Welcome Letter

Dear Delegates, Welcome to the Security Council of the 2011 Atlantic College Model United Nations. We are pleased to tell you that you have, without a doubt, joined the most powerful and important body within the diplomatic structures of the United Nations. We will chair the Council during what promises to be an engaging, heated and ultimately satisfying three days of debate in the AC MUN 2011 Security Council. The Security Council, commonly abbreviated as simply the 'SC', is tasked with maintaining international peace and security. This year, we will be considering two timely threats to international stability, Cyberterrorism and The Conflict in Sudan. Cyberterrorism as a threat has been a modern intervention; as a result, little has been done in the international arena regarding the issue. The issue provides you with the opportunity for creative diplomacy, to concern the facts of the matter and to construct solutions to the potential threats. The Conflict in Sudan has ranged for nearly 27 years and although an interim peace agreement was introduced in 2005, it faces the greatest test yet in the form or elections that would literally and may figuratively rip the country apart. The United Nation s role in mediating the Conflict in Sudan and its response to any potential crises is necessary if peace in Sudan and in the region is to be best maintained. Although grounded in the present-day, do not be surprised if crises are thrown your way. The Security Council needs to be able and is constantly responding and adapting its actions to new information and your experience will be no different. We are extremely excited for AC MUN 2011 and look forward to the insight you will undoubtedly bring to the two contentious issues facing us. If you have any questions, we urge you to contact us at any point. We look forward to committee session in the days to come. Get ready! Sincerely, Paul Lau, Laura Breen Chairs, Security Council Atlantic College Model United Nations 2011

Topic 1: Cyberterrorism Whilst the threat of traditional terrorist attacks in the physical world continue to run high, technological developments in the last 30 years, particularly with the advent of the commercial personal computer in 1977, have given rise to a new fear - cyber terrorism. Modern technology has led to the increased integration of daily life with technology, whether it is through email, business transactions, information gathering and data storage. Vast amounts of information and data have now be transferred to modern information technology systems that are more advanced, save space, save money and are easier to use. It might all appear to be a rosy picture, but while the greater ease of accessing information through technology has helped in education, business and medical fields, it has also opened the door for criminals to take advantage of this. Though many cyberattacks in the past have been the result of young programmers who choose to fool around, recent developments have seen more serious cyberattacks that can cause harm on governments, companies and individuals. Cyberattacks such as hackers, worms and viruses without a particular political motive have proliferated since internet use ballooned. Vandalizing websites, disrupting services, sabotaging data and systems, launching computer viruses, harassing individuals and companies, and fraudulent transactions; these are just a few examples of what cyber terrorists can do. Put simply, cyberterrorism has the potential to decimate governments, cripple economies, and damage defense networks; the damage from cyberattacks can be military, political, commercial and even social. Given the relatively new nature of this threat, the international community has yet to create a comprehensive framework for anti-cyberterrorism work to take place. Fundamental to the framework will be international laws governing actions to prevent and respond to cyberterrorism. The distinction between a cyberattack and cyberterrorism is still unclear. Furthermore, the lack of clear guidelines as to what actions would constitute a cyberwar creates ambiguity with regards to how countries should respond to such attacks. If prevention is the best cure possible, then mechanisms to prevent cyberattacks will need to be developed. Although countries such as China, Russia, Israel and North Korea have all been accused of cyberattacks, there is no international mechanism to identify cyberterrorists, let alone to track and capture them. The fact that attacks are committed across borders makes addressing them all the more difficult, any legislation will not only need to be adopted by member states but also be effectively enforced, a common Achilles heel for many previous UN actions. Ambassador Ahmad Kamal, a Senior Fellow at the UN Institute for Training and Research and the former Permanent Representative of Pakistan to the UN, has written a report titled ‘The Law of Cyber-Space’, providing as a basis for much discussion. At 270 pages, it makes for an informative and enlightening read. This came after events such as Titan Rain (the alleged Chinese orchestrated attacks on a number of American computer networks), the denial-of-service attack against Estonia in 2007 (almost all of the national ministries’ servers were knocked off line as well as those of two major financial institutions), the cyberattacks against Georgia in 2008 and those against Google in 2009. The most recent instance of cyberattacks was the highly sophisticated Stuxnet worm that The Economist described as “an ingenious cyber-weapon”. Discovered in June 2010, the computer worm appears to specifically sabotage uranium-refining by disrupting centrifuges’ industrial-control systems. So far, it appears to have delayed Iran’s nuclear program by as much as two years, but its creator remains an unknown mystery with Israel and China both alleged masterminds. In addition, during the 64th General Assembly (GA) Session in March 2010, resolution 64/211 was passed by the GA calling for the creation of “a global culture of cybersecurity”. Sadly, it included only two action points, both of which were voluntary and unspecific with regards to the suggested actions. It does however take stock of a litany of previous UN action and provide a useful starting point for further research. Your task is to construct a comprehensive international response to the threat of cyberattacks, cyberterrorism and cyberwar.
Questions to consider: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. • • • • • What constitutes cyberterrorism, a cyberattack and cyberwar? How can an act of cyberterrorism most effectively be prevented? What response is necessary and permitted against an act of cyberterrorism? What infrastructure is needed to combat acts of cyberterrorism and how do countries acquire them? How can countries, governments and private entities best co-operate to deal with cyberterroism? In what way to the suggestions above fit together in an international framework against cyberattacks? 64th General Assembly Session – Resolution 64/211 http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/ga10907.doc.htm http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/gaef3271.doc.htm http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N09/474/49/PDF/N0947449.pdf Ahmad Kamal – The Law of Cyber-Space http://www.un.int/kamal/thelawofcyberspace/index.htm http://www.un.int/kamal/thelawofcyberspace/The%20Law%20of%20Cyber-Space.pdf http://www.cs.georgetown.edu/~denning/infosec/cyberterror.html http://www.economist.com/node/17730556?story_id=17730556

Resources

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Topic 2: The Conflict in Sudan History: Sudan is Africa's largest country, stretching from Egypt in the north to Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Kenya in the south. Its western neighbors are Chad and the Central African Republic in the East they are Ethiopia and Eritrea in the east. This vast country is divided into various ethnic, religious and language dimensions. Moreover the country is extremely centralized, with most resources and power being concentrated to Khartoum, leaving the other areas marginalized. Since Sudan gained independence from Britain in 1956, the country has been a land of vicious civil wars, genocide, human rights violations, cultural division and terrorism. The fighting has not stopped since then, with the exception of the peace agreement with Ethiopia in 1972. Since independence, Sudan has been ruled by a series of unstable parliamentary governments and military regimes. Arabs, the seat of the government, live in the Northern part of the country, while the black African, mainly Christian population lives in the South. Differences in language, religion, ethnicity, and political power erupted in an unending civil war between government forces, strongly influenced by the National Islamic Front (NIF) and the southern rebels, whose most influential faction is the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA). Past UN actions On 30 July 2004 the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) adopted resolution1556 (2004), imposing sanctions in relation to the Sudan in response to the ongoing humanitarian crisis and widespread human rights violations, including continued attacks on civilians. The sanctions were modified and strengthened with the adoption of resolution 1591 (2005), which expanded the scope of the arms embargo and imposed additional measures including a travel ban and an assets freeze on individuals designated by the UNSC Committee established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005). The enforcement of the arms embargo was strengthened by resolution 1945 (2010). Security Council Situation Updates - The Situation in Sudan: Currently, most of the conflict consists of guerilla attacks by small forces. On 20 September 2009, gunmen attacked the village of Duk Padiet in southern Sudan killing over 80 people, wounding another 50 and destroying over 2,000 homes. Just days later, 18 civilians were killed and numerous properties destroyed in northern Darfur. The UN and the African Union peacekeeping force (UNAMID) are working to cease hostilities and get both sides to return to the negotiating table. The joint force is also busy trying to help facilitate elections scheduled for April 2010 in southern Sudan. The continuous conflict in Sudan has led to a large number of refugees whose primary escape route is the border Sudan shares with Chad. Currently there are over 290,000 Sudanese refugees in Chad and that number continues to grow. To help protect the refugees and to keep the border between the two countries secure, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the government of Chad are looking to relocate those camps on the border further into Chad and away from the volatile border area. Bibliography: “Another Deadly Attack on Village in Southern Sudan Draws Condemnation from UN,” UN News Centre, 22 September 2009, www.un.org/news “Ban Strongly Condemns Latest Deadly Attack in Southern Sudan,” UN News Centre, 23 September 2009, www.un.org/news “Darfur Refugees in Chad Set to Move Away From Unstable Border With Sudan-UN,” UN News Centre, 22 September 2009, www.un.org/news “Renewed Fighting in Darfur Sparks Deep Concern From Secretary-General,” UN News Centre, 23 September 2009, www.un.org/news UN Documents: • • • • S/RES/1881 S/2009/391-Report of the Secretary-General on Elections in the Sudan S/2009/357-Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Mission in Sudan S/2009/470-Report of the Secretary-General on the Support to African Union peacekeeping operations authorized by the United Nations

Parliamentary Rules of Procedures - Security Council Annex SC-1 Scope
1.1 The Rules of Procedure included in the Security Council Annex are applicable to only the Security Council. 1.2 These Rules of Procedure may be adapted or modified in advance of session by the President. 1.3 No other rules of procedure are applicable for the duration of the session.

SC-2 Language
2.1 English shall be the sole official and working language of the ACMUN Security Council. 2.2 If a delegate wishes to address a committee in a language other than English, he must provide a translation. 2.2.1 Where a speech is time limited, the translation as well as the original speech will count against the speaker's time.

SC-3 Appointment of the Security Council Chairs
3.1 At the start of the Conference Session, the President shall appoint the Security Council Chairs. 3.2 The appointed Chairs shall, chair the Council through the adoption of the agenda and act as Rapporteur for the Council before other bodies of ACMUN.

SC-4 General Powers and Authority of the Security Council Chairs
4.1 The Chair, in addition to exercising the powers authorized elsewhere in these rules shall also; 4.1.1 Declare the opening and closing of each Council meeting, 4.1.2 Direct its discussion through the adoption of the agenda, 4.1.3 Ensure the observance of these rules, 4.1.4 Accord the right to speak, 4.1.5 Announce decisions, 4.1.6 Rule on Points of Order, 4.1.7 Subject to these rules, shall have the right to act at their own discretion to ensure the smooth operation of the committee and the maintenance of order. 4.2 During any meeting of the Security Council, the Chairs may propose the suspension or the adjournment of the meeting. 4.3 The Chairs, in the exercise of these functions, remains under the authority of the Security Council. 4.3.1 A representative may appeal the ruling of the Chairs, as provided for in SC-25.

SC-5 Council Members
5.1 The Security Council shall be composed of, 5.1.1 The five permanent members and ten rotational member states, 5.1.2 Each member state may be represented by no more than one delegate during any Council meeting. 5.2 The Chairs may declare a Council meeting open and permit debate to proceed when a credited representative from all member states is present, as declared at the beginning of the first session. 5.2.1 The President reserves the right to adjust the quorum as it deems necessary, 5.2.2 The Chairs may, at the discretion of the President, be granted the right to adjust the quorum, 5.2.2 Questions concerning quorum shall be directed to the Chairs. 5.2.3 A quorum will be assumed to be presentness specifically challenged and shown to be absent. 5.2.4 Each Council delegation assumes the responsibility to have present a minimum of one accredited Representative at each Session. 5.3 Non-members will not be permitted to sign or vote on substantive matters, 5.3.1 Non-member representatives, other than the President or an individual designated as his/her representative, may not address a committee without prior approval by the President and at the discretion of the Chairs. 5.4 Delegates who intentionally contravene the Rules of Procedures of the Security Council will be; 5.4.1 Given a first warning at the discretion of the Chair, 5.4.2 Given a second warning at the discretion of the Chair, 5.4.3 Evicted from the session at the discretion of the Chair if rule infringement continues despite two previous warnings.

SC-4 Agenda
4.1 The Provisional Agenda for the Security Council shall be drawn up by the President and Chairs, 4.1.1 The Provisional Agenda must be approved by the Council at the beginning of a session. 4.1.2 The Chairs may, at the discretion of the President, be granted the right to adjust the Agenda as necessary, 4.2 Items on the provisional agenda may be amended by the Council, 4.2.1 All items proposed for inclusion in the agenda shall be accompanied by an explanatory memorandum, and if possible by basic documents or draft resolution. 4.3 Unless the Council decides otherwise, agenda items shall be considered in the order listed on the agenda 4.3.1 If two or more resolutions related to the same agenda item, the Council shall, unless otherwise decided, vote on the resolutions in the order in which they have been listed on the Agenda

SC-5 Voting Matters
5.1 Only recognized representatives of member states shall be permitted to vote, 5.1.1 Each member state on the Security Council shall have one vote, 5.1.2 No representative or delegate may cast the vote of another member. 5.2 Non-members will not be granted the right to vote on any matter brought before the Security Council.

5.3 A roll-call shall be held at the beginning of each Council meeting, 5.3.1 If a delegate is present, it shall answer 'Present' to indicate their presence and intention to vote, 5.3.2 If any delegation is not present at the time the roll-call is taken, it is expected to pass a note to the Chairs once it arrives. 5.4 A 'simple majority' shall herein be defined as one in which there are more votes in favor of a motion than votes against. 5.5 A 'two-thirds vote' shall herein be defined as one in which there are more than twice as many votes in favor of a motion as votes against. 5.6. Votes shall be registered by a simply show of placards, 5.6.1 On substantive matter, any delegate may request for a 'roll-call vote' following a vote by show of placards, 5.6.1.1 Requests for roll call vote shall not be debated or voted upon but will be automatically be granted by the Chair, 5.6.2 A 'roll-call vote' shall be take in alphabetical order of the English names of the member states beginning with a state selected at random by the Chairs, 5.6.3 The Chair shall read out the name of the member state and the respective delegate shall respond with 'Yes', 'No' or 'Abstention', 5.6.4 The result of voting shall be inserted into the record in the English alphabetical order of the member states. 5.6.5 After the Chair has announced the beginning of voting, no member shall interrupt the voting except on a point of order in connection with the actual conduct of the voting.

SC-6 Voting on Substantive Matter
6.1 The presence of a quorum shall be required for the vote on any substantive motion, 6.1.1 The Chairs may, at the discretion of the President, be granted the right to adjust the quorum as necessary, 6.1.2 When a proposal has been voted on, the decision is considered final, 6.1.3 It may not be reconsidered at the same session unless the Council so decides. This shall be considered a procedural matter (SC-4) 6.2 Decisions on substantive matters shall be made by a simple majority, with the concurring vote of the permanent members, 6.2.1 A party to a dispute may abstain from voting. 6.3 The Chairs retain the ultimate discretion to determine the order by which clauses are voted upon, 6.4 Consent of the Five Permanent Members 6.4.1 As established in the Charter of the UN, each of the five Permanent Members; China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States, shall have the right to veto any substantive matter which comes to a vote before the Security Council, 6.4.2 A 'no' vote by any Permanent Member, regardless of other affirmative votes, shall constitute a veto and cause the motion to fail. 6.4.3 Thus a substantive matter can only pass with a majority of the members in favor and no veto members voting against the matter.

SC-7 Voting on Procedural Matter
7.1 The presence of a majority of the members (9) shall be required for the vote on any procedural motion. 7.2 Decisions of the Council on procedural matters shall be made by a simple majority, 7.2.1 A party to a dispute may not abstain from voting on procedural matters, 7.3 When motions are raised, a maximum of two speeches for and against the motion may be granted at the discretion of the Chair, 7.3.1 Points of Information will not be permitted during speeches on motions before the Council, 7.4 Motions of higher priority than the one being debated may be made from the floor during open debate, 7.5 The Council will move to an immediate vote on the motion following the Chair's declaration of Closure.

SC-8 Operative Clauses
8.1 Operative Clauses and amendments shall be introduced in writing and handed to the Chairs, who shall circulate copies to the representatives of the Council. 8.1.1 For an operative clause to be considered, it must be sponsored by at least one delegation and must be moved to the floor, 8.2 The Chairs may permit the discussion and consideration of amendments and proposals not previously circulated. 8.2.1 Operative Clauses will be accepted by the Chairs as they are created during informal debate, 8.3 A motion or operative clause which has been withdrawn may be reintroduced by any member.

SC-9 Amendments
9.1 All amendments to resolutions must be signed by at least one delegate 9.1.1 An amendment must be submitted in writing to the Chairs, 9.1.2 Amendments will be moved to the floor if they are legible, organized in content and flow, and in the proper format, 9.1.3 One or more amendments may be considered on the floor at any given time, 9.1.4 An amendment will be considered "friendly" if all sponsors of the resolution are also sponsors of the amendment, 9.1.4.1 A friendly amendment becomes part of an operative clause upon receipt by the President, 9.1.4.2 The chair shall announce the acceptance of a friendly amendment on the first opportunity at which no speaker has the floor, 9.1.4.3 No vote is required to add a friendly amendment to a resolution.

SC-10 Overturning Chair Decisions
10.1 Any credited delegate may appeal the Chairs's ruling on a discretionary matter, 10.1.1 The appealing member speakers first in favor of overturning the Chair's decision, 10.1.2 The Chairs then speaks in defense of their ruling, 10.1.3 A roll-call vote shall be held on the matter, 10.1.3 A two-thirds vote in favor of the motion is necessary to overrule the Chair's decision.

SC-11 Formal Debate
11.1 Following the conclusion of the informal debate period, the Council moves into formal debate on the topic, 11.2 Formal debate commences with the introduction of each operative clause,

11.2.1 Delegates wishing to speak for, against or to the operative clause should raise their placard at the appropriate time to be listed, 11.2.2 The speaker order shall be at the discretion of the Chairs, beginning with the sponsors of the operative clause, 11.2.3 Any appropriate motions may be made when; 11.2.3.1 No speaker has the floor, or 11.2.3.2 By the speaker at the end of their speech. 11.3 When all delegates who wish to speak have spoken, debate is closed and the operative on the floor, along with any amendments, is brought to an immediate vote, 11.4 Only one operative clause may be brought to the floor and discussed at any given time during formal debate, 11.4.1 Any number of resolutions may be moved to the floor during formal debate on the topic, 11.4.2 Following the vote on a resolution, a motion to consider another resolution, or a motion to close debate on the topic is in order, 11.4.3 Any number of amendments to the resolution on the floor may be brought to the floor and discussed.

SC-12 Unmoderated Caucus
12.1 At any time, the Council may choose to suspend its rules and enter an informal, unmoderated caucus if the members determine that this process will better facilitate the discussion of a particular issue, 12.1.1 The motion to move to unmoderated caucus must include the amount of time that such a session is to be in effect, 12.1.2 During unmoderated caucus, delegates may move around, speak and question each other so long as diplomatic courtesy is maintained, 12.1.3 The Chairs may step in to uphold diplomatic courtesy at any time, 12.1.4 The Council may move out of unmoderated caucus prior to the end of the time period specified in the motion by a two-thirds vote, 12.1.5 The Council will move immediately back into its previous debate at the conclusion of discussions on the consultative topic.

SC-13 Right of Reply
13.1 A delegation whose national honor or personal integrity has been explicitly insulted by another delegation may request a 'right to reply', 13.1.1 A delegate may request a right to reply by standing up, raising their placard and stating 'Right to Reply' following a comment deemed insulting, 13.2 The delegate's grievances will be noted by the Chair following the conclusion of the speech, 13.2.1 At the discretion of the Chair, the delegate may be given a limited amount of time to reply, 13.2.2 A right to reply to a right to reply shall not be granted under any situation,

SC-14 Motion to Move into Voting Procedure
14.1 When no speech is being made and no other delegation has the floor, any delegate may raise a 'motion to move into voting procedure' by raising their placard, 14.1.1 A motion to move into voting procedures must be seconded, 14.1.2 If no objections are noted, then voting procedure commences, 14.1.3 A motion to move into voting procedures can only be made when no speech is being made. 14.2 If objections are noted, at the discretion of the Chairs, a maximum of two speeches for and against the motion may be granted, 14.3 The Council will move to an immediate vote on the motion following the Chair's declaration of Closure.

SC-15 Motion to Suspend for Unmoderated Caucus
15.1 During general debate on an agenda item, a delegate may 'motion to suspend for unmoderated caucus' so as to discuss the agenda item informally, 15.1.1 A motion to suspend for unmoderated caucus must be seconded, 15.1.2 A motion to suspend for unmoderated caucus can only be made when no speech is being made. 15.2 A motion to suspend for unmoderated caucus will not be debated and voting procedures will immediately take place. SC-16 Motion to Suspend or Adjourn Meeting 16.1 During discussion of any matter, a representative may motion for the suspension or adjournment of the meeting, 16.1.1 A motion for the suspension or adjournment of the meeting must be seconded, 16.1.2 A motion to suspend or adjourn the meeting can only be made when no speech is being made. 16.2 A motion for the suspension or adjournment of the meeting will not be debated and voting procedures will immediately take place. 16.2.1 Contrary to SC-7, a motion to suspend or adjourn meeting will be approved by a two-thirds vote, 16.3 No official business may take place while the body is in suspension, 16.4. When the meeting reconvenes, the business of the meeting shall continue from the point at which it was suspended. 16.5 Adjournment of the meeting occurs when all business of the Council contained in the Agenda has been completed and would only be moved at the end of the last meeting of the body, 16.5.1 Adjournment of the meeting also requires a two-thirds vote, overruling SC-7.

SC-17 Point of Order
17.1 A delegate may stand and raise a Point of Order at any point if they deem that relevant Parliamentary Rules of Procedures have not be consistently upheld, 17.1.1 A Point of Order must be raised immediately after the issue of contention has occurred, 17.1.2 Delegates can raise a Point of Order by standing and then stating 'On a Point of Order' without the need to be recognized by the Chair, 17.1.3 The speaker at the time must yield the floor until the Point of Order has been decided. 17.2 After being recognized by the Chair, the delegate who raised a Point of Order will be granted time to succinctly explain their objection,

17.2.1 Other than a motion to overturn a Chair's decision, the Point of Order shall be ruled on by the Chair whose decision shall be final. 17.3 Following the Chairs's ruling on a Point of Information, the debate will continue at the point prior to the raising of the Point of Order.

SC-18 Point of Personal Privilege
18.1 At any point during a Council meeting, including during a speech, a delegate may stand and raise a 'Point of Personal Privilege', 18.1.2 Delegates can raise a Point of Personal Privilege by standing and then stating 'Point of Personal Privilege' without the need to be recognized by the Chair, 18.1.3 The speaker at the time must yield the floor until the Point of Personal Privilege has been dealt with. 18.2 The Chair shall make an immediate ruling on the Point of Personal Privilege whose decision shall be final.

SC-19 Point of Parliamentary Inquiry
19.1 During general debate, a delegate may raise a Point of Parliamentary Inquiry to request information regarding the Rules of Procedures, 19.1.1 A point of parliamentary inquiry can only be made when no speech is being made. 19.2 The Chair shall address the Point of Parliamentary Inquiry whose decision shall be final, subject to SC-10, 19.2.1 Debate shall then resume at the point prior to the raising of a Point of Parliamentary Inquiry.

SC-20 Point of Information
20.1 Following a speech by a delegate, the Chair will call for Points of Information for the speaker, 20.1.1 At this point, delegates who wish to pose a question towards the speaker shall raise their placard, 20.1.2 Points of Information must be short and phrased as a question. 20.2 Speakers may choose not to accept any Points of Information, a limited amount or an unlimited amount, 20.2.1 After the designated amount of Points of Information have been asked or all Points of Information raised have been answered, the speaker may return to the floor. 20.1.3 Points of Information must be directed towards the Chair.