CERN Intensive Course on CFD

1st, March 2007

Hands on computer session:

6. Flow behind a bluff body
[Time: 1 h 30’] Objects
• choice of computational domain and definition of simple boundary conditions • techniques to obtain a smooth meshing of a “complex” domain, near wall refinement for wall layer approximation and modelling; • identification of reference data, calculation of quantities to verify simulation accuracy (drag and lift coefficients, vortex shedding frequency and Strouhal number); • calculation of heat transfer coefficients, comparison with available correlations from the literature;

Physical problem
Upflow of incompressible/compressible (buoyant) fluid around an object coupled to heat transfer between object and flow: • velocity field around the body depends on flow regime (steady or unsteady wake forms behind); • velocity field around the body determines forces acting (drag and lift); • the wake is modified for fluid heated by the object (thermal instability due to buoyancy is added to fluid instability); • heat transfer coefficient changes depending on the flow regime (thermal instability due to buoyancy is added to fluid instability).

Low Reynolds T out

High Reynolds T out

F drag

Fdrag F lift

V in T in
Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica

V in

T in
1

M. M. solve for V . P.(slip option) to simulate the outer domain (free stream) → use a Table to increase the temperature at the cylinder wall initial velocity field (V = cost) (or use fluid at rest) • steady state simulation at Re=160 with fixed wall temperature. T → choice of relaxation factor → choice of differencing scheme considerations over Strouhal number and buoyancy effect use of tracers to represent streamlines calculation of pressure coefficient over the cylinder calculation of drag and lift coefficient calculation of heat transfer coefficient / Nusselt number animation of transient development of vortex shedding Boundary conditions Initial conditions Solution method Results References Patnail.. and Rindt.C. N. 42. A. “Numerical simulation of vortex shedding past a circular cylinder under the influence of buoyancy”.. A. → use cylinder fitted SPLINE to generate a block of cells (half domain) → use CGEN-REFLECT to replicate subdomain regions → use symmetry B. A.. Zdravkovich. (1999). S. P. Heat and Mass Transfer.C.CERN Intensive Course on CFD 1st. 3495-3507. A. 427-437.C. C. T • transient simulation at Re=160 using a table for wall temperature.C. (outlet) at the downstream section → use Wall B. (inlet) to fix the velocity and temperature of the approaching fluid → use Pressure B. (2003). K. “Flow transition behind a heated cylinder”. 10... Heat and fluid flow. B. Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 2 . (1996).. M. 24. Van Steenhoven. Narayana. to set up a bidimensional simulation → use Dirichelet B. P . March 2007 Data cylinder diameter channel width channel lenght channel height Reynolds number fluid inlet temperature cylinder temperature D = 20mm W = 6D = 120mm L = 12D = 240mm H = 2mm Re = 160 Tin = 293K Tcyl = 293 ÷ 300K Worksheet Mesh generation • evaluate thickness of wall layer around the cylinder to fully resolve the flow. and Seetharamu. 322-333. solve for V . C. “Different modes of vortex shedding: an overview”. Journal of fluids and structures. V.

CERN Intensive Course on CFD 1st. March 2007 Geometry and Experimental results 127 128 129 131 60 125 Y 124 126 1 2 40 20 10 X 123 130 200 H L W Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 3 .

Reynolds number Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 4 .CERN Intensive Course on CFD 1st. March 2007 Figure 1: Drag coefficient vs. Reynolds number Figure 2: Strouhal number vs.

mini.2 vmer all n Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 5 .vref..-2. csys 1 v 123 20 0 0 v 124 20 20 0 v 125 -20 20 0 spl 1 vran 2 42 1 spl 2 vran 42 82 1 spl 3 vran 82 122 1 csys 1 v 126 -40 0 0 v 127 -40 60 0 v 128 -20 60 0 v 129 20 60 0 v 130 200 0 0 v 131 200 60 0 !————————————!*** generation of patches and 2D geometry !————————————ctab 4 shell 6 patch 125 42 2 1 25 10 patch 124 82 42 125 25 10 patch 123 122 82 124 25 10 patch 127 128 1 126 5 30 patch 128 129 124 125 10 20 patch 129 131 130 123 50 30 vmer all c cset all !—————————————————!*** extrusion of 2D geometry and creation of 3D mesh !—————————————————vcextrude 1.1... March 2007 MACROS !**************** ! Geometry.cset.CERN Intensive Course on CFD 1st.cset.5.MAC * !**************** !——————————— !*** generation of points and splines !——————————— csys 1 v 1 -20 0 0 csys 2 v 2 10 180 0 vset news vlist 2 vgen 121 1 vset vset 1 .local..-1..1.voff.2.both get voff mxve cset news fluid !—————————!*** reflection around y-axis !—————————cgen.cset..

.nocouple cset all cplo vcomp all y ccomp all y cset news type 5 ctype 1 cmod cset ctdelete.nomvgr.1..5.merge.MAC * !**************** trload.0.2.1.1 vset none cset all cplo !—————— !*** save the model !—————— save exe6.auto.pstt.2 vset news cset cset news vset any crefine.20.1.cset..1.reverse set it 900 1 DEFI STOR iter it getv.0.2.11.exe6..stre PLTB ON REPLOT PLTB OFF END LOOP 1 500 Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 6 ..c cset news fluid csca.CERN Intensive Course on CFD vcomp all y cset news shell cdel cset ccomp all y !————————————!*** refining the cylinder cells !————————————cset news fluid vset news edge cset news vset any cset subset gran -11. March 2007 !**************** ! animation.mdl 1st.

5.c pldi. loop definition !——————————— set time 14 0.1.pstt.4.pstt !———————————— resume exe6.5 X LOCATION frame.0.1.1 end loop 1 10 !************** ! Nusselt.12.9751.x scdu.noindent.1.yreg.1.nomvgr.bottom frame.time oper.nomvgr..1..next frame.spline..mdl trload. load transient solution !—————————————– resume exe6.1.1.smul.6.mdl trload.p.pstt.165.exe6.exe6.0.c pldi.10 frame.all !——————————— !*** setting time.init. March 2007 !************** ! cp-time.-10.1 frame.ytitle.all !———————– !*** identification time Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 7 .off.init.xtitle.5 CP term.yrange.gif.50.relative oper.0.getv.1 set frm 2001 1 defi noex greset y sens dele all store time.MAC * !************** !—————————————– !*** resume model.1.4 gpost.off.real.CERN Intensive Course on CFD 1st.frm gdraw.3 frame.1.xtick.xreg.xrange.9 frame.-5.MAC * !************** !———————————— !*** resume model and load the *.0.

sqrt.4.0.next !——————!*** customize graph !——————frame.1.02637.1.2 acoeff.205.divi..0.0.1 1st.02.3 oper.-10.3 oper.init..1 oper.1.pstt c store.3. March 2007 !********* ! CD.noindent.divi.getw.real.11.5 NUSSELT gdraw.20 getwall.xtitle. Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 8 .10 frame.0.init.4 oper.0.1.2.1.MAC * !********* resume exe6.31.time.9 frame.getw.exe6.drag.temp..dens getw.4 oper.3.sfxyz..0.tm getc.2 oper.mdl trload.hflu.5 X LOCATION frame.3.2.4e-5.1.smul.smul.12.3.yreg..mult.yplus.0.CERN Intensive Course on CFD !———————– set tm 19 greset y sens dele all !———————————————!*** load solution and computing Nusselt number !———————————————store time.4.getw.0.xreg.1.bottom frame.2 oper.ytitle.1.81e-5.0.0.2 oper.3 frame.6.4 cave all !————————– !*** creating registers !————————– gpost.3 oper.getw.xrange.xtick.1.relative cset news type 3 cset subset gran .spline.mult..ftot.3 oper.12.p.1.5.4.1 oper.4.nearwall psys.

load transient solution !——————————————————resume exe6.GIF.0.3 oper.getv.MAC * !******************** !——————————————————!*** resume model..getv.no.9.2.0.auto CPLO SCDU.vmag CSCA. setting time.on.2.activate..2 oper.all title FLOW BEHIND A BLUFF BODY . CPLO window.20.0.rotor.1 getc.10 plme.2.1 TRLOAD.getv.user.CERN Intensive Course on CFD 1st.CONT PLTY EHID CSET NEWS FLUID TRINTERPOLATE.title window.1.MAC SET.293.divi.activate.0.stre csca.su.0.ON.off pldi.mdl macro execute new-color.1 oper.Re=160 .20. CPLO window.1 CAVER CSET csca.20.12. March 2007 !******************** ! film-4windows.Twall=293/300 pldi.T csca. CPLO window.0.300.activate.2 oper..16.sv.2 POPT.1. N window.FRM Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 9 .TIME.CAVER CSET !———————– !*** Loop over timesteps !———————– SET FRM 1001 1 DEFI NOEX greset y STOR TIME TIME window.off.user.2 getv.20.1 getc.50.activate.user.sw..

March 2007 Centro Interdipartimentale di Fluidodinamica e Idraulica 10 .1 1st.20.CERN Intensive Course on CFD REPLOT END LOOP.1.

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