408 views

Uploaded by sharib

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- face recognisation ppt
- Face Recognition
- Face Recognition using PCA
- eigenfaces-pca
- Face Recognition Technology
- Face Detection and recognition final project (Muhammad waqas,dinyal arshad,waqas saeed and ayaz khan )
- Accurate Face Recognition Using PCA and LDA
- Seminar Report
- Face Recognition Technology
- Color Consistancy In Image Processing
- Face Detection Using PCA
- Real Time Face Recognition Using AdaBoost Improved Fast PCA Algorithm
- MATLAB Based Face Recognition System Using PCA and Neural Network
- RT Face Recognition
- Face Recognition Using PCA and SVM
- Final Report on Face Recognition
- Principle Component Analysis
- PCA How To.1
- Face Detection Using Neural Networks
- face recognition using pca

You are on page 1of 13

Principal Component Analysis.

Final Report

Prepared for:

Submis sion of Ass ignment w or k(3)

on A pplied M athematics

Prepared by:

Darshan Venkatrayappa

dars h. venkat@gmail.com

Sharib Ali

ali.sharib2002@gmail.com

Submitted to

Desire Sidebe

Dro-desire.sidebe@u-bourgogne.fr

17 th November 2010

Contents

Acronyms .................................................................................................................. 1

1.2 Objective............................................................................................. 2

1.3 Problem Statement............................................................................. 2

1.4 Stages in Face Recognition

Chapter 2 Normalization

2.1.1 Flow Chart and Algorithm of Normalization…………… 3-5

2.1.2 Algorithm for Mapping of the image to 64x64 window... 5-6

3.2 Algorithm ………………………………………………………..... 7-9

4.1 Analysis............................................................................................... 10

4.2 Algorithm ........................................................................................... 10

4.3 Result

4.3.1 Accuracy………………………………………………… 10

4.3.2 Limitation………………………………………………... 10

4.3.3 Scope of Improvement………………………………….. 11

REFERENCES................................................................................................................ R-1

1

Acronyms

SVD = Singular Value Decomposition

EV = Eigen Vector

Recognition

1.1 Background

The Face Recognition system has various potential applications, such as

person identification.

human-computer interaction.

security systems.

The history of it goes back to the start of computer vision. Several other approach like irish,

fingerprint etc has been used in the application but however this has been used more widely

as the research. Face recognition has always remain a major focus of research because of its

non- invasive nature and because it is peop le's primary method of person identification. The

most famous early example of a face recognition system is due to Kohonen. Kohonen's

system was not a practical success, however, because of the need for precise alignment and

normalization.

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

In Principal Component Analysis for the face recognition, we train the faces and create a

database of the trained sample images of the person. We then find the covariance matrix from

this trained set. We get the eigen faces which corresponds to the principal components in the

eigen vector obtained. This will give an ‘eigen face’ which is ghost like in appearance. Now,

each face in the training set is the linear combination of the eigen vectors. Now, when we

take a test image for the recognition, we follow the same normalization steps and then project

the test image to the same eigen space containing the eigen faces. Finally we calculate the

minimum Euclidean distance between the eigen faces in the trained set of images with the

eigen face of the test image. This is explained in the further discussions.

The main purpose of PCA is to reduce the large dimensionality of the data space (observed

variables) to the smaller intrinsic dimensionality of feature space (independent variables),

which are needed to describe the data economically. This is the case here is a strong

correlation between observed variables.

2

1.2 Objective

i. To Study and implement the concept of SVD and PCA.

ii. To decrease the dimension of the feature space

iii. To make the computation fast

iv. To built a strong correlation between observed variables.

v. To see how the Eigen vectors gives the principa l components of the image to be

recognized from a trained set of images.

vi. To make effort towards improvement of the result obtained.

Given an image, to identify it as a face and/or extract face images from it.

To retrieve the similar images (based on a PCA) from the given database of trained face

images.

(to create database)

(eigen space)

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

Identification

3

Chapter 2. Normalization

2.1 Why Normalization required?

The normalization steps are done for the sacling, orientation and location variation

adjustment to all the images with some predefined features and the feature of images. Basically,

all the images are mapped to a window 64x64(in our case) taking some of the important facial

features. In our case, we have taken, 1. Left Eye Center 2. Right Eye Center 3. Tip of Nose 4.

Left Mouth Corner and 5. Right mouth corner.

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

1

4

1

*which gives the affine transformation ‘A’ and ‘b’ used to map the images to 64x64 window

Algorithm:

p

1. We take the predefined co-ordinates , f i

14 20

50 20

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

34 34

16 50

48 50

2. We take all the feature f i files starting from the first feature file and compute the equation

p

transformation.

FBar=Singular_Value_Decomposition(FBar,fp);

5

4. We take the average of all the FBAR calculated and update FBAR again with this

average value

5. Now, we compare the previous result with the current and if it’s greater than the

threshold error 10^-6 then we come out of the loop and the final converged FBAR gives

the affine transformation matrix A and vectoe b.

Since we have got the matrix A and vector b we can easily put the pixels of 384x384 into

64x64 window. This follows the following algorithm.

1. We now use FBAR to get the values of ‘A’ and ‘b’. The first 4 values gives the values of

matrix A and the last two gives the vector b.

x=(V*S*U')*F_BAR; b=x(5:6,1);

a=x(1:4,1); a=a(1:1:4,1); A=zeros(2,2);

A(:,1)=a(1:2,1); A(:,2)=a(3:4,1);

2. Since we know the the transformation matrix so we will plot each pixel of 64x64 window

into the 384x384 image using.

F384x384 A1 ( F4096 b)

3. We extract this window image i.e. the transformed image of 64x64.

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

6

2.2 Limitations

Non-uniform illumination

Images do not show the correct positions of the features taken for the affine

transform may result in convergence or some bad result.

3.1. What do they mean?

PCA computes the basis of a space which is represented by its training vectors. These

basis vectors, actually eigenvectors, computed by PCA are in the direction of the largest

variance of the training vectors. Each eigenface can be viewed a feature. these are

Eigenvectors and have a face like appearance, they are called Eigenfaces. Sometimes,

they are also called as Ghost Images because of their weird appearance. When a

particular face is projected onto the face space, its vector into the face space describe the

importance of each of those features in the face. The face is expressed in the face space

by its eigenface coefficients (or weights).

1. We have taken the mean of all the 57 training faces. We substract these values from each

face. We concatenate all the substracted faces in a a single matrix which we will call D.

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

I1 (1,1).........................................I1 (64,64)

.

.

D .

.

.

I (1,1)....................................I (64,64)

57 57

7

1

C DT D and compute the eigen values and eigen vector whose principal

N 1

components will give the eigen faces and hence eigen space. But, if the database has

many images then the situation will become worse and the computation may be very

vague. Even in our case it will give 4096x4096 dimentional matrix. Now, as the number

of non-zero covariance matrx is limited to N (57), we calculate the other way out which

will reduce the dimention but still give the eigen vectors which correspond to the eigen

vectors obtained from this covariance matrix.

1

3. So, we do C ' DDT . This reduces the dimention to 57x57 in our case. The

N 1

Eigenvector computed from this matrix will be of size 57x57

4. Now, we find the eigen faces which is given by multiplying DT * Eigenvecto r obtained by

C’.

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

5. Each face in the training set, i ,can be represented as a linear combination of these

Eigenvectors.

i X i . , where, is the principal components

X i is the training images

8

7

x 10

3

2.5

1.5

0.5

-0.5

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

9

4.1 Analysis

The face is expressed in the face space by its eigenface coefficients (or weights). We can handle

a large input vector now, facial image, only by taking its small weight vector in the face space.

As seen in the previous chapter, we have already found 57 eigen faces of the trained images.

Now, when user enters the face, (to be detected), which is unknown and we are taking it as a test

set of faces. We follow the following algorithm to find the eigen face related to it.

4.2 Algorithm :

1. We normalize the incoming image and map it as done in normalization chapter.

2. We now project this normalized image onto the eigen space to get a corresponding

feature vector j as,

j X j

3. We finally find the Euclidean distance between j and i .

Euclidean Distance: The Euclidean Distance is probably the most widely used distance

metric. It is a special case of a general class of norms and is given as:

x y xi yi

2

4. The minimum distance position between them will give the nearly identical face in the

Eigen space.

5. We read the corresponding image which will be identical to the test face.

4.3 Result

The result with the 30 test images was not 100% accurate but it gave some good

matching with almost 28 images.

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

4.3.1 Accuracy

%Accuracy= *100

count

4.3.2 Limitaitions

The images of a face, and in particular the faces in the training set should

lie near the face space.

Each image should be highly correlated with itself.

10

Further changes in the algorithm may lead to better accuracy. Inaddition, we can

take some more distinct features to the training set of faces like length of forehead, chin

positon etc. Facial recognition is still an ongoing research topic for computer vision

scientists.

Test Image

20 20

40 40

60 60

20 40 60 20 40 60

Test Image

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

20 20

40 40

60 60

20 40 60 20 40 60

11

Chapter-5 Conclusion:

1. We must choose some features of the sample face and create a database of the images. In

our case, we have taken 57 face images.

2. Use of the Affine transform in finding the variables responsible for the same orientation,

scaling and other feature variations for all the images.

3. The special features taken should be mapped in the window we are taking the face, it

should include most part of the face rather than body.

5. Principal component Analysis can be used to both decrease the computational complexity

and measure of the covariance between the images.

6. How PCA reduces the complexity of computation when large number of images are

taken?

7. The principal components of the Eigen vector of this covariance matrix when

concatenated and converted gives the Eigen faces.

8. These eigenfaces are the ghostly faces of the trained set of faces forms a face space.

9. For each new face(test face), 30 in our case, we need to calculate its pattern vector.

10. The distance of it to the eigen faces in the eigen space must be minimum.

11. This distance gives the location of the image in the eigen space which is taken as the

F A C E REC O NI TI ON U S IN G P C A

REFERENCES

[1] Matthew Turk and Alex Pentland, Eigen Faces For Recognition, MIT , The Media

Laboratory

[2] Desire Sidebe, Face Recognition Using PCA,Assignment-3 sheet,UB

[3] Wikipedia

- face recognisation pptUploaded byHimanshu Vats
- Face RecognitionUploaded byMomo Nasr
- Face Recognition using PCAUploaded byamit15094775
- eigenfaces-pcaUploaded byMARISHA1
- Face Recognition TechnologyUploaded byabuals
- Face Detection and recognition final project (Muhammad waqas,dinyal arshad,waqas saeed and ayaz khan )Uploaded byMuhammad waqas87
- Accurate Face Recognition Using PCA and LDAUploaded byijcsis
- Seminar ReportUploaded byVihang Pattiwar
- Face Recognition TechnologyUploaded bymshibas
- Color Consistancy In Image ProcessingUploaded bysharib
- Face Detection Using PCAUploaded byThịnh Nguyễn
- Real Time Face Recognition Using AdaBoost Improved Fast PCA AlgorithmUploaded byAdam Hansen
- MATLAB Based Face Recognition System Using PCA and Neural NetworkUploaded byInternational Association of Scientific Innovations and Research (IASIR)
- RT Face RecognitionUploaded byRavi Mandiga
- Face Recognition Using PCA and SVMUploaded byNhat Trinh
- Final Report on Face RecognitionUploaded bySubhash Kumar
- Principle Component AnalysisUploaded bymatthewriley123
- PCA How To.1Uploaded bybmwli
- Face Detection Using Neural NetworksUploaded byAmeer Ameeruddin
- face recognition using pcaUploaded byarjun1698
- Eigenfaces vs Fisher Faces PresentationUploaded byMarian Moise
- EigenfacesUploaded byameen_kavil
- Facial Expression RecognitionUploaded byambujhunk20
- Eigenfaces Face Recognition (MATLAB)Uploaded byNaveen Pantham
- Face RecognitionUploaded bychaithra580
- Algoritma Eigenface Dan FisherfaceUploaded bymaskoko
- Face Recognition Technology seminar reportUploaded byParampreet Singh
- Face RecognitionUploaded byKushagrika Brar
- face recognitionUploaded byDhanraj Krishnaraj
- face_recognition_technologyUploaded bynaresh5b0

- PsycholinguisticUploaded byNizar Ridaus S
- 76-81Uploaded byMeiliana Than
- AAS Method JurnalUploaded byfren
- Esophagus DiseasesUploaded byAnonymous QguKQDpN
- Acehnese Grammar StokhofUploaded bychangingtour
- Acrolein and Chloroacetaldehyde. an Examination of the Cell AndUploaded byajaramilloal
- Amitabha Sinha Associate Professor Department of a & AUploaded byAmitabha Sinha
- ManualUploaded byJulio Cesar Carrillo Mora
- HuntingtonUploaded byDenise Espinosa
- Hospitality 2015: Game changers or spectators?Uploaded byPablo Alarcón
- EN_WHS2018_Part1.pdfUploaded byIwan Suryadi Mahmud
- Vampyre gods GodessesUploaded byRev. JPvanir
- Don't Drop the CoffinUploaded byNostromo21
- MCS of ITCUploaded byAbhay Singh Chandel
- practicum 6 lesson planUploaded byapi-259465724
- AIDS PaperUploaded byegabev
- Whitenton - Feeling the Silence - CBQUploaded byMike Whitenton
- Midterm Exam Review FNCE 254Uploaded byphoebec-2
- Writing Rubric - PetUploaded byThu Duong
- Neuroscience of Meditation - Chapter 4Uploaded byEric Thompson
- Allison Transmission 700 SeriesUploaded byAnonymous yjK3peI7
- Salooni qabl an tafqadooni-1Uploaded byShian-e-Ali Network
- MCCDUploaded byanc91
- Effect of AdrenalineUploaded byShafizol
- cromatografia-hpdcUploaded byAnonymous fZWS0n
- Advanced Training of Diameter Protocol of Convergent Billing V2.0Uploaded byAmjad Khattak
- Performatism, Or the End of PostmodernismUploaded byCristian Luchian
- Immediate Inference (Logic)Uploaded byMaricris Avendaño Lansangan
- Criminal Law Reviewer.pdfUploaded byGem Salvador
- Npk FertilizerUploaded byAnonymous XYzsI6YeX