Textile Testing and Quality Assurance

Title: Fabric stiffness Test
Submitted by:
Tauqeer Raza
06-NTU-97 Section D

8th semester

S u bmitted t o :
Mr. Salman Naeem sb.
Garments Department

NTU Faislabad

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Abstract
The subjective evaluation of stiffness is used as a standard with which to compare the results obtained from five laboratory methods of measuring stiffness. Measurements were made on a range of nineteen fabrics of varying fiber content, weave, and weight. The results indicated significant correlation in four of the five methods. The test was repeated with a new range of of eleven fabrics, with approximately the same results.

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Contents
Abstract...............................................................................................................1 Theory:................................................................................................................3 Fabric stiffness: .................................................................................................3 Fabric Stiffness Tester: .......................................................................................3 Applications: .....................................................................................................4 Apparatus: ...........................................................................................................4 Related standard: .................................................................................................4 Procedure: ...........................................................................................................4 Result:.................................................................................................................5 Conclusion:..........................................................................................................5 Reference: ...........................................................................................................5

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Theory:
Fabric stiffness:
Stiffness is one of the most widely used parameters to judge bending rigidity and fabric handling. Fabric stiffness and handling is an important decision factor for the end users. The degree of fabric stiffness is related to its properties such as fiber material, yarn and fabric structure. Fabric stiffness influences the fabric deformation and sheds light on the mechanism of fabric deformation. The stiffness of fabrics is commonly measured along the warp and filling directions in a woven structure; however, it can be measured along any other direction as well.

Fabric Stiffness Tester:
The Fabric Stiffness Tester is a simple to use, rugged instrument based on a design described in internationally recognized test standards such as ASTM D1388. Employing the principle of a rectangular specimen is supported on a smooth low -friction horizontal platform with a 41.5" (0.724 rad) or 45" (0.785 rad) adjustable bend angle indicator below the plane of the platform surface. A weighted slide is placed over the specimen and is advanced at a constant rate. As the leading edge of the specimen projects from the platform, it bends under its own mass. Once the material flexes enough to touch the bend angle indicator, the test is stopped. The length of the overhang is then measured and flexural rigidity and bending modulus can be calculated.

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Applications:
Ideal for testing most textile fabrics (e.g. woven; layered; pile; knitted; napped), t his instrument has been utilized to evaluate the stiffness properties of blankets, air bag fabrics, protective clothing, geotextiles, etc. Fabrics may be untreated or treated, including those that are heavily sized, coated or resin-treated. Fabric Stiffness Tester can also be used to evaluate leather, paper, plastic films, and other flexible sheet materials. In general this instrument may not be suitable for very limp materials or those that show a marked tendency to curl or twist at a cut edge.

Apparatus:
Fabric, shirley fabric tester, scissor and scale.

Related standard:
ASTM-1388-08

Procedure:
3 samples are cut in warp and 3 in weft directions. 2 samples are of bleached fabric which is reference sample and one sample is of dyed fabric. Sample dimesions are 6inx1in. One by one, these samples are put on the tester and a slab is put on the fabric. Then sample is moved with slab and measure the angle and a mark is made in one side of the sample. This method is repeated on 4 sides of one sample. Same procedure is followed for other two samples. Then 4 values of each sample is used in calculating their mean value. This mean value is mutiplied with constant 0.4869 and then analyze with the dyed sample result.

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Result:
For dyed sapmle mean value is: (2.7cm+3.2+2.8+3.2)/4 = 11.9/4=2.97cm

For bleached samples mean values are: (3.9+3.7+3.4+3.8)/4 (3.8+4.4+4.2+4.3)/4 = = 14.2/4=3.55cm 16.7/4=4.1cm

Conclusion:
Bending stiffness characteristics of fabrics arise from the structure of the fabric itself as well as from the structure of the constituent yarns. A stiff yarn like a wire makes a fabric stiff regardless of the weave.

Reference:
http://trj.sagepub.com/content/21/6/435.abstract Article: INFLUENCE OF THE FABRIC PROPERTIES ON FABRIC STIFFNESS FOR THE INDUSTRIAL FABRICS