Rainforce Earth

3100 Rainforce Earth

Annexure - 1

Section 3100

Table 3100-1 Selection Criteria based on height, durability and loading for vertical retaining walls

Height of retaining wall < 10m > 10m 20 to 100 < 20 yrs yrs Bridge or any heavy load (DL+LL) Yes Yes NO 2 Yes Yes Yes Yes3 Yes IRC traffic loading (LL) Zone II

Design life


Seismic zone – IS 1893 (Part 1) :2002 Zone III, IV & V



Flexible face Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NO Yes NO NO 1 Yes Yes




Yes Yes Yes3 Yes

Yes Yes NO 2 NO

Yes Yes Yes Yes NO NO NO5 Yes NO 1 Yes Yes Yes6 Yes Yes Yes Yes NO NO NO NO Yes Yes Yes3 Yes Yes Yes Yes3 Yes Yes Yes NO 2 Yes

Metallic Discrete concrete reinforcement facing system

Block wall

Rigid facing

Flexible face

Non-metallic (Synthetic)

Discrete concrete facing system 4

reinforcement Block wall

Reinforced Earth

RCC full height


Pre-cast block wall can be used only if the blocks are casted by wet mix concrete and not by dry mix method

Reinforced Earth


Block wall system can be used only if the connection system is mechanical and all blocks shall be connected by main or secondary reinforcement


Only mechanical connection system shall be used no friction based connection system shall be used, all blocks in top two meter shall be connected with main or secondary reinforcement to cater for impact loading


Each facing panel shall be connected with minimum 2 layers (vertically) of reinforcement and for strap minimum 4 numbers of connector per panel (2 in horizontal and 2 in vertical elevations) shall be used. The main reinforcement shall be connected with panel by means of only mechanical arrangement. Concrete to concrete contact shall be avoided by provision of EPDM bearing pad in horizontal joints and clear gap in vertical joints.



Wall constructed with non-metallic (synthetic) reinforcement with height more than 6m shall not be permitted unless it can be satisfactorily demonstrated by previous experience that similar high structures has been constructed using exactly the same system by same system provider (height of wall, geometry, facing, reinforcement, connection, design methods, loading condition) and subject to approval of engineer in-charge.


All steel flexible facing for permanent structure (design life upto 100yrs) shall be hot dip galvanized (minimum 400 gm/sqm). For non-metalic (synthetic) wrap around facing, a perennial vegetation cover with/without erosion control blanket shall be ensured.

Section 3100

Table 3100-2 Decision chart for reinforcement type according to environment and application Environment / Type of fill Low Acidic fills Extensibility High Walls Abutments 2 < pH < 5 NO NO YES YES YES NO NO

Section 3100

Black Steel


Low Chlorides High Chloride Fine Soils and Sulphates and Sulphates treated with Recycled High resistivity Marine cement or Concrete Application lime cf table below 10 < pH < 12 9 < pH <11 < 20 yrs 5 < pH < 10 NO NO NO NO NO 100 yrs , pH > 3 NO NO

Galvanized steel 100 yrs , 4 < pH < 9

100 yrs 5 < pH < 10


Polyester (PET) yarn


Table 3100-3 Special condition for use of metallic (steel) reinforcement

Environment pH 5 TO 10 5 TO 10

Type of fill

Electrochemical characteristics Resistivity (Ohm.cm) Maximum salt contents(ppm) > 1000 Chlorides < 100 > 3000 Sulfates < 200

Out of water

Draining or granular

Reinforced Earth

Fresh Water


Reinforced Earth

Table 3100-4 Selection criteria based on foundation condition

The short term and long term performance of reinforced soil wall structures depends primarily on foundation soil condition. Hence, it is most important to select appropriate technology depending of foundation soil condition and also type of improvement measures. Decision chart for reinforcement type according to foundation / improved foundation condition:

FOUNDATION Hard, Soft or Dense to CONDITION Disintegrated medium Loose sand / Rock dense Sand clay Improved foundation with Stone column/pile

Foundation treated with replacement


Improved foundation with PVD, Synthetic reinforcement Expected total settlement Expected total settlement < 50mm > 50mm Only metallic reinforcement upto a maximum height of All types of retaining wall, 7.0m for vertical wall. No pure slope and abutment1 can be abutment is recommended. constructed Synthetic reinforcement with flexible facing upto a maximum height of 7.0m for vertical wall and 20m for steep slope.

All types of retaining wall, slope and abutment1 can be constructed.

1. The allowable post construction settlement (after construction of bridge deck) shall be restricted to maximum 25mm.

Section 3100

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