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# Computational Analysis of Transmission Loss in an Exhaust Muffler

Mohd A zmi Yunus, Ahmad Azlan Mat Isa & Mohamed Dahalan Mohamed Ramli Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan

ABSTRAC T Mufflers are commonly used for automobile exhaust system to attenuate the noise levels produced by automobile engine to the atmosphere. Since the muffler becomes an important part in automobile exhaust system a restrictive environmental legislation requires silencer designers to use high performance and reliable techniques as such that any improvement on the exhaust muffler will contribute a significant impact on the quality of the automobile exhaust system. In order to overcome these problems a basic design muffler with computational analysis of the acoustics characteristics for absorption and simple expansion muffler was carried out. The transmission loss of such mufflers is determined using Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). Modification design variables available through simulation for acoustics characteristics are realised. The efficiency of the proposed technique is illustrated by comparing the results with those available in established literature. The results shows good agreement with other methods, thus demonstrating the validity and the reliability of the method . Keywords: Transfer Matrix Method (TMM), Four Pole Parameter, Transmission Loss, Muffler Parameter

Introduction

The main purpose of the automobile muffler is to minimise noise level emitted to the atmosphere. The automotive exhaust noise is one of the main disturbing factors that contribute to the ride quality of passengers and driver. Hence, exhaust noise reduction and elimination has becoming an important research area [1-3]. Muffler is the most common device used to reduce the noise level emitted to the atmosphere. There are two basic types of muffler namely adsorptive and reactive

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In L this paper. Theoretical Background As mentioned earlier the main function of an exhaust muffler is to attenuate or if possible. whereas transmission loss is defined as the difference in the loss of power incidents to the muffler and noise reduction is defined as the difference in sound pressure levels in two separate positions. transmission loss is selected to measure the average of the muffler performance. Prasad and Croker [6] used insertion loss as performance criteria with numerical analysis using transfer matrix method. A L numerical analysis using transfer matrix method was developed to analyse a muffler with a simple expansion exhaust system. There are several ways to describe the performance of a muffler system in automotive exhaust system.Journal of Mechanical Engineering type [2]. T L L (1) i t L w w In the muffler system. Muffler Standard Average Performance Generally. L and transmission power level. Symbolically. L of wi wt the element. The performance of a muffler is related to how much the noise is reduced. The source code was developed to obtain the performance of the muffler by changing the dimension of the muffler. T (d ) L B 20 log 10 w1 w t 20 log 10 P 1 P 2 (2) 46 . The usual indication is the average muffler performance. In this paper transmission loss ( T ) is used as the performance criterion. The results are further validated experimentally such as in [8]. The design of a muffler system is a complicated task as such it is difficult to predict the performance of the actual muffler [4-5]. to present the effectiveness of the noise reduction. The transmission loss of the muffler is defined as a measurement of power incident level in the muffler. the pressure ratio between inlet-outlet of the muffler is given in unit decibels (dB). Several researchers in this area used these different criteria to illustrate the performance of the muffler. These include insertion loss ( I ). insertion loss and level difference or noise reduction. transmission loss L (T ) and noise reduction ( N ). The equation can be written as follows. The insertion loss is defined as the difference L L between the acoustic powers radiated with and without filter. a standard average of a muffler performance is measured in a terms of transmission loss ( T ). remove the exhaust noise. Other such as in [7] used boundary element method to predict the performance.

muffler and tail pipe. The radiation impedance is defined by Y = P/V where Pis a sound pressure and Vis a particle velocity. the pressure change in the exhaust gas can be expressed in one-dimensional wave equation motion. W W Muffler P P t t 1 2 Figure 1: Basic Muffler Arrangement Four Pole Parameters The exhaust noise is produced by a pressure change in the exhaust gas produced in the internal combustion of the engine. The wave equation is calculated by using principle of mass flux of the flow properties. Figure 2: Exhaust Muffler Arrangement The muffler proper consists of element 2 to n-1. element 0 is a radiation element. element 1 is the tailpipe. Generally. exhaust pipe. namely engine. (3) 47 . The engine exhaust muffler system is divided into four components. Figure 2 shows a typical setup of an exhaust muffler.Computational Analysis of Transmission Loss in an Exhaust Muffler The basic relationship of transmission loss is illustrated in Figure 1. element nis the exhaust pipe and element n + 1 is a source or engine.

length (L) and exhaust pipe diameter (d) with a fixed inlet diameter. with step of 5 Hz. Numerical Simulation of Muffler System A program has been written in FORTRAN to estimate transmission loss of the muffler system. Y represent each sound impedance from outlet-inlet 1 n pipe to the muffler. Figure 2 shows the element defined by its connectivity from point 1 to nof the transmission matrices. n 1 The transmission loss is calculated by using the transmission matrices and can be expressed in an equation as follows: ª « «§ Y T 2 20 log ¨ 1 10 «¨ ©Y L « 2 « ¬ T11 T12 Y 1 · ¸ ¸ ¹ 1/2 T21 §Y ¨ n ¨Y ©1 º · ¸T » ¸ 22 ¹ » » » » ¼ (6) In the above equation. Transmission losses are calculated for a wide range of frequencies with suitable step increment of 5 Hz. The solution was obtained with varying frequencies from 0 to 2000 Hz. T and T are the transmission elements.Journal of Mechanical Engineering The radiation impedance of the muffler is calculated across at any position of the exhaust system whereby transmission matrices are used to transfer the sound pressure P and sound particle V. or the four-pole 11 12 21 22 parameters of the muffler. In the numerical analysis a simple expansion chamber was considered. the transfer matrix was developed and the state vector was calculated using equation 5. The muffler parameters used in this analysis are muffler diameter (D). Yis a longitude wave as a characteristic impedance of the pipe and here. T . Y . In the calculation the four-pole constants are extracted from the transfer matrix in order to calculate the transmission loss. Thus ª Pn º ª T11 T12 º ª P º 1 « » « »« » Vn ¼ ¬T2 1T2 2 ¼ V1 ¼ ¬ ¬ (4) where T . The numerical analysis was carried out using 2 stations. Using equations (3) and equation (4). to produce 4 x 4 matrix. 48 . The program flowchart of the muffler performance to calculate transmission loss is as shown in Figure 3. The transfer matrix relationship can be written by successive application as: [S ]=[T ] [ T ][S ] n 1 n 0 (5) where S is state vector of station n and T is transfer matrix.

The graph shows the plot of transmission loss (TL) in DB versus frequency in Hz. Middleber et al. has carried out both numerical (using boundary element method) and experimental procedure on muffler to produce results as shown in Figure 4. [7]. 49 . comparison was made with published data in the literature. Due to the constraints experimental validation was not carried out.375 inches).925 mm (1. However. Figure 5 shows the corresponding result obtained from the developed program using transfer matrix method. l = 203. it is necessary to ensure that the results are valid. It shows that the hump shapes are similar.035 inches).2 mm (8 inches). The expansion muffler used in the analysis is a simple muffler with dimensions. d = d = i o 34.289 mm (6.Computational Analysis of Transmission Loss in an Exhaust Muffler START Muffler Modelling Transfer Matrix Method Parameter Model validation Yes MUFFLER ANALYSIS No STOP Figure 3: Flowchart Showing the Procedure of Solution of the Transmission Loss Validation of Simulation Results Before considering any further analysis of the muffler with different configurations. This will determine whether the program is correctly written and the modelling closely represents the actual muffler system. D= 153.

The graphs indicate the maximum amplitude of the transmission loss T ) is ( L the maintained at 25 dB with different muffler lengths. Initially. the period of (a) Muffler length of 300 mm (b) Muffler length of 600 mm 50 . the effect on the variations of muffler length was carried out. Analysis of Variation of Length Once the program was correctly validated other parameter variation was carried out to increase understanding of the performance of the muffler system. 600mm. Therefore. Figure 6(a) to ( L Figure 6(d) show the transmission loss according to the length of the muffler modification up to frequency range of 3000 Hz. 900 and 1200 mm. the lengths were varied for 300 mm. However.Journal of Mechanical Engineering Figure 4 : Experimental and Numerical Figure 5: Transmission Loss (TL) Results (BEM) of Transmission Loss Versus Frequency Using Numerical (TL) Versus Frequency from TMM Method Established Research [7] The maximum magnitude of the transmission loss (dB) is about 20dB and the cycle of the hump is about 800 Hz. However. This closely matches the results obtained from reference [7]. Transmission loss T ) was calculated for each case. it can be concluded that the developed program produce results with close resemblance to the actual system. up to 2000 Hz range. The inlet pipe diameter and muffler diameter was maintained with 35 mm diameter and 150 mm diameter respectively.

Figure 7(a) to Figure 7(d) show the transmission loss (TL) computed with the different muffler diameter to give the different ratio effect. The period is inversely proportional to the length. In this analysis the muffler diameter is increased from 200 mm. This ratio can be varied by increasing the muffler diameter and maintaining the inlet diameter. Analysis of the Cross-sectional Area Ratio of Muffler The other important configuration of the muffler is the cross sectional area ratio. From the graphs it is observed that changing the ratio of area between inlet pipe and muffler significantly changes the maximum amplitude of the transmission loss. Conclusion Muffler performance using transmission loss was numerically analysed using the transfer matrix method. The greater the area ratio than the better is the performance of the muffler. 300 mm and 350 mm but the inlet pipe of the muffler is fixed at 35 mm. It can be concluded that. it can be concluded that increasing of the muffler length does not produce significant impact on the transmission loss value but reduces the period of peak frequency.Computational Analysis of Transmission Loss in an Exhaust Muffler (c) Muffler length of 900 mm (d) Muffler length of 1200 mm Figure 6: Transmission Loss Versus Frequency Using Numerical TMM Method for Various Muffle Lengths hump is closer which indicates the oscillations frequency is higher. However. the bigger the size of the muffler the better is the performance. The 51 . in the actual conditions the size of the muffler is restricted by the space allocated to the muffler. A program using FORTRAN was developed to numerically calculate the transmission loss in a muffler exhaust system. From these graphs. the ratio of inlet pipe and the muffler cross sectional area. that is. 250 mm.

the bigger the size of the muffler the better is the performance which however. The performance of the muffler is enhanced with bigger area ratio. it can be concluded that the increases in muffler length does not produce significant change to the transmission loss however. in practice the size of the muffler is limited by the space restriction to the muffler. From the results. it can be further concluded that. This paves the way for the program developed to be used for analysis of a more complex muffler set-up. Based on this result other muffler configurations for example inlet pipe diameter and muffler ration were analysed. 52 . And thus.Journal of Mechanical Engineering (a) Muffler diameter 200 mm (b) Muffler diameter 250 mm (c) Muffler diameter 300 mm (d) Muffler diameter 350 mm Figure 7: Transmission Loss (T ) Versus Frequency Using Numerical TMM L Method for Various Muffler Diameter developed program was in good agreement with the results obtained from established research. the period of peak frequency is reduced.

A scheme to predict the sound pressure radiated from an automotive system .N. John Willey & Sons. J. E. R. (1987). Muffler modeling by Transfer Matrix Method and Experimental Verification . and Seybert. Vol 57.Y. L. Vol. [7] Jebasinki. (2003). Journal Acoustics of America. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of the acoustic performance of various simple expansion chamber mufflers. J.P.Computational Analysis of Transmission Loss in an Exhaust Muffler References [1] Munjal. Z. Proceeding of ACOUSTIC.. and Leonardi. M. (1981). and Leonardi. and Crocker. 2/133. Acoustic Soc. G. (2004).. T. E. Determining the acoustic performance of simple reactive muffler using computational fluid dynamics WESPAC VIII. [2] Gerges. A review of current techniques for measuring muffler transmission loss . S. A. Crocker (1975). 53 . Barber. Leong S. [5] Middleberg. Nov. [6] Prasad. 03NVC SAE. April-June 2005. M.1 January. J. [3] Toa. No. (2001). Byrne. [8] Middleberg. Journal of Brazil Society of Mechanical and Engineering. XXXVII No. Am. Calculation of the tail pipe noise of exhausts systems with wave Ebersparcer. and Jordan. Germany.F. S. K. April. Prediction of transmission loss in mufflers by finite element method . R. M.. Barber. 70(5). [4] Cheng I James Young and Malcolm J.. Acoustics of ducts and muffler . T.