Turbine Design #1 The materials used for this design were: 4 pipe cleaners, construction paper, two toothpicks

, paperclip, pen refill, glue, masking tape, and a metal key ring. Diagrams:

TOP VIEW (not to scale) SIDE VIEW (not to scale) Our challenge was to create a turbine system which could generate the maximum current possible using the specified motor and other materials (of our choice). To meet this challenge, we attempted and visualized many designs before coming up with our two most efficient ones. We went through an iterative process while building and carefully measuring the performance of each propeller and working on how to make it more efficient. Using the gathered information, we worked towards making two improved propeller designs. Propeller design #1 was constructed mainly out of construction paper. With four blades attached to the centre and shaped to force air to push each wing down, this is a very aerodynamic design. Some design features which were taken into consideration while constructing the propeller were the mass of the blades; they had to be light in order to spin fast, yet not so light that they could be blown away. The blades had to be slanted or bent slightly in order for the wind to push each blade down and allow the propeller to spin efficiently. Also, through other attempts in making a blade system, we found that the blades should remain as close to the centre as possible so as to optimize the center of gravity. Precision and accuracy of measurements of materials used to build the blades played a big role in the design and spinning of the propeller. If the propellers were not the same size, this would affect the whole blade system and it would fail to operate properly. Everything had to be completely aligned and fit into shape for both aesthetic appeal and maximum current generation. Before coming up with this design, many challenges were faced. We came up with many designs before which did not work efficiently and some did not even move while being tested. Through this repetitive process we learned that the blades have to be curved and deflected to a specific angle in order to provide the maximum thrust. While construction of the propeller, it was difficult to bend the paperclip in the center of the X, as it was unstable and kept moving. Another challenge faced was attaching the propeller head to the electric motor. First we tried attaching a tube from the inside of the centre of the propeller onto the back of the motor. This was very loose and kept falling off the motor. To solve this, tape was stuck onto the motor to make the attachment tighter. This also did not work; as it induced the propeller in facing down and wobbling as it moved from the wind. This situation was then resolved by attaching a small piece of a pen refill to the back of the propeller head attaching the motor, which made the connection tighter. Also, the area in between each of the blades had to be the same. This was very difficult to overcome as precise measurements had to be taken.

Turbine Design # 2 Materials and Procedure: - The whole propeller is actually one single piece of hard plastic. This was retrieved from an old cement container. After tracing a rough blade design onto the lid, we used a utility knife to cut that out. Afterwards, we researched several different blade designs and settled with one that mimicked a fan blade. We briefly tried to use power tools to cut out the design, but the material was too thin and made erratic motions when brought against the tool, so we settled with using the utility knife again, hence the rough shape of the design. To make the hole where the motor would attach we took a 1/16th inch spur drill bit, and drilled it until the motor fit. Diagrams: -

Wing/blade Centre with hole for motor to attach

What we based the design on (not to scale)

What we got. Top/Side View (not to scale)

Coming up with this design wasn t so difficult because we already had an example to copy. Naturally, as using a utility knife isn t the easiest thing to cut through hard plastic with, we simplified the design, and even then, there were lot of rough edges. We added manual torsion to the blades of our design so that there was a slight tilt in each blade (which would increase aerodynamic performance). We considered using glue to fix any cracks that the blade had from the cutting, but realized it might add unneeded weight and come at a cost of losing aero-efficiency. As mentioned before, challenges in making this blade system included making it all out of one piece of plastic. Unlike the other one, where there were several swappable pieces, and if one part broke, it could be replaced relatively easy. If one piece was to break on this design, then the only alternative would be to attach it back on through a variety of ways (gluing, soldering, taping) which would all impact the performance of the system. Unfortunately, since the plastic was hard, this also meant it was very brittle, and as such, many cracks occurred in the building of it. We were set to deem this as one of the failed designs, but during testing, it proved to be one of the best designs. As such, we wondered whether we should attempt to fix the blades various defects, but ultimately decided that it was pointless to fix something that was working perfectly.