soles of his feet with the soothtook him from their mouth. for practice. Cause it to go unto me. into the streel the mouth of the dogs one took him." as follows " The child his father or : who had he went . forth to thy father." him to school^ ^" making him That this was no empty talk — learn inis proved by a large class of tablets perhaps the most amusing of all which have been found to be iiothing more nor less than reading-books and children's copy-books.s!ati(. 251-2) that ainony. written out a great many times. a duties to his child was numbered tiuit of sending scriptions. with school exercises.258 cause to \\ MEDIA.u by Mr. Storv OF THE FOUNDwho knew not LING. It proves to be a simple nursery as " far tale. Pinches both as yet unpublished. my son's life grant Send the gift. from the — Into neither father nor mother. To the nurse he was sayer's seal underneath him were marked. together with the manuscript traa.] ". ) * Wc father's first have seen above (pp.ecutive lines. under the attractive title. — — Bruce." . Tlicre is iioiio. through all the stages of bad A great many such spelling and worse calligraphy. — From mother.luni iiulicntoilst. which he translates. as the text goes. — . H. of * The original tablet is in the private collection of the Misses New York. (=Thy mother 26. G. Sayce had the good fortune of lighting on one sufficiently well preserved to be intelligible through several con- — — amply s. Theo. This day Bel and Nebo for the preservation of Reniat after the peace 0/ Renuit her son asks. — . the fishpond(?) he came. tablets are bilingual. and Professor A. consisting in short sentences and lists of signs. brouglit. send" [/vVi'tVJc'. 1)0 AND I'KRSIA. ]5y the IkuuIs of tlic Inialinan honi '. BABYLON. asks afler thy health.

while the text is interspersetl witli exercises upon the principal words occurring in it." " II. i. Sayce's paper \ See A. I. Ikit the fragment is quite sufficient to show to what kind of hterature the document belongs. Like the lesson-books of our own nurseries." in the — Folk-Lorc Journal. (?) His stomach witli the To and liis — — — milk of man he filled and made him his own son. 1SS3. . In the document quoted on PP. He classes this text as " an Accadian reading-book. especially where there were no sons. the old Babylonian lesson-book also chose such stories as were likely to interest children^ and the author wisely took Ids passage from tlie folk-lore and fairy tales of the boys' nursery ratiier than from the advanced literature of grown men. Babylonian Folk-Lore. Thus the plirasc he made liim liis own son."f first In the same manner our children learn the dead languages of their own * in families race. lie that reared him rejoiced. Adoption seems to have been common in Babylonia." Here the tablet break. intended to teach the elements of the extinct Accadian language of primi" tive Chaldea to Babylonian boys of a later day then goes on ." is followed by exam' " ples of the various ways in which tlie words composing it could be combined with other parts of speech or replaced by corresponding his son expressions son he reckoned him — ' ' — — ' ' his sonship ' in the for his sonship for his register of sonship he inscribed ' — ' ' — ' him. . fur liim.. i)[). and that he formally adopted a stranger " took him to sonship and wrote a tablet of his sonship.255-6 Bunanitu tells the judges that she bore her husband only one daughter. which we cannot do better than copy for our readers.sor Sayce's remarks. So for a time his rearing went on clothing were assured. his sliiit. . .'* etc. iG ff. : Easy passages in Accadian have been selected for the purpose and provided with Assyrian translations. January.ivcn .BABYLON THE GREAT. . especially by the light of Profes. Latin and Greek. 259 tlic muse for Uirec years his grain. vol. . .s off. liis food.

evidently by law-students. H.. Mr. is dated from the reign of a Persian king who reigned about 100 A. These are not the only school-exercises that 27. for purposes of memorizing." they do not by any means cease with the Babylonian Empire. collections of fables AND PERSIA. Rassam has brought home many fragments containing lawtexts from the " tablets of precedents." copied out carefully three times.D. showing that the use of cuneiform writing died out very gradually and«prevailed much longer than had at first been supposed.26o in MEDIA. and the method of impressing things on the mind by writing them out does not appear to have been limited to children. and anecdotes or short stories. BABYLON. if — — as late as the first centuries we are to trust one which — . have survived. Stray specimens bring down the use of them to an astonishingly late period after Christ. As for the class of docu- ments known as " contract-tablets.

" " of cuneiform records. to test the efficiency of those bulwarks and defences which his foresight so is busily devised. lulp of his son . is not likely that consideration or daughter-in-law would he died quite early in Nebuchadrezzar's reign (584). in his lifetime. Alyattes. or a monarch of the same ambitious and active stamp. therefore. tificial For relationship.MEDIA AND THE RISK np PERSIA. at it had seen an opening toward the modern phrase rounding it off (as the expense of either or " " botli his neighbors. until. II is accession. it I. been occupied by Kyaxares. Ishtuvegu Astyages (the See p. the very model of the spendthrift heir. indolent and pleasure-loving. bent merely on enjoying the greatness he has not hi'lpcd to build. and his son and successor. who. !)}• his carelessness. was a man of self-indulgent habit. he loses it. with 261 tin. was a very good thing for hi^ brother-in-law of l)ab\'lon and his fathcr-in-Iaw for either his daughter ]^ut have stopped him. connection by marriage. Had zar's very probable that the Babylonian would have had occasion. du'-in^ Nebuchadrezlong reign. especially the ar- in politics. has not mucli weight and if the founder of the Median Empire goes). 221). the throne of Media. of Sardis.

who "did delight in not regard " it silver. them which was to be fruitful and inaugurate a style of architecture entirely different from that with which we have a manner of building of artistic results. But. and as 17). B.. (Croesus). went on consolidating and enlarthe dominion of L\(li. of which they had not learned the value. AXD /V-. xiii. an effect of great magnificence and imposing majesty was produced by other means. to find out that art was in itself a notion originally desirable and worth learning foreign to the rather stern and practical EranicUi — mind.AWA/. though there is great reason to believe that it remained far behind in point of artistic decoration. as national dignity demands that roy- alty should be housed in seemly splendor. too. if they had not made a study of art.i. took no of Nine- (Isaiah The booty veh and the other Assyrian cities had taught them the uses of luxury. come over the The Medes were no longer hardships.202 MEPTA.and settling old-standing ging accounts with the Greek cities of the sea-shore. for gold.OX. such as the lavish use of gold and equal it is . especially that of decoration. the Medes had brought with 3. perhaps. 2. and the court of Agbatana was not outdone in splendor by either Babylon or SarThe palace of Median royalty. nor. inured wealth. careless na- the of rough warriors. KrOISOS Nor was less the change that had to tion great.mV/. was fully dis. For. silver. For the Aryan conquerors had no art of their own. and had not yet had time to learn that of their neighbors. in magnificence to those of the older capitals even possible that it outshone them in mere barbaric gorgeousness. .

and by great finish of workmanship. The transition is easy to the combination of public and private apartments which forms the royal dwellscale. after the manner of flat fine stone at liand all and marshy Chaldea. porticos surrounding the inner courts. when they had quarries of around them. porches. preserving the original and characteristic feature —a profusion of columns. of by and stately trees. of Eastern Eran the l^uilding material indivalleys cated by nature is timber. 4. it was possible to produce a building of real beauty. to be distributed in every possible combination of aisles. expands into the hall with aisles of columns supporting the roof. enlarged. who went on heaping mountains of bricks. The forests of the Zagros supplied fine timber as bountifully as those of Bactria. Exactly such a construction was the palace at Agbatana. at the foot of Mt. and with wide pillared porch. tall By devising the plan on a grander ing or palace. The nomad's movable is imitated in wood. and enlarged by Kyaxares). the choice of hard and handsome woods. and the Medes could preserve their own traditional style of building without falling into the absurdity of the Assyrians. OronTES . tent or hut This. again. become 263 so familiar in the lands of the Tigris and Eu- In the abundantly wooded mountains and phrates. etc.MEDIA AND THE RISE OE PERSIA. as occupying an area of fully two thirds of a mile. and becomes the cabin of logs or boards. in constructions destined for public purposes. The ancient Greek writers describe the palace of the Median kings (possibly begun by Deiokes. with porch and gallery resting on roughly hewn trunks of trees.

AND PF. two have their battlements coated The city was respectively with silver and gold. fifteen feet in width. Of the treasuries standing are white of the the outer wall. several miles from the city. Herodotus while the roof was made of silver tiles. (modern Elveni>). which was cut through the base of the mountain for the purpose. which some number a gentle slope.RSIA.of costly cedar and c\'prcss. of the fourth. is filled with admiration at the effect i)roduccd by " the walls which enclosed the palace. . followed by the Greeks.." loS. were overlaid with gold or siK'er plating. That stream was turned from its course and brought by a tunnel.ntircl). The plan of the place is cles. BABYLOy. it was built (. blue . attributed to the fabulous Queen Semiramis. is The nature of the ground. but tlic ccih'ngs and walls. but it was mainly effected by art. carried out by Kyaxares. scarlet. all these are covered witli of the fifth. paint.* It is very probable that it was planned and ]i. The only drawback to this picturesque and well-defended situation was the want of water. next. There was none nearer than the other side of Mt. the royal palace and within the last.. that each of the walls should out-top the one beyond it by the battlements. the battlements . orange . Orontes. of the third." last The built outside the circuit of the walls.264 MEDIA. * See " Story of Assyrin. hut the wood was nowhere visible. as not on!}' the columns and beams. where asmall lake fed a mountain stream. rising in cirone within the other. This is the work which Median legend. black. favors this arrangement in degree. . The of the circles is seven.

the . f See ." Nor can the account be rejected as improbable on the plea of extravagance. We are expressly told that when Alexander of Macedon * See " Story of Chaldca." pp. 274-276. their hindfeet with silver. i^cneral effect. nuist have been The inarvellously quaint and impressive. So it was meet that the royal roof and battlements shoukl gleam in silver TheAvesta shows silver cuirass." jip. in golden apartments. and that without materially draining the treasury. '• Story of Chaldea.MEDIA AND THE RISE OF PERSIA. at Borsip. and. seven in the Eranian religion prompted the imitaBesides. and in gold. of which the Chaldean Ziggurat was a reminder. and Duncker no doubt comes very near the truth when he exand decoration of plains the peculiar construction " As the Median palace in the following words Ahura-Mazda sat on his golden throne in the sphere : of pure Light on the summit of golden Hukairya. so the earthly ruler was to dwell in his palace at Agba- tana. the legend of the original Holy Mountain. enclosed within a golden wall. The booty from Assyria could surely cover the outlay. we may be sure there.f was common to both races. 2G5 The especially a distance. crraded height of the seven concentric walls and the at combination of colors once recall the great Zig- gurat of Nebo. 5. as beheld from from the low level of the plain.'' and naturally suggest that the general idea may have been borrowed from This may well be. and us Mithra in golden helmet wheels of his chariot are of rold his milk-white steeds' forefeet are shod with "old. if so. that the significance and sacredness of the number tion. 2S0-283.

he carried away most of the tiles off the roof still . by an outer wall of defence. conqueror seventy-five years later another found at Agbatana booty to the }'et amount of about five million dollars. and its life. Still.ipy/. 6. 399.oA'. and that one of the very last acts of Assyrian power was the wholesale cleaning out of the treasurehouses of the kings of Elam. Perhaps no other empire of like extent and * See " Story of Assyria." p. Aixn jersfa. relics that has yet been done. Whether Agbatana was surrounded. There was no such wall at the time of Herodotus.. . in gold and sil- ver-plating and silver roof-tiles. the twenty centuries of that kingdom's prosperity. cleared up some day when dertaken at Hamadan. it is impos- later every turn The same uncertainty confronts us at when we attempt to enquire for details concerning the Median nation. n. and of the few have been found. silver conquered Asia. as Agbatana had been taken in the interval. serious diggings are unUnfortunately. at Shushan. to the value of eight and a half mil- had been removed by the I'ersian king We must remember that the accumulation of wealth in Nineveh and Kalah must have far exceeded our powers of calculation. before Alexander came. it is quite possible there may have been a wall and it was demolished by the This question and many others may be victors. Yet the bulk of the gold and silver. " where " no other enemy had ever put his hand * through all lions dollars. like Babylon. its institutions. or he would have mentioned it. we do not know. nothing of much importance sible to say fragmentary whether they belong to this period or a one.266 MEDIA.

not one undoubtedly nothing but le<^enuine specimen of art or craft power . and admirably tallies with the theory of the gradual advance of the Aryan Medes and their occupation of Rllip and the other portions of the Zagros . 7. unreliable interpreters. RTSE OF PFRSTA. few facts. Hethat the population of the empire was mixed. gends of epical character. however." and these names it has been found possible to trace from the Greek corruption to the original Eranian forms. They tell their " own tives. But. we may hold for certain. soil. " dwellers in a third tion strongly implies that the others w-ere not Aryans." a fourth and only one is expressly designated as Aryan people "(" ^r/^' Such a distinczantos." nomads. Of the real value of such history. but transmitted through Greek writers. 267 lias left so few traces of its existence. procuring much positive information concerning the Medes. though modern research has very well not true in the old in established wdiat it Greek stories. This is certainly owine to the lack of durable monuments. wc have a sample is in the accounts of Semir- amis." another tents.M'rlDIA AA'D TirF. and those not in native form or garb. Nof an inscription has reached us." "owners of the " One means "nastory. through the channel of ignorant. so few handles for history to take hold of. who got them in fragments.'' in Persian Aryiazantii "). and were generally known under that name to their neighbors and subjects another. One of the principal is that the Medes used to call has hitherto failed A themselves Aryas. and proceeded to impart them as history. rodotus knows by name of six so-called " tribes. .

that most coun- composing Eastern Eran liyrcania. as we have seen. tries It eastern boundaries were never very well seems certain. BABVrOA'. The sixth Median tribe on Herodotus' list 8. That these were the priests. the b)' the rest of the (shepherds). some say.RSTA. and they all called themselves As to the "nomads" and the " tenttogether." tlic different. in subjection. which " "owners of the soil (Of race). mostly Turanian. Tiic seven-fokl belt of defence. com- " posed mainly of Eranian elements. became held a ruHnc:^ class. chvellers name was adopted national feeling. — — — to foreign nations. there is no shadow and the only one It is the name of a doubt. Bactria. and the enmity of the races in a common conquerors' " " Medes population. however. Yet. wlicrc they tary aristocracy. AA'D PF. a militlie highlands. may have been at first a necessary precaution against possible risings. forming a separate body. it is not . tion grew became merged less In the course of time. this designation probably covers a large proportion of still fluctuating population in the steppes of Central and Western Eran. But its defined. across a vast tract of desert and mountain wilds on the other. Parthia. with which the foreign royalty enclosed itself.268 MEDIA. as the distincmarked. and several more which figure on ancient maps. under which the Eranian priesthood has been known . for the Median Empire at this period of its greatest extension covered an area reaching from the Ilalys and Araxes on one side. bears the name of Magi. were subject and paid tribute to Media some of them probably were ruled by Median governors. " natives. as far as the Indus itself.

invoking the Power of Evil and Darkness. flying and creeping things.* Such practices. where the priests. in fact. na}'. all sorts of animals except dogs.MEDIA AND THE RISE OE PERSIA. although undoubtedly the guar- dians of Avestan law and worship. in the universally accepted words magic. judged by the light of the Avesta. where they chanted hymns. ever since they form a body or chiss." . and could not possibly have been originated by the Eranian Athravan of early Mazdeism. and one of them expressly relates that they press in a mortar the herb called Oinonii (Haoma). and that they delighted in killing with their own hands ants." " Herodotus tells us that the Magi premagician. indulged in practices foreign to that law. principally that of conjuring and divining. which has become inseparably associated with that priestly " class." sided at sacrifices." There is a contradiction here. and pour the drink-offering on a spot on which the sun never shines. snakes. which is further enhanced by the fact that the Magi. are " uniformly designated as Atliravans. the 269 name that is given them in the Avesta. are nothing less than impious. Much later writers report that the Magi worshipped and sacrificed to the Evil Power. then mix the juice with the blood of a sacrificed wolf. * riularcli : The Shamans " Ibis or sorceier- and Usiris. But they are by no means incompatible with the spirit of Turanian or so-called Shamanistic religions. several of which incline to pay the rites of worship rather to the Powers of Darkness than those of Light. like that of prcSemitic Chaldea. This is quite in ac- cordance with the Avestan law. directly opposed to it.

do harm. arc representatives of the still surviving hideous Indeed. . God. ""^ own See " Story of Clialdea. but do not show him any observance. Armenia and Kurdistan (ancient Zagros). there still superstition. being good of his nature. while they show servile reverence to the Devil. can do nothing but good to men. a very curious sect which. the Kurds who Layard live in Assyria. and there is no necessity of asking him to do so the Devil. began the process of mutual concessions and assimilation which marked the third stage of the Avestan evolution. AND PERSIA." They believe in God. recently reformed religion. presents a what was probably the religion of pre- Aryan Media." p. on the contrar}% being bad. or Devil-worshippers. all that has been said. 180. pure. who brought their lofty."' exists. as old-Christian and survival of " Mussulman features. logic. who has a temple among them. They are called the Yezidls. BABYLON. . in the Sinjar far as where they would permit. among hills. together with many visited and studied them. priests of froni many Turanian tribes of our own clay. the Lapland through Siberia and Central Asia. we shall not be from the truth if we assume the Magi to have been originally the native priesthood of the vast mountainous region subsequently occupied by the Medes and known as Western Eran. With the ar- After far rival of the Aryan conquerors.2/0 MEDIA. they say with a kind of perverse public honor. Traces of by similar conceptions still linger among various mounis inclined to tain tribes of 9. and to whose symbol. they pay For. unless kept in a good humor constant entreaty and propitiation. the serpent.

It was only in the ultimate development reached by Zoroastrian Magisni * See " Slury uf Clialdca. 255. Many conwith the Accadian iinga (priest).MEDIA AND THE RISE OF PERSIA. is too doubtful a question to be here discussed. " name " Magi absorbed and was substituted for the older one. as some would have it. and why the tus. such as the exposure of the dead. We . which enters into the familiar title of Rab-mag* discussion nect it Others will not hear of this Chaldean connection. and assert a purely Aryan origin of the word. ac" counting for it by the Vcdic word inaghd.sages of must be content with the certainty that. keeping in view the important fact that the observances which they so severely enforced. 142-156). the two rehgions was followed by that of the two priesthoods. and to 2/1 which we referred the foreign and mostly Turanian practices that make up so great a portion The fusion of of the Vcndidad (see pp. Semitic mag. the Magi were the national priestly class of Media or Western Eran. great. will probably never be found out. and the pre-Aryan priesthood should be understood under the "false Athravans" denounced in those passages." Whether traces of an original conflict and hostility should be detected in certain pas- the Avesta. were not by any means adopted by all the Eranian nations. and the Athravans were merged in the Magi. Indeed. that very name has been and still is the subject of among the leading scholars." p." " perhaps holy. in historical times. . the keepers and propagators of the Avestan law as represented by the Vendidad. the sixth Median tribe on the list of HerodoHow the fusion was effected.

BABYLON. The Magi times the chief city of Media after Agbatana. that the rehgious law of ancient Media was proclaimed the only orthodox one. The the warrior. the tiller of tiie ground. is in a of catechism which we find an extract men : What . 'A. the village-chief. of which the following " Q. this that the It is name in was sometimes used used this manner at the fragment end of a chapter of Zend (commentary) on the Ahunavairya (Yasna." literally "Most Zarathushtra" see as a (of all Zarathushtras). We from title. an examinathe five chiefs having tion begins. or thushtra. under the Sassanidcs. descended directly from Zarathushtra. and Rhagie is the seat of their chief and head. invested with both spiritual and temporal power. of this period appear as a powerful separate body. Q. How are these chiefs constituted . this their high-priest. bears " Chief Zarathe title of Zarathustrotema. in olden 10. by question and answer. They are That main. ? Q.) and which clearly The four classes and defines this state of things. been mentioned. ? " " A. the chief of the province (king). As they claim to form a clan. city. possessing large territories with cities of their own. In these territories they seem to exercise something like actual independent sovereignt}'.272 MEDIA. . a sort of Zoroastrian pope. Ragha. and the tribe-chief. " is in those provinces which are outside the Zarathushtrian do. ' What are the chiefs ? the house-chief. 28). and the Zarathushtra as the hflh. XIX. the Zarathushtrian has only four chiefs. and the artisan. AN J) J'EKSJA. the centre of which is Rhaga^. . and made obligatory for the whole of Eran (see p. classes of priest.

time or in what manner took place the migration of this Eranian people. and only failed to reach the Ionian sea-coast because it was unexpectedly cut off by a kindred and hitherto v^issal nation. probably always remain a matter of uncertainty whether they came from the northeast across the desert by a of It will name Ears or Farsistan. wK'Cci paitiddna and barcsma. but there may have been something of the kind in the time of Herodotus. How far that domination extended in the east. They are the house-chief. Greek writers find fire-chapels and Magi ofificiating therein. the centuries after Persians. and which corresponds pretty accurately to the province still known under the same. spread westwards . " 273 A. as it was rehandled We by the Magi. which would justify him in making of the Magi a separate tribe. is ranked above the kings in the hierarchy of Evidently there is no king in cannot say at what time the other provinces. who. as far as the Median its domination reached fall. it were Some think that it stretched from dif^cult to say. in Lydia and Cappadocia. let noted. the Indus to the Halys. the village-chief. and his it be place is occupied by the high-priest. Persis. for. chanting sacred songs from a book. the tribe-chief.MEDIA AND THE RISE OE PERSTA. but slightly altered. Certain it is that the religion of Zoroaster. or when they reached the rugged but well-conditioned country by the Persian Gulf to which they gave their name. the priestly class achieved so high a position. find the Zarathushtra as the fourth. We have no means of ascertaining at what II. T ." Rhag?e.

own. branched off on a further tramp. it may further be . and. BABYLOM. as a separate body and indepenmain current of Eranian migration more directly making for the west or whether tlie)' formed part of that current. which have been located with — almost certainty just beyond the principalities of Urartu (Armenia). in his great rock-inscription (of which more fully " a Persian. an Arya. and one of their mightiest kings. and sends out decreasing spurs to meet those that may be called the outposts of the What speaks most in favor great SULEIMAN range. son of a Perhereafter)." Barsuas or Parsuas of the Assyrian inscriptions with the later Persians be accepted. somewhere in Aderbcidjan. as early as Shalmaneser II. and only after reaching the upper highlands of the Zagros (vVderbeidjan and Kurdistan). of Aryan seed. i. Dareios I. of the latter supposition is that ever since the name of the Medes (Madai. settled in that continuation of it which rounds off to skirt the sweep of the Gulf.. or at least occurs on the same inscription. following the direction of the valleys imbedded between the seven-fold ridges of the Zagros. glories in being If the identity of the sian. another name almost invariably accompanies it. Matai. At all events they call themselves Aryas. tlu-ir AND PERSIA. Amadai) makes its — — appearance in the royal annals of Assyria.274 nnito of MEDIA. There is nothing unlikely in the hypothesis of the Parsuas having first occupied the Zagros highlands jointly with the Medes. that of the land and people of Barsua or Parsua.. diMitl)- of tlic . then separated and founded a new and more independent principality of their own. c. as did the Medes.

such as the oak.have had something to do with the separation. barley. Such wealth of field and orchard is suf^cient to ensure the well-being of a nation. moderate in summer. tages of moderate zones.MEDIA AND THE RISE OF PERSIA. and great variations of temperature within the twenty-four hours. 275 admitted as not entirely unlikely that religious diiTerences ma}. nuts. with several months of snow and frost. By its conditions of soil and climate. acacia. which. embraces trees and fruits common to far more northern regions. The want of water. cypresses. severe in winter. does not expose it to lapse into idleness. The peach with its varieties is indigenous to the country of which it bears the name in several languages. willow. the lemon. the poplar. which begins to be felt at once in the plains into which the mountains of Persis slope down. together with sycamores. and pomegranate. but. orange. for we shall see that the Persians retained the in a far purer and more unalloyed form than their kindred. 12. standard. requiring assiduous cultivation. to . apples. pears. even the juniper. is wholesome and bracing. The valleys. too. the fig-tree. beans. and certainly does not encourage effeminacy. — while the climate in the uplands. Persia Zoroastrian revelation proper to — as Persis may be called — was eminently apt produce a race of a high moral and physical Notwithstanding its almost tropical latithe elevation of its ground gives it the advantude. as shown by the vegetation of the country. the date-palm. the great plague of the level parts of Eran. the Medes. produce different kinds of grain and vegetables wheat. myrtles. plums. and various berries. etc. millet.

(h)cs not affect the uplands. which abound in mountain springs. Riding. AND PERSIA. so that the Eranian settlers had every encouragement to follow the two pursuits recommended to them as farming and cattle-raisessentially worthy and holy — 37. and invited to all . while the open country teemed with lions. also.. although there is no room for long and wide rivers. The wooded pastures on the mountain sides and the rich meadows in the valleys were a very paradise for cattle. mg The Greeks ascribed much of the endurance and warlike qualities for which they respected Persians to the fact of their living so much out-of- the doors and being trained to watchfulness by their occupation of guarding flocks and herds by day and by night. etc. partridge. bears.2/6 the MEDIA. antelope. cast and north. PERSIAN AND MEDIAN FOOT-SOLDIERS. and hunting of every kind was their favorite exercise and pastime. BABYLON. was in much favor among them. for their mountains swarmed with pheasants. the five ridges which stretch across the country being broken only by narrow and precipitous passes. wild asses. grouse. and other small game.

wide-sleeved robe. together with more refined and courtly manners. to draw the bow. as usual. soon began to adopt. wrapped round tbe body and gathered up on one side in graceful folds." Of course this description applies only to the class of warriors or nobles — as the agriculturists. both of : dressed leather.jy It naturally folroyal sports of the Assyrians. wholly in accordance with the principles the purest Mazdeism. and . the Persians. too. tlic J. The national garb. Persia proper was not 13.flowing. the whole calculated to favor the greatest freedom and ease of motion. The population of mure unmixed than that of Media. the priests would have many more things to learn but it gives one the idea of a siinple and manly of training. and by the addition of embroidery and ornament. with a plain belt. . was hardy and simple a short coat and trousers." being characteristic of and probably invented by that nation. expressly their sons were carefully instructed from alone their fifth to their twentieth year in three things to ride. But when they came in contact with the luxurious and effeminate Medes. but reduced to subjection. the long. The native inhabitants were. It is clear that the costliness of this garment could be increased to any amount by the fineness of the material and of the dye (Tyrian purple for instance). not extirpated by the This is new-comers. Indeed Herodotus. being naturally imitative to excess. lows that the Persians were accomplished bowmen. says that " in a celebrated passage.MEDIA AND THK RISE OF FERSId. and to speak the — truth. " the Median which was known to the Greeks as robe.

how tribes into comes about that." from the fact that the valleys of the Oural and Altaic ranges have always been the chief nests and strongholds of its tribes. a dependence of the * It was a part or at kingdom of Elam. while the rest may have been of mixed race. figuring " The Turanian race is frequently called Ouralu-.E. and the Maspii— as " the princiMaraphians." four are expressly said to be nomads. the aristocracy." pp. . or very nearly. the SUSIANA of the Greeks. These latter were a people probably of a mixed race.Vltaic. BABYLON. consequently to have been closely related to the ancient language of Shuniir and Accad. akin to the occupied the mountain region TIYARI Mountains. who lived in the western highlands of Persis. on which all the others are dependent. f It is most probably this region which repeatedly mentioned in the Assyrian royal annals under the name of Anzan. have been quite. and were probably a branch of or identical with the better known AmarDIANS. and to have Elamites and Kasshi. and were surely not Aryan at all. and now known as BakiITheir language appears to belonged to the agglutinative type (Turanian or Ouralo-AltaYc ").) These are clearly the Erasian nation. 1^5 ff. pal ones. I. is that of the Mardians. and is sometimes Assan and Anduan. that spoken in Elam. it AND PERSIA.278 MEDIA. " \ See Story of Chaldea. 125.. Of " the others. Of the nomad tribes the only one which we can identify with any degree of certainty. only three are — the nian conquerors. the ruling class. Ansiian. of the ten or twelve which Greek historians divide the Per- named the Pasargad." (Herodotus.

C. a prince of the clan of the Pasargadai. (See p. process gathering of the separate and indeed. It was regarded with great reverence ever after as the cradle of the monarchy. and when that monarchy extended into the mightiest empire that the world had yet seen. to have been Hakiiamanish (more familiar under the Greek form of the name as AkH/?-:menes). of Persia as a nation or. the founder of which is known. and was succccdeil by a to lone line of famous under the name of AkH/EMENID. the . any other the same. The tribal city of the clan.) temporary of Asshurbanipal. That such a movement can be efTected only through the agency and authority of one master-spirit stands to reason. more gifted than the others. 278. It is the always in a great measure in- dependent clans or tribes under the leadership of one more numerous. Such was the origin of the Persian hereditary monarchy.). became the royal capital of the united nation. more powerful. which was al- ways held be the noblest of the three ruling lie must have jjccn a contribes.E or Akha^menian dynasty.MEDIA AND THE RISE OE PERSIA. is nation. and its kings had the choice of four great capitals for their residence. and at others included in the title of the kings of Elam. also called Pasargada:. The beginnings The were not different from those of Media. 14. Macedon (331 B. from testimony too public and solemn to be disputed. times 2/9 among its allies. kin<j[s. and the successful chieftain naturally becomes the king of the state he has created. tlie last scion of which lost his crown and life in the strugAlexander of gle with the young Greek conqueror.

and its wells dried up. called The. for their cor- onation. in Persia. the son of Akhaemenes. Kyros I. place where Pasargadae st(3od there are is now MURGHAB. Reims. King of An" After his death. and Arsames (Arshama). Elam was utterly destroyed its people carried away and scattered. some ruins there. its princes slain or dragged into bondage. .. in which a 15. its cities and temples sacked and turned into dens for beasts to lie in. sacredness attached to their modest ancestral city was so great that each succeeding king came there to be It was like the French kings going to inaugurated." shan.* Not a condition this. (KURUSIl) suc- ceeded him Anshan. (Chishpaish). Akiaramnes (Ariyaramana). AND PERSIA. BABYLOIV. Kambyses I. in Anshan. or the Scotch kings to Scone. reigned in Persia. Persians were by nature a conquering and although not strong enough at this people early stage of their national life to undertake distant expeditions. much less its outlying provinces. country could defend its very heart against an inThe land vader. and it must have been at this time that TeTspeS. of the city of Anshan. or the royal house of the Akhaemenians split itself into two lines: one of in his sons. 399-401.28o MEDIA. its trees burned. and assumed the title of " Great King. . the oldest in Persia. occupied it. of Anshan was open to its Persian neighbors. and The . while another. It is extremely probable that Kyros and Ariaramnes were * Sec " Story of Assyria." pp. they found close at hand an opportunity for an easy acquisition too tempting to be neglected. These were followed respectively by their sons.

or of the Akha. since the beginning of its greatness dates from its revolt against the Median rule under Kyros II.'menians having reigned in a double line. but that C0untr\. overthrew the familiar structure raised out of the stories times and — half fabulous as they now turn out to be — which the Greek writers took on trust from Median and Persian sources. most of them. It is well- established that Kyros. epical ballads. and the overthrow of the Median Empire by that King. There is no doubt. graphs. was already king of Persia. and the very of name of Anshan was unknown. standing forth in the uncompromising simplicity and stubbornness of contemporary evidence. at the time of the conc|uest of Babylon. gives us the facts crowded into the last few paraNo one had the remotest idea of Kyros having been any thing but a king of Persia. the last king of Babylon. that Persia stood towards Media in the position of a subject and tributary country. which. at all events. among 28 1 the allies or vassal princes who helped Kyaxarcs to overwhelm Assyria. either entire or in fragments. monuments accidentally discovered in Two at sets various various places revealed these facts. who on both c)iindcrs is called and calls himself " King of Anshan. not untainted with myth. 16.was rather distant and probabK' little known . None of the histories we inherit from antiquity." not of Persia. antl the cai)ture of that city by Kyros. Of these monuments some are Persian and three are Babylonian cylinders recording some of the acts of Nabonidus. of the modern histories compiled from those materials. consequently.MEDIA AND THE RISE OF PERSIA. nor.

in the Accadian. 216. king of tlic four regions son of Kambyses (Kambujiya) the great king. king of Shumir and Accad. how he sets it : I am Kyros (Ivurush). like the cylinders.menians. lonian most important one for the point now under examination is the famous RocK OF Behistun or BlSUTUN. indeed still later. name of Babylon. " OF Anshan. King ok the city . whereas tlic Land and City of Anshan were ver\' near and liad loncf been famih'ar to them. to the Clialdeans. the great deeds of his reign. the great king. and after him the greatest of the Akha. The rock. noticed from very ancient times on account of its isolated position and peculiar shape. On the straightest and smoothest face of the rock Dareios determined to perpetuate. The monument was to be absolutely * Tintir." p. as doubtless also the new reigninj^ family that had established is As to his lineage. since we owe them to Persian kings. king of the city of Anshan.282 MEDIA." Very different in size from these tiny Babymonuments are the Persian ones. and. the powerful king. second successor of Kyros. on mounting the throne of Babylon itself there. king of the eity of Anshan. the most striking feature of the road from Hamadan (ancient Agbatana) to Baghdad. BABYl. or rather the inscription engraved on that rock by Dareios. grandson of Kyros. AXD PERSIA.OX. great-grandson of TeTspes (Thiespish) the great king. successors of Kyros. somewhat posterior to the time our history has reached. and near the modern town of KiRMANSHAH. . the great king. The 17. or pre-Semitic period see " Story of Chaldea. — the most ancient . by means of sculpture and writing. this forth in his proclamation. rises nearly perpendicular to a height of 1700 feet. the kHig of Tinlir*).


Flandin and Coste. Not only was the surface smoothed down almost to a state of polish.284 MEDIA. then Major <•>[ field-glasses infinite and an outlay of over five thousand dollars. The is repeated three times in the different languages. first AND . at the cost of three years' labor (1844-1847) — hardships and dangers. with the help successfully to achieve. making in all over one thousand lines of cuneiform writing. which was probably that of all Elam. indestructible. ing or copying it. after many attempts. we have before us in the shape of a very painstaking. it was closely plastered with a kind of cement. which it was the glory of Sir Henry — — Rawlinson. and in the language of Anshan. that it could be scarcely got at for the purpose of studysacrilegious of invader or hand — — Indeed. How the artists and engravers originally ever got to the place.dl. the F"rench scholars. but wherever the stone showed crevices or dints. the rock had to . matching and fitting it so exactly as to be hardly disThe result of all this foresight and tinguishable. — . gave up the task. undergo an elaborate preliminary preparation. unless there were some practicable paths which were cut away subsequently and even then they could not have worked without ladders and scaffoldings. surrounded by numerous columns of inscription. remarkable piece of historical sculpture. This was so well secured by the height at which the work was executed over 300 feet from the base. and. Besides. in Assyrian. so as to be intelligible to all the three races which the new empire had united under its rule in long narrative : Persian. is a question which the steepness of the ascent makes very puzzling. or Susiana. nABYLON. Messrs. PllRSIA. of inaccessible to the domestic foe.


succeeding. . the Akhccmenian. it Median. the king of kings. the king of the king of nations. and patience was common like every thing out of the these parts of Asia. with perhaps just a shade less of stiffness. king : From ancient times we have descended p. of was Arsames (Arshama) of Arsames the father was Ariaramnes(Ariyaramana)." in compliment thoufrht to have inhabited Anshan. to the mythical queen Semiramis. labor. from ancient times our family have been kings. or Scythic. Says menians. AND BERSIA.'1 8. but to the Turanian or — agglutinative type. " It used at earliest " first to be called* Proto-Median. The Persian kings.e. like every long-descended prince. now it is proposed to call r.." " i. Turanian. * See " Story of Assyria. of Ariaramnes the father was Teispes was Akhaemenes (Ilakhamanish)." but z. am Arsames.286 MEDIA. of Teispes the father " On that account we are called AkhreDareios the Ilystaspes the father . ." " to the nation Avho is Amardian. by the Greeks. the son of Ilystaspcs. in long lines of Assyrian and Babylonian monarchs. Dareios (DaRAYAVUSH is the Persian form). begins by establishing his " I genealogy : Dareios the great king. which henceforth became the lic and invariable form of Oriental pubThis style we accordand writing. Like Kyros. BABYLON. as they did. This immense monument attributed of human pride. " Says Dareios the king My father was Hystaspcs (Vishtaspa) : . as the country began to be called from its capital Shushan or Susa.." 198. and possibly of the un-Aryan popFor this Ianulation of tlic entire Zacrros refrion. the grandson of Persia. (Chishpaish). appropriated their literary style. and in a distorted form. speaking set ingly recognize in the trilingual Behistiln inscription. has been shown to belong neither to the guage Aryan nor to the Semitic.

th<i^'\P.MEDIA . 5. 282). and is 9. TeTspes. given above (p. been kiftgs. with the of the kings traces his separate line upwards. ( : 4.owing Anshan genealogical scheme 1. and one in Persia proper. succeeded hy {ends .(p]4.V ^liie ni^TT (• oreatj t-ii^'^^l ^ reunites Anshan Persia to ^j^^ exclusion of the Anshan or elder line (IIystaspes). Dareios clear c>'>»j^." The Bchistun inscription was known and deci- phered long before the discovery of the cylinders of Nabonidus and Kyros. that the decipherers entertained great doubts about it. I line. Teispes. vided his kingdom between his two sons. we shall at once sec how beautifully the two complete each other: each ever. Arsames. at his death. been kings l)efore me . Kambyses Line of Persia T. and Ariaramnes. founder of Persian royalty 2." one in An- — And in numbering shan. KvROS I. annexer of Anshan. : This tlic Akh/icmenes. Vv /. till both unite in their common ancestor. uhcthe race who were kings before him. were found so extremely puzzling. and intimated by the sign (?) that they considered the translation uncertain and howprovisional. AriarAMNES.(|ludes those of the gives thB. Therefore the last words of the above passage (printed in italics). : 287 " There are eight of my race who have Says Darcios the king In a douhlc line we ha7Je I anj the ninth. By comparing the whole passage. the Evidently he diconqueror or annexer of Anshan. I Line of Anshan : 3.4JVI> THE RISE OF PERSIA. corresponding one from Kyros' proclamation. Kyros I. and the Akhaemenian " house continued to reign in two lines. P)aki:ios. 6.

is cc ent to have been forced to anticipate considerably in order to establish our authorities for a narrative conflicting in We many at the points with the course of events universally accepted until very lately.. When the elder line became extinct in the person of Kambyses. These two indications converge to the conclusion that Kyros. before he overthrew the Median Empire and started on his career of conquest. since history shows him an honored and trusted kinsman and councillor at the court of Kyros and governor of an important province. to the exclusion of Hystaspcs. Hystaspcs is never given the title of tJic Had Hystaspcs tenth. Hyrcania. this time in favor of his = no ^ reigns long and gloriously. reigned. On the other hand. but he appears to have been a singularly unambitious person. the representative of the younger line. Darcios would have been he expressly states that cig/it of his But race reigned before him. We resume it next authentic move — the will now of fall the Median Empire. . BABYLON.-^SS MEDIA. the nearest and natural claimant was Hystaspcs. and he is the ninth. the son of Kyros the Great. for we agapii find him passed by. established himself as king of both Anshan and the ancestral country — Persia. who would seem to have submitted with a good grace. AND PERSIA. while he command some of that son's armies. king in the numerous inscriptions recording the genealogy of Darcios and his descendants on the walls of their palaces at the royal city of Persepolis.

known more especially "the Nabonidus Cylinder. and the capture of l^abylon " importance as an historical document. king of Sabmanda." p.iler was written in the reign of Kyros as king of Babylon. TITF. lon. In the second column we read as follows: Against Kuiasli (Kyros). alludes Another." This cyT^. capKurash (marched) tured him and delivered him over to Knrash. ".Sl. furniture." a name here given to the . 289 u . widespread •S'rt/'wawc/f. king of Anshan. king of Anslian.MENIAN. the royal city. and brought captured. . came Isli. " 'Puvthcron Kyros is once named King of Persia.XL KHRTTSTT T. He Modes). lie took from Agamtunu lie carried off all valuables Anshan the treasure and goods which he had ." and somewhat earlier more briefly to the same event. . gold. which surpasses both the otncrs '=' •' _ annals of the reign of Nabonidus. contains the last king of l>abyl)y Kyros. Ras. sani. 213. into the land of silver.C." lir^t Sargon of Agade." (the god Marduk) caused Kurash. lie overthrew the his young servant. " he captured Ishtuvegu. TITR AKI I'. I Of the three cyHnders nieiUioiicd on p. as in date. the famous cylinder which helped to establish the date See " Story of Chaldea. to go with his little army. 2. KTNr. . 549B. II. Fail of the and tlic one brouijht over by Mr.. "(" barbarians. and took his treasure to his * This of the is own land. Ishtuvegu's (Astyages') army revolted against him.Median Emin p'^e. ." to Agamtunu (Agbatana).

" who had long been impatient of the Median that they had found a leader. having spent part of his youth at the court of Astyagcs. I feel that I am bidding destined by Providence to undertake your liberation and you." Astyages immediit ately sent out an army against the rebels." Kyros thereupon marched to Agbatana. Kja-os. Astyagcs lost his Thus. the result can be " When the two armies met and engaged. According to him.."lily connniis (mu> portion of the it stands in Herodotus. others deserted openly to the Persians. but was " utterly defeated and taken prisoner. are no whit inferior to the Medes (a great lord. the old king came out to moned body of citizens. meet him with a hastily sumboth )'oung and old. now was commanded by Harpagos. . headed by a certain IlARPA(iOS and kinsman of the king)." continues Herodotus. 2. This he is said to have done by appealing to their national " Follow my pride and saying to them. after a crown. while the greater number counterfeited fear and fled. but a. guessed only a few of the Medes who were not in the secret : fought. luxury.s dominion. the prospect of securing wealth and the delights of " The Persians.?90 MEDIA." that he increased the ardor of his comparaunlikely out to them tively penurious countrymen by holding in any thing. It is not at all least of all in bravery. were delighted to shake off the yoke. and by whose advice he was guided when he incited the Persians to open revolt. with whom he corresponded. narrative as All this tliorou<. reign of thirty-five years.inyroA\ Axn per sia. had formed a'i)artyfor himself among the Medcs. n. : . I am sure. For myself. in substance and be free.

mous and mild." having caused the disaster by his crueland tyranniStill Kyros.EMEAUAN. even at the of spoiling by condensation one of the most entertaining and best-told stories in the world. — with myth. he sends for Mandane. The Median Empire. counting from the fall of Nineveh. Kambyses. The only touch of reality about it is the statement that As{ yages had no son. honorably treated and amply provided for. Book I.. too widely known to be briefly touched upon. immediately branches off into folk-lore. . must be This narrative." 29I and the Mcdcs were brought under the rule of the He was not beloved. indeed. a private but of a quiet temper." In consequence of another dream. and evidently derived from the same source Median and Persian epic ballads. whereupon he marries her away from his court to a Persian named " man. THE h'rXC. which the Magi interpret as meaning that the son of his daughter Mandane would rule the whole of Asia. who was by nature magnanical ways. but only in The details are historiin substance." AW/crs//. so as to have her and * See Herodotus. did his royal captive no injury. however. of gootl family. whom he looked on as much inferior to a Mede of even middle condition. and was aceused of Persians. which. had lasted fifty-seven years. risk ignored. largely mixed to be correct. P^irst of all the king has a dream. So far the narrative of Herodotus is proved by contemporary monuments portions and cally as worthless as the Greek stories about Semiramis. 3. but kept him at his court until his death. THE AKII.* This revolution took place in 549 B.C. 123-130.

Astyages. 4. while the royal infant is brought up by the herdsman's wife. as her own and under an assumed name. with the order to expose him " in the wildest part of the hills. persuaded her husband to exchange the two. but makes over the babe to one of the royal herdsmen. the little licr child in his is l)orn. and the herdsman was frightened into confession. who . with whom he used to play at being making them obey him in real earnest and punishing severely any act of insubordinaf:ion. a easily certain family likeness. who had Kyros and his playfellows summoned to his their king. too.29- MEDIA. where he should be sure to die speedily. man and trusty servant Harpagos to carry him to his slay him. presence. his free Something in the demeanor of the boy. AND PERSIA. and the matter ended by being brought before the king. Harpagos has not the heart to do the cruel thing himself. BABVLOX. and haughty manner of answering questions and accusations. whose name is Spaka (which means " bitch. is shown to the men sent by Harpagos. female dog "). some of whom were of noble birth and resented the supposed little plebeian's insolence. arrayed in all the home and other's costly attire. power. and three days later the dead child." The herdsman's wife. whose range of pastureland lay among mountains infested with wild beasts. When he reached his tenth year Kyros made himself conspicuous by his masterful ways among his comrades. This led to complaints from the parents of the other boys. whose own babe had just died. the king immediately orders liis kinsKyros. and when lliat child. roused Astyagcs' suspicions.

and sent him home to Persia. This at once sugIt wouhl be soothing to gests Median informants. thus creating an claim for him on their terest sting own from cont^uest — hereditary side. was sincerely glad that lie should turn up alive. but from that moment secretly worked against the king. Cruel and revengeful as he dissembled his anger under a great was. as given above. to connect him witli own royal house. the boy having been king in play. From prince. correct. alienating from him the great Median nol)les and preparing the general falling off in favor of Kyros. having first taken the advice of the Magi.ranclson. this point the narrative. whose hands and feet and head were presented to him in a basket after he had eaten. though not bellishments. the dreams had fulfilled. with whom he communicated as soon as the boy was old enough. THE KING. and there was no further Hut not therefore was Harpagos forgiven danger. The meat placed before Harpagos was the flesh of his own child. He made no sign. THE A A'/EICiMEAf/AN. to his father and mother. is in the main 5. for his breach of trust. who were of opinion that. even after they had long accepted the new ruler and li\ed prosperous under him and their his descendants. free from fanciful em- lerodotus knows nothing of Kyros' royal parentage on the father's side." 293 had taken a likin<^ to his t. and bade his kinsman send his son to the palace as attendant to the newly found and to come to supper that evening himself." K CRUSH. Astyages been literally show of friendliness. I So the vanity of the conquered people. anil taking the bitsubmission to a stranger .

however. to : — the extent of seeking his to madness for to life ? Is it not unnatural line. and at the same time looking down on Jiis father as being " mucl. we detect the Eranian touch in the name of the woman. But the Greeks. let alone other people's. or even fraud. that they are much more likely to supply the want of heirs by adoption. it is an old. divine protection. than to destroy those given them by nature? the instinct common As to the story of Kyros' exposure. who arc always so ambitious to found or continue dynasties.294 MEDIA. and of Moses. were * Not confined to the Aryan race. AND PERSIA. if Kyros was Astyages' natural heir. Of course every nation that rej)eats it stamj^s it with some' In its application to Kyros. who had not the remotest comprehension of their own myths. providential escape. national peculiarity. rodotus in one place tells us as much. Ahura-Mazda's own sacred animal (see pp.* which has been told various times of almost every national hero. is unanswerable glaring. to intimate miracuIndeed Helous preservation. 2u5. why should the old king be incensed at the prospect of his accession to power. 20O). BABYLON. . and obscure bringing up. The real story was that the child was saved and suckled by a dog. and foreigner. but turning up also in the treasury of Semitic tradition. let alone sovereigns. old bit of Aryan folk-lore. inferior to a Mcdc of even middle condition!" But the inconsistencies which grow out of this perversion of facts are very This objection. for one. Compare the legends of the first' Sargon of Agade (" Stury of Cfialdea. Spaka. him to cut ofT his to all own contrary mankind." pp. 1 39-141). as this story makes him out to be.

". — Herodotus. Tlir. the Persians that there was a special providence in his preservalion." 295 shocked by the absurdity of the statement. thus unconsciously coming near the truth as concerning his connection with p. Amytis (not Mandane). f They all agree in making him a resident at the Median court during his boyhood and early youth.MENIA X. was suckled by rumor. however. except only that the miracuis wanting." It This was tlic sole origin of the was (lie reverse was " I really the case. this informant tells us. 95. catching the name" (liis nurse's). Astyages. who thus found himself heir to the throne. 280). by Herodotus. and she was married to a noble Mede of the name of Spitama. but spared his two sons and treated the princess with every respect. and explained 6. THE A KHA^. it away in the manner wc liave seen. a bitch. of which. tliree know ways in uliich tiie story of Kyro-.'' KURrs/l.. "' There were several other versions of the story They have been retailed by various Greek writers. and do not appear mucli more reliable than that of Kyros' youth. all dif- 1. not Anshan (see pilers one of these comknows any thing. is * This " spread the report that Kyros. KING. any more than of his sup- posed relationship to Astyages. " is fering from my own narralive. . then took her to wife. without any attempt at criticism. One of these versions gives an exceedingly probable account of his proceedings after liis victory. This dangerous claimant Kyros put to death when he had made himself master of Agbatana and the royal family. had one daughter. thus transferring her claim to himself. that f when he was exposed. Herodotus" : "So it liapi)cncd that his the passage in " and wishing to persuade parents. and one makes him a Mardian selected lous element (or Amardian). luKl.

after having been subject to the Medes. and of Hyrcania. lie AND PEKSIA. c. but that Ticfranes was warned in time by his sister.. although his own sister had latel}' become second wife to Astyages. It is further reported — it was on this occasion Tigranes.296 MEDIA. Zoroastrian religion and introduced it into Armenia. adopted the. It may have been owing to the Armenian alliance that Kyros within the next two years extended his rule westward as far as the Halys i. as there is no evidence that could be called proof." There is a tradition to the effect that the king of Cappadocia was married to a sister of Herodotus Kambyses. with the intent of murdering him. We . as merely remarks: "The Cappadocians submitted to Kyros. TiGRANES I. He does not seem to have that encountered much resistance in this quarter. fi. to give a j)lausible and creditable . aided Kyros in his revolt. Ar- menian historians add that the perfidious old Mede liatl invited his new brother-in-law to visit him. As to the old king. the father of K}'ros but it may have been an invention. This report must be taken for what it may be worth. Tiiere is a tradition that tlie king of Armenia. niatlc him Satrap (governor) lionorcd liim as a father. a monarch with whom began a long and famous hne. to the farthest boundary of the Median Empire on the western side. do not know how much time and labor K)ros expended on the countries of Eastern Eran that made up so important a portion of the Median inheritance Vv'hich he claimed and systematically 7. color to his submission. to confirm it.lJlYLON. who always remained Kyros' devoted friend and ally.

his queen. Hyrcanians. and follow the fortunes of Sogdians. His chief \\ife. left and 8. L\. and when their . indeed. the Persians. THE AKU/liMKNJAN:' 2<j7 gathered under his rule. to the peoples he subdued to fix the figure nature of the tribute they were able and willing it to pa}'. . world. besides having his choicest troops composed oi Persians. Saki (/. try headed an expedition into the East and It would be as vain as unprofitable to all — Bactrians. Scythians.) etc. who are little Aryan and Turanian. he may have personallx' North-east. rilE KliXC. and made it understood at once that they were to be the first in the new empire. was herself an Akhacmenian her name. as given b\' the was KaSSANDANE she.. to his ambition chiefly inclined him. His just and mild rule soon reconciled the to the change of masters. by exempting them from tribute antl selecting his generals and Satraps (governors) from Medes number. is frequently spoken Greeks. the obscure nations Chorasmians. . Kyros showed himself superior to all the c<jnHe is said to have qucrors the world had yet seen. of as a woman of great mental power and real influence. got. that his first favor and duty was owing to his own people." KUKUSH. It is probable that their reduction and the necessity of keeping them in a state of submission provided him with occupation for the rest of his life. and lie made speHe never forcial efforts to secure their devotion. more than names in the history of the In his treatment of them. as in all other respects. and that at intervals between which the acts of the great undertakings in the West. K}'ros was deeply attached to her.

to a great extent. in come next . true to his nation and ancestry. caused "a great mourning "to be made for her throughout the empire. the two cjueens faithfully representcountries. as of one people. though the Median princess never could claim precedence over the Persian one. It has been asked : What was is Persian Empire? and it a question the capital of the not easy to answer. After the first excitement of war and victory. AND I'EKSIA. who speak of "the Medes and Persians" jointly. she died. ten years after the fall of the Median Empire. there were several. which. they were never treated as a conquered nation. ing in their relative position that of their respective Still the fusion was so complete as to become invisible to the eyes of foreigners. apparently conferred this dignity un his empire. indeed. might not have been as easily achieved under a monarch less temperate and judicious than Kyros proved himself throughout. 9. however. they always to the Persians indeed we find Medians entrusted with important military commands scarcely cil. Unity of race and. as the or In reality. BABYLON. . in the army and the counple. the connection must have helped to smooth matters. but as a brother-peoIn war and in peace.298 MEDIA. according kings resided in the royal city of this that of the countries which composed the Kyros. If he really did marry the daughter of Astyages. not infrequently using one name for the other. attendance on the royal person. ]>ut the second place was ungrudgingly allotted to the Medes. of language and religion must have largely contributed to this result.


. BABYLON. wings and a most peculiar head-dress (see this strange figure That Kyros is placed bedoubt by the inscription which we read at some )-ond hcicht above its head. not very striking or numerous. But there is some reasonable doubt as to whether it was intended for the living for his glorking. or rather grave-chamber. or rather for an ideal representation of ified Fravashi after death. which l)ut open and emptx'. Interesting as they are. bearing a basill. make a thriving.nemenian king went there for liis inauguration. and after receiving few truna single tributary^ ends in a salt lake. in the valley of MURGHAB. on its base of well preserved. they are eclipsed by two relics which appeal more powerone is a square. now represented by a knot of ruins. : isolated. a there. fully to the fancy of the beholder a few gate-pillars. and every Akh. A cated columns. relief and very massive stone pillar. But it did not possess the conditions that go to lous It is centre. are all that remdins of of very fine these constructions. former!)^ KVROS . a scant and insignificant stream. and many more bases without col- and a platform with a casing umns. as most named watercourses of this arid region. all of solid . clan-cit\- AND ITc liis PERSIA. The other relic is the great meant stands king's tomb. popuand became neglected as a residence. it is after the great king himself. A great sacredness attached to the place consequence. built own in in 1\-\saK(. seven retreating stages or high steps. stone masonry. and a trcasurw and body rested palace there death. representing a human is figure with four unfolded 41).adj.300 MEDIA. watered by the PULWAR. uninteresting and short-lived.


7 by ic^ stood by a couch with feet of massive gold. who visited it. The monument Avas found intact by Alexander of Macedon. licight of . marble. of costly material and workmanship. The gilt His historians describe it as "a house narrow (it is more- man could scarcely sarcophagus." with a door so over only four feet high) that a squeeze through.ht. There was. and sword. covered with purple-dyed draperies. 5 feet) area. besides. we are told. 7/) TOMB OK KYROS AT PASARGADiE. surrounded by fragments of wliat evidently was once a colonnade. . shield.302 MEDIA. thickness of walls. tion v/as brief and simple: "O man! The inscripam Kurusli. a table on which were deposited vari- ous precious relics — Persian weapons. feet.ntiro }icic. Suits of clothes were also found. l)locks of \vhit(. feet chamber or chapel. 42. BABYLOh'. (F. AND PERSIA. I the king's own bow. 7 feet. and the walls were hung with Babylonian tapestries. some jewels. upon a pedestal.

ing. we should be justified in declaring it to be imitated from Assj-rian models even the close." house. he found the noble rhrine tlesecrated and plundered. The and ruled Asia. to a decent and seemly of condition. fortunately. is one frequently seen on the brow of Egyptian fitting fringed divinities and royalties. 10. used stone. When Alexander returned to Pasargadai from his unsuccessful expedition to India. the son Kyros. and could do nothing but give orders to repair the monument. at least outwardly. the (greatness Grudge me not this the inclosurc was a smaU Inside monument. while nothing is left of the Median constructions. and restore it. and in its very essence. from first to last.MENIA X." KURUSir. of every country they have known or conquered. The ruins of Pasargada^ are the most ancient monuments wc have of Persian art. the sarcophagus gone. while the massive pillar itself ." who founded 303 the son of Kanibujiya. it the Persian artist copied. Had we no other specimen of Persian sculpture than that basrelief (ill. THE KmG. occupied by some Magi. imitative. who received an amand whose duty it ple daily allowance of provisions. robe betra)'s the originals from which As to the head-dress. 41). consisting in the profuse use the Persians. which were of wood. These monuments show traces of the influence. their monuments have survived. THE AKIE^. and was hereditary. with the single exception of the Aryan principle of buildAs of columns. of Persia. office had been first instituted b\^ Kambyses. was to guard the place and keep it in order. and the merest srlance at them suffices to show that it was.

BABYLON. was as yet unbroken. to reverse the verdict of lack of originality it which was pronounced on that as soon as was discovered. 29^ soon become acquainted with but shall find- far more numerous. that was In 546 B. no changes having taken place in the territorial conditions of the potentates who concluded that memorable agreement. but the Persian. The petty. the balance of power. P^or the men were no longer the same. while the chapel is distinctly Greek in design. the Assyro-Bab}'lonian Ziggurat is too obvious to need demonstration. 42) reproduces. which we left unheeded for years to follow the rising star of Persia. 220222). tyrannous Mcde had been forced to yield . cliinis}' AND BEKSIA imitation of an Assyrian sUlc-.C. of Persian art. Thai llic Tonil) of 1<\Tos (ill. and the masonr). The greatest of the three states in point of extent had merely changed hands and name: it was the Me- dian Empire no longer. every thing was apparently undisall. es- tablished after the Battle of the Eclipse (see pp. yet every thing trembled in the balance. antl shows that he employed Greek artists from the colonies on the sea-shore: the column-bases arc exactly like those found in the ruins of some Ionian temples. turbed.of the great platform recalls We shall early Greek wall-masonry (see ill. even in its most beautiful art productions. and what little remains of Kyros' own constructions. But. to return to the political world of Western Asia. indolent. and elaborate monuments nothing.304 is MEDIA. II. With Kyros still on the eastern side of the Halys. on a small scale a in different material. imposing.

SUPPOSED TOMB OK KAMliYSES 305 I. (Possibly an Atesh-Gah. - 43.•Hi. or Firc-Chapel. AT PASARGAD/E.) X .

he left Lydia the most extensive and powerful state of Asia Minor. especially formidable from its trained and sj^lendidly mounted cavalry. empty. who erected to his meni- public cost. all linetl with polished white marble.* Herodotus calls it " a structure of of monuments =•= ceeded by his led to the discoveiy enormous size. Alyattes' long reign (fifty-eight years). at his people. jn or about 560 U. Victor Floigl's " Cyrus und Herodot.reat was reversed clianj^e Babylon had passed into feeble and Nebuchadrezzar's sceptre incapable hands.I/iVLON. which is even now a conspicuous feature of the plain by the Hermos. the gigantic sepulchral mound or barrow.3o6 MEDIA. and opened the way for the invasion against which he had accumulated so many defences. By suc- and annexations.]}'. f See Dr. with a numerous and well-ordered army. discord and civil troubles filled the land he had ruled so wisely and stronsj. for the sake of the many precious things it doubtless contained. of all the Lydian kings. wliilcthe L. so far as the wisest and greatest of the Mermnadai.C." pp. only inferior to the Egypt and Babylon. The fate of l^abylon was so inevitable that her dreaded neighbtjr could leave her for the last while he attended to more Lydia's turn was to come first.. one wlio the AND ri:RSlA. and a treasury overflowing with \\'ealth of every description. cessive conquests — indeed. He well deserved the affection and reverence of or}-. cleaned out at an unknown time by unknown plunderers. and a s^enius." Me was sucson (some say grandson f). . ended. near the ruins of Sardis. 132-138. H. Kroisos. mound and have feet long Excavations have repeatedly been made in the of the sepulchral chamber (eleven by but eight broad and seven high). pressing business. a full half mile in circumference. we know. lie was by far with his life. his place to \vas a liero in : 12.

and * See " Slory of Assyria. a mere army of^cer. which he " and Lislly he wished to add to his own dominions . upon to avenge the wrongs of his kinsman. 380. still he did r." KURUSII. of amiable and luimane disposition. as very well indicated by Herodotus the empire of learnt that Kyros had destroyed Astyages. and Egypt. resent the ele13.* although the dynasty whose establishment was helped by that assistance had lately been overthrown by a revolution.ot undervalue tlie foe on whom he meditated an attack. hiilluint THE AKHALMENIANr 307 ." growing power of that people. felt called and cast about him for allies. in seems to have been an exceeding self-complacency and an inordinate pride in the immense wealth which have made his name a b)'-word for all times. of the name Aahmes. with himself whether it were possible to check the fault : Further." p. more. who owed Lydia a good turn for the aid received from Gyges at the time of her own war of independence. "he coveted the land of Cappadocia. of good parts. He felt very sure of victory. Kroisos was the first openly to who was to him nothing more than \ation of Kyros. An of upstart usurper. an usurper. who was threatened by the same danger as himself.C. had dethroned Hophra (569 B. whose unheardof prosperity and sudden fall have made him a His greatest favorite theme with Greek moralists. . and that the Persians were becoming This led him to consider daily more powerful. THE KING. The most naturcd ones were Babylon.i and magnificent prince. supported by the soldiers whom he commanded. . Mis motive in so doing was a mixed " He one. .).

but heedless t)f and fifth little thinking. so Kroisos them messengers "with gifts in their hands. at the time.OX. n. •^uU of joy at the coming of the messengers.) Norchd Kroisos content himself withluunan means to insure liis success." This was patriotic advice. grateful to Kroisos for some : of the god's bidding. — — The Spartans sent to were. of the god's favorable reply to the suit of his forefather of his heart. and de" that name Knowing first rcUik in Greece. (Tlic (ji'ccks misprois nounced al!}' his name Amasis. In the joy overwhelmed Apollo's temi)lc with his gifts not unmindful. I desire to were substantial favors formerly received of him. \er\' probably." who informed them clared in the king's hold the you become your The Spartans. which form the gener- accepted one.inV/. and at " once took the oaths of friendship and alliance. The oracles had added "a recommendation to look and see who were the most alliance with powerful of the Greeks.308 MEDIA. especial!}' that of the Delphic oracle." who were.!X/> I'KKSIA. Kroisos — G}'ges." . at all the ugly (jualifying clause. ^ soon after cUalli. moreover. 189). The replies were encouraging. He seut to the most famous Greek oracles to inquire what would be the result if he crossed the lialys and attacked the Persians. that Jic was the descendant aj)p()inted for the expiation of the ancestral crime (see p. events. and to make them. unquestionably the most powerful among the Greek nations. pill liim In . and the object of it to bring Greece forward and open to her an iniluence in the affairs of the great political world of the day an altogether praiseworthy one. friend in all true faith and honesty.

and He sent also four silver casks [over 5c)oo gallons]. all the people of the land to offer a When the sacrifice was ended. the necklace and the girdles of his wife. and one palm in Further he issued his orders to sacrifice The number of ingots was one hundred and seventeen. KING. 15. three palms broad. the olht r of silver. the others of pale gold [probably electron. couches coated witli silver . . having resolved to propitiate the Delphic god with a magnificent sacrifice. sec ill. sec p. blem of Lydia. . . to . down in * This gold must be understood to have been melted flames of the sacrificial ]))Te. tlu' There was nothing now to dela). Kroisos sent to Delphi many others of less account. This the passage Kroisos. rest a number in of round silver vases. . making them six palms long. 33]. liesides these various offerings. four being of relined gold. 2i6|. . He also caused a statue of a lion [the royal emihickne^^. of an enormous size.existed in the temple treasuries could be seen by visitors in the time o{ Herod- And otus. ." \\ 122. the latter upon the ." gold. " he cannot . TIFF. . by way of consecration. Kroisos sent them away to Delphi. sacrificial beast. which used to of w hich stand. . the king melted down a vast quantity of gold * and ran it into ingots. two bowls \cratcrs\. offered up three tliousand of every kind of and besides made a huge pile and placed upon it and with gold. . 14. the tered the temple. A[)oIlc.Kroisos in If we are to execution of his cleverly laid i)lans. The . . . was ten talents. ." KURUSII. silver one holds former upim the left as ore ensix hundred ainpliorae . . and golden goblets and all of which he burnt in the hope of robes and vests of purple thereby making himself more secure of the favor of the god. right. the On the cus- tom *' of burning large cpiantities of precious things in ( sacrifice. one of gold. Also he dedicated a female . the weight On the lompletion of these works. too astounding to be passed and is as the). . see Story f Assyria. among the . and with then. THE A KILKMEhUAN:' of 309 the The cnunicration is Kroisos' gifts to Delphic over. be made in refined gold. . figure and further he presented three cul)its high. according to their means. . l)e taxed witli exairtreration. two lustral vases [for holy \\ater].

. . and Kyros was on the march. and they had refused to do so. leading his troops across the Ilalys yet it has always been considered good tactics. seems to . with an invitation to re- volt from the Lydian king. he should be thankful to the gods.last moment. being well proful. AND PERSIA. Persians were poor. among other things. believe ITcrodotus. however.^" liini consider that the he conquered them he from his \ii tor}-. " The combat. . and if nothing would Ix. left him to live for. so that. to carry the war into the enemy's territory. Kyros had sent just heralds to the Ionian cities." far This result. and he would have earned great praise had he been successHe had every reason to hope. and Icavin^x no secret enemies or doubtful friends in his rear. arms. warnlnc^ voices were heard amidst his own councillors. far from attacking the Persians. BABYLON. is what the Persians would inevitably have done. for over-hastiness in . while would reap no advantages his own stake was so tremendous that if he lost." Herodotus reports. had not Kroisos been beforehand with them. battle-field.. " was hot and nor had victory declared in favor bloody i6. the blame of the disaster which befel Lydia was laid entirely on Kroisos. whom historians have found fault with. men. though from unfavorable. when night came down upon the Thus both armies fought valiantly. The first battle was fought in Cappadocia.310 MEDIA. Put as men's judgments go by the event. that they had not put it into the heads of the Persians to invade Lj'dia. hitldin. vided with treasure. That. For at the ver). and allies. once hostilities are opened. of either party.

. conceiving that he had marched away with the intention of disl^anding his army. considered a little. as soon as to send word the Persians. number of his which fell very short of the enemy and as on the next day Kyros did not repeat the attack.. The tardiness of the allies and Kroisos. whose chief mistake was o\-er\veening confidence. The end came very quickly an outline of the event can best be gathered (in short passages) from Herodotus' did the . before the Lydians could get their forces together a second time. immediately on his return. with a request that they would join liim at . he would. rest. he set off on liis return to Sardis. and soon that Kyros. Having thus determined. . and further he meant the winter to Sparta. ill success on the .. march once more against With these intentions Kroisos. when Kroisos broke up so suddenly from his quarters after the battle. intended also to summon to his assistance the Babylonians ...Sardis in the course of the 'fifth month from He then disbanded the time of the departure of his messengers. THE AK'TJALMENIAN. however. ." 3II have dashed the exuberant spirits of the Lydi'an. THE KING. despatched heralds to his various allies. consisting of mercenary troops ." KVRUSH. was actually left alone to fight out a war for which he had thought he could not provide enough assistants. announce his coming to the Lydian king. saw tliat it was advisable for him to advance upon Sardis in all haste. Having got together these forces in addition to his own. owing to the precision and rapidity of the Persian's movements. . intending to collect his allies and renew tlic contest in the spring. " Kyros. which victory had been so evenly balanced. would venture to march upon Sardis. never imagining tlie army. . the first to marched forward witli such speed. leisurely narrative : " Kroisos laid the hlamc of his troops. he He meant to call on the Egyptians to send him aid . after a battle in . and to ha\'e thrown him into a confusion and vacillation of wliicli his adx'crsar)' was too great a general not to talce adx'ahtagc. . that he was himself Tliat monarch. he lost no time in carrying out his He plan. was past and springtime come.

Their manner of fighting was on horseback they carried long lances. and that Kroisos was a pris- Deeply grieved at his misfortune. but at last. which is overcome only by habit and training. efforts. thinking that the place would hold out no inconsiderable time. steeds. . .. LaccdcTmon. when a second message informed had already fallen. AND PEA'S/A. 17.. Among his other allies Kroisos did not omit to send to his allies to . .one K'll was nut at thai lime a l)ra\er or more warlike luuple. Thus the — * This is the battle which Kyros is said to have won by the cunin order to ning device of placing the camels rout the Lydian cavalry seeing that horses have a natural detestation of the sight and especially the smell of camels. They v>erc driven wilhiii their walls. watered by a numl)er of streams. the Lydians turned and fled." They had completed tlicir preparations.DTA. Lacedsemon — another name for Sparfn. and the. which all flow .312 placed in MF. ships were just them that the place oner. sent off fresh heralds from the beleaguered city to say that he was already besieged. and were clever in the management of their all so entirely ai^ainsl ians to haltlc. and the ready to start. "The flat bare of two armies met in lIio ])lniii before Sardis. In all liis calculations. Persians laid siege to Sardis. when the herald ar- rived from Sardis to entreat them to come to the assistance of the besieged king afford . Kroisos.* " Thus the siege Ijcgan. tiie Spartans ceased their d}-nasty of the Mermnadaj was overand Lydia ceased to be a kingdom all at thrown. and to beseech them to come to his aid with all possible speed. llio BABYLON. ulmost ditTicuIiy by the turn nf events which had c.\^ia there . . nevcillicless out tlu- Lyd- . but aroused very different feelNeither Lydia as a country ings in the lookers on. It is a vast trees. + — in front of his troops. Meanwhile. yet notwithstanding they instantly set to work to him help. just at this time engaged .f It chanced that the Spartans were themselves in a quarrel . one blow. The fall was as rapid ajid irretrievable as that of Assyria. called the Ilermos. after a great slaughter on The lioth sides. into one larger than the rest. combat was long.

and onlercd Kroisos to be burnetl alive with fourteen young Lydians. how the richest ladies of Sardis sent their slaves with gifts of costly robes and ornaments of every kind. determined to make an example of his ])risoner. ing. THE Kr. The Mermnad.been set on when Kyros relented. THE A KHAlMEh'TAN. and strongly suggestive of divine judgment. and burned w ith the victims. open to all the influences of a refined and genial culture. Diodorus. as they were led along in chains.VG. This is how Herodotus. alread)'. The catastrophe which cut them off \\'ith a suddenness comparable only to descending lightning. an awe which was — heightened by the grand closing scene of the tragedy. Kyros. which extinguished the ." XURUSff. with loud lamentation and tearing of relate : clothes. and others it." 313 nor her rulers personally were regarded with hatred. The wood had actuall). mo\'ed by some words l)ut uttered by Kroisos. delighting in intercourse with wise and accomplished foreigners. they say. they had gained too to offered much ground unavail- and all efforts quench them were Then Kroisos up a prayer to Apollo. One author even describes the prohow the women preceded and followed the cession king and the fourteen bo\-s. who sent a violent shower. with but slight variations. was witnessed by neighbors and subjects with silent awe and feelings made up in about equal parts of s\-mpathy with the sufferers and apprehension for themselves. which the Greeks utterly misunderstood. to be laid on the pyre. and ordered the flames to be put out. 18. and consequently misrepresented in their reports.'c had Ik-ch mild masters and generous friends. fire.

was free from the exaggerated firel^ut if a w^orship introduced by Median Magism. again. scandalized every student miration. innocent a bo)'s. of ancient history. AND PERSIA. as professed by the Persians.\\ iuci in^ruities and contradictions.314 fire. Now is account bristles In \\\\. bewe liad just before been told that he had given order. PABYLON. MF. and friend than prisonc^r.DTA. li\'cd licncc- And fortli. before the city was taken. while his presence at the solemn act would be meant as a mark of courtesy and ad. to spare the king in As for the torture and slaughter of fourteen battle. more thus was Kroisos saved.- ntterl}- inconsistent the Hrst place sucli a prowith the l*ersian hero's sides. elected to die rather than bear the ignominy of defeat and bondage. admitting that the Zoroastrian religion.sacred element of fire. even Zoroastrian. This then is the now generally accepted explanation of a statement which has long puzzled and. ccodini. and. Such royal sacrifices were king's own person or that of his first-born son of not infrequent familiar to Oriental religions and occurrence. it was not the victor's place to prevent him his very respect would forbid interference. still — — in the less unusual was the sacrifice of youths or children as expiatory offerings. it is a cruelty which he cannot Then. humane and magnanimous temper. at liiis tlie Persian court. and chose to do so in a sacrificial ceremony sanctioned by the sacred traditions of his country. a great king. Every thing points to this explanation as the only correct . fallen foe. as a Kyros could not possibly commit such an outrage on the most . one may almost say. fot moment have contemplated.

THE KING. *See above. p. Meyer. IV. the self-immolation in the very act of consummation. 309. p. but his friend. the income from which was to provide for his wants. who did not do generous things by halves. and " Story of Assyria. and is mcMitor. lived to a great old age. . or that Kroisos. 120-139.332 also Ed. reasonable to believe that the humane and sensible Kyros took occasion from it to urge his deeply bowed captive to give up his desperate intent. vol. f Kyros. I. always asked and often followed his advice." 315 one lie — even the the thin<^s laid account of on the pyre.. yielded his him and consented to live. 330. " GesfSec Duncker. gave him a city in the neighborhood of Agbatana. the sun-god might ac- cept his self-offered victim people. . and before his death is said to have commended his son Kambyses to his kind and watchful care..of precious Kroisos pra)'ed aloud. it was most natural to interpret it as a sign When a and show mercy to heavy shower interrupted Nor is it unthat the god rejected the sacrifice. that he seldom dispensed with his company even in his most distant expeditions. assuring him of treatment befitting a noble foe and a king. henceforth his captive no longer. pp. chichte des Alterthunis. an infant at the time of the disaster. knowing how much the rash and headstrong youth needed a counsellor and moderathis will t<^ man The grandson of Kroisos. finding out what manner of was that had conquered him.'" that tlic If certainly prayed quantit). THE AKHMMENTAN.'' KURUSH. 604. the account of Kroisos' great sacrifice in honor of the Delphic Apollo." vol." pp. and became so much attached to the gentle and wise quondam king.

in the name of their people. but he contemplated a personal expedition against Babylon. since they would not suffer it.\fEDTA.cd graiukc uiuU late Akhrcmcnians. who addressed him with great boldness. this. where the Bac19. and even an Egyptian 'campaign for the Pharaoh's interference in the favor — Lydia was not to be forgotten or condoned even though it had been only an intention to which circumtances denied fulfilment. his old friend sequence of the conquest of Lydia. Kyros was therefore impatient to depart from Sardis. submitted withlater. inconceivable presumpto hint when the envoy's words were conveyed by the interpreter.3l6 . and left the subjugation of the Greek cities of the sea-shore to one of his genof Harpagos. BABYLON-. that being a necessary But before he was confronted by some Lacedjemonian enleft. I live." thunderstorm that was to burst over Hellas fifty years The Greek cities. he voys. meanw hile. Greek city in any way. Great must have been the astonishment of the mighty conqueror at tion. and what was their number. to him. without concerning themselves about the Such was the first tiny cloud of the great lonians. AND r PERSIA. . "the have troubles enough of their own to Spartans talk of. K)'ros was planning great things not only was his presence required in the far East. It must have been in simple amazement that he asked some Greek bystanders these Lacedaemonians were. trians and some nomadic tribes were showing them- selves unmanageable. forbidding him. one of tlic tioMcd as an ai. to molest any erals." shall . that they dared to send him such a notice? who "If he is then said to have replied.

whom he made reconduct and the payment of the tribute.'mcnians was moderate and mindful of the various peoples' welfare. immediately after his departure a rising which was easily (pielled. okl Vis-a. the Persian rule under the first Akha. I. its new own noljlcs." . but was himself under the constant supervision and authority of the Persian Satrap. \\\\\\ the exception of a single rising in Sardis. in fact.'• ATATS//. THE A KILEM ENLIN. though he never visited it again. that they gave themselves up entirely to the arts and industries of peace. who made special terms and out very nuich resistance. with the ex'ception of Miletus. a t}-rant. retained her independence. tention with the which formerly had shared their atmanlier games of ambition and and soon became notoriously the most luxurious. pleasure-loving." 3I7 Within three )'cars they were successively br()ui. so thoroughly did the Lydians become reconciled to the new order of things. suit.]it under the )'oke. and. who governed with almost royal authorit}'. K}-ros did not his make any exorbitant demands on or allegiance. being treated with wise lenienc)'. " clcfciulcr uf the ciiiiiiie" or " of royalty. after some demurring.iAw A'hshatniJ)u. Their influence in this direction on their conc^uerors was very great." re-' Whatever it became under later siding at Sardis. Nor had Kyros during his lifetime to followed contend with rebellion in this part of his dominions. chosen among sponsible for her kings. was not repeated.)'cia and Cilicia. and by no means wholesome. Indeed. war. THE KING. * Satrap. . subjects' purse J^ut he placetl t:ach cit)' under a chief. and effeminate of Asiatic nations.

and. Till' turn of liabyloii first deed a the nearest Accad lay undoubtedly through manner he may have occupied the capital. supplying the . and 20. in the absence of all information on the subject.3l8 MEDfA.. forth Susa may be considered as the principal capital of the Persian Empire. Shushan (henceforth better known as Susa). isolation. Here arises the question: %vhcn was the whole of Elam fonqucred and annexed by the Persian king ? It must have been no long or difficult task.. in preference to his own favorown city of was little fit to be the capital of a great emembracing a vast variety of countries and nations. A MJ J'KRSIA. that it may have been accomplished immediately after the overthrow of Lydia and before the first attack' on Babylon. For Herodotus tells us that Kyros icturned to Agbatana with the bulk of his army straight from Sardis. BABYLON. Kyros first instituted this custom. residence. Inand unsuccessful attempt (probabl)' l)ecausc premature and ill-managed). a branch of the Eula. remoteness. or the next. from its insignificance. it is suggested. was made in this same year 546 i. seemed made for the purpose. he was delighted with its situation. In whatever it into a thoroughly Persian city and his ite royal Pasargadiu. and turned way to Elam. and its river. had the honor of kings with the only drinking-water would use.c. was cominf^ at last. pire. the CllOASPES. from Elam.us (Ulai). while Susa. they which was religiously kept up by his successors. and unfavorable geographical conditions. which. contrasting favorably with the clan-city of the Akha^menians in every one of these Henceparticulars. with great probability.

) is said to reckless and * 1 1 is caution —amusing of water.000 talents of silver in ore and ingots (equal in x'alue to about 38 millions also 5.-Merolines.C. that last Alexander it of Macedon. within the three }'ears. f.). in which the Choaspes water. and the only other mention of him we find is the grateful report DACll of the l>ible. is mo\ed with him from place U^ place." travels. value estimated at 125 dollars per pound. The affairs of Babylon between the death of Nebuchadrezzar (561 B. when he took possession of (331 B.) can be disposed of in a very few His son Avil-Marduk (the Evu. i^rcat THF. "he cars drawn attended l)y a number of four-wheeled by mules. found in it.-EMENIAN.f There. to iiinl su an instance of lliis hygienic j)re- to consider as so very modern."'"" Later Akha^menian kings built there palaces." 319 re- " WhcrcvtT the is kini.early we are wont — which the boiling this chapter. they stored most of the wealth fLirnislied them by tribute and concpiests.000 (juintals (A finest purple d\'e.C. and such was the accumulation in the treasure-house of Susa. THE KING. Dieulafoy." Herodotus ports. AKir. 21. a quintal being equal to about (^)ne hundred pounds. have governed in a manner. the gorgeousness of which is brought home to us by the numerous and magnificently preserved specimens and fragments discovered by Mr. and stored In flagons of silver. besides immense sums of money. anel the — of dollars).) and the first Tersian in- vasion (546 B. ready boiled for use.C. like the Assyrian kings in Nineveh. Some Egibiheadstrong tablets are dated from his short reign.'' A'C/A'l/S//. See Appendix to . 50.

lu- hisloriuii nf the faxor showed : to the king of " jiulali. NergaL- SHAR-UZZUR. by his brother-in-law. in a assassins placed on the throne certain NabOXIDUS (555 ]!.) Avil-Marduk was a. completing some works left unfinished by Nebuchadrezzar. we are justiassume that she was a woman of remarkable and wielded an unusual power and influence in all sorts of *The name is mutilated by the Greek writers in Lahassoarakhos.* was but a bo>'. after a reign of only two years (559 B. all the days of his life. such as the walls along the Euphrates. Ami he changed his prison garments.. lie toolv out of prison • ami set liis tlironc aliove Uic thrones of the kings that were witli him in T. \vlioiii. better known as He was the son of the high-priest. he was connected with the royal family. Laborasoarchod. XXV. palace conspiracy. peacefully enough it would seem.shown a thoroughly 2)erverse disposition.C. known through the Greeks as NerIGLISSAR. but is said to have . And there was an allowanee givx-ii him of the king. every ilay a [lurtiun. His son. that same queen to whom He- rodotus erroneously attributes so many of Nebuchadrezzar's works. who succeeded him and reigned four years. But his Rab-mag (probably mother was Nitokris. 27-30. 240.) From a mention of this princess in fied to parts.c. (See p. etc.) NabU-NAIIID. ways . LabashI-Marduk. or chief of the of Babylon. and did eat hiead hcfore liini conlinually all the to liini And he spake kindly days of his life.). one of Kyros' cylinders." (. and a i)erished. and repairing temples.320 of the MEDIA. Jecoiiiah. His after only nine months.abvdon. after a captivity of " " thirt\--six )'ears. BAnVLOX. and it is uncertain \\'hether priesthood). liil)K' AXD PERSIA.ssassinated.Second Kings. .

A K If. as also for the fact that her son reigned for so many years unopposed and un- may have been As it is highly probable that there still were some public works to finish. which prompted him to search for the cylinders of molested.21 state affairs. h<nvever." pp. 2ig. "Story of Ciialdea. and that the queenmother niav^ have taken an active interest in them. Nabonidus appears to have devoted most of his care fact a in Chaldea. and especially repairing temples surpasses that ing of his most pious predecessors. To this remarkable peculiarity we owe some of our most precious discoveries.KM F. 21S. the guardians of the more special patrons Babylon."'KURl/Slf THE KIXC. should have later tlie discovery of Nabonidus' cvHnders at Sippar and Larsam. It is TIIF. and in the chronology of Ancient Unfortunately for himself. so as to establish the age of each sanctuary. There can be little doubt that Nabonidus owed his elevation in a great measure to the priesthood. which would indeed account both for her character and the position she held. 213.NIAN l)y " 7. belonged. took offence on behalf of these deities and considered their own dignity slighted and their interests neglected by one who. slie surmised a some scholars that daughter of Nebuchadrezzar. His zeal in buildto which he. by birth. we may find in this circumstance the most natural explanation of Herodotus' mistake. * See . the original founders.'"'' new departure and to have shown a marked preference to the older temples of the land. Bel-Marduk and Nebo. in their opinion. and seems to have been accompanied by a sort of antiquarian taste. 22. whereupon the priesthood of the capital of itself.

In the which contains the annals of his reign. been their devoted champion. Nabu-nahid. . the desire of my heart. with a very fervent prayer addressed to that idus: god on behalf of himself and his son by Nabonin "As for me. much in the same way that Esarhaddon shared the royal power with his son Asshurbanipal.).UIYLOJV. and army were in Accad. ofificers.C. the fulness of thy great divinity. it is clear that Nabonidus took no pains to this dangerous class. . perhaps quarter built by Nebuchadrezzar. B. m}. : "•'" . " In the ninth year (546 cylinder gives an account Nabu-nahid the king was in Teva the king's B. on the west bank of the — Euphrates. to remote days.first-born Reverence for tliy son. AND PERSIA.322 MEDIA. of which the great forth " . /. king of Babel. at each new " Nebo came not to Babel. . Kyros still it is more than doubtful whether he would have had quite such easy w^ork M'ith Beibylon had not It was probably treachery done most of it for him. son. the customary processions were was a great hero and statesman." (the eldest son Bel-shar-uzzur The king's Belshazzar of the Bible) is here meant. grant me length of life. whom his father had associated with himself in the government. omitted. If this fccHn^^ was openly expressed. and for Belshazzar. found in the temple of the Moon-god at Ur (Mugheir). We have a small cylinder. Bel came not year: c. in reliance on his secret intelligences in the capital that he hurried his first attempt. great cylinder conciliate 'we are struck with the sullenly spiteful ])ersistencc with which the priestly scribe repeats. * Teva the new is thought to be a separate f[uarter of Babylon.

and his soldiers da}'s.. since it is only in the third monlli of the of Daniel (V. and there was weeping. Queen Nitokris. for " descendant. In the montli of Sivan (l\Ia}-June)." "King" he a certainly could be called.EMENIAN. but something must have delayed the Persian king (perhaps the occupation of Elam ?). ." the chronicle continues. one lately published inscription shows that he had separate royal establishment. really turn out to Le a daughter of that king. THE KINC. and it is not impossible that Kyros may have king's son beyond Sippar. THE AKIf. from the position he held by his father's Indeed. often of the * The author Book the son of Nebuchadrezzar. 323 may he great divinity establish thou in liis heart " " not be given to sin! To his mother and to this son the king seems to liave mainly left the care and burden of state affairs." jured to The following lines are too much inmake much sense. was and will. . there was mourning in the land of Accad for tlie king's mother. in Oriental speech. makes of Belshazzar Should his grandmother. to him. for it is expressly said that in the month of Nisan (March. which." while on the fifth day of the same month the queen-mother died " " who resided in the fortified camp on the luiphrates.ide sense. 2). the king to Babel came not. the first month of the year).'' KURUSir. collected his army and crossed the Tigris be- low Arbela." The death of so important a person. there would be nothing amiss with the designation. In the month of Nisan. is used in a v. king of Parsu. The mourned for her three hastened his expedition in order to take advantage " of this. opportune moment. must have produced dismay and perhaps confusion. " Kurash. who almost seems to have shared in the command of the army of defence. encamped on the northern frontier of the army.

of the Elamites. and Bel " went forth." is . the cylinder our most trusty guide being illegible from his eleventh year to his seventeenth. those above the atmo.On the contrary." Kurash came into Accad from the hmd Then we read " The Prefect of off. the haughty and covetous priesthood of Babylon. At all events tliere is no further mention of the Persians until the seventeenth year of Nabonidus. BAHVr. building at Pasargada^. and As to Nafortifying and improving his home-rule. . 'Erech. c. no doubt. way to reconcihation with the He did. 538 B. We in manner — bonidus. to fill the time what with expeditions into the far cast. indeed. and gave orders for the procession to take place: Nebo came from Borsip. perhaps not which is : sought.. )-eai' following. show himself in Babylon at last. have no certain information as to the which Kyros spent the seven or eight years between this premature attempt and his second.3^4 MEDIA. that. 23. AND PER STA." There was also a sacrifice " for peace. his last.ON. One thing is clear he had not found." }ear (Sivun of the tenth " of Naboni- dus). Babylonian campaign.phere and those below the atmosphere. successful.C. descended the " sanctuaries of the .." But at the same time he mortally offended the priests by sending for the gods of other cities and placing them in the great Babylonian patrons: gods of Accad. He had work enough. he had done much to alienate them still more. one of the most important cities of the em- pire. and here the hne breaks It evident that Kyros met with a repulse before Erech. /. we are quite as much at faidt. .

returned. for they had migrated to other congregations who had reserved places for them. the statues and images of the offended The effect fully answered their purpose gods. . and to all people he declared his title. granted their prayer. To his own city of Babel he to march." It is impossible more plainly." with the exception of those of Borsip. and he caused him to take the road to Tintir. in tlie betrayed him." 325 to Babel. while he restored to favor his unoffending worshippers. prayed to Marduk to return.MENIAN. and rejoiced the land. ." They were no longer seen at festivals and processions. king of the city of Anshan. we can scribes in : : been left in darkness. could not tolerate the presence of an impious ruler: "And he [Marduk] selected a king to conduct after his He heart what he committed to his hands." But not unconditionally. He pro- claimed the name of Kurash. wroth. THE AKH^. who had sec priestly doom. THE KING. that the priesthood of ]iab}'lon ]ilotted against their king. and all the gods inhabiting Babylon deserted their shrines. "Then the people of Shumir and Accad. the priests removed (probably under impressively mournful ceremonies and in the most public manner). and called enemy. The god. Kutha. .'' KURUSH. to be king over the whole country." they exclaim with " the Lord of Gods was exceedingly pious horror. In other words. and Sippar. like a friend and to state summoned him benefactor he conducted his army. That this sealed the king's from the tone assumed by the " the I'roclamation Cylinder" which they indited for Kyros after the fall of Nabonidus " i\t this desecration. .

for AND still PERSTA. 23). become in many ways another and a nomore united. with the the plots against Nabonidus or plotted against him on their own account. 22. as formed and developed by t<^ : the fort}--eight years of the efforts of the great prophets. With their wealth. entered into negotiations in with Kyros and promised him assistance and supNo other inference can be drawn from the port. The rise of Persia must have been to them as the rising of the star of deliverance. given me (Second Chronicles. they had. more self-contained. All the kingdoms of the earth hath the Lord. their strength as a compact body of many thousands one hope. and there can be no doubt that they either took part inspired spirit.2)26 MEDIA. Koresh. Otcd it was the influence of the exiled Jews. prophets. XXXVI. In : their captivity (from 586 under the guidance of their 53S). being secret. Passages " like this Yahveh stirred up the spirit of Koresh king of Persia. should not be overlooked or underunderground. so to speak. There was. more bler people firmly grounded in the j)urc and absolute monotheism of their religion. however. that he made a proclamation : . PAPYLOiY. remarkable likeness which the Hebrew documents of the time bear to the Babylonian ones. which. by one fluence. and. saying. they were a power and a danger to the state. . directed by one ineminent position even at court which some of their nobles seem to have attained (sec the Book of Daniel). at work. . He is my and this other: " Yahveh saith of all shepherd and shall perform my . independently of the Babylonian priesthood. and. another influence 24. " the God of Heaven.

." latter part of the designate . THE KING. " The Proclamation Cylinder . The advance several of the invading forces took place from speaks of them as far-extending. be told.KURUSIf. of which." (Proclamation der of Kyros. lie proclaimed the name of Kurash. ." of Kyros to conduct after his heart what he committed king to his hands." The beijinning seems to have 1°". . great Lord. . in . .. of the time of the Captivity. . to take secret place 1-3- . king of the city of Anshan. Baby- .C.. whom ]5ible scholars have to as " the second Isaiah. doors before him. is not by grand old prophet and minister of Ilezekiah. the his I will . . . . I will go make the rugged break in nation of l)lackheads (Chaldeans) whom he brought into liis hand. Fall ' sides. to subdue nations before him to open : .. as well as the whole .) C)lin- 25. " The its ci untry nf Guti mid all forces he caused to bow be- fore his feet. been made by a rising in the lowlands by the Gulf. and I will give thee the liidden riches of hand. 28*). whose right hand I have holden. from chapter XL. 538B. to be king over the whole country. before thee and places plain. and Kyros himself appeared south of Babylon * The Lsaiah. as follows " Thus saith Yahveh to his anointed. the later agreed Book of Isaiah. like a friend his and benefactor he conducted enemy. like the waters of the river. THE AKITALMENIAN:' 327 pleasure" (Isaiah XLVI. the numbers could not ^ of „ ." The sequel of the two documents presents tilie same exact parallelism. but by a writer... 'I'o ISabylon he his own city summoned liini march and he caused him the road to Tintir . heart and of to pieces the doors of lirass and cut sunder the bars of iron. directed . and to all people he declared his title. Marduk ." (Isaiah XLV. to Koresh. show more than an accidental coincidence in tliDUi^Iit and wording witli the Hnc already quoted " : fr')ni the '" I'roclamation And he [Marduk] selected a C}'linder.

AND PERSfA. Kurdistan]. he [Marduk] delivered into the hands of Kurash. where he probably encountered a loyal army. .abu-nahid fled. . and the army of Kurash. Kurash descended to Babel. nABVr." *The . the king who did not worship him. He promised peace to the city and all within it. king died.. Ugbaru he con- firmed as his viceroy. the . into his power. as a battle is mentioned. nor in the other temples there " were no weapons. whose authority absolutely unimpeachable. and the story completely: The men of Accad broke out into a revolt. he advanced straightway against Sippar.Vnnals-Cylinder tells is admirably preserved. the so-called Median Wall.328 ill MEDf.. At the end of the month of Dumuzi the rebels of Guti closed the doors of the temple of Marduk." monument.l. ber. on the nth da)'. 1 lie soldiers took Sippar on the 14th day without fighting. Accad whom Nabu-nahid had brought down to month Arah-Shamna. Then he got Nabu-nahid. descended to Babel Vk'ithout fighting. and from the month Kislev to the month Adar [November-March] he sent back to their shrines the gods of In the dark Babel. says "Nabu-nahid. appointed governors. we learn the capthis matchless is it really different from story entirely From ture of Babylon as took place. month of Dumuzi (June-July). and that is a any given in the various : other cylinder. nearly four months after the occupation]. At the same time his general. the governor of Gutium [the Zagros highlands. The streets were black before him. On the i6th day Ugbaru [Gobryas]. the Mede the GOBRVAS. who had been bound. but there was =>= nothing there for their defence. After crossing the Tigris below Nebuchadrezzar's bulwark. supported as it is by that of the companion cylinder. N. In the month Arah-Shamna [October-Novem.OX. . From " this point the . was conducting operations in the north. "on the third day. with a touch of genuine priestly spite. as it was essential to gain possession of the great reservoir and the four canals.

suspicion of Gobryas by the priests. 190). yet. but not one other point of his narrative is correct. his At all foul play scarcely can attach to him. fence. no nocturnal sur[)rise.'"' is not at See Story of ChaKka.. voluntary surrender. THE AKILEMENTAN. ma)' have been commanded by the king's son." KURUSH. and where he peacefully spent the rest of his life. tempted by a faithful body of highlanders in one of It is not improbable that they the temple quarters. or Thammuz. from our knowledge of that monarch's character. probably His death on the eightn day after the arri\-al of Kyros has an ugly look. Nabonidus was evidently delivered into the hands of battle The one own treacherous subjects. Belshazzar. it was the season of the famous festival held in honor of the god course of his * Dumuzi. but treason. revolt. and that he may have perishetl in the desperate venture. The somewhat obscure passage about the " "rebels of Guti seems to refer to a stand atKyros' hands. THE KING. no no de- no emptying of the Euphrates into the great reservoir. that to which Herodotus alludes (Book I.2C) sources to wliich to trust until siege." we were compelled T. and it in all the un- own " montli." pp. these late discoveries. as describing a part of the event. 324-326. No war. this testimony disposes of another story. . This might account for the story in the lu)ok of Daniel. events. peaceful occupation. of whom we find no mention. accordinfj to which the kin<j surrendered himself into who treated him kindly and him a province near Persia. and a tri- mentioned may be umphal entry. As for the feast. whither he regave tired.

" and "daily to shipper pray to Marduk and Nebo. dictate to estal)lish conciliating. not on llie fears." on behalf of himself and his son. rewarding. calling himself. ordering-. we find no record of such. bade them return to their own country and there rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple. in the flush of his easy victor}^ the conqueror could not be any thing but generous to those who had smoothed the much from the royal which he rewarded the Jews for magnificence their assistance. all Yet he spent several months at Babylon. and doing that the most enlightened statesmanship could liis rule. as gods of the ancient imperial Kamiujjiva (Kambyses). l)ut it is easy to imagine that. even at the last cxtremit}-. likely that it should have been celebrated. had ever seen. but the There is gratitude and security of his new su])jects. for length of days and success. AND PER STA. for which purpose he gave them a grant of timber in the Lebanon. He delivered them from their bondage. nothing that wins a people so rapidly and surely as respect shown to its religion. enjoinhig on all men to help . Kyros.330 MEDIA. did not scruple to sacrifice well as his son in the temples and to the city. away way for him. BABYLON. which was now the most extensive the world 26. and restored to them all the sacred gold and silver vessels which Nebuchadrezzar had carried and distributed among the temples of Babylon. therefore. the "worof Marduk the great Lord. K)-ros could not linger in any one part of his empire. We can infer as \\\\\\ He made a public proclamation to the effect that such was his pleasure. as a matter of relip^ion. As for more solid tokens of gratitude and favor.

a distant and very barbarous nomadic tribe. " the like a follower of Yahveh. Some part of the time he must have spent at home. whose range lay in the far northeast beyond the Sea of Aral.C. In lilt.conform to their modes of religious speech and worship when he was among them. Agbatana. saying that speaks God of Heaven has charged him to build him a house in Jerusalem." Kyros departed from Babylon. and Bab)don had yielded Ancient historians are not unanimous on the manner of his death. or was any thing but a Mazdayasnian himself." exactly as he calls himself a worshipper of Marduk." KURUSn. THE KING. —Earl}' at in least we seem the spring of the following year (537 to gather as much from the " mutilated end of the yVnnals. him.inialion \\c. and. as usual. THE AKTIyEMENTANr 33 1 and further their undertaking' by gifts and active assistance. so obscured with . 27. professed cither the Babylonian or Jewish religion. and we know that he deposited in his new palace at how Pasargadae most of the untold wealth which the treasuries of Sardis. it was absolutely necessary that he should outwardl}. which took place in 329 B. It seems probable that he perished in an expedition against the Massagkt. — exactly he occu[)ied the next eight years. to this end. which is in Judah.). and states " " Marduk the great Lord ordered him to that It docs not follow that he ever repair his shrine. But the political principle on \\hich he consistently acted was to gain his subjects' confidence and affections.C. but. That is the version which Herodotus gives. B.i>:.' preamble to tliis procl. leaving there his eldest son KambyWe have no information as to ses as his viceroy.

. a polytheist and idolater too. was un- of the monaryan. could materitails. BABYLON. on closer investigation. also a famous heroic race of kings . and incongruities tliat tlie narrative will not No amount of fact or declose inspection. in the highest sense. sound poland a wise tolerance account for his concessions to the religious and as to the two names.. Museon. more eloquent and proud in its lofty simplicity He than " I all the Assyrian self-extolling. Zimnicr. there that was another Aryan people was known under the name " in the northwest corner of India. Yet. pp. the first historically approved great and good man of our own race. Spiegel. "Die " AltpersiAlt-indi- schen Keilinschriften.EMENTAN. pro<luced a great commotion and led to Anshan royalty." 4 . now that his Aryan icy Akhsemenian genealogy is established beyond dispute. but that he was tJic first good king we know of. The Aryan and people in Northern India. as was some hasty and im- necessary. And it was contended that his very name. which. however." 2d ed. It is not only that he was. there are feelings of conquered nations not many of more undoubted and ancient Aryan origin they both " KuRUS " were occur in the oldest Hindu epic literature. is. The same was asserted umental name of his son. . .332 fables MEDIA. mature conclusions. did ally this add to the respect and admiration with which most majestic and gracious figure inspired both the contemporary world and remote posterity. with its ending in ush or ash.) 86 and H." llie Note. The name has (See survived even yet in that of a country bordering on Siam. a good king. Tlic grandeur of liis character is well rendered in that brief and unassuming inscription of his. THE AKH. sches Leben. bragging annals: AM KURUSII THE The unexpected KING. .. AND BERSIA. discovery of natural. moreover. of " Kamboja. I. nay distinctively Cossaean. have proved unThus Kyros Mas turned into an Elamitc of Turanian or Cosssean (Kasshite) stock." p. 102 ff. bear we possess them. principally de Harlez. the Aryan or IndoEuropean. Kambujiya.

F.'" The place was easy to identify by various umnistakable landmarks. DlEU- I-AFOV and his learned and courageous wife. worthy counterpart to the Sarzcc collection. where they will form a rather than go . a P^'cnch expedition.. all Of historical diggings in of Susa had. " The 333 city of Susa. arrivetl at the ruins.APPENDIX TO CHAPTER T J 1 XI. which are." writes Mr. owing to the obdurate stupidity and malevolent fanaticism of the Mussulman authorities at DlZFUl. 1885. They were rewarded by a series of "finds" of exceptional value. S E J. 92. determined to attempt the impossible home disappointed and. * See " Story of Chaldea. yielded Neither the fewest and poorest results up to 1885. though they had to contend at first with the same difficulties. they were successful in the end. Loftus nor other explorers. had succeeded in bringing to light any im2:)ortant relic. p." . being ordered and placed in the Louvre Museum. A 1" E IJ i S CO V ]•. a city built near the site of the ancient capital of Elam. those Hatnadan (Agbatana). RIE S A T US A Western Asia.arly in March. conducted by Mr. although they knew well enough where the palaces of the Akha^mcnian kings were situated. E. next to Mr. at this moment.

which ran along a magnificent frieze of painted and glazed tiles. 400.\ (ancient Clioaspes). 399. a work of art which was pronounced in no way inferior to the Babylonian models from which it is imitated. AND PERSIA. These. but had to be patiently pieced together of fragments.-Karkii. procession was thus obtained of nine of A these superb animals. had Susa rebuilt and ornamented. entombed in an immense eartliDiculafd)'. On the riijht bank were llie populous quarters on the left temples."* of Ilystaspes (the second successor of Kyros). But it was found that this palace had been destroyed by fire. BABYLON. the citadel. at present . as proved by a long cuneiform inscription. repre- senting striding lions (see ill.33! J//. however. lesser mounds. ruins of which. rise in the midst of the other. out of fragments carefully * See " Story of Assyria. and the palace./V. " — niound. turned up in such cpumtities as to allow the restoration of the frieze in a state very near completeness.' the K. and that on top of its remains had been erected anotlier and more sumptuous one. was cut in two by a wide river. by his grandson. 44).arkha a few trees are ijrowing. Of course the frieze was not found in its place or entire. containing that king's name and parentage. a steep islet from the sea. known under the name of Ai. son banipal's generals. the rat. ./. pp. or at least a Zigguthe royal city. and which formed the decoration of the pillared porticos. In the same manner. the last descendants like of the sacred groves that were desecnited by Asshur- It is known that Dareios. and it was his palace for which search was made first. Artaxerxes. aloni.

w A O ?2 I -q O 2 .14 a H Q J ' — p ^ ci.

the skirt. in battle or from sickness. .ox." nie a hand. haps the most interesting detail about them is the fact. ing " thr\. Adding piece to piece as they fitted. The Immortals. I put together the feet. revealed by this discovery.i. legs. I )iriil.uiy/.33^ M/:ju. the arm. varies. The cut of the clothes rial." There was a procession of them as well (See Frontispiece. the bod)-." or. grafted on the conventional model of Assyrian slab-sculpture. lower end. so that there never were more nor less than ten thouand it is highly interesting to find oneself sand." he says. the natural fall and softness of the folds already be- trays the influence of Greek art.) The costume is to the last degree it is the graceful and sumptuous " becoming Median robe. clearly showing that the archers wear the uniforms of different corps." the drapery of which. they have golden bracelets at the wrist and golden jewels in Their spears have a silver call at the their ears. as soon as a man died. known by the name of " Thousand.t. confronted A\ith contemporary ami autluntic reprePersentations of members of that famous body. but the mate- or at least the design. that some of their — . and at last the head of an archer. another forthwith took his place." from ber.would hriuL. is the same for all. a frieze represent" archers of tlu: royal guard. in as t)f the lions. collcctcil. We know from Herodotus to that this equipment belonged the royal l^icked warriors. is Their hair held b}' circlets of gold . jxj) j'/:A's/. the shoulder. ]\1 f. llie next a foot in a golden boot. One day. n. ankles.if()}' succc-ciU'd in rcconsl ructing iinollicr marxcllous piece of work. bodyguard of " The Ten their num- and because.

at least. Let us hear Mr.. of tiik design woven into the HAND archer's ROBES.ar(. 337 uniforms were covered with scutcheon bado'es.. When the great lords of the Middle Ages had their garments of their anticipated by the Persian monarchs retainers. is the conventional representation of it on the Assyrian sculptures that refer to the capture of Susa by Asshurbanipal. In the middle of each lozenge is painted a white The design knoll bearing three towers one yellow and two white. the citadel of Susa . they little I'. kni.THE LATE nrSCOTEKIES AT Sf/SA. woven or embroidered in tlic stuff.ei) KICIII' drtau. in the is framed liy a yellow line in relief. On a while — clearest possible manner. this. This ornament represents. ". (See Frontispiece. Dieulafoy's description : 45.rcanicd " ! arms embroidered or woven into the that they had been " The " Lion-frieze " and the " Archer-frieze Z are not the only specimens of T'ersian enamelled brick .) ground arc regularly scatlcrcd black lozenges bordered with yellow. very much h'ke tliose worn by the retainers of noble and royal houses in the Middle Ag'es.

53^ i\ii:dta." ill. Dieulafoy's good fortune to collect. with 46. decoration brouglit to light at Susa. The combinations of colors in the numerous fragments which it was Mr. KArri. that they might easily be mounted on horseback.ves. seem to have been.ijiyLO. and per^ta. as most frequently occurring though : .Y. He gives striking." steps SO broad and low. Hardly less handsome in a different way is the casing of varie- gated enamelled brickwork which adorned the battlemcnted parapet or banister of the great double stairs that led in front of the palace. at Compare " " liattlemenls r)iir-Sharriikin. from the plain to the great court in a slope so gentle. p. singularly harmonious.EMENTKl) STAIR TARAPET CASED WITH ENAMELLED BRICK- WORK. the following. AT (Palace of Artaxer. 53 in Storj' of Assyria.) SUSA.

D TSCO VF. " Not the least interesting of Mr. )icuIafoy. — — black ground. On — 47. riff. SEAL OF (Found TIIIC AKH. prevailing color golden yellow. AT SUSA.THE LATF. not the . above which stretched the grand lion procession. On dark green ground. Dieulafo}''s " finds is the royal seal of the Akh. with touclies of green and pale yellow. with touches of blue and white. 339 On Hi^ht blue ground. prevailing color golden yellow. 1 at Susa. ROYAI. with touches of pale green and white.KMENIAN KINGS. by Mr.) The gateways were cased in a white-and-rosc-col- orcd mosaic.enienian kings. prevailing color white.

WINGED liUI. by their Egyptian character. 27. impression alone. conical-shaped. BABYLON. 1)ut tlic seal itself.340 MEDIA. plainly show. ANP PER STA. " Story of Chaldea.) could have been adopted only after the conquest of But the most remarkable feature about Egypt. of a valuable gray. opal-like stone. hovering the royal efifigy. (Compare Assyrian winged bull." ill.I. above It is an obvious imitation of the Assyrian Asshur-symbol. The two sphinxes which seem to guard the royal medallion. AT PERSEPOLIS. figure within the winged disk. that this seal 48. and like that symbol it is the .

.49- I'EKblAN HLLAK— liAbE ANU CAl'lTAI. .

in far better preservation than any at Persepolis.IA.xmenians. which on iVssyrian sculptures are straiglit. DOUBLE GRH'FIN CAPITAI.342 is MEDIA. although exactly similar to the latter in the peculiar and complicated ornamentation of the upper shaft and capital. all their 50. AND PKRF. the capital of the later Akhcemenian kings. and the curve of the wings. (Compare ill. be they palaces or tombs. the most perfect specimen of the kind. 54 and "Story of Assyria.. The only difference lies in the national garb worn by the Eranian god. which seems to have .) We find the same alteration in the winged bulls. 1--4 and 22. A column was also found at Susa. always found above or in front of the kiiiL.ON.. It is plain that they adopted it as the mectest emblem of Ahura-Mazda and we find their it own supreme god reproduced lavishly on monuments. the majestic warders of the palace gates at Persepolis." ill. wlicr- cvcr he appears in the wall and rock-sculi)turcs of the Akh. BAnVT.

or horses. DOUBLE HULL CAPITAL. 343 been a distinctive and original creation of Persian art. 5'^. At least nowhere else are seen the anim.d forms which surmount the column entablature grififins — used — sometimes antl support the bulls.THE LATE DISCOVERIES AT SUSA. sometimes in just this way. .

and of the vast writer.C. So he suffered his faults to obscure and degrade his better self. ]]. calls him the son of Amytis. it is easy to Had his mother see. but it is a fiction which. as a matter He was not a novice in statecraft. empire created by it his One Greek is true. and as such the undisputed heir to the crown of Persia proper father. Kambvsks was the eldest son of Kyros the Great and his Persian queen. been a foreigner. which made the chief greatness of his father's character. and on several occasions can be shown to have tried to follow in his father's For he was not devoid of fine qualities footsteps. having had several years' practice as viceroy at Babylon. still less have succeeded so smoothly and quietly. Kambyses probably was honestly desirous of governing well and justly. 529-522 1. KAMBYSES. and unfortunately they were 344 . Kassandane. but he lacked the self-control and admirable balance . came from a Median source. he could not have reigned." a more of course.XII. Kambyses being " entitled King of " Babel and Kyros " King of the Countries. dated from that time. where several Egibi tablets have been found. — comprehensive 2. title.

to sit in that chair. t/tauvarakhshathra. unlikely. having probably heard " Berilis" some call this prince Tanaoxares or Tanyoxarkks. when trying cases — as a warning. 529-522 just B. .^ian.. and compelled his son. and marknuian amontj tlie l'er. he had him flayed. even generousl}. that his subjects drew this difference between him and the great Kyros. was quick to regret his violent outbreaks still he must have inspired more terror than love in his immediate circle." we <•. such as taking bribes and tampering with justice.* whom he not unjustly suspected of being the people's favorite.A'AMBYSES. " while they used to call the latter father. king are told that Bardiya had the reputation of being the i^cst aieiier . that. he . The former gerous in a man armed with frequently carried him beyond all bounds of decency and moderation." Of this feeling towards him he was sensitively aware and bitterly resented it.C." they had no title for Kambyses but the formal one of " master. True. and we may well credit the report. having detected one of the seven supreme judges in dishonest practices. mentioned by Herodotus. and therefore looked ujxni as his own Yet he at first acted honorablv. This unamiable nature was further poisoned by the jealousy with which he regarded his only brother. converting even acts of justice into the enormities of a raving tyrant. Thus on one occasion. dans^crous ri\-al. which Eranian scholars take to be a corruption for the Persian " " " mit for of the bow i.i. . ordered his chair to be covered with the skin. young Bardiva. 345 the faults that arc most heinous and dan- absolute power: ungovernable temper and suspiciousness.by that brother he either gave him : * The Greeks give the name as Smkrdis. who succeeded him in the office.

because such had been his father's behest. very probable that. now well-established in the throne of the and that the usurper. being unwilling to send a child of his own to a re- . of nearly the Bactria. a thinly veiled moral to it. and Karmania. two Egypts. /. It is signal for risings in some of the annexed countries. The monarchy which evidently was the dream of Kyros. JiAliVI. nor was the pretence wanting to give plausible color to the for had not Amasis promised his assistaggression : ance to Lydia against Persia. formed that Kambyses sent to Amasis to ask for one of his daughters in marriage. whole of eastern Eran." After which he began to prepare for an Egyptian camNothing could be more natural and reasonapaign. ble . and been prevented from interfering only by the excessive rapidity of the conqueror's movements? and was not this a presumption tliat called for chastisement? It would.3^(') AJEDl. who dearly loved an ornate story with. it was what the course of events itself brought universal up as the next thing to be done. But this was too simple an explanation to please the ancient historians. if had not turned far So we are inpossible. Parthia. have been strange indeed if the new king his thoughts that way. AXn PKKSIA. and that this fact is alluded to in Herodotus' brief " statement that Kambyses conquered over again the nations that had been conquered by Kyros. would have been incomplete without Egypt. the death of the kint^ of kinijs 3. c.OX. after the fashion of Oriental politics so familar from the history of Assy" " was the ria's wars. therefore.l. or confinncd him in the i^ovcnmicnt of Khorasmia.

She went willingly. if is palpably improbable.things which made a foreign invasion a more difficult task than it . Eg}'ptian campaign. But the Egyptians had a much neater and more they told Herodotus plausible story of their own (who. was too well-informed to believe them). seeing an opening for avenging her father and family. such as had occurred more than once in their history. 347 mote and unknown land. however. they connected Kambyses with their own royal family. only from the fact that Nitetis must have been over forty at the time. and to the tender mercies of one whose violent temper may have been reported for to refuse to him.KAMBYSES. that he vowed the The whole story ruin of Egypt on the spot. a surviving daughter of his predecessor Hophra (or Apries). a' princess of the name of NiTETIS. 529-522 7>'. own grandfather. l^y this perversion of facts.C. althougli probably planned from the beginning of the new reign. and converted the conquest into merely an armed change of dynasty. could nut have effect until the fourth year. besides making of : — the concjueror the avenger of his 4. whom he had overthrown and supplanted. and the mother of Kambyses. which Kambyses was wise enough not to underrate. It The presented great difficulties. by simply telling Kambyses of the deception practised upon him. and sent to point-blank — — Kambyses as his own daughter. which so enraged him. but to meet willi adequate preparations. that Nitetis had been one of Kyros' wives. bethought him of a stratagem would have been dangerous. Amasis w as not a contemptible foe and had quietly done man\.

keeping pace with the army. to oppose Greeks He ordered the cities of the Phoenicians and of the lonians to arm and man their ships and be ready to support the land army. which goes far to show that the Persian rule was a just and lenient one. He could therefore rely on the assistance and watchfulness of his new friends from used to be. amounting to several days' march.34^ MEDIA. Amasis morever was liberalminded and. the terrible wilderness of But Kambyses succeeded in the Sinai peninsula. even at the cost of a good deal of his popularity. To counteract these moves. friends with several the other side of the sea. at least compared to that of earlier conquerors. besides averting the danger of a Persian occupation which otherwise would very probably have followed the submission of the Greek cities on the sea-coast. whom he permitted to have a settlement near the mouths of the Nile. gaining the sheikhs of the roving Bedouin tribes — . Of this^a portion. The order was obeyed without a sign of either revolt or treason. breaking through the stubborn prejudices of his people. The Phoenician and Ionian fleets were commanded to join together just below Mount Carmel and then to proceed downwards along the coast. had occupied the island of Cyprus Greek islands. which was to march along the ordinar}' military route. a stroke and made of policy which secured him the use of considerable maritime forces. passed through a stretch of desert. BABYLON. he opened the country to the Greeks. Kambyses determined to Greeks. lie AND PEKSIA. and even went so far as to take a wife from the Greek colony of Kyrene. kept a body of Greek mercenaries. fleet to fleet.

349 Amalekitcs — whose dominion the peninsula virtually was. and secretly left it.). They tracked him as far as Lycia. still To whom should he entrust absence? The most natural and fittest person for such a trust would have been his only brother Bardiya. and sent trusty men in pursuit. to join the invaders. liis heir presumptive also. a certain PliANi'is. jealous and suspicious to the verge of monomania. but to supIt seemed as though luck would what prudence and foresight had so well complete begun. Every thing was now ready (525 B. so much was that feeling intensified by his own individual temperament. as Amasis had expected. where they actually captured him.C. contented with something or other. there came to him a Greek deserter. but he managed to escape and gain the Persian court. trust of all Oriental despots towards their own flesh and blood would not suffer him to entertain the months. perhaps years. 529-522 Midlanitc?. ]^ut the inveterate disas he himself was childless. but the He was leaving his empire on a king lingered. aiul B.KAMBYSES. being dis- pK' it with water. . Amasis was well aware of the evil consequences this desertion could have for Egypt.C. so that they promised not only not to molest his arni)'on its march. that he could not even bear to leave his brother behind visions of thought. the government in his Nay. He followed the king and. dangerous expedition that would keep him away 5. . who had commanded the Greek bodyguard of Amasis. for a short time before Kamb)'ses started on the expedition. made himself very useful by his knowledge of the country and the advice he was able to impart on every occasion.

died. Conquest of Egypt. 1111 . incite them to open rebellion. and pfrsfa. Egypt. and when the Persian army reached the east- . n.350 MEDIA. A man named . 525 and successful beyond While the preparations had expectation. makes the lowing brief and explicit statement " : fol- • here king before mc. Kambyses brooded over these ! evil presentiments until.C. how casiK' could l^ardi\'a. wherein : — Kambyses' successor. tlicrc had been a change f . B. Barof the same mother and of the same father w itli diya was his name Afterwards Kambujiya slew that Bardiya. Kambujiya. r. of our race. . • 1 1 . Wlien Kambujiya. when he would dispose of sufificient forces to overpower the other half. King Dareios. The only authentic record and cpiite sufHcient it is we have in the great Behistiin inscription. /. and seize on his absent brother's crown. 1 . 1 ' .1 01 riuers the wise and wary Amasis had short. plots and usurpatifui liarasscd him continually: ruler of most of the eastern countries of iM'an.. perhaps without even meeting with any Smarting with the consciousness of his opposition own impopularity.invLON. it was not known to the people that Afterwards Kaml^ujiya proceeded to Bardiya had been slain. bccu goiug ou. driven beside himself with — apprehension and distrust.. son of Kurusli. nearly half the empire. the acU mired antl Ixlovt'd. Nothing is known of how the deed was done. and evidently apocryphal. Battle of Pelusion. he sought security from fancied dangers in crime he had Bardiya secretly assassinated. he was Of that Kamliujiya there was a brother. ^\'hose allegiance was not very firm at l)est.. 6." The campaign was . for the details given by the various Greek writers are contradictory. Kambujiya had slain Bardiya.

and the whole countr}' submitted almost with alacrity. and bade them sit there. since the Nile had of this fortress to be crossed before the capital could be attacked. but was unable to resist the The surrender I)ressurc of army and fleet combined. Psammetik at once retreated to Memphis with the bulk of his army.C. to which they afforded a most welcome and necessary support. the hands of the conqueror. with its garrison did well and bravely. and it was final. commanded by the king. 529-522 B. came up against Egypt. the lord of the world. ern III.USION. his ships now sailed u\) the Nile and reached Memphis before the land arm)-. The noblest of the kind fell as captives into resistance. his son. and Psammctik was of the number." It may be doubted. Greeks). lie made himself down master of the whole land. frequently called PSAMMRTIK PsAMMENIT by the whom they encountered. but was overpowered by numbers and forced to surrender. all the nations of the world were with him. This virtually ended the war. howevei'. There was one battle. 35 T mouth (inorc of the Nile. It was not only that Amasis had been an usur[)er. It would seem that the city did not offer much indeed. opened Egypt to the invader. Kambathet (Kambyses). An Egyptian inscription has been found which says: "When the great king. whether the submission would have been as rapid and universal had the reigning house been more [)opular. intending to make a stand in this the holiest and most ancient city of the monPelusion was held for a short time by archy.KAAfBYSF. The citadel. near Pki.S. another detachment. he . it war.

when they flatter fust national tastes and prejudices. Kambyses acted as became a son and pupil of the great Kyros. according to Oriental ideas. master of so great a country. Oh'. penalty . and a Satrap appointed to maintain the peace and collect the tribute. and even enlisted a bodyguard of the hated and despised foreigners all — grievous sins in the eyes of the proud and bigoted Egyptians. plundering or deseatrocities. seldom find the ]^ut Amasis people's hearts obdurate against them. or the national life generally. and there was no question of sacking cities. whose lives the Persians demanded. wasting plantations. nothing was changed or disturbed tions. in inflicting a tenfold Otherwise it was simply the fate of war. On finding himself thus almost unexpectedly 7. and nsurpcrs. in laws. HA BY . I. was not the tlic had been a friend of the Greeks. and there was nothing excessive. had admitted them to settle in the country. AND PERSIA. of a war-ship in those days consisted of about two hundred men. He treated the captive Psammetik kindly and honorably. and the like The only act of severity which he enforced. that fortresses . crating temples. where every thing must have been bewilderingly strange to him and to his companions. whose goklen rule was mild treatment to the vanquished. was the execution of two thousand Egyptian youths. in reprisal for the massacre of the entire crew of the first ship that reached Memphis in advance of the fleet and found The ordinary crew itself cut off from all assistance. institu- The principal were garrisoned.352 MEDIA. respect and tolera: tion to their customs and religion.

is a long one. galleries This painting still exists in one of the which formed the catacombs or buryingconstructed lines of places expressly for the mummified remains of successive unnumbered centuries. useful and noxious alike the cat. who held public offices under Amasis. and Dareios. 351). its forms of worship must have been not only highly distasteful to a Mazdayasnian. therefore. engraved on the statue of an Egyptian. and speaks with great praise of Kambyses' zeal in religious matters and his liberThe stories. and as such he represented on a painting. the crocodile. the most sacred of all animals. especially the divine honors paid to so many animals. of dead bodies. which Herodotus transmitted of the blasphemous and sacrilegious atrocities in which that king was said to have indulged. 529-522 was all. kneeling in adoration before the Apis-Bull. 353 Egyptian religion. The inscription quoted above (see p. l\sammetik 111. Yet he outwardly conformed to the religious customs of the people whose ruler he had become. but ludicrously absurd. both of men and sacred animals. B. the jackal.. ality to temples and their ministers. The Apis-Bulls through inscription informs us that the recently deceased Apis had been deposited in the resting-place prepared for him by the king Kambyses. Kambyses. the ibis. the successor of Pharaohs. and the preservation. even to the desecra2 A birth of a . while another inscription reports the new Apis. and took to the As — — pains to appear before them in every way as the Pharaoh.C.KAMBYSES. in the fifth year of Kambyses. b)' means of embalming. reverenced as the living emblem of the One Supreme is God himself.

two while we thority. lands. 8. Thus Herodotus his is horrified at Kambyses wedhave seen that. It is most probable that remorse for his brother's fate was at the bottom both of his reluctance to face his own people He sought occuagain and of his attacks of spleen. that they had themselves a mortal grudge against the Persians. along the thage. evincing more and more signs of mental perturbation. He . But he lingered on and on. nia}' safely of the Apis-Bull with be set aside as later in\en- tions prompted by spite against the conqueror and retailed to foreigners by ignorant or malicious guides. and yielding to unprovoked fits of murderous temper which made him a terror to his nearest kinsmen and attendants. BABYLON. the conquest of Egypt once achieved and established. and certain Persian customs must liave struck them as iniquitous. ding to the king's own religion. Greek travellers of Herodotus' time were the more likely to put faith in them. in further plans of conquest. would have been to depart to his own and garrisons. leaving behind governors — pation pia. These fits became the more frequent and ungovernable that he indulged in excessive drinking a vice not uncommon among the Persians. The most natural course for Kambyses to pursue.354 tioii MEDIA. of graves AND PERSfA. evidently possessed with an invincible repugnance to return. intending to carry his arms into the heart of Libya and of Ethio- also meditated an expedition against Carwhich was to be reached by sea. such unions according were meritorious acts enjoined by the highest ausisters. and the killint^ liis o\\ n hand.


thick lips.356 M/:n/A. army there it ever heard of that was a tradition among the Ammonians sand-drifts. had encountered one of the desert and been buried terrible in hot blasts of the Kambyses was more fortunate in his Ethiopian expedition. it was abandoned. and elephants' tusks. He went up the Nile farther than the Assyrians had ever gone. which he commanded in person.) This fact. whose woolly hair. . passed through the country of the Kushite Ethiopians. out without their assistance. ]kit he did send out a body of troops westward into the desert to take possession of the oasis held by tlie Ammonians and famous for its ancient oracle and temple known as the temple of Ammon (one of the supreme deity). 54. together with the payment of tribute. and narrowly escaped the same fate. never came back. and garb of skins figure among the subject nations on the sculptures of the royal palaces at Persepolis. But tlic Phoenicians blankly refused to lend their ships t(^ be used against their own colony. however. (See ill. fiABYLOiV. and Persia. On his march back. and when already consisting in slaves approaching the confines of Upper Egypt. an important position for any one who wished to command the submission of the various tribes scattered between the desert and the shore. and as the plan could not be carried north coast of Africa. nor w^as it names of the Egyptians' The little . Kambyses had to contend with the same foe as the troops sent out to Ammon. and actually reached the region inhabited by negroes. show the to have been successful and to have expedition amounted to a real conquest rather than to a passing raid.

he reluctantly commanded the army to set out on their homeward march. B. True. and took to the . and not likely . bearing the unabashed by the king's army there. so that even should the issue be favorable. and his kinsmen the Akha. Bardi}M. and Kambyses found himself confronted with the reality of the fancied danger which had driven him to frenzy. But his spirit was broken he alone knew that the usurper must be an impostor who had in some way found out that I^ardiya was dead. 529-522 9. and still the king tarEgypt when suddenly strange and appalling news came from home. it was reported. struggle and to hope. He had no hope of retrieving his fortune. the inheritance of K}'ros must pass away from his direct line. profound secret and the people only thought that he lived secluded in his palace (no unusual thing in the East). for his conscience told him he deserved no And he had no child for whose sake to better.C. Heralds had gone forth to all ends of the empire to announce that allegiance should henceforth be paid to him and not to Kambyses. One to Egypt. the king's brother. had rebelled and proclaimed himself king. the Persians were a loyal [jeoi)le. Urged by his counsellors.menian princes.AAMBVSES. 357 Three years had passed. of these heralds came advantage of the people's ignorance of the fact to personate him. no one saw any reason to doubt the news. message As Bardiya's death had been kept a presence. ried in . to the younger branch. but in a form which far outdid in horror his worst apprehensions: it was as though his murdered brother's ghost had risen before him and sat on his throne.

35S MEDIA. . BABYLON. Besides. And master. of him " " the lie was only whom they had called " father His long absence had done the rest. until the question of succession should be duly settled. AND PERSIA. " was to them the son of the great Kyros. temporarily devolved the blest task of taking the army home and commanding it. would best be entrusted to guiltless hands — nothing could prosper in those of the murderer. the " Mithra-deceiver. put an end to his own life. those of his own race and of the provinces. * See above. Dareios. the awful kingly Glory" not stay where truth is not. the best proof that he had forfeited their love and con: fidence. had gone from He had been right it was his brother who : . p. So. but how impostor. and bidding them. the restoration of royalty." So he called together the no- among the Persians who attended him. that especially the Akhsemenians. told his lamentable story with the dignified simplicity of one who already was not of this world. the good of the empire imperatively demanded that this to follow an should be done — and he resolved to humble himself and confess. he was bitterly conscious that he should not be was not the readiness with missed or mourned which his subjects." now the liberation of the empire. had obeyed the first call to rebellion. that the that will him? * Hvareno. . save by divulging his own foul deed ? Still. repair the evil had been done. On his young kinsman. once unmasked could the wretched king effectively unmask him. but to survive such a confession was more than his proud spirit could stoop to.

'- \ Q < toll N <P 3i r" o z CO o- .

30o lO. This is AXD PERSIA. He thus lied to the state Kurush. Ijoth and in Media. . whicli gives sufficiently explicit it light of the great Bchistun in the following brief." two dated September and October of There arc.. When became \\ icked. . named GauI am Bardiya. if year of King Barziya such were needed. Afterwards Kambujiya. died. in Persia ' : the empire. of this statement. of the universal acceptation of the usurper's claim. and the other provinces. * In July or August. and the dependent provinces. the son of MATA. the ninth day of the month Garmapada. . MEDIA.." ". On . own desire he became king. P. the puerile anecdotes of the Greek chroniclers. and viewed by the inscription.. "Afterwards there was a certain man. .. divested of the diffuse and conflicting statements. Kanil)ujiya had proceeded to Egypt. among ample confirmation..' Then the whole state became " " From rebellious. and in the other provinces. the brother of Kambujiya. He seized him. having killed Kambujiya both he did after his Gaumata the Magian had dispossessed and Media. the traj^cdy in its grand and simple features.* himself." After of Persia . a Magian. This probably refers to the cuubccration o) inauguration at Pasargada." (Spring 522 i. then the state Then the lie Lecanie abounding in the land. then it was he seized the empire.c.) Kambujiya it went over to both Persia and Media..ABYLOiY. and of the creduwhich his self-assertion met " in the lity with first " — provinces. but : paragraph the Babylonian "contract" the tablets.

speeches of Greek invention.C. of the Tlie lengthy and highly adorned narratives historians afford a valuable antl Greek commentary to this brief pithy statement.still supply us with a continuous thread of action. "then followers. men who were his chief The I fort named I I vSikathauvatis.XIII. the son of Kurush. enabling us to make out the main features of a most dramatic incident.RE was not a man. neillicr Persian li. and the with my faithful men. the Magian. nor Medc. By the grace of Ahura-Mazda became king Ahura-Ma/. " Tiii'. 522-485 FIRST PERIOD: CIVIL WARS. and facts misrepresented because not understood. month. — I. it was that I. the Magian. they . I 'lest they should Tccognize me that am not Bardiya. nor any one of our family. IJardiya. may We pretty safely reconstruct it as follows. slew that (Jaumata." slew him. THE SON OF IIVSTASPES. until I arrived. On the tenth day of the month Bagayadish" (the first . 361 . the Magian of the He slew many who people feared him exceedingly. dispossessed . March-April).' No one dared any thing concerning Gaumata. Then I prayed to Ahura-Mazda Ahura-Mazda brought help to me. Valuable.da granted me Thus Darcios. had known old For that reason he slew them. for overladen as they are with triniiped up anecdotes. in the district Nisaya in Media. DAkElOS I. there the emi)ire. in the Bchistrin record. him of the empire. who empire. The could dispossess that Gaumata.

279). 3. which would — have been impossible but for certain Persian customs. and Dareios decided on a daring deed. ship the Pasargadae. This convinced him would be imprudent to proceed openly and violently." He was therefore far from unpopular. declared in favor of the supposed Bar- di)'a.under the leaderof Akhaimenes. But although this particular family thus became invested with hereditary royalty. had he been alive. We have seen (see p. and Bardiya.l(i2 MEDIA. 2. secretly wrote to the Satraps of the several provinces. great privileges were awarded to the heads of the six other — — . since most people believed in the usurper. besides his own father. Besides. on the homeward march. ing on Dareios hastened to Persia and. BABYLON. that he granted them freedom from war-service and from taxes for the space of three years. the head of the noblest of them. by notifying assumed the sceptre. his arni\'. to try and secure their assistance. the Magian had taken care to init gratiate himself them " all. A bold stroke. would now have been the natural and legitimate heir of his childless brother. an accomplished fact such was the only safe and practical solution. and Dareios wisely shrank from a civil war. After Kambyses* death. as soon as he with the provinces. before decida course of action. AND PERSIA. on which he cleverly built his plans. the issue of which would have been more than doubtful. The result was not encouraging. was Satrap in Parthia. that the Persian nation was first constituted by the fusion of several tribes probably originally seven. There seem to have he could really been only two on whom who that implicitly rely.

ON Ills TUKONK. UAKLIUS 1.NATIUNS. (Note ihc Nc-yro in llic lower led-haiid turner.S ) Sl'liJKi I' .NE HV (I'EUSlCl'ULl. / ' . . 54.**—. I'rUOK. .

unannounced they could enter the they were . Yet he seems to have felt some uneasi- ness. and he would. They could take own time to mature the plot. the seven tribes he being one of them and their — present themselves at the . without their and dare the venture with him. formed a separate and powerful class not in castle. AND PERSIA. the plan arranged by the seven . The six chiefs agreed to stand by Dareios . and it was only from their families he could choose that he married his first wife. brothers and On this ancient and sacred custom Dareios leader— should gates. tribes or clans. tall kidaris or tiara royal presence at all times. and there established himself the capital. in the country. his queen.364 MEDIA. attempt any thing against the seven princes. by so doing. They all wore the royal head. his sisters. The heads of built his simple plan. power — the itself. arouse suspicion once inside the palace. but in a mountain This removal considerably increased the dif^culty and danger for the conspirators. since he was there surrounded by his brother-Magi. the king's companions and advisers by right of birth. BABYLON. in fact. as we have seen. wlio were. as the inscription tells us. the king's peers and enjoyed perfect equality with him. without betraying himself. for one who gave himself out as a son of Kyros could not. short only of the ro^'al dress. he removed from Persia into Media. since. who. palace any followers the pretender could not possibly deny himself to them without violating a fundamental law of the empire. Still. as it was into their families his own sons and daughters. Agbatana. alone. their own bravery and opportunity should do the rest.

took place every year on the anniversary of that day. who continued In his great inscripto govern his distant province." Greeks. This day was set apart for all coming times. These alone are the who was called men who were my assisthis father-in-law. Dareios pretending that he was the l)ringer of a message to the king from his father Hystaspes. the consent of his father Hystaspes.: CIVIL WARS. when ants." *l[c I slew Gaumata. which had been left at some distance behind. 365 princes could not well be altered indeed it became more urgent llian ever that it should be carried (Hit. the Magian. As he had foreseen. the heir presumptive. probably by boldness. tion he faithfully records the names of his six com- panions. Bardiya. utterly misunderstanding the purport of this festival. They fearlessly rode up t(^ the castle gate. of One liacl of them was Gobryas. gravely asserted that a slaughter of tival in memory of '' The whatever Magians were met with on the street. they passed. now hastened to their support and prevented a popular outbreak. and with as it lasted.^' The retinue of the seven. A few moments later and the usurper had ceased to live. . unchallenged and unhindered by the guards.DA RE /OS I. previous agreement with his companions. after a brief and desperate scuffle with some attendants. so that no Magi showed themselves out-doors as long Almost immediately after this feat of Dareios was proclaimed king. Kanibyses. reigned seven months since the dcatli very nearly a year in all. . to be celebrated by a fes- the slaughter of the Magian. emphasizing the fact that they were his only " These are the men who alone were there helpers.

both Persia . and that its gdlis or ing. by the grace of Ahura-Mazda. He tells us so. the grandson of Dareios. and gave them to the families which Gaumata the Magian had deprived of them. our family. at Susa. We know of temples erected to Mithra and Anahita-Ardvi-Sura already by King Artaxerxes. For it is well known that the Zoroastrian religion admits of no temples. As it was before.366 MEDIA. therefore. in the open air or in unpretend- unadorned chapels. Astarte. * The Persians have had temples. that I I established the state in its place. and Media. during which Dareios devoted his energies to the work of reconstruction.. Thus was accompHslicd with astonishing case . By the grace of Ahura-Mazda I did I labored until I was before. She had a famous temple . in his usual concise but comprehensive manner: recovered. BABYLON. and the other provinces. worship. only rallying-points of worship are its dt'esJifire-altars. should take to himself credit for rebuild- ing temples seemed an unaccountable anomaly.^. that The mention scription of passage of the Behistun intemples destroyed and rebuilt has sorely puzzled the decipherers.. Beltis.." in this had established our family in its place as it labored. and scarcely any bloodshed one of the most important rcv^olutions in histor)\ A short interval of peace now all followed. this . and Anahita . " The empire whicli had been taken away from. I reinstituted for the state both the religious chants and the built. This was due to the influence of the Semitic and Canaanitic religions formed into a counterpart of tis. be called that of the final decadence of pure Mazdeism. . AND PERSIA. I reit. so I made The temples which Gaumata the Magian had destroyed. which does That period may not come within the bounds of the present work. Mylitta. their Baals into that of their nature goddesses — Mithra was transand Molochs. Atarga- and the rest.* That a Mazdayaznian. Gaumata the Thus I Magian should not supersede our family.. but at a later period.

Q Z D O J 'A .

to three distinct that. and. the or." an expression which excludes both Persians and Medes. Dareios. because addressed races. immediately resumed the liberal and conciliatory policy of his house. with JMax Duncker. The inconsistcnc}'. That Dareios himself was a Mazdayasnian. It is very natural to suppose that the usurper would be uninfluenced by the dictates his son sound statecraft. IV. Kambyses made it a point not only to tolerbut personally to honor. and * Max Duncker. p. Scythic). vanishes if wc assume. We are forcibly reminded of this fact by one apparently slight detail. Mazdayasnians formed the minority. . 458. no less naturally.* that temples not of tlic Persians or Medes are meant. and mentions it in his annals as a claim on the reg-ard of a large portion of his subjects." The explanatory clause. AND PERSIA. We must remember that all the Akhaemenian monumental documents of zeal.368 MEDIA BABYLON. " Babylonian version speaks of houses of the gods. In the Turanian version (that which has been called the and the Proto-Median. in imitation of him. " Geschichte des Alterthums. Persian capital of which he was the founder. the religions of conate. and an earnest one. of that the language used in his inNear the scriptions leaves no shadow of a doubt." vol. 5. but of the subject nations. Wc have seen that Kyros and. or Amardian. blindly following his priestly would neglect and even destroy these to him abominable seats and landmarks of heathenism. numerically. are trilingual. however. quered countries.. more lately. name of Ahura-Mazda is accompanied with the " the god of the Aryas.

DAREIOS which is I. : CIVIL WARS. are richly adorned with especially among which we . which in some ways completes the record of Behistun. after the manner (See Chap. PeRSEPOLIS. frieze representing a procession of — dogs the sacred note the animal of the Avesta the king." A Then his follows a brief review of his deeds and of " conquests. till 1 had performed clan and this land. . 56). and all pleasant things for man. of Dareios and three of immediate successors. in which are hewn the tombs. in adoration before the blazing fire- — — altar. Aluua-Mazda brought me he protect nie and is May my done ihioii-h the grace oi help. that of Dareios alone has an inscription. for the work of life is done. VIII. 369 Grcclv name. standing on a platform. there is a perpendicular rock called Nakiisiil-RuSTENr.) sculptures. \r\ . or to us only known by its his rather sepulchral chambers. 1 have all Ahura-Mazda." " That which No Hebrew : monotheist could be more absolute and emphatic I have done. piously referred to the grace of Ahura-Ma^da. It begins with the most solemn profession of faith. he lias great god is Aliura-Mazda created yonder heaven. which affects one like the far- swelling peal of " some great organ . leaning on his bow unstrung. They of the Lycian rock-tombs. having been indited several years later. he has made Darayavush king. the work." . : lie lias created this earth. representing the front of palaces. . the only king of many. (See ill. The same statement repeated several times 2 T. and the hovering emblem of Ahura-Mazda. the sun-disk. Of the three tombs in the row. he has createil man.

that I was not wicked. with : " " = ^' much probability." And " the word used is the Avestan dri(j. Their kings we — find in elaborately wrought sepulchres. 271) had not been adopted by the Persians. and the other gods that are. which breathe the spirit 6." which originally meant " the place . AND PERSIA. and. the Ik'histun annals. We ted of divine beings subordinate to the One who is Supreme. a fact betrayed by the very entombed word " Dakhma. nor was I a liar [" daraiijha" na Avestan dnijva>i "]. But we saw that this custom is a borrowed one. no doubt." wliich is wickedness. we are told that " the lie became abounding in the kingdom. nor was I a tyrant. and such. and thouL. o'ods that are. we may conclude that King Dareios was a Mazdayasnian of the early uncorrupted school." these words have not in the orit^inal the decided polytheistic coloring that a modern renknow that Mazdeism admitdering gives them. not exposed to the birds. certainly not strictly." in the more " modern form darauga^ Towards the end of the record Dareios says " For this reason Ahura-Mazda brought help to me.370 MEDIA. Another is trait characteristic of the Mazdayasnian the use he makes of the word " lie." evil. that the alterations introduced into the doctrine and ritual by the Median Magi At (see p." From these passages. rather of the Gathas than of the Yasna or Vendidad." throughout equivalent to After the departure of Kambyses. is the meaning here. least they do not appear to have followed the prescriptions of the Vendidad in their treatment of the dead. BABYLON.li lie twice qualifies " it Ahura-Mazda and the other by the addition.

" Geschichte des Allen r<'rsiciis.) (Compare Lycian rock-tombs.* Herodotus has a curious passage. DETAIL OF AKH/EMKNIAN TOMIi." p. 371 of burning." showing that the early Eranians. were famiHar with cremation. . but in a sort of underhand * Justi. ch. it would seem that the practice of exposing the dead was gaining ground in Persia in his time (middle of the fifth century B. viii.: CIVIL WARS.DARIEOS I.).C. S8. from which \ C 1 56. Hke their brethren of India.

moreover. hard. refused to enter Babylon through a certain gate. covered with wax and then buried in the ground. dry rock. was the sepulchre of Oueen Nitokris. but in a chamber hewn in the That the Persians of Dareios' time. the mother of Nabonidus. concerning their tlead. wa}% being introduced and favored expect by the Magi — — as witli we might reserve. strictly speaking. from some unaccountable whim. It is said that the body of a male Persian is never buried. that hope was deceived. in the person of the impostor Gaumata. who. but it is significant. as entailing impurity. as a kiycr of wax may be considered to isokitc the body and thus preservs sion to the the earth from pollution. shunned the nearness of a corpse. : " There is anollier custom wliicli is spoken of and not openly. AND PERSIA.372 MEJ)IA. until it has been torn cither by a doj^ or a bird of prey. we may infer from another passage of Herodotus. and he was given but a very few months for the work of reconstruction which he at once undertook. 7. If Dareios had hoped to averv further troubles by the swift and skilful blow which he struck at the very root of evil. herself that peculiar place of rest." Tliis last practice looks very mucli like a conces- Magian teachings. on one occasion. CABYLON. because above that gate. That the Magi have this custom is beyond a doubt. which tells us that this king himself. can any of the elements be polluted by a body shut up in a cofifin or sarcophagus and then deposited. The dead bodies arc for they practise it without any concealment. had chosen for not in the earth itself. Nor. The Satraps of the distant provinces had tasted the sweets of inde- . "^he story may not be true.

ill.' 4 . UUILDING KNOWN AS " RUSTEM (Compare S TOMll.)• AT KAKIISIII-ra'STEM. 373 .57.

loni^ AND PERSIA. absence of Kambyscs and the late period of comparatively slack rule. by name. as all that . him. A certain Atrina there declared himself king. or Susiana. state of I am thus lied to the state of Babylon " The whole Nebuchadrezzar. that every province that rebelled was led by an impostor or pretender: the success of the tragi-comedy enacted by. even when not quoting from it. and acknowledged him for its king. and were loth to return under the strict control of the pcndcncc during the The populations v/cre highly with the Magian's way of governing. And this unheard of thing came to pass.' ' : " Babylon went over to him. The movement at Susa apDareios pears to have been easily quelled. of course his it own narrative on the Bchistun is singularly modest and unassuming —a great contrast to the bragging of the Assyrian royal cannot do better than follow it documents. . We by step. the Magian Gaumata had borne plenteous and produced a perfect epidemic of the same The one reliable source of informamation for the gigantic struggle in which Dareios suddenly found himself engaged almost single-handed against adversaries that sprang up on every side of fruits kind of deceit. future disturbances were by no means stamped out. rock is . and the pleased majority of them undoubtedly still believed him to be what he represented himself so the sparks of central authority. BAliVLOiY. when the conflagration broke out nearly simultaneously on all points of the empire. the son of Nabonidus. At the same time a man of Babylon. The first to openly rebel was Elam. Nadintabira step 8. A year had not elapsed.374 MEDIA.

375 .

])ut by far the rising in ." w^hom he put to death. down. no less than nine countries revolted against him at once. captured the leader and slew him. The Sagartia was headed by a man who also gave himself out as a descendant of Kyaxares and set up an independent kingdom. though defeated. I slew him.3/6 says MEDIA. and while he was detained in pied Babylonia. several months.) giana. the pretender did not surrender. of which he gives the list Persia. Assyria. and Sakia. Media. where he sustained a regular siege. the pretender. about it is tliis "T went to Susiana. and. Parthia. Armenia. This second rising of Elam was of little importance. Another battle was fought on paign to put it the Euphrates near the capital. Mar(See map. the founder of greatness. a Mede. Far greater was the : danger in Media. Susiana. : AND PERSIA. 9. took the city and seized on the false NebuchadrezThis expedition occuzar. Dareios records with great " simplicity that he by the grace of Ahura-Mazda. for there a man of the name of (Phraortes). went over to national hero. Sattagydia. but fled wilh a few horsemen and threw himself into Babylon. of the race of Kyaxares and called Fravartish on the country in the name its : of its most popular The apeven the Median peal was eagerly responded to troops w4iich had been left at home. that Atrina was brought to mc a prisoner. The rclicl's forces were placed on the Tigris and it cost a battle for the royal army to effect a passage. who was proclaimed king of Media." Not so the rising at l^abyion it needed a real cam. had declared him" " self to be Khshatrita. BABYLON. and the people themselves put it down.

in CO .<: J. 1" ..

and the people accepted him. For in the east only two Satraps those of Bactria and Arachosia in their allegipersisted ance. and w^as forced to leave his faithful friends to shift for themselves for the time. His two generals in Media and Armenia were not this juncture.378 MEDIA. was able to come . worst feature of this confiscation . though the The king may result was not favorable to himfortunes of Persia's lawful and heroic well be said to have been desperate at Detained in a rebellious country by a siege of which the issue was doubtful. until he to their assistance. Hystaspes. cut off from the rest of the empire. As for Dareios himself. was tlic defection proper another false Bardiya appeared there. and they were few in number." Yet of these few he was forced to send off two detachments to try and stay the evil in Media and in Armenia. but was unable to keep them from declaring in favor of the Median pretender. being too inferior in numbers to the rebel forces. in AND PERSIA. lie was strong Persia aggressive proceedings. and all they could do was to hold their own in strong positions. self. by troops against the satrap of the Arachosia. he could rely only on the troops he had with him. — — veiy successful. and to bear most unflinchingly the brunt of several enough to initiate sending out battles. did his best in his own provinces of Hyrcania and Parthia. one of the few loyal servants of Dareios. and his father. whence the insurrection was rapidly spreading to Assyria. he could not stir from Babylon. BABYLON. as he expressly says that " only those Medes and Persians who were with him remained true.

) The first proceeded to Media. 519 Ever}' thing personal efforts I things began to take a more hopeful aspect. Accompanied by a few he fled to Rhagai. and his tongue. prestige of the royal presence worked wonders Dareios apart from the welcome reinforcements. rightly considering the rising in that country the most threatening. The he experienced sufficiently shows how dangerous he was deemed and how essential it was thought that he should be not only put out of the wa)'. it is capture probable that the evil ^vould have been beyond remedy. lad the of Babylon been delayed much longer.C." " . and who was defeated and captured by a Median general. because of the national principle it represented and the question which was at stake. he was kept chained at my door says the king all the kingdom beheld him. really amounting to a renewal of the old contest for supremacy between Media and Persia. by some troops sent cruel treatment in pursuit by Dareios. only that he was crucified at Arbela as an example to the Assyrian rebels.DARETOS 10. but degraded in the eyes of the people. 379 now seemed to depend on the and presence of the kinL. was not justified by the event he was routed and : barely escaped with life. As soon as Babylon fell (September. : CIVIL WARS. Now at last Dareios could send reinforce- . I. Afterwards I crucified — him at Agbatana. to be of the race of Kyaxares. and his ears. like Phraortes. Phraortes boldly came forward to meet the His confidence king with an army. B. offering battle. where he was captured horsemen." The same treatment was dealt to the Sagartian who claimed.-. *' I cut off his nose.

5 16 B. The king meanwhile had already.C. with bravely held the defensive. but his followers in Arachosia held out several months longer.C. in his indefatigable activity. and it was only in February. . he put forth all his powers of conciliation to retain the affections of that important part of the empire...i/^YLON. Very wisely he kept his Persian troops in Media and sent the Median troops to Persia to avoid the contagious influences of national sympathies. This new rising. who..380 MEDIA. 516.C. In 5 17 r. This was in 518 r.). and within the same year tlic faithful Satrap of Ikictria routed those of Margiana. was easily quelled by one of Dareios' generals.C. gone to Egypt. to liis AND a PERSIA. however. Persia alone virtually remained in a state of insurrection. Yet the king stayed in Media. But it seemed as though as fast as threads were fastened at one end they ravelled out at the other. had ments father. While the king was in Media and Persia. that their leaders were at last captured and put to death. After two battles fought in Persia the impostor was taken and executed in the summer of 517 B. and sent an army against the false Bardiya. and the impostor was slain (January. Babylon for the second time revolted from him in favor of a man who pretended that he was Nebuchadrezzar the son of Nabonidus. and who now gained a decisive victory over the rebels of Parthia and Hyrcania. where . II. B. few troops. which he thought safest to control by his presence. Egyptian monuments bear ample witness to his suc- and his wise rule obtained for him a place among the great national lawgivers of the Egypcess.

DARFJOS tians. I. It is the story of the almost superhuman struggle of these first years of his reign that Dareios confided to the great rock at Bagistana. This attempt tion. 39. allows a glimpse of a third. all 38I Yet it seems that troubles were not even The hist cokinm of the yet at an eiul in Asia. against a Scythian people distingushed from other tribes by the name " Saki of the i)ointcd We can just make out that their chief. who was put to death by his own guard in obedience to' a written order from the king. protected as usual by the hovering emblem nitaries. Asia Minor." Sakunka. 12. one foot firmly planted on the prostrate form of a man who stretches out his is one of whom hands as though imploring mercy. though injured beyond ah hope of decipherment. Behistiin inscription. : CIVIL WARS.) resents the king. his father-in-law. but by the assassination of the culprit. The only attempt at rebellion was made by the Persian Satrap at Sardis. the I-'ortunately Phoenician cities. for and probably put to Dareios. caps.lam and a Avar in the far east. was taken death. though short-lived. prisoner. is not mentioned in the great inscrip- probably because it was not put down by force of arms. who tried to set uj) an in- dependent principality for himself by uniting Lydia and Phrygia under his rule and refusing allegiance. in an impetuous attitude. while a proces- . and attended by two dig- Gobryas. of Ahura-Mazda. (See ill. The sculp- tured panel at the top of the inscription is a forcible It repillustration of the narrative. and the Ionian Greeks had not all broken the peace through these eventful )'ears. rising in F.

b)' one rope. The number increases to on his tomb. BABYLON. and includes such remote provinces towards the four quarters of the world as. ' ' : ! every one. and with liands bound behind their backs. lied he spoke thus " I am the Above diya. Dareios gives a list of the countries of which. They were all captured alive. it inscriptions placed ' . prisoners approaches. Gaumata. of AND PERSIA. Tliese are the nine principal rebels and took over six years and nineteen pitched battles to overcome. Attached to the prostrate figure is the following declaration: "This I am BarMagian. in the east several in the west "the districts of India (Hindush). king. that in the north (the peoScythians beyond the sea of Southern Russia). tied neck- aiul-ncck. The last of the band is noticeable for impostors it whom is tlie Scythian Sakunka. the son of Kurush. the Libyans and Kyrenians ple in the southwest. Siiort above the head of each leave us no doubt about their identity. provinces governed by . It stands to reason that many of " " these countries. situated on the extremest verge of the empire.' " the first standing figure we read This Atrina lied " he spoke thus I am king of Susiana and so on his pointed cap . perhaps even of the Greek continent).382 sioii MEDIA. In the introduction to this matchless piece of history. and by him incorporated in " list of Satrapies. he had become king." /. togetliei". the thirty in the last of his inscriptions. 13. by the grace of Ahura-Mazda. even though visited and more or less the conquered by Dareios. : : . " lonians beyond the sea (the people of the Greek islands. for There are twenty names. e.

: CIVIL WARS.DAKEIOS T. scarce]}' his vassals but they had cdl . and their name must needs grace the list of " the countries that belonged felt to him.] spear know them. did not really consider themselves his obedient subjects. the great king's arm. 39 and Then shalt thou know that the Persian man's reaches far. that thou mayest 54." battles far ." In his tomb-inscription there t(j is the fol- lowing effective address his successor or " : any one who thus ma\' behold the ' . [See ill. 383 Satraps. that the Persian man has fought away from Persia. monument If thou thinkest how many were ' vush ruled ? — the lands which King Darayathen look on this efCigy they bear my : throne.

all Six years had been absorbed by the civil wars. " " Cieschichte ties alten Persiens. and showed a genius for administration and statesmanship. the provinces needed rest.PERIOD : YEARS OF PEACE. and Dareios adjourned the plans of conquest which his ambitious spirit was maturing until the wounds of the state should be healed and the growing generation should have reached manhood.XIV. are startlingly modern inspirit. tral represented by a vigilant. and even in the technical details of execution." 384 . such as has never since been surpassed and seldom equalled by the His sysgreatest organizers and founders of states. as conducive to the greatest possible power and wealth of the state.'" * Justi. The means which he used. — SECOND. and absolute cengovernment. active. in the words of an eminent modern "satrapies . the insurrections which had marred the beginning of his reign had shown him how apt a bunhistorian. the institutions which he created in order to achieve this great result. In the first place he divided the empire into twenty provinces or " for. For seven years he devoted himself to works of peace. DAREIOS I. tem was based on the simplest principle the great: est possible prosperity of the subject. I.

money .. the villages and buildings in bad repair. whose young sons were carefully educated for this special purpose under the king's own eyes. and despoiled. the fields neglected. frequently under- took tours of inspection through the empire and woe to the Satrap whose province was found in a poor condition. The king appointed them from the highest nobility of Persia. own name. The king. Thus a Satrap of Egypt was put to death by order eign of Dareios because he in his had presumed to coin. the plantations uncarcd for. the people needy. The power entrusted to the Satraps was very great. and an extraordinary latitude of action was very wisely allowed to those of the remote provinces. and national peculiarities of each country were scru- 2C . when the delay of communication with the central authority could have dangerous and even fatal con- sequences.: YEARS 01' PEA CI-'. 385 die of CDiintrics with suchuttcrly divergent nationalities and interests is to fall apart. and that the huge empire could be held together only by the uniform rule of a class of devoted ofiticials. Yet they were never suffered to forget the duty that bound them on one side to the sover- whom they represented. religion." Such a class was formed of the Satraps and their subordinate officers. As the language. while favors and honors were liberally bestowed on those who could show the master a prosperous land and contented population.DAKKIOS ]. too. oppressed. controlled and directed in all their actions by the king and his councillors. who could at any moment be called upon to face some unexpected emergency. and on the other to the people whose welfare was given into their care.

instead of the voluntary gifts which his two predecessors had been content to accept from the provinces. and most — horses. over above ground-tax gold countries paid a special tribute in kind. pulously respected. part of the Satraps and tluir who were accordingly held responsible. silver. sluices. in customs and institutions no case interfered vent sucli witli. etc. according to their respective staple produces in gold. which is eviit dently genuine. tolls sheep. on the contrary. ivory. The . for in them we have lost the earliest known specimen of statistical work. besides on and dues on mines. tlie local AND PERSIA. justice. It that Herodotus was probably from the drew his list original ofiticial documents of taxes. 2. very keen that concerned the income of the exchequer so. slaves. It is ever to be regretted that these estimates perished. mules. in all crown or over-indulgent neglectful of the in the mat- He was. so much that — so Herodotus tells — — those who us had called Kyros "father" and Kambyses "master. Yet." nicknamed Dareios "huckster." and more especially because he introduced a system of regular taxation. grain. BABYLON. graded land-tax. We gather from that.. or dust. and fishing. he promoderation. in this. forests. and caution. all He had of the entire empire surveyed and every mile production tially ground appraised according to its capacities for on this valuation he based an impar. as in ceeded with real things. Not that Dareios was at all interests of the ter of taxation." because "he looked to making a gain in every thing.386 MEDIA. there was nothing to prea result but deliberate misrule or nu's- management on the officials.

: million marks. •{•An ancient custom demanded of I'asargadie tliat piece to each city. f 3. The entire income of the state is valued at about 165 mil- — lions of dollars. Of course all such calculations are approximative. it paid by far the largest Assyria sum. equal to eight times that sum at the present rate of estimating the worth of money. Voluntary gifts were of course expected and cheerfully offered whenever the king came among his countrymen and at a clanspeople. yet." which gives 165 million dollars. the good ofHces were in a way mutual and helped to maintain the old clan-bond lirm and sacred. rough calculation of the proportion between the population and the taxation. lie says Justi. the royal province. more than even Egypt and Libya. on " * "660 Geschichte des alten Persiens. at four marks to the dollar." p. 587 the provinces was that made up of and Babylonia. but as these were occasions of national rejoicing and the king on his side was liberal with presents. woman whenever he came the king should give a goldto his old clan- . the burden scarcely amounted to one dollar pur head. they were in Without such means neither the Satraps nor the subject nations could be made sufficiently to feel their dependence on the royal authority nor. 59.DAREIOS richest of all I. All these reforms fine as and innovations. however. was exempted from all taxes and discharged its obligations to the head of the state in military and civil service. could have availed but little in practice without some means of easy and rapid communication between the central power and the most outlying border-lands of the empire. theory." Only Persia proper. .: YEARS OF PEACE.

)ukl they enjoy the feehng of secu- which comes from tlie certainty of prompt advice and succor in emcrgen«. from end to end of his empire.ics. rity C(. for it had several purposes to serve. with saddled horses kept night and day (there in — readiness for any ro)'al couriers who might come along with despatches. along this at literally royal regular intervals. the other haml. So the royal road from Susa went to Arbela. those cities which were capitals of ])rovinces. or messages from the king.l. One of these roads we can trace along its entire course. it went on through Phrygia to Sardis and the seaacross the Halys coast. with the energy and thoroughness which he brought to all he undertook. touching the Tigris and crossing the Euphrates. These considerations. to Komana in Cappadocia. from Susa to the Mediterranean coastland. not the least of which was to connect the principal cities of the west and northwest. It did not by any means take the straightcst line. from whence. steppiug by a handsome fortified bridge. relays were placed consisting of station-houses highway were one hundred and eleven between Susa and Sardis).388 . thence. and unhindered movements of troops i:)ointed to one roads. orders. Where it just skirts the border of Cilicia All (before reaching Komana).V/'lDJ. AND PEI>^SIA. Roads then Dareios proceeded great neetl nature — the desirabiHty of : together with others of a purely miHtary means — for the rapid to construct. it was protected by a garrisoned post in the shape of a gate-building. held by Persian governors and garrisons. BABYLON. It is astonishing how quickly news and orders . thence to Nineveh.

from the but to allow greater facilities for rapid locomotion service . Dareios thus originated and instituted a real postal nothing was wanting to make it the exact model of our own mail— aside. 4. He gave many other his — proofs of his solicitude for the welfare of his subjects in this respect. and the desirability of necessity uniting the Retl Sea with the Mediterranean. had the interests of commerce as much in view as political and military considerations. and two of the grandest conceptions of in his great mind the of uniform coinage. : YEARS OF PEACE. moreover. which. branching off.arose : thus opening a direct water-route to India. became to all intents and purposes the capital of the empire. when he en- dowed empire with that prime promoter of intercourse and civilization good roads.. He equipped for the pura fleet. entered the Red Sea by the Straits of P)al-el-Mandeb. which. with Babylon. of course. after descending the Indus and pose emerging from its mouths into the Indian Ocean. to India and to China. — the public the use of the convenience. and Phoenicia. and pursued its course . a country to which. 389 Spread through the empire by this simple means. Damascus. and modern times . under Dareios I. with How long it was before equal advantages to both. this obvious and very natural step was taken we do not know.DARFIOS I. with Agbatana and Rhaga^ and the remote eastern provinces. combining the service of the people and that of the state. There is no doubt that Dareios. near the eastern boundary. Other roads connected Susa. sailed round Arabia. he was the hrst to send an exploring expedition.

years later.. then continued centuries later by Necho I. This crea- and conquerors eviwas premature. indirectly. and customs to allow of carrying out the reform to its full extent. the Mediterranean with the Indian Ocean. and its component provinces too many and varied in race. culture. came to anchor in the Ray of llaxiuL. It was reserved for our own forgotten and disused. and recoining them in the royal mint after the established standard.t. In the introduction of a uniform gold and silver coinage Dareios was more successful but the Persian empire was too vast. profile face could be made out. for the purpose of uniting the Nile with Red Sea consequently. Dareios proceeded to finish a can. he consistently tried to coinages by receiving call in all the different local weighing them. too much ahead of the times dently tion of three great statesmen to be generally appreciated. and this time finally. for the canal soon fell into neglect. it . and Assyrian cuneiform. and though it was cleared of the sand and deepened some two hundred was once more. until it and Persia.' thus tested and practically estab- lished the possibility of a direct Indian route. northward Suez. smelting them down. in Persian.un once on a time by Ramses II. Scythian. to resume the work and carry it out in a new age and probably indestructible form. B.il. we do them for taxes. Three granite steles have been discovered at different points of the canal. the — — bearing sculptures and a fourfold set of inscriptions.390 MKPr. which appears to be an attempt at a real portrait of Dareios. bci. and on one of the steles a in Egyptian hieroglyphics . and though that choked it.uiyLOjy.. then .

being continued by his son and grandson. are the immortal glory of the early Akhaemcnian era. healthiest. was an incomparable But the Persian resort for the summer months. from motives both of policy and health. So Daieios selected a favorable and appropriate site in the finest.C. Babylon offering the inducements of a delicious winter climate. if not surpass in beauty and magnificence. as Babylon and Agbatana. This short period sufficed him for all the innovations and reforms which turned an empire loosely composed of disconnected and incongruous elements into a compact It was state. and most fcr- . 39 1 Babylon. those of the older rival countries. as well as to the S}'rian provinces and Asia Minor. lie was bound.DAREIOS not sec /. to endow it with a royal residence that should equal.• YEARS OF PEACE. Phoenicia. were de5. monarch could not neglect his own native state. Egypt ever from 515 to 508 ]!. cool and secluded amidst the Zagros highlands. We have seen that Susa was considered by foreigners and virtually was the capital of the empire. the first model of modern monarchies. or renounced their own monetary standards. while Agbatana. being fitted for the purpose by its ancient royal associations and especially by its vicinity to such important centres. always needing supervision. . on the contrary. to spend a portion of each year at the other two capitals. Asia Minor. Seven }'ears voted by Dareios to works of peace. Yet Susa was by no means exclusively honored by It became customary for him the king's presence. also during this interval that he began and in great that — — part achieved the constructions which.

and some formless rubbish fragments of masonry. as well as of its predecessor. of loose like that which alone marks the brick. AND PERSIA." What the name was lis. together with its incomparable citadel of palaces.39tile MEDIA. has never been known.of his greatness. cit)' naturall}rose around the pillared marble dwelling of royalty capital it A which we know only by the Greeks. BABYLON. iron — — place of the once flourishing city of Bagistana at the foot of the historical rock of the same name. Persepothe City of the Persians. building him a pakicc and an audi- — — — the specially Persian " ence hall worth}. from the Assyrians. part of Pcr'^ia proper. The Chaldeo-Assyrian architectural principle. . Greeks from Ionia to work. of the name of ISTAKIIR. nothing remains but the name. of earthed up walls. where Greek and Sassanian inscriptions and sculptures but poorly contrast WMth those of the Persian hero. 6. Such were different therein . stone. no doubt. fury a deed the eternal shame — in a fit of is drunken scarcely of which balanced by the conqueror's many great qualities or excused by his extreme youth. of building palaces on elevated platforms was adopted by the Persian inheritors of that ancient art but. perished in the conflagration lit under the name given to by Alexander's own hand. this. and set his artists and craftsmen nian\' of tlum. The city must have in part stood a Sassanian survived or been rebuilt. they knew how to save labor and improve their work by making use of natural advantages and local materials. but it is most probable that the Greek was a translation of it. in Persian. for on its site there Of city. This is the city which.

393 the considerations which dctcnnincd the selection of the site fixed on for the new citadel.^ '0.'Mi i \ "^l^^^-'^.PAREIOS I.. nearly flat lar square. wide.. • 41 'rjiUiiiTOiiiiiWiiii / rfii'v 60. 300)..^ di •} £jL_ . „ \ '''Hl'll!l'l'i'. in shape almost an irreguwhich invites the builder's choice. ivhich for some distance follow the course of the Pul- war (see p. Comlittle paratively preliminary work was needed.! ^. ''ri'"ill'illiii'i"''. !lli:-'"'- ^^^^O^IIMS^I^^^ . suddenly open out The eastern towards west and cast near Istakhr.IS. rock}' platform. The mountains. : YEARS OF PEACE. The slightly sloping surface was easily converted into a triple terrace. and spur falls off stecph' ^ .RKAT I'LATKUKM Al' I'KRSKPOI.t ..ill '""^"'""i\ii<:. and ends in a low. <in both sides.'i'''''''i.:i:. each stage rising about rugged and twenty feet above the preceding one a disposition which gives to the constructions an almost theatri- — .111 . : j. MASONRY OF (. ...|||| Jlll'iI'Sitalllll ' <i<mi^ ^^i'HII ''.

invLox. no less a wonder.) This is probably the most perfect existing specimen of that most ancient kind of masonry which has been called Cyclopean. ! . are proved to have been virtually a superfluous precaution (See ill. as an achievement of unaided human labor. set and Persia. and which may have been . were b\' the dark background of the rock against which the terraces leaned. 60. These surfaces were cased with blocks of marble furnished by the abundant quarries of Mount Rachmed. and the iron cramps which held them together in places. and which have crumbled away in the course of time. than the pyramids of Egypt or the transport of the Assyrian winged bulls and lions. not less than eight feet Some high. The single blocks of the casing are from thirty to fifty feet in length (the depth of an average house). such is the power of cohesion imparted by the mere tremendous weight of these huge masses. according to the unevenness of . and from four to six feet in thickness. that even now the joints are scarcely perceptible to the eye.the soil above which the first terrace rose. leaving only a rusty mark. The outer edges of the platform were cut down straight to the ground. in their way. are. n.394 MEDIA. the almost i:)erpcndicular face of the call}' effective off as they mountain now known as MOUNT Rachmed. ninjc^st}-. The construction of this casing or marble masonry. giving wall-surfaces ranging in height from fifteen to forty feet. the stairways which ascend to the first terrace from the plain. and although no cement or mortar are still longer has been used. and those that connect the three terraces.

and they are disposed rather irreguEven the princilarly. eacli not quite four inches . reflects things like a mirror. the surface has not been in some way injured or de- — has also faced by the barbarous and inane performances of think they achieve immortality by scratching their worthless names on the most hallowed master-works of antiquity. Wherever kept borrowed from some of the old Ionian this casing has been preserved. who As ler as the to the stairs. cit}' it 395 walls. sal. they are considered the most astonishing construction of the kind in the world. pal stairway. high. though somewhat less colosand not quite so gently graded as the main stairs. It is a douwest. commodiously mount them on horseback of marble. with a wide landing half-way up there ble flight. several The \\'hole block. : YEARS OF RE ACE. according to convenience. 7. somewhat steeper thirty steps. When the visitor has recovered from the bewildering impression hitherto produced by mere size and harmony of lines. are over a hundred steps. a single flight. On steps being hewn out of one the southern side there is another stair- way. tourists. There are several of them.DARE 10 S I. so is wide that ten riders can abreast. ascending to the is first terrace from the not placed quite in the middle. his attention is claimed and enthralled by the profuse and exquisite ornamentation which . which always strike the travelmost imposing feature of these grandest of ruins. where ble. The stairs that lead from cut out of one block one terrace to another are constructed on the ! — same magnificent scale. its admirable poiisli so perfect that the marto this da)'.

.o < < W u y.

in 62. The natural triangular jjanels formed by the first fev/ steps are everywhere filled out with ail artistic composition representing. by processions of guards. that favorite group of Oriental mythology the fight of the Lion and — adapted to the limited space. as soon as the widening Bull.DAKElOS l. : YEARS OF PEACE. I'AkAl'ET OF STAIR. while the . in a dispositit)n most skilfully room permits. and outer stair-walls. highly finished relief sculpture. 397 covers every available space of the parapet. and followed. I-KKSKI'DLIS.

and the southern scription. B. inside of the parapet or banisters gives file (jf soldiers. dearth. a : . the lintels of all the doors and windows. Dareios placed four large marble slabs. (See is completed by Asand a peculiar carved pattern used in syrian rosettes. and the customary invocation " May Ahura-Mazda protect this land of Persia from invasion. CARVED I. with the usual trilingual inlist of subject nations. (Persepolis. a distinctive ill. the frieze of the palace at Firuz-abad and on the rock-sculptured facade of the (see ill.398 MEDIA.) feature of Akhaemenian in architectural ornamentation found also (see ill. sculpt urrd one on every step.INTEL OF WINDOWS AND DOORS. tombs In 56).lJiYLOX. guests. terrace-wall. giving titles. and courstairs. A A' J) VKKSIA. royal 8. 52). the illnsion nf a long tiers ascending the G2y\ The decorative effect 63.

< fu - . < d <_ o r: o< w o -1.o a.

near corners as The size and often as not. -The distribution of the doors and windows is one of perfect symmetry. is the famous Hall of the Hundred Columns. are very differently proportioned.* moderate proportions of 9. and more to the east. this magnificent hall. . evil). also built by and peculiar arrangement sufificiently enlighten us on its destination two hundred and twenty-seven feet every way." pp. The Sc\thic inSt ription completes the Persian one b\' this statement: "Says Darayavush the kiny. apparently at random. Behind this palace. quite in accordance with our modern ideas on the subject. the exact ec^uivalent of the Chaldean and Assyrian foundation cyHnders. i'.. its size : and several windows in each wall. 62-68. shape of the apartments. with two entrances Dareios I.: These great palaces have been built on this spot." K central hall. and forming at the same time the landing between the two flights of stairs. where — doorways were opened anywhere. jMKDlA. flanked by two sets of apartments. . too. building contained only one vast the roof of * See " Story of Chaldea. of four rooms each. where there were no palaces before. each entrance being in the middle of its wall. showing that no difficulty had to be encountered in roofing the Persian palaces. greatly differing from the Assyrian halls. JS. the which show own to have been designed for the king's dwelling-place. such is the simple and harmonious arrangement which the ruins easily disclose even in their present mutilated condition.l/iVLOX.400 lie!"(/. occupying it very nearly the centre of the entire platform. AA'D PERSIA. with a front entrance composed of a door and four windows opening on a porch supported by four columns.

in O w Q (J cl O O i» H O P O H as Id H 1-1 in O o 3D .J o » in W <.

while the master of ceremonies holds his liand before mouth. by stabbing an ugly Daeva in the shape of a monstrous composite animal. of miglity cedar borne h\- — — queting else. (See ills. his throne.) ject nations. hall of Here we see the king seated on supported by rows of warriors. carrying the lii^htly the raftered ceiling proudly ami with ease on bent necks of the animals which adorned strong their capitals. 114). after the manner of the Chaldean wacked demons* the "Ahrimanian Beast. 54 and 55. 72. AND PERSIA. There again the king is presented to us as the earthly image of Ahura-Mazda. BAnVLON. 54. or of figures personating subHere he receives ambas(See ill. If nothing in the eight doorways would as- which is His figure is sadors or visitors bringing presents. on their inverted flower-base. fulfilling his god-given mission of warring with and annihilating the evil creation of Angra-Mainyu. the sculptures sure us of the fact. 73. to elevate him above common larger humanity. Wc have here the throne and audience hall. was upone lumdreHl columns ten rows of ten fanciful t\-pe of that peculiar and matchlessly which is the most distinctive feature of AkhjemenTall and slender. they rested ian architecture. .402 MEDIA. the great Dareios." as it — * See " Story of Chahk-a. niid 74. as though his ofTficiating before the sacred fire (see p. 49-51). and cypress beams. and the attendant who stands behind the throne with the fly-flapper wears the paitidana. than nature. the reception and banwliich. in the flowing Median garb or the tight-fitting Persian doublet and hose." ills. and all who approach the royal presence keep their hands in their long sleeves in token of peaceful intentions.

66. DAREIOS I'lGIITING A MONSTER —A DAEVA OK " AHRIMANIAN BEAST.' (Persepolis.) . Ilall of the Hundred Columns.

invro. and. gilt . has been called. 10. as given at that capital. or at New-Year. the son of Dareios. a number have been found. according as they were looped up or left to fall to the ground^ hall concealed the royal majesty or allowed it to shine The rings and forth on the courtiers and guests. to imagine the royal throne placed somewhere towards the end of the middle aisle. which. we can have no difficulty in picturing to ourselves the royal of short metal tacks banquet described in the Book of Esther. it is very likely that the inner surface of the walls after the may have been manner cased in gold plating also. and which. perhaps on the king's birthday.nr.i. if need be.404 Mr. from what the latter teaches us.v. made priceless by costly dyes and embroideries. but slightl}' altered from It is easy their Assyrian prototypes. B. of the old palaces at Agbatana . (see ill. other appurtenances for regulating the hangings must have been somehow attached to the roofrafters. the two great occasions of feasting and merry-making at the Persian court. whom the Hebrews have named Ahasuerus — — . were almost certainly indeed. like the ceiling. Pillared halls and porticos being an essentially Aryan form of architecture. and pf. by Xerxes. 48). bulls At soinc of the entrances winged mount their watch. .r^ta. partitioned by curtains and hangings of precious stuffs. and the vast adorned and. there is no doubt that when Dareios built his residence at Susa he added to it a reception hall similar to that at Persepolis. which could scarcely have served any purpose but that of fastening such platings.

DOCK OF I'AI.'. 67.yLof.jS^r"™ S5\ . I'KRSEPOLIS.ACE UF DAUElUS. 405 .

" and we can easily imagine some such apartment. . tribute-bringers. where were white. eh. it B.406 MEDIA. . visitors. a little apart from his father's palace. which calls it a "gate. the couches or seats] were of gold and silver upon a pavement of red. the nobles and princes of the provtlironc of . and leading up to the second terrace. tliosc days.lJiyj. and blue hangings. processions desirable another pair of stairs. etc. . Seventeen of the seventy-two black marble columns are still standing. and blue. whicii was in Shushan tlie palace." And anj ruyal wine in they gave them drink in vessels of gold the beds \i. kingdom. fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble . the son of Dareios. The king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shu... II. to the state of the king . as well as from the inscription. on which he had erected. green. %\lieii the l<ing Aliasucrus sat on kingdom. When he showed the riches of his glorious inces. shan the palace in the court of the garden of tlie king's palace. petitioners. could await the royal pleas- muster and form. a new reception-hall on a scale scarcely less magnificent than that of Dareios. lliat liis AND in PKKSIA. to be a and even necessary addition to the throneand audience-hall.. . Behind the " gate-building " came ure.. where ambassadors.OA-. of comparatively small dimensions. and black marble. lie made a feast unto all his princes and servants the power uf I'ersia and Media. but his principal construction there was a fine jDeristyle or waiting-hall which he built at That such was the head of the great western staircase. and white. . . being before him. and the honor of his excellent majesty many days." (Book of 1-7). abundance according Esther. c. . . This same Xerxes. I. its destination appears from the sculptures.. had a palace of his own at PersepoHs. . though in a ... also constructed by Xerxes.. "Now camo to jiass tlic .

-^ ~^^f»<j^K^i^^.V^^-^'T^j*-*^u ^'^^^^^^^^''C:^^^. ? ' - * 63.il— 4 feci . of (. tu caini. -jMt.'. •:"--• '•!'•. ( (Black Marble.) .il — 10 (cct .ai>it."*-.ct . circumference— to 53 (lulingi.^ . . : •-ntLARS Htriglit ' " ^ -' -^>."^^^^j^*^. frum base (i.i a\ Ol^ THE HALL OV XEKXKS.

"that the Akhxrnenian palaces. which seems to have been unenclosed by walls." he . Dieulafoy. windows." f Just as possibly lions or dogs. It is remarkable that nothing is left standing masonry of the Persepolitan palaces but the doorways and windows. namented with bas-reliefs in blue tiles representing bulls f . and it may be that it was the need of a cooler audience-hall which caused this Ruins of palaces belonging to later Akhaemenian kings. with no vestige of walls. . colored in two tones. 1SS5. guided by his observations and actual discoveries at Susa. BABYLON. gray and a grayish rose-color. as well as the massive walls. says. * Something like what we call " crushed-strawberry. describe. with their posts and lintels. Juillet. with the ex- ception of the cohimns.408 MEDIA. 12. but none are either so extensive or interesting as those we have attempted to one to be built. all of huge marble blocks. These ruihs thus present the exact counterpart of those of Assyrian palaces. that into the composition of the outer casing of the walls there entered a certain amount of blue tile.\ . and stairs. by examination of the rubbish at Perscpolis. and of the same architectural type. The aigness of such an open colonnade would be particularly suited for summei festivals and receptions. doors. sadly mutilated condition. are scattered somewhat irregularly on different points of the platform. AND PERSIA. \ Revue Arche'ologique. were built in that these tiles. and boar witness to the splendor of the building^. light brick cased with tiles . .* were disposed in mosaic patterns that the high cornice above the denticules of the entablature was or. where nothing is left but of the Mr. . suggests a more than plausible reconstruction of the missing masonry " : I think.

-I o W 'Si en M U >i as fa O >A s a X a z 'A (J <! H Ek o J <: as u z Ed o n 1 .

thing as p'evalent there as it was at Susa. it was freer than the Assyrian in its treatment of the human figure. his guards are ranged in cfTfigy as the living ones no doubt stood in the same place. so the sterner and more decoration solidly nrmgnificent Assyrian mode Unlike the Assyrian prevailed. probably in imitation of Nebuchadrezzar's palace at Babylon. no royal hunts. seemingly walking into his own palace. . 65). not having found scpolis. however. Dieulafoy admits many fragments of tiles at Per- whence lie infers that the decoration in glazed tile-work was not an)'. very likely the work was directed by Greek artists. In another place. Rach- med were of irresistibly suggestive of sculpture. B. unchanging type. j^rescnting arms. and of these the number is limited to day one or two subjects of a set. andthe influence tells in the natu- . sculptures. or attempts at landscapes all that meets our eye brings before us various moments of court ceremonial in distant lands. liowevcr. 6"/) broad stair-lr.nding. (See ill. through its main door there again along the outer wall of the (see ill. Sculptors and tile-painter. .<= had undoubtedly seen Greek models and had some Greek training. But if Persian art was more restricted in its range of subjects. Here we see the king on his throne. the Persian ones do not deal with historical subjects there are no battles or .and ever open quarries of Mt. The only alternation from court pageantry is to religious compositions. In fact the near. there he meets us. where in fact all the ornamentation appears to have been in tliat material. after day.41 MEDIA. Mr. sieges.\JiYLOA\ AND PERSIA. no marches regulated by the strictest of etiquettes.

41 I ral handliiiLj of the drai:)crics aiul the disappearance offcn- of those muscular exaggerations siv^e which are so in the Assyrian reproductions of the human form. Rachmed. is that the bodies were raised by means of windlasses to be deposited in their place of rest. They are in every particular similar to those at Nakhshi-Rustem. 13. from Greek historians. and it has been as yet to discover the real entrance to the mostly capacious sepulchral chambers behind. not made to open. Here as there. vv'hich leaves only two of the Akhaimenian kings uraccounted for. identified. the others the only one could not be . The openings which are found at present have evidently been made by plun- impossible derers. All the the tombs were found empty I.DAHE/OS /. All we know. the door in the sculptured front is a sham one. making with these seven in all. is and robbed. As tomb of Dareios that has an inscription. A survey of the Persepolitan monuments would be incomplete without a mention of the three royal tombs cut in the rocky side of Mt. just behind the palaces of the living. : lEAA'S OF PEACE.

: THIRD PERIOD: FOREIGN WARS. to * go over and conquer Scythia. In the first place the Black Sea was to be converted into a Persian lake.XV. the nations on its eastern and southern shore obeyed the rule of Susa and Persepolis. as has been suggested. and those on the western and northern shores the Thracians and the Scythians should close the circle. Europe was already now to be brought under it. — — independent. instead of staying at home to enjoy and let his people enjoy their hard-earned prosperity. in a vague sort of way. 412 " Justi. the Persians war and conquest were a necessity." . in order to preserve their energy and escape the danger of becoming effeminate in the enjoyment of wealth. commercial and political. Moreover. set out That Dareios. they were strong. I. really seems sheer perversity unless. for such a course. and might become dangerous neighbors. Geschichte des alten Persiens. under the Persian domination. and of course there was no lack of good reasons. " he felt that for a nation like . should have deliberately on a series of foreign wars."* His thoughts turned quite naturally to the west and All that was to be reached in Asia being north. So Dareios determined. half-barbarous. DAREIOS I. after several years of peaceable and useful work.

413 He knew stacles the . enlarging and enriching the Greek storehouses and commercial One of these. : FOREIGN WARS.DARE 10 S I. These rivers flowed through vast and products straight into which they brought the Greek hands. to Bactria —a way was lonc^ so it was to Egypt or knew there were some unusual obsea arm and a great wild river: they lie . the shores of Thracia and Asia Minor had reached. grew into a large and luxurious city by nothing but its corn-trade and its fisheries. the IsTER (Danube). why should not they? — 2. should be bridged as for the country and the people. from river to river. The next great station was Byzantium. at the mouth of the stations. The ships that had taken their lading of corn at Olbia had to carry them out through the Bosporus. In this latter respect the Greeks had greatly the advantage of him they did know a good deal about the Scythians and their country. As Southern Russia fertile lands. so it did then. and those of the numer- ous Scythian (now Russian) ones. of now supplies half the world with wheat. indeed. and the entire export trade was centred in Olbia as it now is in Odessa. but others had submitted. From all accounts. it must have held very much the place that Odessa now holds. so . situated on the Bosporus. Hypanis (Buc). The double line of their colonies which gradually extended along . along the northern shore of the Black Sea. Olbia. where Constantinople now stands. another Greek colony. from the same causes and in the same conditions. the mouths of the great Thracian river. . he knew nothing about them. as far as the "world" went at the time.

that they took some pains to explore it. . " The land is level. Of these I shall only mention the most famous and such as are navigable to some distance from the sea. . : much ing in pasture while the rivers which traverse it are almost equal in number to the canals of Egypt. the time of docs now. Indeed. he tried to gain possession of Byzantium. the father of Alexander. proceeds to describe the five chief rivers of that part of the world— the LsTER (Danube). the descriptions of Herodotus have become more and more the base of all geographical and archaeological research on the subject of ancient Russia. Byzantium held then. is far less defective than on many less remote places. BABYLON." Then the great plain are worthy of note. wished to starve Athens. These and the vastness of . they are still found amusingly correct. both of the colonies and at home. the key of the entire Bhick-Sea trade. as it AND PERSIA.". as imparted to us by Herodotus. the Tyras He . Nothing can be truer than "The country has no marvels except its he makes: rivers. and when Philip of Macedon. Tt is probably owing to the importance which the people of the vast region answering to Southern Russia had for the Greeks.000 bushels of Scythian corn went to Athens alone every year. and where they bear on climate and the outer features of the country. and their knowledge of it. who himself visited Olbia and a portion of the surrounding country. Some seventy years after Herodotus we find from contemporary evidence that 600. the general remark 3. well-watered. and aboundagain . which are larger and more numerous than those of any other land.4T4 MEDIA.

the Hypanis (Buc. and large fish are taken in it of th&sort called aiitaC(vi {sturgeon). he speaks with the enthusiasm which that most beautiful and bountiful of streams has never ceased to excite in travellers or its own country people to the Istcr.DAREIOS I.settled with a nation which he calls Husbandmen. and a few more which The Danube he calls it is not so easy to idcntif)'. and. while all richest harvests spring up is is along its course. But of the Dniepr (l)orythenes). or when he places the most fertile lands higher up along the course of the river. . 415. presents a refreshing contrast to the absolute barrenness of the surrounding steppes. greatest of them all. where the river divides into many arms. where the ground not sown. limpid. and the most productive river." . and which. " " of the Woodland which stretches by the lower course of the Dniepr. which is to our day a when he speaks lie is not less correct favorite fish for pickling. : FOREIGN WARS. its water is most pleasant it its tlie stream the other rivers near are muddy . and good for pickling. even to that last touch about the sturgeon. and describes them as being " ." and admires its volume of water swelled by so many tributaries. fish . (Dniestr). "of all the rivers with which we are acquainted the mightiest. each itself a great river. without any [irickly bones. ages for cattle it contains abundance of the most delicious to the taste . not merely in Scythia.). the heaviest crops of grass while salt forms in great plenty at the mouth without human aid." it is : " Next in my judgment it is the he says. " pare. with which no stream can possibly comIt has upon its banks the loveliest and most excellent pastur. excepting only the Nile. the TanaTs (Don)." river)' word of this applies now. the Borysthenes (Dniepr). though not to be compared in thickness with the forests of a more northern tract.

. " has winters of exceeding rigor. that water poured upon the ground does not form mud. As he gets farther away from the sea-shore and the Greek settlements. . and leading us to think that those steppes served as a burying-ground. as far as his personal observation goes. The frost is so intense. . and who raised most of the corn that was sold I^eyond these he places a desert region or steppe-land. or "vXgricullural Scythi. ranged over by nomadic Scythians. . l)ut if a fire be .416 MEDIA. and exported. . 4. at least. and there. . niBYLOX." whose pursuit was farming. . he tells us the were ." . . season the Scythians make warlike expeditions upon the ice. is perfectly true to nature as well as amusing with the quaintness of the impression produced on a Greek by the to him unfamiliar phenomenon of a frozen ground : " The whole district whereof we have discoursed." he says. . The sea freezes At that lighted on it.situated. but to the nation at large. summer it never gives over raining is . only in summer.ins. while in . . . less accurate. not to the kings alone. his descriptions naturally be- come less distinct. when it winter well. . and at last grow But even quite vague and fabulous then a good many traits remain which are easy to in their details. and thunder comes Horses bear the . So his account of the climate. by discovering and exploring the largest of the innumerable barrows or ness with mounds which there cover the plain. AXD PERSIA. For winter there is scarcely any rain worth mentioning. varying its flatsome undulation.. recognize or. to interpret.. cold as it is very heavy. mud is produced. tombs of the Scythian kings Modern research has proved tiiis particular also to be correct. at no great distance from the at Olbia river.

were needed for the journey. less. the given phice to hearsay: Above. it is said that seven interpreters 2 V. arc uninhabitalde by reason of the severity of the winter falls .DAREIOS I. who has seen it come down close to him. the Scythians. earth and air are full of them. because. the way lying through na- . 417 Now tell." We arc fainlHar through Grimm's nursery-tales with the old (lerman snow-myth. call the snow-Hakes feathers. or even having any view of tlio>e regions. and griffins. and this il is wliicli prevents the eye from oljtaining any view of the region. and so wc are pleased and amused to sec our dear old friend's good com- mon-sense giving him the clue to \vhat seemed to him at first only an absurd rumor : " With fill resiiect lo tlie featlicis wliicli are said liy the Scythians to the air and to [)revent persons from pcnel rating into the remoter parts of the continent. of the likeness which they liear to them. of Fran Holla emptying her feather-beds. which certainly were known to the Greeks of Olbia and the other Black Sea colonics and as certainly there was an overland route frequented by Greek . that in the countries al)ove Scytliia it always snows. I think. of course. traders. with their neighbors. It is plain that the gold which the latter guard is that of the Oural mines. there is not one word in this that docs not But when we come to such a passage as the folit lowing. " is not hard to say that observation has northwanl of the farthest dwellers in Scythia. thereand fore. my opinion is. 'Idiese northern regions. in it the summer." One can gather a good deal more valuable in- formation through fanciful stories about cannibals. as every one is aware.: FORElGiV WARS. to tlie country is said to be eoncealed fnjm siglit and made impassable by The reason of the feathers which are shed abroad abundantly. Now snow when looks like feathers. llian ii! the winter time. one-eyed men.

which make foreign places and people so hard to identify as to their manners and customs. namely. the latter the Scythians of Russia are now uniadmitted to have belonged. " " Scythians was not a race-name but one promiscuously remote." Accordingly he devotes to the Scythians many most interesting pages.ON. denoting tribes peoples to as well of Turanian as of Indo-European stock . he dismisses them mostly with this sweeping and uncomplimentary remark " The Euxine (Black) Sea. of which Herodotus gives us so and animated an account answers to the southern half of Russia. especially nomadic of the north and northeast. AXD PERSIA. but the Greeks had got into the habit of callThis agrees with what we ing them Scythians. It is very tions speaking seven tliffLient languages. more un. know from other used for all sources. that the Greeks purposely kept these things possible rather dark. so as not to divulge the secret of their commercial operations and the sources of their greatest profits. : polished than those of any other region that we know of. has nations dwelling around it. liAJiVl. He divides versally the nations into the " Husbandmen.41 8 MEDIA. and in the Greek forms." the only portion of it that was settled and given to farming . with the one exception of the Scythians. that at all. Of the nations which inhabited or roamed those vast and in great part wild 5. In the first place he notes that they really were named Skoloti. where Dareios now went to ^var. The country detailed regions. he only gives us the names as far as they were known to him. little known.

who neither plow nor sow. while they themselves are entirely out of his reach." try. : FOREIGN WARS. their wagons the . and carrying their dwellings with them wherever they go accustomed. This mode of life greatly impressed Herodotus." ]ie says. how can " ? they fail of being uncon- cestors With the appearance and costume of these anof the Russians we are familiar chiefly from the marvellously beautiful and finished works of art found in a Scythian royal tomb at Kertch. 414). and that the very most important of all those that fall under man's control. shown themselves wiser than any nation upon ihe face of the earth. 419 "Royal Scythians. These nomads. moreover. ancient PanticaP/EQN (a colony of Miletus on the . respect. followed their herds and flocks from pasture to pasture. and unassailable even 6. Having neither cities nor forts. to shoot from horseback. answers to the immense steppe region between the Dniepr and the Don. the advantages of which the Persians had found out to their cost." includin<^ prob" the wandering ably the royal and noble clans." whose coun" the whole of which is quite bare of trees. the I. and Scythians. querable. " The " have in one Scythians.DAREIOS (sec p. unless it pleases them to engage with him. one and all of them. The one thing of which make it impossible for I speak is the enemy who invades them the contrivance by which they to avoid de- struction. but by their cattle. Only he ascribes to meditated wisdom what was merely a natural warjust preout- come of all the conditions of their existence. like many Turanian tribes of our own day in Eastern Russia and Central Asia. as implying the peculiar manner of fare. and living not by husbandry. only houses that they possess. living in wagons drawn by oxen or tents carried on wagons and easily planted into the ground.

principally in vases of silver and electron. — they knew them only in a rudimentary and barbarous form. . the trousers struck into the soft boot (probably felt). after a lapse of two thousand years. also. and describes It is it. but " made themselves cloaks by sewing a quantity " " Others. in every Russian Their fondness for vapor-baths. taking pride in these trophies in proportion to their numbers. took their curious that he asserts that they vanquished enemies* scalps. and of pure Greek workmanship but they most certainly. are portrayed from nature the types they represent could not have chanc^ed in so short a time. though village. and all the more faithfully." . since now.420 MEDIA. They arc two or three hundred years later in date than tiie time we have arrived at. though hardly more so than those of many German and other warlike tribes in the early part of the Middle Ages. The costume too the belted kaftan with its border of fur and its em- — broideries. AND PERSIA. the bandaged feet is worn. American Indians have But they must have surpassed always practised even these in fierceness. where it has not been modified . they appear savage the extreme in Herodotus' narrative. and. As for any others of and crude in their customs. if it is true that they not the process exactly as the only hung the scalps to their bridle-rein. in some cases. BABYLON. flay the right together. has descended to the present owners of the land. scarcely changed at all. and consisting." we are told. we recognize in them those of our modern Russian peasantry. beyond recognition by contact with foreigners or new-fangled imported fashions. extreme eastern point of the Crimean peninsula).


and — if rich enough — lining the inside with — " their True. and as many of the finest horses. strangled fifty more }'ouths from among his best attendants. and other solemn ocoutside with casions. Such were the country and nation which 7. of their enemies. he remarks in one place.422 MhDIA. add it to his empire. "a covering for their Such things arc entirely foreign and. and would in whiteness surpass almost all other " Nor does he express any horror at their hides of lions' . determined to invade. Stakes passed through the bodies maintain them in the required position. sur'bly somewhat lightly. in ghastly imitation of a of honor." would think.IBYLOX. that customs are not such as he admires. with his favorite horse or horses. after casing them on the leather. . Such were their human and especially the funerals of their kings. at feasts. without any very uncommon dif^culty. repugnant to Greek culture. receptions of guests. because implythe living. B. Dareios. but after a year had elapsed. to death and burned with him at least one of his wives and all his chief body-servants together. never doubting but that he would. off AND PERSIA. and more objectionable. which probably some others sacrifices far ing cruelty to is meant to cover these traits. and disposed them around the mound. arms is stripped with tlic nails and make of the skin which " hanging to it (as wc do pnd tigers' skins). the Not only they put men mounted guard astride of the horses. which is generally mild and temperate yet Herodotus merely observes that " the skin of a man is thick and glossy." a blame gold. ! way of using their enemies' skulls as drinking-cups. one (|uivers.


B. He would on the same occasion make sure of Thracia and the Greek cities on both sides of the Bosporus and Hellespont. It is said that one of his brothers entreated him to desist. accompanied and supported — — by the fleet. leaving the when he bridge in the charge of part of the fleet and the Greek cities along both sides on the Bosporus. c. His army numbered 700. He found all done and the fleet assembled when he arrived at the Bosporus. which the ships entered.000 led it from Susa. but was crushed by numbers. close to the Danube. and he sent messengers to all the Greek cities of Asia Minor. which he immediately crossed.inVLOX. while the land army stopped.4^4 MEDIA. several cities i. although they had but recently been conquered and annexed. just be- hind the Delta. which were to sail up to the Bosporus and there to build a bridge of ships across the straits. He had no difificulty with the Thracians: they either submitted as he passed or had given " "earth and water to his envoys before. Only one nation. while he himself collected the contingents of the several Asiatic nations. But his mind was made up. Besides. as well as of several Greek islands. with orders to equip and man six hundred ships with three rows of oars {trieres). attempted resistance. AND FERSr. and tried to make him realize the great dif^culties he was goinij to encounter. the place where sent it The ships were commanded by the branches. he did not go very far inland.l. until the river was bridged. but skirted at a distance the sweep of the Black Sea. The trysting-place was the mouths of the Danube. separates into by the Ionian respective tyrants of .

Tiie ponderous Persian host at once prepared for an engagement. lacks consistency. not improved by Greek is rendering. 419). turn to their liomcs. without ever staking their fate on the issue of a battle. immediately engaged in their own peculiar mode of warfare that warfare which Herodotus so — highly admires (see p. 8. so as to wear and starve him out. Init always harassing him. Detachments of their light infantry and in fact they were <?// light to show themselves three days' infantry began march from thc Danube. the From the moment Danube and phmged that Dareios had crossed into the land of Scythia. and can easily be seen to come through the magnifying in medium of Scythian legends. and after wliich thc)' miglit. : FOREIGN ]VARS„ 425 and to them Dareios entrusted the keeping of the bridge during his absence. I. The detailed account of his marches and countermarches all possible directions. give him up for lost and reful if watch. and followed.DA RE 10 S thcf^c cities. Pareios committed his one and fatal mistake Thus : he al- .about his movements becomes uncertain. or rather common-sense. which began at once on the opposite bank. appointing a certain time during which they were to keep faiththey did not see him or his army. as given by Herodotus. never actually fighting. after sending to distant pastures and to various neighbors for safe- What we can gather with certainty keeping. their families away that the Scythians. and which consisted in drawing the enemy farther and farther into the country. every thin". expecting that the enemies were showing — — them the w\ay to a convenient battle-ground.

and then we shall see whether or no we will fight with you. and the flocks and herds were kept out of the way. no cities to be sacked. I . Still . but thou shalt soon receive more Earth and water I do not send : . there are our fathers' tombs seek them out and attempt to meddle with them. when there are two things thou mightest do so easily ? Dareios at ' : If thou deemest thyself able let and come. why dost tliou keep on flying lowing message before me. with unvaried success. : to resist my arms. however. and seemed so interminable. not For there were no culof water. At length the Persians found themselves in a land of woods and marshes. . and began. do I : now I fly from thee. you must needs come to blows with us speedily. but of provisions. and when he did he was very far north. lowed himself to be decoyed away from the seashore. do only follow my common mode . . I never fear men or fly from them. There nothing new or strange in what of life in peaceful years. unless it pleases us. tivated lands to be plundered.' To this message the Scythian king replied This is my way. to harass them with unex9. Till ye do this. even so shouldst thou have not done so is in times past. The army by this time must have greatly suffered from want. . which was continually repeated. suitable gifts. and to come at once to a conference. and consequently cut off from retreat and It was long before he discovered the supplies alike. trick. AND PERSIA. be sure that we shall not join battle.' " the Scythians ceased to draw the Persians on. which has a great look of genuineness about it : " This had gone on so long.If. look you now. by the sources of some of the Here Herodotus gives a little incident great rivers. nor I . unfindable foe. that last sent a horseman to the Scythian king. . cease thy wanderings us engage in battle. with the folThou strange man. Persian. strength is away thou hast but to bring thy lord earth and water. Or if thou art conscious that my cease to run greater than thine. BABYLON. still pursuing an elusive.426 MEDIA. instead.

but die pierced by our arrows. well in keeping. * There is So they swiftly retraced their the Danube in as direct a line as is of course no proof of this story. which was (and the king's father-in-law).' " ''^ This explanation. both This he conceived to be the meanland and water. steps. and the five arrows might signify the surrender of all their power. or make yourselves frogs and take refuge in the fens. with their ignorance of the country. he added. 427 pected attacks and cavalry night skirmishes. not yet too late. And The Scythian princes despatched a herald to the Percamp with presents fur the king. FOREIGN WARS. ing of the gifts. ye ' : the sky. because the mouse is an inhabitant of the earth and ians intended a surrender of themselves same food as man. Persians. but it a pretty one. while the frog passes his life in the water. Gobryas. If the Persians were wise. and fjve arrows. soon came the m}'steriously promised gifts. a frog. into his hands. bird bears a great resemblance to the liorse. struck Dareios himself and all the other Persians as by far no time the more probable of the two and they lost in acting on the hint. a mouse. they were now seized with the vciy reasonable fear that the lonians might have broken faith with them. under existing circumstances. to return again with all speed. These were a 1)ird. or a detachment of Scythi^ ans might have overwhelmed the keepers and destroyed the bridge. gian as follows can turn into birds and fly up into Unless. they held a council to for themselves. if perchance it were . ".. they would find out the meaning So when they heard this. Dareios gave it as his opinion that the Scythconsider the matter. and nut intrinsically ini|irobable.. To the explanation eats the tlie of Dareios. The Persians asked the bearer to tell them what these gifts might mean hut lie made answer that he had no sian . or become mice and Ijurrow under-ground. . one of the seven conspirators against the Ma" " offered another. ye w ill never make your escape from this land. .DAREIOS /. and made for they could. Besides. orders save to deliver them and and all their country.

rejoicing that they were free. a young Athenian nobleman. that we enjoy our thrones in our several states. hut were glad when unwillingness they succeeded in keeping them off their track. reminded them that it would be entirely against their interests to break their trust. and who had but lately submitted to the Persian rule. who was the chief. princes. tyrant of Miletus. on patriotic grounds. " through Darius.428 MEDIA. and MlLTlADES. were ready to join him. was all for following the Scythians' advice. lO. If his power be overturned. nor ye For there is not one of them which of your cities. or rather king. when the chief among them. They had now to complain of the Scythians' to attack and fight. Meanwhile." he said. mild as it might be. still was a form of bondage. Some Scythians had had a parley with the Ionian princes and urged them to " break the bridge and hasten back to their homes." The temptation was Here was a chance at one stroke to restore great. of slavery. not AND PERSIA. I cannot continue lord of Miletus. It is . BABYLON. HlSTIAIOS. and thanking the gods and the Scythians. such as keeping and their camp-fires burning pitched while they stole away at dawn. at the war council which was held on the subject. or little devices. the liberties of all the Creek cities. of the peninsula which skirts the Hellespont on the European side. thinking it a shame to miss such an opportunity of throwing off a yoke which. the disaster which they dreaded in deceiving tents them by their was very near actually happening. who enjoyed greater weight and influence from being the ruler of the first among The Ionian the Ionian " cities.

so that Dareios. the only absolutely unreasonable act that can be charged to this great king. amount to more than one tenth of his army. for Dareios. however.'" 429 This not prefer democracy to argument was found so persuasive. Miltiades saw himself alone of his opinion. and cross the Helles- — pont on ships. Historians have praised or bridge blamed this decision. as he crossed back to Asia. not this latter trust.DAA'EIOS will I. that he could not shake them off on the march through Thracia. pa)" These latter hatl to dearly for their act of rebellion. Yet his losses were not so great as his recklessness deserved they . honor. kingl)rule. then princes. according as they took the standpoint of patriotism and love of liberl)-. who was now so hotly pursued by the Scythians. nor did he feel himself safe until he reached Sardis. at showing them favor. and trust. even after having recrossed the Danube. and the Bosporus. And one advantage was gained the subjection of did not : the Greek colonies all along the Thracian shore. the Hellespont. : FOREIGN WARS. proving. with another tenth of his arm}% on purpose to punish them and keep the others in obedience. that when the votes were collected. or of It was. the wisdom of Kyros' policy in placing native tyrants over the cities. Thus ended this extraordinary undertaking. and destroyed or damaged the bridge left in their charge. dcnvn to the very seashore. . It was therefore decided to hold the for Dareios. noble under any circumstances. had to change his route. but purely feeling. left a general behind. selfish considerations which influenced the Ionian duty to a all events. The newly annexed cities on the Bosporus showed more patriotic zeal.

and at the op[)osite end. The centre and soul of these concities was Miletus. nor had any very notable results. to the unuttaken. spiracies — terable consternation of the entire Hellenic world. BABYLON. except that the near approach of a Persian army caused off Carthage to enter into negotiations and buy herself from a threatened invasion. across the desert. her youths and maidens taken for booty or sold for slaves. Very different is the interest which attaches to the movements of the Greek cities in Ionia and the adjoining province. at one end of the empire. and revolts and conspiracies against the foreign rule broke out here and there. when opposed. Her citizens were deported to the Persian Gulf. by a tribute which she paid regularly for several years. while the rebellious cities on the Hellespont The Persian rule. which was not to be quelled with the ease that the Persian king had encountered till now in The his dealings with these portions of his empire. a leaven had been stirred. into Penjab. The beautiful city was besieged. reign also To the last period Darcios' belong the expeditions. as it became was gradually changing its character growing heavier and harsher. spirit of independence shown by the northern had proved contagious after all. — . and. But neither of the expeditions was conducted personally by the king neither were . MEDIA. whose love of liberty Histiaios had well judged. drifting were burned down.4JO II. they of much importance in the general history of the times. and destroyed almost entirely. older. into the territory of Kyrenc and Barka. AND of PERSIA. For there a beginning had been made. west of Egypt.


A'S/A.432 MEDIA. be a check on the overwhelming deluge from the East or that not only not he himself. after being overruled by his timid and selfish compeers on perience . ' -' _ _ . Avould yet satisfy his ' patriotic ^ ambition. encouragement. But this glorious struggle and triumph of the few superhuman heroism by an ennobling moral merely brutal force of numbers. nor to that of remote antiquity it is dawn of a new star. does not properly belong any more to the history lifted to principle. and of times : which. but his children. At the bottom of . His great grudge was now the Greeks not those of Asia. actors. from their spirit. into ordinary Oriental Jicsicles. JA'D crLicll}-. seamen. as against the the of the East. and gladly vented his irritation on those Avho displeased him. in the West. and achievements. and. indeed. BAIiVLOX. Little did he dream that the mortification and losses of his Scythian campaign were as nothing to those which he was to exthat at the hands of this nestful of traders. and sympathy. with the cau- and preparation of a wise general.s bitterly mortified and irritated by bootless and senseless expetlition into the wilds home of Scythia. He knew that were one nation with these rebellious colonies. but with absolute faith in its quick and easy completion. farmers. but those against — across the sea. 490 B. Darcios had returned hi. Battle of Marathon. as the hero of Marathon. PF. the people of Hellas. his children's children should ever be able to achieve all the task which he tion now undertook. the Danube. they they gave them support. may almost be called modern.C. and craftsmen that Miltiades. and determined to make an end of the entire obnoxious race.

DAREIOS the I. for his ! Asiatic. and for future times 2 F . And the Greek wins the da)-. No master own time and for his own and races to come. as A the beauty and dignity of up by the Oriental and " ! good master " is ! the prayer Liberty at " the highest good in itself is that any of the Greek. . FOREIGN WARS. race. 433 new departure ideals political — the conception of — and social life " : lies the difference between the set Western man and ideal of the price.


347. genealogical table of the. . 306. 88. 287. supplanted by Aryans in Urartu. 307 1 Kyaxares' son Astyages. and Ameretat. and expedi. aggrai. see Hara-Berezaiti. Pasargadae. Alborj. Spentas. his connection with ^lithra. 404. cy obnoxious to the Egyptians. one of the nomadic Persian triljes. Alarodians. 348 prepares against a Persian invasion under Kain. ter to . see Plaurvatat Amazons. Hamadan). 1S7. as different from myth. 47. ^ the home of the Aryas. seven the Amesha-Spentas. 62. Xerxes. Aderbeidjan. Ahi. 219. Ab-Karkha. 279. dethrones 86. a 41- group of Aryan ^ deities. 198201. 334. Achreans. first of Daevas. 90 Agamtunu. of Egypt. " Bountiful Immortals. 278. temple of. .INDEX A. or INIardians. . the Aryan Cloud-Serpent.menes. s Akhfemenes prince of (Hakhamanish). Agbatana (modern capital of Media. see Angra-Mainyu. see Atro[)atene. Amasis (Aahmes) Aliura-Mazda. 263-266. 349. . Alexander the Great of Macedon burns down Persepolis. 262 palace and citadel of. see Amasis. Ahuna-Vairya (Parsi Honover). 202. the most sacred and potent text. 348. 74. Allegory. Akhremenidne. Choaspes. Alyaltes. origin of the fable. originally a sky-god.dizes Lydia. 61. 203. 279 . Media. of Pelasgic stock. Hebrew name of Ahasuerus. Ahriman. Ahi. Aahmes. probably un-Aryan. 75 primeval Airyana-Vaeja. ALshtna-Dacva. name of the dynasty founded by Akhs. the Fiend-Serpent. So 61 . ancient river. king of Lydia. Ako-mano. 87. see Agbatana. see Asmodeus. 221 the greatest of the Mermnadro. . the supreme god Hophra and usurps the crown his liberal poliof Eran. . as Aji). Aiiityas." op- posed to '^^ohu-manij. 37. 27. "Worst Mind. 72. meaning of the name. Aji-Dahaka (same see Aji. the Ameretat. 220 makes peace with Kyaxares and marries his daugh. the founder of the Persian hereditary monarchy. his war with . 62. byses. itspowerover the fiends.Vmardians. 286." 74the Amshaspands or arch78 angels of the Parsis. an early Greek nation. 77. Ammon. 435 . 103. the chief of the Amesha63 their creator.

the Greek Sun-god. 234. Ardvi-Sura AndJiita. Art. at Miletus. (Ahriman). Sanskrit equivalent of used in an evil Ahsura. to constructed ]\Iedia. Lord. Aspahe-ashtra. value. Aptya. a name of Atar. 76. the Drought Fiend. Apollo. 290 ges. 303. 80 see Apam-Napat. Urartu. 158. Asmodeus. 355. son of Kyaxares. . 1S6.^ 45. 280. ter. the Hebrew equivalent of Aeshma-Daeva. . Aryas. . 218. married to Astyages. 280. 187. Anslian. son of Ariaramnes see Amesha-Spenand king of Persia. " Perfect HoliAsha-Vahishta. . 261 from cylinders. of Truth. see Hophra. of. Assyrian. 37 their naturetheir Sun38-40 ^vorship. Amuhia. " Son of the WaApdm-Napdt. at Susa. 103. generously treaton Ariaramnes ed by Kyros." one of the Amesha-Spentas. Ardys. 8-1 1 12 abused by William Jones and other scholars. his journey to India in search of Parsi manuhis success. daughter of Astyages of for. Assyria. ros. Apaosha. . never 187 . . at Perib. Ashavan. ters. 296. probably married to Ky. marries Aryenis. 2-4. Greek influences. 75. 224 . scripts. a part of Elam. follower Asia Minor." by-word of Dyaus and Varuna. . Angra-Mainyu the vVrch-Fiend. subdued by . 221 the Hanging Gardens . also Anzan. see Anshan. queen of Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. 286. his real . Eranian goddess. 278 occupied by the Persians. . his . ib. at Pasargadae. 221 succeeds his father in Media. connection with Ahu- ." a name of Lightning.. 210 . son of Kyaxaies. 392-404 . and Anduan. Arlaxerxes. sepolis. at Susa. prinieval. Fire. Arabs. his contemptible charac. the celestial spring. daughter of Alyattes. their conquest sion of Persia. . AND PERSIA. Tei'spes and king of Persia. temple 209. Anqiictil Diiperron. lion sent against the Ammonians by Kambyses. Artemis. king of Lydia. 6r Ariyaramana.. i8g. tas. Atar. ness. 4744 . . 2S6. his shrine and oracle at Delphi. 40. Assan. Aj)anm-Napat. Amytis. son of Gy- Assan. Apries. Myth. or Persian. Asura. . see Trita. 333-343 . 11. 207. palace 334-. Anzan. \nis!. an Aryan deity. 295. 209. BABYLON. 83. subject to 202 igo. 289 from Herodotus. compared of. daughter of Alyattes.aspan(ls. 51. see Ariaramnes. Astyages (Ishtuvegu on cuneiform monuments). and oppres- Aramati. an instrument of punishment in the Vendidad. 65. 88. at Ephesus. Greek colonies in. (Ariyaramana " Persian monuments). 43 their ideas of sacriflce. dethroned by Kyros. 100. Arsames (Arshama on Persiart monuments).436 MEDIA. 2S0. Armenians. 82. son of Asura. their Storm-Myth. see Anshan. French scholai' and traveller. . Anduan. oldest relics of. 304 imitative. 157. 13. Aryenis. 410. king of Lj'dia. 221. see Anshan. conflict against Tishtrya. the Aryan settlers of ^sense.

derivathe son of Varuna. l)undle of sacred twigs. ancient Bagrock of. younger son of Kyros assassinated by the Great. 256. Aihwya. 43> capital of ancient Bac- his demands on Bakhdhi. Barcsnia. . . built by Nebuthe great chadrezzar. 255-257. the country of sacred fires. 286. . Bug. 152. the now generally accepted name for the sacred book of the Eranians. Belshazzar (Bel-shar-uzzur). Mr. Atropatene. Rawlin- ans. 413 . men. . Bourchicr. 238-240 submits to Kyros. by Turanian influences. Borysthenes. 232 bridge at. mound of uncertainty about. 1. of Faith. under Dareios . 26. 152. 357. Athai-van. Bakhtiyari mountains. rebel. the hereditary priests of Apollo at Miletus. a Pehlevi sacred book. on a bridge of ships. 234-238 temple of Bel at. English traveller and scholar. women. note. the Greeks Athravan. George. 251. 20. a Babylonian woman. Bagiftana. iiS 120 prol)ably introduced .. 350 personated by an impostor. Avesta. 284 tions on the rock of. Assyriologist. 327-328. Behistun c^ Bisutun. Atesh-Gah. probably the country of King Vishtaspa. modern Dniepr.. temple of Nebo at. 118. ^ Bel-shar-uzzur. 227. the Eranian priests the Avesta. Scythian river. 376. mentioned in the Avesta. . 415. 381. 6. 374 captured and slain. 14. see Parsua. Bactria.. Sir Henry C. or Profession III. inscrip285. 150. 209. 360. books. 22S-230 the palace. Barashnum. Berlin. 15. Byzantium. Borsip. one of the oldest Sanskrit names for" Lightning. 5. a Greek co-ony on the . head-quarters of the Parsis. 233. 136. 322. 16. Zarathushtra's Burnouf Eugene. Atrina. . proper name of the sacred book of the Erani. customs. 149. . the great nine nights' tives. 319. friend. (called by . 173. 79. modern Aderbeidjiin. Geo. 278. Dareios crosses it Bosporus. (jreek cities on. city on the western coast now generally adopted name for the language Bombay. of of of India. 424 . 231 the hanging gardens. 2S2 istana explora. 361. 429. walls of. Smerdis). 144 . son and successor l^ebuchadrezzar. position Bundehesk. Barsua. independent of. 20. Branchida. 20 its component parts. Babylon.INDEX. 259. see Belshazzar. 382. 26. notes." 42. 366. ra-Mazda. see Hypanis. B. described by Herodotus. Avil-Marduk (Evil-Merodach the Bilile). see Behistun. 32. 242-260. 29-31. 62 . the first impostor and usurper of Elam. Russian river. . Avesta-u-Zend. 148. son of son. a Babil. sculpture and Avestan Creed. 152. its share of Bal)ylonian Empire the Assyrian spoils. see Thraetaona. French Orientalist his work on the Zoroastrian . . 16 . often recurring in the Egibi tablets. tion of. Nabonidus. Bunanitu. . by . Bardiya in purification. 8. of the Avesta. the Avestan. 345 order of Kambyses. . 252 and 254. tria. fire altar.

impurity of. Chishpalsh. 108. 162. . fiends. . Delphi. BABYLON. 3S7 structs roads. Persian monuments) the house of Egibi. a modern city near Susa. a country of Hittite traces in. 201. Dniepr. 425-429 prepares a campaign against Hellas. 139 spect due to it. 391 there. containing proclamation of Kyros. see Teispes. Dja7naspa. and founds the unites postal system. 362 ions attacks and slays him. 317. occupied by Amasis. 189 . 13S winter.tun. a follower of Zara.. Daevas. 64. . 369 369. Dieulafoy. 132. D. Dniestr. son of Hystaspes. river of Susa water drunk by Persian 31S. shrine and oracle of Apollo at questioned by Gyges. 432. note. of 210. Dareios on a bridge of ships. see Tyras. . 99. Minor troops from. Parsi high-priest. . isle of. . only kings'.^ it see Ister. invented by the Lydians. Dog. 135-137 by. institutes . AND PERSIA. . Cyprus. 390 all rebellion in 372-381 . 142. Caria. 289. and . 389. Bosporus. . meritoriousness of pulling them Dizful. 370. country of Asia Minor submits to Cyrus.. 95. Jown. crosses 424. demons.43^^ MEDIA. iSS. meaning of the word. formity of coinage. Professor Friedrich. 131 original meaning of 333the name. 361 plots against the false with six companBardiya. himself a Mazdayasnian. French explorer of Susa. see Dareios. . support Gyges. 139-141. . Chinvat Bridge. a . mound — site of Darayavush. Devas. C. 95. 327 annals . Asia 198. Deinavend. 413. note. . his unsuccessful cam422-425 . . Minor . 140 in the Gathas. see Borysthenes.-. Coining. . 97. . Choaspes. paign. towards foreign religions. 124 dispose of. 124-128 impurity of. 370 faces and fights down . thusthtra. not to be carried by one man how to be treated in alone. 328. 64. Daevayasniaii. . 282-287 his account of Gaumata's usurpa. Mr. II. Cylinder. . Cilicia. . 386. Djumdjuma. . Danube. the sacred animal of the the care and reAvesta. Dareios I. the Zoroastrian cemeteries. 15. 408-410. successor of his Kambyses (Darayavush on . how to Corpses. controls the trade of the Black Sea. 124-128 pollution and purification. 319. . Destur. loS mentioned kept by dogs. king the of Persia. the saintroduces trapies. of. 13. 333-343 on the palaces at Persepolis. 390 founds his buildings Persepolis. sculptures and inscriptions on the rock of ]Jehi. 165. 387-389 the Mediterranean with the Red introduces uniSea. 368 his tomb at Nakhshi-Rustem. . note AjiDahak chained under. highest peak of the Elburz range. . 364his tolerance and respect 365 . the provinces. Mt. Dakhmas. a country of Asia tion. 244. on the House of Egibi. 212-217. . 246. 281-2S2. 414. gods of light in India. . 3S4-386 conregular taxation. . Delitzsch. E. out of reach of Dakhma-. Cappadocia. 392-404 invades Scythia. Nabonidus.

Ephesus. Stanislas. 156. 81. of purification from the. byses. see Tanai's. Gaumata. 66. Kyros. 184. Evil-Merodach. the Magian. 380. 65. founder of the Lydian dynasty of the Mermnadce. 6. 244-250 ably equivalent to the Hebrew . Mt. purification by. battle of the. 4. 376 his capture and execution. a Turanian ruffian. 97. the celebrated Tree of Life. fifth month of the Persian calendar =:: July-AuGaokeretia.. the Aryan sky-god. F. White Haoma. . their migrations and hard 15 . follower of falsehood. son of Kyros and usurps the crown. 135 : — . occupies northern lialiylonia and Babylon. 103.INDEX. a Babylonian colony on the Arabian coast. the guardian tle. conquered by Kam- Mazda. at Babythe name problon. the Mede. 59. S4. 360. 1S9 . 183 . about Egypt. Ganges. a misnomer. the dise. . 355. 24 . the impostor and usurper of Media. Fravashis. 246.Worshippers. . 241. 108. one of the seven who slew Gau- of cathis petition to AhuralOi. a general of . 154 ence. Dnij. 328. struggles with nature. Frangrasyan. note. see Parsis. 208. Frashaostra Dorians. 136. Fcridtin. Fravartish (Phraortes). Eranian hero-king. Gobryas. see Persis. . Eclipse. 71 .. mode 136. thushtra's own teaching. the corpse fiend. Garo-ntndna. 57-59 their character. under ern Parsi writer. or gust. or Guzerat. a peninsula of India. 204-207. see Susiana. 97. Orontes. supply their kindred with transformed . Don. an impostor personates Bardiya. Gujerat. l38. note. a mod- a follower of Zarathushtra. 56. 5. French Assyriologist. his gifts to . Ezekiel. 360 slain by Dareios and his . father-in-law of Dareios I. Dosabhai Framji Karaka. six companions. Dareios I. Ears or Farsistan. 93. see Mt. Gerrha. 209. great river of India. 63. 64. name given to the Parsis. one of the Greek tribes their descent from Epirus and Thessaly into lower Greece and the Peloponnesus. . story of. I. Elvend. G. 146. water. banking house of. the Spirit of Lie. Dyaus. Garmapada. a (jreek city in Asia Minor. Guyard.. 365. Elam. note. 60 their lack of imagination. one of the great divisions of the Aryan race in Asia. 100 Ethiopians. his prophecy about Tyre. Fire. 155 od. mata the Magian. Eranian Para- Yakilb. 106 Nasu. Geush-Urvan. 83. see Avil-Marduk. temple of Artemis at. Gdthas (Songs) oldest portion of contain Zarathe Avesta. Gomez. 40. Spirits of the Departed. Gyges (Gugu). their dualism and its origin. 220. 65. probably under Turanian influ- in the Pehlevi peri- Drujvan. Egibi. Eranians. Gebers. Elhurz. . 439 . quoted.

Iba. C." the two last Amesha-Spentas. Hermos. 2S6 was heir presumptive but never reigned. Hvareno. . the Semitic part of the aiti. 204. 76. 65. one of the old Greek tribes. French translator of the Avesta. great river of India. the Delphic Apollo. Hypanis. India. Indra. in the Avesta. 15. 307. Ishtuvegu. in Lydia. helps Kyros to overthrow Astyages. 63. of Pelasgic stock. PERSIA. 147-156. Hophra . 180 goes to the rescue of Jerusalem. iiS. 392.Iddina-Marduk. a 312.. one of the great divisions Jeconiah. succeeds his father Necho II. son of Silla. 202. 208. modern Danube. Thunder-god- 156-158. the sacred mountain of Eranian myth. Herodotus." 80. taspa). Ister. the Hellenes. 30 "White" or Gaokerena. Hara-Bcrezaiii. see Agbatana. Haurvatat and Ameretat. its geographical conditions and influence on the Aryan conquerors. 242-244. Hakhamanish. the sacrificial liquor. suades Halevy.440 ^rEDIA. Hamadan. Ilalys. 290 part assigned to him in the fabulous legend of Kyros' child. son ^of Basha. Hellas. 181 Amasis. BABYLON AND . Berezaiti. de. 207. inner 230. Haraiti-Bareza. Histiaios. a peak of the HaraHuzvaresh. his retreat national Istakhr. " Harlez. see Akha. 234238. 2I2. ^\all of Babylon. a man named in the Egibi tablets. 413 415. dethroned by Hukairya. a Median lord. but is routed and driven . (Apries). H. French Semitist. hood. 204. Hindus. 180. 292-293 conquers the Greek cities of Asia 5linor for 257. 120. 1S7. see Astyages. of the Aryan race in Asia. Jehoahaz. Indo-Eranians. a river of Asia Minor. Haoiiia. 413. his views on Turanian influences in the Avesta. a man named in the Egibi tablets. tyrant of Miletus. 37. 2io probably invented coining. see Jehoiachin. Imgur-Bel. Hittite. 246. Hebrew atlinities. the Aryan 46. the national of Greece. 65. crossed by Dareios in Hellespont. 56. Mgr. lonians. . 316. Kyros. Greeks. Pehlevi texts. " Health and Immortality. 428. note. see Hara-Berez. 193. Kingly Glory. Hystaspes (Greek form of Vish. back. modern Bug. river of Persepolis. Hanging gardens at Babvlon. 19S-201. I. 22. sanctuaries in Asia Minor. Lycian death-goddesses.menes. perthe Ionian princes to keep the Ijridge on the Danube for Dareios. modern name of the site from Scythia. 146. his description of Babylonian customs. common name name of Indus. father of Dareios I. J. 56-57. king of Egypt. 81. 414. son and successor of . Harpies. a Scythian river. modern Kizil-Innak. Harpagos.. 429. .

1S3 call Kyros. king of Persia. mcund of.Jews. 327 delivered from captivity by Kyzar. a portion of the Avesta. submits to Necho. Kizil-Irmas. son Kyros the Great. king of Judah. Jehoiachin. iSi. 331 succeeds his father. Panticapreon. carried into captivity by Nebuchadrezzar. Persian queen of Kyros the Great. 441 against the Ammonians and himself leads one into Ethiopia. chadrezzar.. 171. 175 urges submission toNebuchadrezzar. succeeds his father Jehoiakim. ib. .. instrument kill impure animals with. 201. against Kyros. 108. his moderate rule and respect shown to Egyptian customs and religion. 419. a river in Asia Minor. 280. 233Josiah. iiS. K." one of the Amesha Spentas. • 358. Kambyses Nebuchadrezzar. . 330 viceroy of Babylon. see Vishtaspa. in Cappadocia. to iJelphi. see Kambyses. 12 founder of Sanskrit studies. 207. .i77-iSo. taken by Nebuchadrez: son of Kyros I.INDEX. English Orientalist. Babylon. . at Pelusion. Sovereignty. the Jewish historian. the site of Nebuchadrezzar's palace. endures persecution. 350 invades Egypt and defeats Psammetik III. Josiah. 344 his character. Kornana. . 344. 176 retaken and destroyed. king of Lydia. 352-353 . Jones. of Excellent Khshatlira-Vairya. and gives himself up to . abuses Anquetil Duperron. Kandaules. battle of. story of. 174 dies. ancient Kertch. . . 310 his defeat and capture. . and is carried away captive. 88. as king of Judah. has his brother Bar346-349 diya assassinated. 354 . to Khrafstraghua. see Kyros. ros. 161. . 30S . 330.! 14. Scythian royal tomb at. 357 crime and takes his own life. 297. impure creatures. 310-312 his attempted self-sacrifice misunderstood by the Greeks. or Jeconiah. 172 . 171. priests of hostile gions. 176. reli- Karkhemish. and king of Anshan. 351 takes Memphis and subdues all Egypt. 232. 30 its tendency to a revival of polythe. son of Alyattes of Lydia. modern town between Baghdad and Hamadan. 176. Khrafstras. Josephus. consults his gifts Greek oracles. . meditates M'ar lb. . Jehoiakim. 162. Karpans. liis preaching and impopularity. succeeds his brother Jehosubmits to Nebuahaz. " Kambujiya. receives the news of a 355 . Kava Vishtaspa. 262 succeeds his father. Jeremiah. 349. 75. general revolt at hoir. William. Koresh. 307 . : Kasr.. 326. 15. Kayster. Kambyses (Kambujiya). Kassandane.e and the usurpation of the throne by an confesses his impostor. 1S9. see Halys. 309 . Kroisos. his reluctance to return to Persia and increasing mental perturbation. sends an expedition 3I3-3I&- . declares war to Kyros. defeated at by Necho Megiddo. . 345 prepares for a campaign against Egypt. another of Josiah's sons. . Khordeh Avesta (Lesser Avesta). at Kirmanshah. . 1S1-1S3. 1 I. Jerusalem. 2S2. .. ism. 172.

a river in Asia Minor. the Great (Kurush Persian. Mantra the Great. iq6 : . MassagetK. or sacred texts. Mazda. 24S-250. . tvages to Aryenis. on the cylinders. G. of the un-Aryan or Elam. Mazdeism. Alazdayasnians. 2S9 from Herodotus. and Lyon. L. subrock tombs in. . son of city in Asia mits to Kyros. Lydia. to . Kurnsh in in Assyrian. see Ahura-Mazda. . power. see Kjros. . Kyme. probably 269. 30 against 49 their efficacy. 27S. the Median separate Median priests. 323 called by the priesthood of enters Babylon. originally un-Aryan. 224. an Ionian Minor. . 331. 310-312 generous treatment of Kroisos.. when used for conjuring. battle of. 221 . 278 Marathon... 432. king of Anshan. 208. . see Sparta. declares war against Lydia. 332. 1S9 tombs in. and mother of Kyros tempt against Babylon. Francois. foundet of the Median Empire. '" in assyriologist. one of the three noblest Persian tribes. favors the Persians. . 298 conquers Lydia and gada. 2S0. king of Anshan and Persia. AND PERSIA. . . 49. see Pulwar. her temple at Komana. their politiAthravans. Alyattes of Lydia. Kurush. on the invention of cheques and drafts. Dr. son and successor of Nergal-shar-uzzur. and marries his son . 190-193 . a barbarous people by the Sea of Aral. see Kyros. 86 . 291.xt to them the 297 builds at PasarMedes. . Teispes. of Labashi-Marduk. 14S 26S tribe. supposed daughter of Astyages. Medcs (Madai). D. 13S. 300 his captures Kroisos. BABYLON. 207. Persia ancient Languages. Mxander. . the ter. Maspii. its last royal dynasty. 320. . proclamaconquest of Media. a Hittite nature-goddess. 332 . religion of Zoroas- (Avestan and Pehlevi). one of the three noblest Persian tribes. 330 328 . Kyros I." 255. its honors Yahveh and Marduk. 270. on the invention of coining. }et remains a Mazdayasnian himself. 290 fabulous legend of his birth and youth. the IVIermnadx'. 201. Lenormant.442 MEDIA. 330-331 uncertainty about his noble charhis death. Manihras. under Assyrian . Hebrew). 271 cal independence and power. ly and purely Aryan. Kyros II. 296. 2S6. 331 his race undoubtedacter. daughter of dies. note. tion of. . recited. his hrst unsuccessful at. sickness. Maraphians. 201. of Susiana essence of. 1S8. 297 and ne. 272. a . . river. 317. note. his . Kyros. 20-22 of Asia Minor. 291-293 subdues Eastern Eran. Kyaxares. substituted . see Satrap. M. 315 . 102-104. Sanskrit). Koresh 282 . meaning of the wordj 95. king of Media. 190. the . Babylon. Kshntrapa. (sacred text. Kurash. Lycia. on Tablets of Precedents. 219 makes Aspeace. Lacedaemon.. 325 delivers the Jews. Ma. Mandane. 270 Persian inscriptions. Magi. a country of Asia Minor.

light-god. Migration of the Eranians. 370. 93 exorcised by the look of dogs. Nabonidus (Nabu-nahid). a city on the western coast of India. 136 . . . 217. Miletus. JVIermnadae. 209 with terms witii Lydia. his . built wall. . Aliira. . the Athenian. 180. 208. won by the Arabs over the Persians. 94. Mit/ira. Murghab. gives refuge to the fugitive Parsis. of N. 369 sepulchre of Dareios at. campaign and takes Jerusalem. . 428 Histiaios and the Ionian princes. 171. 183 makes peace sieges Tyre. the last native dynasty . . Psammetik. ing tombs of Akhcemenian kings. 172 his father Nabopolassar. besieges 176 appoints Zedekiah king of retakes and deJudah. is besieged. of Lydian kings. 135 purification from. from west. its constitution. connection 62. Nakhshi-Rustem. transformation. founded by . 57. against Dareios. Myazda o^QYing . 172 dies. contain. king of Babylon. 2. proposes to destroy the bridge on the is overruled by Danube. Nasu. fall of the. see Nabonidus. 170 his war in Syria. at sacrifices. 320. 430. in influences. 171 is defeated by Nebuchadrezzar at Karkhemish. the queen of Ionian cities Asia Minor temple of Didymakes moean Apollo at. wins the battle of Mara429 . 328 Nabopolassar. Ahuramythical 63 features. 225-241 . II. Mysia.. 325 delivered into the hands of Kyhis death. . his accession. defeats Necho of Egypt at Karhis succeeds khemish. 172. by Nel)uchadrezzar. 173tribes. 443 Marduk and 321 neglects Nebo. Judah at . 69-73. taken. 374 captured and slain. 267. 189 east to ff. 376. Mitra-Varuna. 317 revolts . the corpse fiend. 93. 319. N^ehavend. . king of Babylon. {Merii^lissar). and plans a campaign into Asia. 5. 21S Kyros the Great. a Greek city in Asia Minor. 432. battle of. his father Myrina.. the his Eranian with . 120. last Megiddo. and makes enemies of the Babylonian priesthood. Ndz'sdri. Miltiades. dies. thon. 221 his works of defence and embellishment in Babylonia and in deat'a Babylon itself. probably of Turanian origin. . 1S8. . rock of. present name of the site of Pasari^ada. share of the Assyrian spoils. . 184 between Lydia and Media. 312. Nabu-nahid. 267. king of Babylon. Megiddo. . Nergal-shar-uzzur successor of Avil-Marduk. 320 his fondness for the ancient Chaldean gods and sanctuaries. . the Aryan light-god. 143 . his allegorical . 177 bestroys Jerusalem. betrayed by them. . 369. . kings. . ib. 41. Gyges. . . 280. . of. Nebuchadrezzar. 226. ros. 321. 182. 300. the impostor and usurper of Babylon under Dareios I. ib. battle of. defeats Josiah . 26S. 144 . 150. 172 in 1 74-177 Syria. 41. and 329. 322 . the Aryan duad or divine pair. a country of Asia Minor. Necho succeeds .INDEX. brings them under Turanian 144. their origin and elements as a nation. . 26S. Nadintabira. and sacked. 196 annexed to Lydia. Median empire. 67-69 Mazda.

the old Aryan stock from which the various Greek nations descended. 117. Persian Pheidon of Argos. 372. the sacred bird of the Avesta. 394 of 395-398 palace Hall of the HunDareios. in Hamath. see Fravartish. Ouralo-Altaic. the Egyptian princess. river. 263-264. at Persepolis. 2 . at Susa. 320 her death and mourning for her. their hardy nature. ductions. O. the clan city of the Pasarof Kyros. inscriptions great • tomb at. 406-408 royal tombs. Phi7gia. their small numbers. 342. 217 note. . Persis. 6 their belief in a . palace at. 411 Palaces. a mixed people. 240 mother of Kabonidus. . 232. supposed by some to have invented coining. outer wall of Babylon. great platform. . Aryan type of language. . 333-343 . a nation occurring in the Assyrian inscriptions. 38. first country in India occupied by the Aryas. 5 their reverence for fire. Pcnjdb. 406 audience hall of Xerxes. gadae. Pasargadae. dogs. 400-404 peristyle or gate-hall of Xerxes. note. 279 . Pazend. Nitokris. 393. ruins Phanes. AND PERSIA. and originally vassal to them. of Babylon. Persian tribes. 181 Olbia. dred Columns. . 349. burned down by AlexanAkhseder. the Greek colony at the mouth of the Hypanis. 133 for carrying a corpse alone. 392 menian constructions at. 276. 204. or Barsua. 141. 158-160.444 MEDIA. 300 300-303. by Agbatana (modern Hamadan). 196. said to have chosen lier 523 sepulchre above one of the gates of Babylon. 263-266 . 5. 27S. 20-22. 27. . 392-411. Ouranos. ments in India. story of. ib. mountain. stairs. ib. commander of Amasis' Greek body-guard. Persepolis. . as a nation. see Kertch. . Penalties. 392. 116. Phraortes. Greek equivalent of the Sanskrit Varuna. deserts to Kambyses. 273. importance. Eranian portion of Pehlevi texts. 22S. a country of Asia Minor. . Parodarsh (the cock). 277-279. BABYLON. Neriglissav. 369. . a part of Northern India. 278. for burying a corpse. 400 . the noblest of tribes. meaning of the name. . modern Fars or Farsisits climate aid protan. Parsua. Nitctis. an Eranian nation kindred to the Medes. 275. 22. 411. . their settletheir monotheism. Persians. . Panticapseon. their i . Orontes. see Nergal-shar-uzzur. 137 . Nebuchadrezzar at at Agbatana. ill-using or killing for 140 extravagant. capital of the Persian kings. 277-279. Pelasgi. for performing purification without being an Athravan. Pelasgic. 40. 413. 233. Kyros' and language of. small offences. Pehlevi. queen of Babylon. 7 profess themselves followers of Zoroasspiritual ter. classical name of ancient Persia. Kimitti-Bel. hierarchy. Parsis.. 347. the language of Persia in the Middle Ages. 274. for . . 273 .

117 Shapiir II. see Creed. capital of Lydia. Semiramis. sends gifts to the Delphic Apollo. French Assyriologist. Pollution. the oldest of the Hindus' sacred books. and duties of. 240. Pulwar. Sassanian Memphis. ib. 445 Physicians. inflicted by the presence of a corpse. . 209. see Bardiya.. in the Avesta." meaning of the word. at of Nebuchadrezzar. 71 159Rliagae (Rages in the Book of Tobit). 420. . 94 136 142. revolt at. their customs. his war against Miletus. rathushtrotema. the ancient te. Sacrifice demanded by gods. 196 king of. flows through the valley of sea. a Greek city in Lydia. the name of the Sun-god studies. 350 Pelusion. 201 208. 418. 384-386. . 394 royal tombs . taken prisoner. are too late to Kroisos. 84 . " Persian Satrap. "uprightness. known its rivers. river. . 411. see Psammetik III.xts. Sardis. building of Babylon attributed to. note. . 292 mythical significancy of the name. where Murghab." Ar)-an spirits honors of the departed. 312. description of 93.Veda. Sagdid ceremony. Smerdis. R. supposed nurse of Kyros the Great. real name of the Eurot > pean Scythians. Pitris. a great city in Media. 85. Shushan. "Fathers. 181. Riblah. 316. 210. position 2 . 138. turning ancient Kyros. in Media. . prescriptions for. 28. ^to be performed by none but Athravans. defy Kyros at . 146 note. a Rages. . by Kyros. Rashnu. rendered them. . 15. city Persepolis. in Lydia. by burying a corpse. king of Lydia. 351 captured at . Rhaga. capture . also Lacedoemon. the seat of the Soma. 225. see Susa. . meaning and . 300. Avestan of. Psammetik III. Rig. 116. polluted waters are purified before reto the sea Vouru-Kasha. 413 its climate. Kshatrapa. 308 . restores dynasty. Sakunka. 317.INDEX.Sanskrit. of Hellas. " Za157. in. 28. a city in Hamath. make alliance with Spartans. 135 by carry. rebel chief of the Sakce. help him. people. Sippar. 41S 419. Profession of faith. Purification. Scythia (south of Russia). god and plant. 317- Psammenit. 136. according Rachmed. (Greek Psammenit). 312 . one of the two chief cities Sparta. Pilitika. 54. Spaka. 132 on the earth . 420-422. proclaims the Avestan law. ." 272. 137. mount." Herodotus. 48. . Sadyattes. Smyrna. Skoloti. 134 by gomez. its efficacy. see justice. 312 Sardis. . 415 their mode of life. . son of Aniasis. 21S. dug by order . and surgeons. succeeds loses the battle of him. their appearance. 53 . on the Orontes. 139. king. in the Vendidad. 381. . 416 its 414. 133 by the Druj Nasu. . 294. language and a corpse alone. to the Greeks. reservoir at. 38. Sandon. Pognon.

a wise man the Greeks. 241. Syennesis. . Apaosha. 78 . 31S. 415. gives refuge to the fugitive Parsis. 46. Vayn. note. 274. 414. Spiegel. Varuna. . note. Spenta-Maiuyu. 296 friendly to Kvros. 5. 158. Miletus. Tiridotis. Tablets of precedents.446 one of MEDIA.. explored Tombs. Sanskrit . king of Cilicia. 345. note. German translator of the Avesta. 91. Tigranes I. modern Dniestr. Trita. Spenta-Armaiti. Eranian scholar. said to have been Astyages' brotherin-law. 75. Babylonian 252-256. law transactions. the Aryan sky-god. 322. 82. i I 30 its character. predicts an eclipse. son of Athwya. 221. 411. son of Kyros the Great. siege of. sacred books of the Hindus. Eranian equivalent of Sanskrit. . see Teredon. Sraosha. Tanyoxarkes. principal peak of the Plara Berezaiti. Teredon or Tiridotis. 280. an unknown instrument of punishment in the 107. Siifdt.'' Thracia. names given to Bardiya. the Aryan wind-god. 333Akhsmienian. note. Turanian influences on the Eranians' religion. Lycian rock-tombs. name of Zarathushtra's clan." Aineslia-spentas. note. Akhoemenian palace at. Friedrich. 81 the giver of his conflict against rain. helps in reconciling Alyattes and Kyaxares. 97. Teva. Athwya. 370 unSusiana. 25. . king of Armenia. son of Aptya. 64. . . 92. Thermodon. probably a quarter of Babylon. by Nebuchadrezzar. 424. " tlie AND PERSIA r Holy Piety. V. Yima's garden. submits to Dareios. king of Media. 83. 144-156. 1S3. to the Law. certain when annexed to Persia. its meaning. not strictly followed by the Pertents. at 193 royal at 343Nakhshi-Rustem. 296. 287. 98. Tyre. modern Don. 190by Mr. a Scythian river. ancient Elam. 40. the base of river. 286. BABYLON. 201. Tanaoxares. a city buii'by Nebuchadrezzar at the mouth of the Euphrates. 113 ff. Veda. Teispes (Chishpai'sh on cuneiform monuments) son of Akhasmenes. . 82 . the chief of Yazatas. son of ThraetaSna. Suleiman range of mountains. 157. Vara. 97. Sraosho-charana. 97. a portion of the Avesta meaning of the word and con. Vendidad. son of Aptya.^ Vendidad. a river in Asia Minor. 220. the drought fiend. Thales of among son-in-law of Astyages. Taera. 31S. natural enemies of Turanians. one of the names of Ahura-^Iazda. Dr. Spitama. equivalent of Eranian Thraetaona. 31S . Tanais. "Obedience 71 . 1 84. Trita. Tishtrya (the star Sirius) the chief of all the stars. a Scythian Tyras. 27S Persepolis. ib. Dieulafoy. Eranians. the pvobable annexer of Anshan. Susa (Shushan) one of the capitals of the new Persian empire. a city on the western coast of India. 369.

. persecuted by the Arab conquerors. 62. the Aryan cloud-tiend. X. " was he a antiquity. 89 Yzeds." one of the Amesha-Spenlas. Zend-Avesta. 3. . of the mythical Aji-Dahaka.Sadeh. mythical. 7. to classic Vritrahan. 3. Yakub. last Sassaiiian his con- Vishtaspa. his dogs. independent position of. 92. his con- structions at Persepolis. or Kava King Zarathushtra's friend and disciple. Xerxes. . Vishtaspa. Hystaspes) father of King Dareios I. Yzeds of the Parsis. 26. Yeshts. 20. 19 name.. ... Sg-93 .. Zaothra." the proudest title of Indra. . known . 96. Zend. a part of the Avesta. 404-408. (see Hys(in taspes. 120. 2. 75. meaning of the word. 73 " Eranian form of \'ritrahan. equivalent of Egibi. 23 real person ? 23 his questionable date. wanderings and landing jerat. 30. a part of the Avesta con tents and character. appointed by Nebuchadrezzar king of Jurebels against him. Zarathushtrotema. 164. ib. 177 iSo barbarous treatment and . 24-27 was a reformer.. Verethraghna (victory). 71. " Good-Mind. 4. a form . HI. 78 all created by Ahura-Mazda. . followers of Zoroaster. 272. Zoroaster. his story. son of Dareios I. 246. ib. 53 king of the dead. 31. i. e. Zarathitshira. Dr." \^ezaresha. Pehle scholar. Yima. the Parsi 8. sacred book of the an incorrect Eranians. said to_be the Hebrew . 4 their . in Gu- ib . dea. • . Yasua. . a son of Jehoiakin and brother of Jeconiah. Yezdegeni king. 370. 93. a wicked usurper. the Magi. Vritra.INDEX. r. Babylonian. 30. 46 found in the Eranian " Vere. Zedekiah. 46. sea. Zoroastriaus. Vohu-Mano. Y. see Zarathushtra. W.) Vispered. holy water at sacrifices. 36 his mission and his work. the Aryan death-god. Vozcrtc-Kaslta. 161. West. contents. 66 31. his personality as shown in the Gathas. Zohak. Greek. Hindu Yama. Yazatas (good spirits). . captivity of.ians 447 under the Akhremenians. 255-257. 102." the head of . . Women." 76. Ya»ia. 20. 5. 52 first man. 182. a part of contents. see Yazatas. 64. the Avesta. "Killer of \ritra. Vendiddd. nection with the his fall. thraghna. E. W. liturgv. the daeva who takes the souls of the wicked.



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Author of " Social Life in

T^U^ The
' '

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Bv Stanley Lane - Poole, ^^^^^^ ^^ .. studies in a






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Anrienf /\11U1C11L PTrrvot"
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Mnncrarv D /









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A ccTrria

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^'^' ' : Z' Villari. ordinary panto- — Spectator.22 Fairy Tales from Brentano. Sq." charming stories."' — Scotsman. imp.'' Prince cloth. 3s.. " Delightful in " A volume of Scotsman. 6d. imp. Revised and Re-written. Margaret Collier Author of " Our 5s." Thirty-two Full-page and other Illustrations. cloth. " Florence and Edith A very charming story. c and Bird-Stuffing.. " An admirable translator in Madame Kroeker. Author of " C On IDA Tuscan edges. Hundred Soups a in half-a-dozen : Preface. '^—Scotsman. gilt book could not be had. Cheaper edition. Sq. with Directions for their Collection and Preservation . i6mo. ^ Complete o Description of By ' the Nests and Eggs of Birds which Breed in Britain." &c. Illustrated Adriatic. 6d. 6d. By the (Madame the Sq. by Miller Christy. Illustrated. li\ Kroeker. Carruthers Gould. ^f'f. cloth. 3s.'' Saturday Review. style and fancy.^l ^r. is more humour in the volume than Birdsnestinp. by Square 8vo. i6mo. John Collier. and an inimitable Truth. Cadilhac). . finer girl's Hills.'' — Tn the Time of Roses : ^Jf^"^ ^Z. IS. : Prince Peerless Galletti di ^ F^'^y-Foik story-Book. and with a Chapter on Bird-Stuffing.. imp." —Punch. Illustrated. Edition.. Carruthers Gould. Hon. Author and Artist of " Sylvia's Daughters.^T^by Scannell." Home by by the Hon. cloth. Edward Newman. Illustrated %^^^ Popular illustrator in by F. The A "There mimes.. Square 8vo. Edited. with Vernon Lee. "A delightful story. Mr. Crown 8vo. — — When "A I was a Child 3s. of the Puppet Show in Narrative.. 5s. l6mo.

treated with discretion and skill by the author. Large crown 8vo.D. Second By the Rev. or." &c. Imp. edition. as may be seen in " his Adventures of a Ship-boy' and 'A Smith among Savages. but has explored far afield in less-beaten tracts." Schoolmaster." &c. ^^ c/stories of " Stories R.. 5s. of Ealing.. page illustrations by E. By the Rev. 5s. Redwood. Spring " Blossoms and and Summer Fruit ..23 T'U^ DJ-f^'o Kr<=. ArmmmS Vj^mhPrv Vamoery. Crown 8vo. and must have found an echo in the hearts of many youthful listeners. Newly Edited after the Original Editions. Author of Young Adventurers. cloth. Portrait and Seventeen Illustrations. Adventures.' Saturday Review.. John They are of simple instructive character. Boys of England. C. A charming story. Hope."— 5/. Mr." Eight Illustrations. 6s. 6s. Arminiii*. ^"^^ 5s. Sunday Talks for the Children.. Nineteen Illustrations. cloth. Crown 8vo."— ZJ^/z^eJ Advertiser. " ^^' ^^^^ Wruten by Introductory Chapter dedicated to the Crown 8vo. . ^ 2^' Page. " This is a really admirable selection of genuine narrative and history. cloth extra. i6mo. Byles." —American Traveller.c<Ihe birds JNeSt. cloth. Two ' ' Little Confederates. and other Sermons ^^^^ for Children of all Author of " Expositions.. ' — The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. 2s. With Himself.. as one of the best books of travel that our boys could have possibly placed in their hands. " These beautiful discourses were addressed to children of all ages. cloth. W. Kemble Sq^uare 8vo. D. it We welcome — ±50yS RoAT-c' Own UWn l^t-nripQ C5 Ascott tones. James's Gazette. out of School Time. Hope has not gathered his stores from the highway. Samuel Cox. Tr With ^' r' if eight full• and A. 6d.

^t. Year. 14J. Japanese. gravings from original studies by the artist. from the nursery rhymes of the Hottentot mothers to the guns and spears that the Icelandic fathers use to kill the white bears. Irelfind • Studies of its People. 1889 tells f^ — St. Micholas. of Century Gallery — Masters. Town benes An • ' or Irish. and clever American children (the cleverest take in St. post Jree. 26.^he Centurg The For 1889 includes: iVLagazine — Italian from the Byzantines to Tintoretto engraved by Timothy Cole from the original paintings. of nearly everything that amuses girls and interests boys. : English boys and girls of the (n. of the sharks and clear blue seas of the chocolate-skinned South-Sea Islanders in fact. with their almond-eyes and long pig-tails. Stillman. all his material. Notes and Studies in Japan. FISHER UNWIN.tC^ofCl0 of French thousands of millions of children of other countries girls in their little black alpaca aprons. Frost. illustrated with sketches and photographs taken by George A. 4J. Nicholas means to tell its readers in Great Britain and Ireland. 19/. ^''' George Kennan's Siberian articles. and accompanied by historical and critical papers by W. * C -T ' V \ ' r\j. of the furs and toboganning of the Canadians. • both humorous and pathetic. England.^ for TEAR. will contain. post free. Landscape. Customs. of the gum trees and kangaroos of the Australians. each complete in but having a connected interest. . and German girls with their flaxen hair. MARY MAP DODGE. Monthly. Nicholas'). Monthly. J. "W Q*K Jvennan in olDeria. of the toys o<^ the shy pickaninnies. and Italian boys with their dark eyes. and woolly-headed African Of the homes of all these children. Literature and Arts. London. from November on. Paternoster Square.American btories. a Year. niustmed with^^^nLife. itself. of the pine woods of the blue-eyed Norwegians. and little Chinese maidens. what the author believes to be the best and most striking of Price IS. T. Conducted by ES JN "ALL-AROUND THE WORLD'' fl^i. <z Frice is.


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