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War of Philippine Independence from the United States President Aguinaldo regarded the United States an ally in the Philippines towards independence. August 1898 – Filipino-American relations deteriorated as the American authorities took over Manila. The mandatory evacuation of the Filipino troops in the captured districts of the city dismayed Aguinaldo, thinking that Americans were on their side. The signing of treaty of Paris without consulting the Filipinos heightened the tension. Neither Spain nor the US gave Felipe Agoncillo, Aguinaldo’s envoy, a chance to join the Paris Peace Talks Manifest Destiny – was a popular belief that the US had the God-given right to help oppressed countries and build democratic nations. US President William Mckinley in his “Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation” on December 21. 1898, he expressly indicated American policy regarding the Philippines that the US shall exercise sovereignty over the entire archipelago. He argued that Americans must educate and uplift the condition of the Filipinos. (This ideology was used by Americans to rationalize their actions in the country) On January 5, 1899, Aguinaldo issued a counter proclamation and specified that his forces were prepared to fight any American attempt to take over the country. Still the Americans occupied the Philippines. On January 20, 1899, Pres. Mckinley appointed the First Philippine Commission to make recommendations in the administration of the country. This commission was headed by Dr. Jacob Schurman, issued a proclamation declaring the establishment of American sovereignty in the Philippines in the midst of Filipino-American war. Private Robert Willie Grayson with two members of the US sentry shot and killed a man who happens to be a Filipino soldier. The man together with other Filipino soldiers were already entering into American lines on their way home. The Americans tried to stop them and shouted “halt” twice. Unfamiliar with the word Filipino shouted “halto”. Thinking that Filipino soldiers were making fun with them, The American soldiers fired on Filipino soldiers who were caught unprepared. The site of the first shot of the Philippine-American war, called Philippine Insurrection by the Americans, is in SIlencio corner Sociego Street in Sta. Mesa, Manila. News reached to the Americans that Filipinos started the hostilities. Americans viewed the fighting as an insurrection. General MacArthur issued his order to advance against the Filipino troops without investigating the shooting incident. Aguinaldo tried to avoid the war.
Aguinaldo has already established headquarters in San Isidro. March 31. Panglima Hasan led a rebellion against the american authorities. Aguinaldo issued informing Filipino people that they were now at war. Washington’s Birthday. Because of advanced preparations and firearms. John C. Bates and Sultan Jamalul Kiram II of Sulu with three datus signed the Bates Treaty. The American troops captured: • Rizal Province • La Loma • Kalookan (now Caloocan City) The Muslims remain neutral. 1904. Nueva Ecija. After capturing La Loma. one of Gen. Elwell Otis that the firing on their side had been against in his order. Gen. Luna then retreated to Polo where he established his headquarters. the Muslim province remained under American military rule. Fighting as they retreated. . They repulsed Luna’s men with heavy losses. Mac Arthur wanted to pursue Aguinlado but Gov. In Caloocan once again Americans were victorious. When the American army reached Malolos. the american fleet started bombarding Filipino fort north of San Juan Del Monte. Bates tried to win the friendship of the Muslims by negotiating with them on the basis of equality.He sent an emissary to Gov. it must go on to the grim end. 1899. John C. Antonio Luna’s gallant officers. Egbert of the 22nd infantry died in action. Undismayed by this defeat Gen Antonio Luna prepared a plan for the recapture of Manila by burning American occupied houses in Tondo and Binondo. gen MacArthur headed for Caloocan. Colonel Henry O. the Filipinos burned Polo and Meycauayan in order to delay the enemy advance. In the suburbs of Manila. MacArthur captured Malolos. Gen. they signified non-involvement in the FilipinoAmerican War. On the same day. Gen. This took place on February 22. American fire brigades rushed to the area and fought the flames. But he replied that since the fighting had begun. Gen. Elwell Otis ordered him to rest in Malolos. Nevertheless. fell mortally wounded. August 20. This turned out to be the seven year Philippine – American war (1899 – 1906). Major Jose Torres Bugallon. In this treaty provided that the rights and dignities of the sultan and datus shall be respected and Muslims shall not be interfered with their religion. his fight for freedom ended on March 4.
So the Assembly knew that Mabini opposed to their views. Mabini made another attempt on April 28 by seeking armistice but was again turned down. On April 25. In this battle Colonel John Stotsenburg was killed. Gen. June 5 – Gen. Pedro Kastila. The capture of Aguinaldo was one of the priorities of the Americans. The Paterno Cabinet / Peace Cabinet created a Committee headed by Felipe Buencamino to negotiate peace with the Americans. the Americans had already succeeded penetrating the Filipino defensive lines. Seeing him wounded other soldiers stabbed him while others shot him. Luna went to convent in Cabanatuan. Calumpit fell into American hands. He received more than forty wounds. Gen. captain from Cavite. Nueva Ecija. drew his bolo and hacked him. After he had heard a rifle shot. had already left for Pampanga at the height of the battle to see what had happened to the reinforcement of troops being asked from Gen Tomas Mercado. This passage way to Cordillera was Tirad Pass. After Luna’s death. Gregorio Del Pilar and his troops were left to defend the Filipino lines since Gen. Unlike him the members of the Fili[ino assembly like Pedro Paterno. Nueva Ecija. Del Pilar saw the advantageous terrain of Tirad Pass. Aguinaldo with his troops proceeded to Cordillera mountain range. some demoralization set in. He issued manifesto in San Isidro. He strongly advocate to fight for independence. MacArthur continued his drive northward. This could shield the Filipino troops and give Aguinaldo sufficient time to escape. Del Pilar . Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista and Felipe Buencamino wanted the American to offer of autonomy rather than independence. When Gen Antonio Luna heard this. Mabini spent his last years writing articles against Americans.In Quingua (now Plaridel) Major Bell suffered heavy losses under General Greagorio Del Pilar. He got mad when he did not find Aguinaldo who had already left for San Isidro. he blocked the trip of the Committee to Manila and arrested the members. Gen Luna run in the stairs and cursed the soldiers and then slapped one of them. President Aguinaldo named Pedro Paterno the head of the new Cabinet. Luna and his men. When Luna returned to Calumpit . The next day he was buried with full honors on Aguinaldo’s orders. Nueva Ecija urging his countrymen to continue struggle for independence. A resolution was passed by the Assembly asking Aguinaldo to reject Mabini’s stand and to remove him as President of the Cabinet. In order to elude the American forces. which served as Aguinaldo’s headquarters. they persuaded Aguinaldo to remove him from office. Apolinario Mabini as the head of the cabinet and minister of foreign affairs met with Schurman Comission and requested for a temporary cease fire but was refused. His aide-de-camp Colonel San Francisco Roman was also killed. The fierce battle of Bagbag river in Calumpit ensued for three days. Many officers surrendered to the Americans.
At a given signal Tal Placido. In the midst of the combat Gen Del Pilar was hit by a bullet passed through his neck. 1903 – Census day. 1901 – Aguinaldo took the oath of the allegiance to US and appealed to all Filipinos to accept the sovereignty of the uS July 14. One of the achievement of the taft administration was the sale of huge tracts of friar lands. Cecilio Segismundo. He gave the commission the legislative and executive authority to put up a civilian government.with other 60 riflemen were given the mission defending the Tirad Pass. Philippine Organic Act of 1902 – 1st congressional law. two former officers of Aguinaldo (Lazano Segovia and Hilario Tal Placido). extension of the US bill of rights to the Filipinos. the Philippines for Filipinos. . stationed in Nueva Ecija. Gen Funston and four other American officers entered the room and arrested him in the name of US. Major Peyton G.k.a. laid a foundation of democratic government. The US government paid 7. March and 300 american troopers stormed the pass but were repulsed by Del PIlar’s men. guide the Americans to the secret trail to the top from the rear was known. 2. Judge William Howard Taft – first civil governor. It reports the total population of 7. Januario Galut an Igorot. three tagalog natives and four other American soldiers for the capture of Aguinaldo. 1st official census in the Philippines during American period.2 million dollars for these lands Cooper Act a. The Macabebe scouts were able to enter Aguinaldo’s camp because they pretend to be the reinforcement with five American prisoners. Funston employed 80 Macabebe scouts.426. Government under America President McKinley appointed the second Philippine commission (Taft Commission). With the approval of General MacArthur. March 2. He exercised both legislative and executive functions because he was the head of Philippine Comission that served as the law making body.635. His policy. Aguinaldo’s messenger fell into the hands of Gen Frederick Funston. 1902 – President Theodore Roosevelt declared that the Philippine-American War was over. April 19. Subsequently the Second Philippine Commission passed a law establishing a highschool system in the country. grab Aguinaldo from behind.
Gen. o Juan Abad’s Tanikalang Guinto was closed after its Batangas performance. as manifested by the anti-nationalist laws imposed on local inhabitants. Jacob Smith order massacre of all men and children above ten years of age. Among these parties were: • Partido Nacionalista by Pascual Poblete • Partido Independista by Dr. Leon Ma. Francisco Ortigas and Gregorio Singian advocates for autonomous representative government after peace and order have boon restored. Justo Lukban and Joyce Dela Vina *P. William Howard Taft.the power to authorize any provincial governoe to reconcentrate in the towns all residents of outlying barrios if ladrones or outlaws operated in these areas. Democrata advocates peaceful independence.Filipino nationalist organzed political parties to counter act pro-American activities if the Partido Federal. In uncensored version. Vicente Lukban resorted to ambushing American soldiers The brutality of war was best exemplified by the Balangiga Massacre Gen. o Kahapon. Inangbayan’s children rise in arms against Malaynatin and Bagong Sibol. These included: • Sedition Law – imposed death penalty or a long prison term on anyone who advocated separation from the US even by peaceful means. Bagong Sibol grants the children their freedom. Later on Cruz was imprisoned. Pedro A. Miguel Malvar continued the fight for Philippine Independence The American Authorities were determine to assert sovereignty in the Philippines. Paterno • Partido Democrata by Alberto Baretto. The red sun on a Katipunan flag that rose behind the stage caused riot inside the theater. Ngayon at Bukas by Aurelio Tolentino was also regarded seditious. which punished with death or with a prison term of not less than 20 years for members of armed band.000 o Hindi Aco Patay by Juan Matapang Cruz was closed. Nacionalista and P. • Brigandage Act or ley de Bandolerismo– by Gov. found guilty for sedition. This law was passed to facilitate arrest of guerillas who were protected by the people . In Censored version. He wanted Samar to turned into a “howling wilderness”. He was court martialed for cruelties inflicted by his troops.. Persons aiding brigands were to be given prison not less than 10 years. Gen. He was sentenced to two years imprisonment and a fine of US $2. Guerrero. gen. Partido Conservador composed of Spanish Community like MAcario Adriatico. • Reconcentration Act – gave the gov. The uncensored version led to his arrest amd was given life imprisonment but was pardoned. which he served in full.
. Sakay agreed to end his resistance on the condition that the genral amnesty be givem to them. The law contained a preamble declaring the independence would be granted to Filipino people as soon as a stable government could be established in the Philippines. Julian Montalan and Leon Villafuerte were given executive clemency. that they permitted to caryy firearms and his men would be allowed to leave the country assured of personal safety. Sakay was chosen as president together with Montalan and Francisco Carreon as vice president. Simeon Ola last revolutionary general to surrender to Colonel Bandholtz. Laguna. Assembly which appropriated one million pesosfor barrio school. Sakay and Colonel Lucio De Vega were sentenced to die by public hanging.• Flag Law – prohibited the display of the Philippine Flag and other symbols used by the resistance against the US. organized their resistance forces in Rizal. Colonel Harry H. Tagalog Republic -by Macario Sakay. Gen. Gabaldon Law first law passed by the Phil. Bandholtz arrested and disarmed SAkay and principal officers. he surrender to save the people from hunger and brutality. a former general of Aguinaldo. Macario L. Artemio Ricarte refused to surrender and was exiled in Hong Kong Phil. To obtain security of his followers. Gov. Gen. Sakay claimed that his republic was a continuation of Bonifacio’s Katipunan. Cavite. rape. Batangas. Sakay released a manifesto declaring that he and his men were real revolutionaries and not mere brigands. In mid 1905. Assembly was inaugurated at the Grand Opera House. Julian Montalan and Cornelio Felizardo. Quezon became the majority floor leader. They were charged with ladronism. kidnapping and murder. Sakay’s resistance become the final cahper in the Philippine – American War Gen. Jones Law provided a bicameral Philippine Legislature with an Upper house called Senate (with 24 members) and Lower house called the house representative (with 93 members). Sakay imposed sanctions to uncooperative Filipinos. Henry C ide authorized Dominador Gomez to conduct negotiation for the surrender of Sakay. Sergio Osmena as the Speaker of the assembly while Manuel L. They abducted the family of Mariano Trias.banditry and other crimes such as robbery.
editor of the newspaper was imprisoned but later pardoned by Gov. a lay worker. Quezon El Renacimiento – attacked Secretary of the Interior Dean Worcester in the article Aves de rapina (Birds of Prey). . C B. English became the language instruction in all schools and became the official language of the government. prominent composer of kundiman.3. Mr. This made the Filipinos inspired to make Filipino film. Two American Enterpreneur made a film about Jose Rizal’s execution. Among his famous copmposition were. Thoburn – delivered first Protestant sermon in the country. marches and sonatas for piano and violin. its original name Manila Electric railroad and Ligthing Company Philippine Constabulary School was later on became Philippine Military Academy. made the first movie Dalagang bukid George Pineda – who invented the immortal representation of Filipinos – the salakot wearing slippered Juan DE la Cruz. Severino Reyes’ Walang Sugat was one of the famous tagalog zarzuela. did political cartooning like Jose Perreira. Randall. father of Philippine movies. Mutya ng Pasig. Kalaw. The American Legacy The Americans propagated the use of English language for better understanding with the Filipinos. Gen Harrison. Francisco Santiago became known for Anak DAlita and Madaliang Araw. waltzes. Bounding Pillow – first American newpaper appear in Philippines American Soldier – first American daily newspaper to published in Manila Philippine Herald first Filipino weekly paper in English by Senate President Manuel L. Inglesia ni Cristo was established by Felix Manalo Sevent-day Adventist – bears the old testament doctrine worshipping on the Sabbath day Charles M. Worcester immediately sued the newspaper. Teodoro M. Nasaan ka Irog and Bituing Marikit. chief cartoonist of the Philippine Free Press magazine from the 1920s to 1930s Nicanor Abelardo – a bulakeno. Protestant Christianity was also introduced in the country. Swift established MERALCO (manila electric company). Bishop James M. distributed first bibles in Manila. From Intramuros it was moved to Baguio. Jose Nepomuceno.
6. The Caballeros de la Sagrada Familia in Pampanga. They believe that the two leaders would resurrect and save them. When a Constabulary detachment arrived. which began with Aguinaldo’s return from Hong Kong.The American era also marked the improvement of infrastructure. In Nueva Ecija. Leonard Wood prohibited the display of pictures of Filipino heroes in all public school in Mindanao. Gov. colorum refers to religious organization with mystical characteristic. The Colorums During the American occupation. the colorums worshipped Jose Rizal and Apo Ipe Salvador. Colorum Organiization were active in 1920s. In Leyte and Samar. the Spanish feudal system was not dismantled. The Inquilino paid yearly rent for using a piece of land. Land Tenure System During the American colonial rule. Pedro Calosa an Ilokano organized a colorum in which they were armed with knives. transportation and communication facilities as well as community service. making him religious leader revolutionary movement Isabelo’s De los Reyes a newspaper man imprisoned for conspiracy against Spain. General Basilio Augustin and archbishop Bernardino Nozaleda commissioned Father Gregorio Aglipay to confer with the revolutionary soldiers to bring them back to Spainish side with a promise of autonomity with the Filipinos. 5. Bulacan and Nueva Ecija In Tarlac. The hacienda system kept the peasants in bondage. Aside from this he is required to give various of . They attacked the town of Tayug that would supposed to be the spark of that would ignite the Central Luzon Area in a peasant revolution. Sociedad de la Confianza was formed. Gov. Tenants were either inquilinos or kasamas. They intended to assault the municipal building of San Jose and execute all town officials. 4. Aguinaldo issued decree appointing Aglipay as Military Vicar. bolos and few guns. Pangasinan. the colorum group retreat but Calosa managed to escaped and was captured a few days later. Pedro Kabola founded a secret society called Kapisanan Makabola Makarinag. Gen. Philippine Independent Church In the second phase of revolution.
1930. Evangelista being the executive secretary while Manahan became the Vice president. May 1. in charge ofhe peasant movement. child labor. He is also expected to give services for free to the landowner. 1913 – Labor day was first celebrated in the country. tailors which demanded for higher wages. Under him the union became Union de trabajo de Filipinas. American products increased the suffering of local producers. the conservative members clashed with Crisanto Evangelista and his grouop over the proposals submitted by the latter. women labor laws and employer liability law. This Congress approved resolutions demanding eight hour labor day. inflation and structural poverty. Santos a newspaper man and printer was the last president of UOD. Union of Magsasaka in Bulacan fight evil tenancy and usury 8. the Union de Litografos e Impresores de Filipinas and ti was reorganized into Union Obrera Democratica (UOD) a federation of smaller unions of printer. the Communist Party of the Philippines was formally established with all the officer of KAP except Hao and Hilario. Dependence upon duty free. The kasama provided labor in the hacienda where he shared harvest on a 50-50 basis with his landlord or hacindero. . There would be an equal sharing of the benefits of production. 7. On November 7. Free trade likewise reinforce the feudal agrarian system of the Spanish regime and twisted the normal development of local industries. Rich landowners and investment capitalist took control of the economy. With radicals in minority Evangelista and his followers walked and immediately launched the Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Pawis ng Pilipinas or KAP. The First Labor Groups Isabelo De los Reyes organized the first labor group in the Philippines. This ideology abolished the individual ownership property. The Communist Party of the Philippines The Congress of COF. Lope K. after deducting the expenses incurred in planting and harvesting.services for free. lithographies. Refusal to work or contribute to expenses may dismissed them from the hacienda. laying the groundwork for limited capita per income. The labor leaders organized the Congreso Obrero de Filipinas (COF). Communism is a concept of society in which the major resources and means of production are communally owned. cigar makers.
used to be a senate clerk. many Sakdalistas were arrested. Governor Frank Murphy issued a ruling that any campaign against the plebiscite shall be branded as seditious. Subsequently Ramos transformed the movement into Political party. Sakdal movement against maldistribution of property. . excessive taxes and concentration of land ownership. As a consequence. this tabloid exposed the discontentment of the masses. Sakdalism Benigno Ramos leader of the popular movement Sakdal.9. SAkdal a weekly tabloid which became the vehicle for bitter denunciation of ruling oligarchy.