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This book was written and recorded between 12/2009 - 03/2010 at the Pronunciation Studio and Exo Studios in London. © 2010 by Joe Hudson. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission of Joe Hudson. Any queries about using this work should be directed to the author.
How To Use This Book
- This book is designed for self-study, for use with a teacher or in a classroom. - It is split into 8 chapters, each containing the following sections: Consonant Sounds How to produce the different types of English consonant sound. Vowel Sounds How to produce the 19 English vowel sounds. Spelling & Sound How to interpret written English in speech. IPA How to read and write in International Phonetic Alphabet. Structure How to speak with natural English rhythm and stress. Intonation How to use the three English intonation patterns accurately.
General Study Advice
- You should allow 4 hours of study for each chapter. - PRACTICE activities should be repeated daily. - EXERCISE activities should be completed once. - Sound Files (L__.mp3) should be listened to regularly.
In order to improve your accent, it is essential that you learn to recognize your mistakes so that you can hear them and learn to correct them. For this reason, a very valuable exercise is to record yourself using a microphone. PRACTICE activities are ideal for this. You can make a lot of progress using this book for self-study. Any help you can ﬁnd from a native speaker or qualiﬁed English teacher will also be valuable, as they will be able to tell you if your sounds are correct.
Questions 3 pg 25-36 Plosives Short Vowels < ed > endings Transcription I Weak Vowels Yes/No Questions 4 pg 37-48 Nasals Diphthongs < s > endings Countries & Capitals Joining Question Tags 5 pg 49-60 Consonant Sounds Vowel Sounds Spelling & Sound IPA Speech Structure Intonation Glottal Sounds Diphthongs Ending /ʊ/ Have Transcription II Contractions Tone Units 6 pg 61-72 Approximants Diphthongs Ending /ɪ/ <t> Alphabet Prominence & Stress Fall-rise 7 pg 73-84 Lateral Approximants Diphthongs Ending /ə/ Are Syllabic Consonants Compounds Contrast 8 pg 85-96 Affricates Reduced Vowels Sufﬁxes Transcription III Shifting Stress Review Answer Key .Index 1 pg 1-12 Consonant Sounds Vowel Sounds Spelling & Sound IPA Speech Structure Intonation Introduction Introduction Voicing Introduction Schwa / / Introduction 2 pg 13-24 Fricatives Long Vowels <r> Crossword Function Words Wh.pg 97-114 .
Regional i: ə u: p b 2 ɪ ɜ: ʊ 22 26 3 e ʌ ɔ: 27 31 4 æ ɑ: ɒ 28 13 eɪ əʊ ɪə 29 14 ɔɪ aʊ eə ʃ ʒ 44 15 aɪ ɒʊ ʊə 5 6 7 8 16 17 9 10 11 12 18 19 20 21 t d k g 40 f v 41 θ ð 42 s z 43 30 35 tʃ dʒ ʔ 24 25 32 33 34 36 37 m n 38 39 ŋ w r j lɫ h 45 .Voiceless .IPA Chart 1 Vowels (1-19) 1-12 Monothongs 13-19 Diphthongs Consonants 20-26 Plosives 27-34 Fricatives 35-36 Affricates 37-39 Nasals 40-43 Approximants 44-45 Glottal .
anenglishaccent. IPA Structure Consonant Sounds 1 1 Introduction Vowel Sounds Introduction Spelling & Sound Voicing loose / lose | pɜ:pəl | Introduction Schwa ə ↘↘↗↗ Intonation Introduction www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .
anenglishaccent.2 Consonant Sounds . /h/ /ʔ/ /w/ /r/ /j/ /ɫ/ word-initial park best time done cart guide fine van think those sort zone ship chart giant main no wall right yes like hate word-final stop lob might paid lake flag knife leave path bathe pass cheese marsh measure itch page lime rain sing fall what www. Which of them are most difﬁcult? type of sound PLOSIVE Made by completely blocking the air in the mouth followed by an explosion of air. /l/ GLOTTAL Produced in the glottis. NASAL Made partly through the nose. A Consonant Sound is made by blocking the ﬂow of air through the mouth. There are different ways of blocking air to make sound. sound /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/ FRICATIVE Made by pushing the air through a gap in the mouth. creating a friction sound. /f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ AFFRICATE Plosive followed by fricative.Introduction 1.. Listen and repeat them.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . a) EXERCISE L1. 2.1 Below is an example of every consonant sound in English. See the chart below. /tʃ/ /dʒ/ /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ APPROXIMANT Imbetween a vowel and a consonant. as the air is not fully blocked.
3 Consonant Sounds .____! ! ! ! 2. d. n.____! www.__ a__ 4.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . v g) h.The sounds /p/. ʔ 1. g. Different consonant sounds block the air in different areas of the mouth Diagram Of The Mouth lips teeth tongue hard palate alveolar ridge soft palate (velar) glottis b) EXERCISE .Mouth Diagram 1. ð d) k.____! ! ! 5.anenglishaccent.____! ! 6. Place the other groups of consonants with their diagrams a) p.____! ! ! 7. m b) t. ŋ e) ʃ. /b/ and /m/ are all made using both lips (diagram 3 below). l c) θ. b. ____! ! ! ! 3. ʒ f) f.
ʊ look. ɜ: turn. book 18. Sounds 13 . worn 11. Sounds u: and i: can also be short /i/ and /u/. u: food. lose 13. ɑ: heart. Sounds with / : / are long. ɔ: bored. Sounds /ɒʊ/ and /ʊəә/ are common regional variations.anenglishaccent. e left ʌ love æ cat ɒ lost Long Vowel Sounds i: need. 7. son 17. bird 4. west 15. 2. hat ! ! !2.19 are diphthongs: they require two mouth positions. have Check your answers on page 97.4 Vowel Sounds . 1.Decide if the words below are long (l).12 are monothongs: they require one mouth position. A vowel sound shapes the ﬂow of air in the mouth. a) PRACTICE L 1.3 . side D 8. cheers 16. 5. annoy 3. Sounds 1 . Short or Diphthong? b) EXERCISE L1. 4.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . laugh L 6. Diphthong Vowels eɪ pave ɔɪ boy aɪ time əʊ road aʊ down ɪə beard eə chair Long. The ﬁrst three have been done for you. are 20.Listen and repeat each word: Short Vowels ɪ thin. round 14. 6.Introduction 1. where 19. moment 10. short (s) or diphthong (d) sounds. machine 12.2 . chip 9. www. meat 5. In spoken English there are 19 vowel sounds (shown below): 3. hot S 7.
5 Vowel Sounds . The tongue can be relaxed. you will learn and use these different mouth positions. The jaw can be mid-closed. lip and tongue positions creates the different vowel sounds of English. 2. mid-open.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/sounds/ www.Mouth Movements 1. As you study this course.anenglishaccent.bbc.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . or open: mid-closed (ə) mid-open (e) open (ɑ:) 3. or raised at the back: relaxed (ɜ:) raised at the front (i:) raised at the back (ɔ:) 5.co. You can see videos of all the sounds on the bbc pronunciation website: http://www. The combination of jaw. spread sideways or rounded: relaxed (ɜ:) spread sideways (i:) rounded (ɒ) 4. The lips can be relaxed. raised at the front. Each of the 19 vowels sounds has a different shape in the mouth.
1.anenglishaccent. These are voiced. __________ 2.Say the words below and decide if the underlined consonant is voiced or voiceless: walked entered present price bake sprout Paul yes was thought those L1. All other sounds use the voice. __________ .Do they contain voiceless /s/ or voiced /z/? .Does the spelling show you the voicing? c) EXERCISE Place the words in the box into the correct column below.Put your hand in front of your mouth and repeat: pə bə tə də kə gə . 1. __________ 4.Voicing TASTER L1.What do you notice about /pə/ /tə/ and /kə/. . On your IPA chart.6 .5 . the voiceless sounds are grey. Some sounds do not use the voice. __________ 3.L1.6 Spelling & Sound .Write down below the words you hear.4 .Listen and check your answers. These are voiceless. 3. a) EXERCISE . /s/ or /z/? b) EXERCISE L1. They are all spelt with <s> lease plays lose loose was lights it’s peas what’s crease is us he’s who’s chase voiceless /s/ please pass as stop voiced /z/ ! ! . www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Check your answers. they only use air.7 Listen to check your answers. 2.
L1. /ə/ can be spelt with < a > < e > < i > < o > or < u > in written English. IPA stands for International Phonetic Alphabet.Introduction TASTER Look at the IPA chart. The most common sound in English is /ə/.7 IPA . ˈdeɪvɪd ˈbekəm kəˈnu:. IPA shows us how to pronounce words instead of how to spell them.8 Before you do the exercise below. listen to and repeat /ə/ sound.9 Listen then repeat the words. A colour is ‘purple’ /ˈpɜ:pəl/ Category IPA colour city man’s name woman’s name make of car fruit vegetable animal famous English man famous English woman sport country bəˈnɑ:nə ˈkærəlaɪn məˈseɪdɪz ˈkwi:n ɪˈlɪzəbəθ ˈpɜ:pəl məˈdrɪd ˈtɒməs ˈkærət ˈpɔ:tʃəgəl ˈeləfənt.ɪŋ . Name it! b) EXERCISE Match the categories on the left with words written in IPA on the left.anenglishaccent. Pay attention to the /ə/ sound.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . 4. a) PRACTICE L1. 2. . 3.What does / ˈ / show? www. Are there any symbols that you have never seen before? 1. EG.
/ə/ is found in unstressed syllables of words: L1.12 Listen and underline the schwa sounds in these words EG comˈpassion ˈEngland ˈmother poˈtato conˌgratuˈlations ˈdarken parˈticular EXERCISE L1. will you?’ əә probəәbly won’t mentəәn thəәt əә’ll be photəәgraphing səәme əәf thəә most dangəәrəәs animəәls in thəә world.. Thəә’s nothing thəәt mum hates more thəәn football.. Your mouth should be relaxed with the jaw slightly open and the tongue resting in the middle..The Schwa /ə/ 1. It might make həәr worry. Your lips should not move when you produce the sound. She oftəәn comes ovəәr on Satəәrdays becəәse my fathəәr is əәt thəә football.‘əәnd you won’t drink əә lot əәf alchəәhol.com ˈbottomless coˈllapse ˈLondon © Joe Hudson 2010 .‘Yəә’ve packed yəәr pyjaməәs əәnd yəәr slippəәrs’ will be next. The schwa sound is written.. . | ðər ər ə kʌpəl əv pi:pəl hɪə | PRACTICE L1. Norməәlly we have əә chat əәbout whatevəәr we’ve been doing. 3. Spoken English is divided into strong and weak forms. ! ! EXERCISE L1.10 There are a couple of people here. 2. or if thəә wəәs əәnything good on teləәvision yestəәrday...11 Listen and repeat the schwa /ə/ sound.8 Speech Structure .anenglishaccent. . . L1. ə www. My mothəәr is coming təә see me təәmorrow aftəәrnoon.. like tigəәrs əәnd parrəәts. /ə/ is also found in function words (see next page for full description). Təәmorrow əә’m certəәn she’ll ask me əәbout my trip təә Brəәzil. The weak sound /ə/ is the most common sound in English.13 Listen to the recording as you read the extract.‘Həәve you checked thəә weathəәr forecast?’ she’ll ask. əә’m going there fəәr əә month təә film wild animəәls in thəә jungəәl.10 ˈphotograph / ˈfəʊtəgrɑ:f / phoˈtography / fəˈtɒgrə& / comˈputer / kəmˈpju:tə / 4.
from. A function word only has a grammatical use in the sentence. 2. she. Function Word (Strong Form) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 for are have as to at can from her do Function Word In Sentence (Weak Form) Is that for John? Are you ok? What have you done? As good as it gets. What’s her name? Do you need some help? www. PRACTICE L1. at) . 5. Let’s go to the cinema. will) . for.9 Speech Structure . they) . an) .com © Joe Hudson 2010 .14 i) Listen to the word ‘from’. do.quantiﬁers (eg some. would. Can I help you? It’s from Peter.Repeat the function word as a strong form. Function words can be said in two ways: strong and weak.articles (eg the.auxilliary verbs (eg be. She’s at school. Words that are not function are called Content Words. a. These are normally .prepositions (eg to.anenglishaccent. ii) Listen to the sentence ‘It’s from Keith’. have.pronouns (eg. Most function words contain the schwa /ə/ sound when they are weak.15 . iii) How has the word changed in the sentence? 1. then as a weak form within a sentence. 4. any) 3. his.Function Words TASTER L1.
5. Using ↗ Rising intonation no yes what how right terrible ridiculous b) PRACTICE L1.17 1. 7.21 Listen to the words and write the pattern that you hear below: 1.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .10 Intonation . 2. Using ↘↗ Fall-rising intonation L1. 3. 2. ↘ Riˈdiculous ↘↗ Riˈdiculous ↗ Riˈdiculous c) EXERCISE L1. ↘How ↘↗How ↗How 5.20 Repeat after the recording.anenglishaccent.16 ↘No (no) ↘↗ ↘↗No (maybe) 13 ↗ ↗No (surprise) 3.Introduction 1. ↘No ↘↗No ↗No 2. 6. Using ↘ Falling intonation L1. There are three intonation patterns in spoken English: fall fall-rise rise ↘ L1. 1. ↘Yes ↘↗Yes ↗Yes 3. ↘ Right ↘↗ Right ↗Right 6.19 3. ↘What ↘↗What ↗What 4. ↘ ˈTerrible ↘↗ ˈTerrible ↗ ˈTerrible 7. 4.18 2. www. Intonation is the movement in pitch of the voice. Intonation tells us the speaker’s attitude to the words they are saying: a) PRACTICE Repeat the words in the box on the right: L1.
5. | How ↘ˈare you | 5. | Is everything ↗alright |↗ 3.22 . 3. | I’m ↘ˈbroke | ↘ˈaren’t I | ↗ 9.anenglishaccent. 3. 2.11 Intonation . the tonic syllable is different in each sentence. The tonic syllable is the most important syllable in the sentence. the pitch is quite ﬂat. | I ↘↗hoped it would rain today | ↗ ↗ 4.Listen to the same question in 4 different ways: 1. 2.| Are you going ↘out tonight |↗ 2. | You’re ↗ˈwhat? | 6. Before the tonic syllable. following the patterns shown.23 Repeat. 4. 4.| ↘ Finished | ↗have you | ↗ 8.| ↘ Good | ↘isn’t it | ↗ 7. In the taster above. d) PRACTICE L1.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . The intonation pattern begins on the tonic syllable. The intonation pattern ends at the end of the sentence/unit.Tonic Syllable TASTER L1. | I hoped it would ↘ˈrain today | 10.| How are ↘ˈyou | ↗ www. the tonic syllable is underlined: 1. | | | | are you from ˈGermany? are you ˈfrom Germany? are ˈyou from Germany? ˈare you from Germany? | | | | 1.
anenglishaccent. .Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 111.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Cross the boxes X when you have understood each term. Vowel Sound Consonant Sound Voiced / Voiceless schwa ↘ ↘↗ ↗ Tonic Syllable www.12 End of Unit Checklist 1 EXERCISE .
com . 2 Vowel Sounds Long Spelling & Sound < r > 13 Consonant Sounds Fricative i: u: ɜ: ɔ: ɑ: bird / rib IPA Crossword Structure Weak Forms Intonation Questions ə ↘↗? © Joe Hudson 2010 www.anenglishaccent.
parts <s><z> maze.1 Repeat after the recording. voiced / tongue on alveolar ridge zəә zəә zəә zəә əәz əәz əәz əәz 7. month < th > the.anenglishaccent. life. path. mention. voiceless / tongue on hard palate with the tip down ʃəә ʃəә ʃəә ʃəә əәʃ əәʃ əәʃ əәʃ 8. voiceless / tongue on hard palate with the tip down ʒəә ʒəә ʒəә ʒəә əәʒ əәʒ əәʒ əәʒ f fine knife v van love θ think bath ð these bathe s seen face z zoo lose ʃ short motion ʒ leisure www. voiceless / teeth on lip fəә fəә fəә fəә əәf əәf əәf əәf 2. welsh. rather. son. price. was. three. that <c><s> side. zero < sh > < t > < c > ﬁsh. beaver. ninth. sound mouth spellings / words <f> force. ﬁght. thump. fork. voiced / teeth on lip vəә vəә vəә vəә əәv əәv əәv əәv 3. pleasure. closure L 2. bother. 2. vanish. toffee. their. rival < th > thick. live. A Fricative is made by squeezing air through a part of the mouth. drives. voiceless / tongue on teeth θəә θəә θəә θəә əәθ əәθ əәθ əәθ 4.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . There are 8 fricatives in English: Voiceless /f/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ Voiced /v/ /ð/ /z/ /ʒ/ a) PRACTICE L 2. rise. voiced / tongue on teeth ðəә ðəә ðəә ðəә əәð əәð əәð əәð 5. vacant. measure. chase. safe. fashion. <v><f> very. daisy.Fricative 1. ocean <s><j> leisure. voiceless / tongue on alveolar ridge səә səә səә səә əәs əәs əәs əәs 6.2 position / practice 1. rice.14 Consonant Sounds .
Check your answers. EG thousand /θaʊzəәnd/ although /ɔ:lˈðəәʊ/ d) EXERCISE . Thanks ever so much. 2. θ think bath think these bath bathe though thought theatre further thorough authorise mother breath breathe faith Northern North thanks the clothes cloth thigh feather with fourth there father worth Southern South ð these bathe d) PRACTICE L 2.anenglishaccent. The ﬁrst thing Saﬁ saw was the North 5. I think she’s ﬁne though.Place the words in the box into the correct collumn.Underline the fricative sounds in the following sentences.3 Repeat the sentences slowly. then at normal speed. The spelling < th > can produce voiced /ð/ or voiceless /θ/. Voiced or Voiceless? 1.4 Listen and check your answers. Repeat the words. 4. Sleep is the mother of invention.Fricative b) EXERCISE . .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . 1.15 Consonant Sounds . c) PRACTICE L 2. www. Shall we measure the volume? 3.
choose. burp lips . calm.slightly open. believe. The actual length of the vowel can change depending on its position.Repeat the sounds. cheap.open very wide tongue . heard. torn. This is covered in ‘Reduced Vowels’ . meet/meat. seem. word. phrases and words with the recording. bark. ou > glue. There are 5 Long Vowel Sounds in English: i: u: ɜ: ɔ: ɑ: 2. grew.rounded jaw . ei > these. lose. wor > prefer. ﬂuke lips . a > car. third. al > warm. oo. rear high first to work < er. receive. au. group. ir.relaxed jaw .nearly closed. poor. court lips . ea. ie. or. oor. new. smart lips . pass. charm. fool.16 Vowel Sounds . rear very high half a bar < ar. tongue . stern. bean.slightly spread jaw .5 . talk.nearly fully open tongue .relaxed jaw .tip pushing up at the front of the mouth i: u: ɜ: ɔ: ɑ: eat some meat < e. our.Long 1.rounded jaw . leap groovy blues < u. o . four.nearly closed tongue .relaxed walk and talk < ar.tip low. aw.anenglishaccent. ee. glass. burn. sound phrase / spellings / words position lips . In IPA a long sound has two dots after it /:/ 3.relaxed www. incurr. tongue .tip low.Chapter 8 a) PRACTICE L 2. raw. ur. fault.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . dark.
! Notice that the sounds /ɜ:/.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .6 . We would only say this < r > if the next sound is a vowel ! See ‘Sound & Spelling 3’ www.Place the words in the box in the correct column below. /ɔ:/ and /ɑ:/ often contain an < r > in their spelling. word calm restore relieve cause machine laugh poor please court chalk dance improve turkey lose floor heart mark raw achieve steep reduce new chew further police loose shirt booze heard return palm these internal worm i: u: ɜ: word ɔ: ɑ: c) PRACTICE L 2. Repeat each word with the correct vowel sound.Listen and check your answers.17 Vowel Sounds .anenglishaccent.Long Exercise b) EXERCISE .
We DO NOT SAY an < r > if the next sound is a consonant or nothing: turn. 6.com/ www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ‘Bar London’. ‘Her uncle’. were. That’s rather a fast car. water. where a) EXERCISE . For IPA transcriptions.9 . Charles. father. interest. Where are you going to get spare parts? 4. 5.anenglishaccent. x 1. Let’s go for a walk in the park. d) EXERCISE Find the IPA transcription for the following words: reporter alarm Portugal balloon achievement happiness guardian rɪpɔ:tə _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ Where to look. 3. rice. ‘War and Peace’.8 .Cross out the <r> we do not say. c) EXERCISE L 2. use the Cambridge site: http://dictionary. arrive. ‘We’re here’.18 Spelling & Sound <r> L2. We SAY an <r> if the next sound is a vowel: rabbit. bird. Rain water is the most important resource we have. Four and a half hours later it was still burning. b) PRACTICE L 2.Listen and check your answers. we do not pronounce the <r>: there. are. NOTE If a word ends in a silent vowel.org/ For online audio. try howjsay: http://www. cart.7 1. here. 2. ‘Mother and daughter’. Could mister Roberts come to the airport security desk.cambridge. 2. EG Her interest is in Romanian card tricks.howjsay.Circle the words below that do not contain a silent <r>. Repeat each sentence.
Planet. 12. Sixth month of the year. 3. To make money. Adjective. Crops are grown and animals are kept here. 9. One piece of something. Half way through the day. Another word meaning ʻterribleʼ. 18. 13. 6. Manʼs name. 6. go __________. To give help and advice. A famous English artist. www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . 14. 11.19 IPA . If you are too slow. 7. Something mechanical. Verb. 4. To appear. We have thousands of these every day. We live on it. Across 1. 15. Verb. You will ﬁnd it in a gallery. A child without parents. Not in the South. Visit many different places on one trip. 8.Using IPA. 10.anenglishaccent. Clear headed. 5.Crossword a) EXERCISE . ʻ________ and the wolfʼ. 17. 16. Verb. You will need to do this to a pencil. Down 2. 9. Noun. Adjective. complete the crossword using only long vowel sounds and consonant sounds. not sleepy. Verb. Comparative.
John? B It’s your mail. /fəә/ 2. Function words will be strong if their meaning is important in the sentence. eg ‘for’ = fəә or fɔ: Who is that present for? /fɔ:/ L 2. weak weak strong strong weak weak strong strong strong strong 5. the A Have you been to the new restaurant on Broad Street? B No. 4. Many function words can be said in 2 different ways: strong & weak. from A Who is this card from? B It’s from Elizabeth. how about you? 1. 4.In the following conversations. decide if the underlined function words will be weak or strong. to A I’d like to go out tonight. 3. weak strong B Are they? weak strong 2. how about you? B I don’t want to.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . that A Could you pass me that bag? B Do you think that it’s big enough? weak weak b) PRACTICE L 2.11 . weak or strong? a) EXERCISE . Practice the conversations.10 It’s for John. Function words are usually weak in all other cases. Function words will also be strong if they are at the end of the speech unit.Function Words 1. are A The police are looking for a clue. not mine.anenglishaccent. weak strong Eg: A Are you going out tonight? weak strong B I don’t think so. your A Have you seen your mail.20 Speech Structure . weak weak strong strong weak weak strong strong 3.Listen and check your answers. www. I’d rather stay in. 6. but apparently it is the place to go.
12 Words are made of strong (X) and weak (. photography .) forms: father X . insurance . | X .Repeat the rhythm. X | 2. | . i or u: /fa:ðə/ /fətɒgrəfi/ /ɪnʃɔ:rəns/ /rɪˈtɜ:n/ a) EXERCISE L 2. | . X . X 2. | wantɪd | markɪt | workɪng | charmɪng | First and final syllable weak forms 1. ɪ. 1. | . X . | ɪnsurənce | ɪquatər | ɪxhaustɪd | əmazɪng | əppallɪng | əsertɪve | fəmiliər | www. | fathər | mothər | Englənd | *owər | purpəl | abəl | 3. | 2. | X. X .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . X | . | . X . X | . əbove | əlive | əstound | məchine | əccur | pəlite | 3. ə. then check your answers: father walking machine annoy risky shepherd employ market Spanish funny compose running money occur enough shopping rubber London England between ə father! ! ! ! i or ɪ !walking b) PRACTICE L 2.14 . Weak syllables normally contain one of four vowel sounds.Weak Forms 1. ɪxam | ɪclipse | ɪxcite | ɪxplain | ɪgnite | ɪnsure | ɪnough | rɪturn | Final syllable weak forms 1. return .21 Structure . | X . . First syllable weak forms. | 2. X | . | X . X . X . Place it in the correct column.anenglishaccent. then the words (the weak forms ə and ɪ are in IPA. | .13 .Each word in the box contains one weak form. L 2.
5. ↗How was it? 8.Information Questions New Information Questions 1. Repeat Information Questions. why. ↘How? 6. ↘When? 7. ↗How? 6. how. ↗Who are you going with? 10. where. 1. When did the ↘police arrive? b) PRACTICE L2. ↘Where? 2. Where ↘are you? 3. Repeat information questions use ↗ rising or ↘↗fall-rising intonation. The normal pattern for new information questions is ↘ falling: L2. How ↘was it? 8. ↗Why haven’t they? 9. The Tonic Syllable is normally the last content word. ↘Why? 4. Information questions begin with a question word: who. Why ↘haven’t they? 9.18 Repeat after the recording. Who are you ↘going with? 10. 4.16 ↗Who is that present for? ↘↗Where are you from? a) PRACTICE L2. ↗When did the police arrive? www. ↘Who? 5. 2.17 Repeat after the recording.anenglishaccent. when etc. ↗Who? 5. ↗Why? 4.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ↗When? 7. 1. The tonic syllable is the question word: L2.15 Who is that ↘present for? Where are you ↘from? 3. ↗Where are you? 3.22 Intonation . ↗Where? 2.
1. Where are we going? ↗ How long have you been here? ____ Whose car is that? ____ What’s the teacher like? ____ How many more apples do we need? _____ How much? ____ Who’s cooking tonight? ____ Why are you wearing a tie? ____ Where have you put the yoghurt? ____ Why are they here? ____ d) EXERCISE L2.23 c) EXERCISE L2. A We’re going to Liskard next week. 5.19 . decide if the question (B) is a new (↘) or repeat (↗) question. 9. 5. A Sarah isn’t speaking to me. 2. 6.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ↘ ↗ B Who are you having dinner with? A My friend Liz.anenglishaccent.20 . B What did you say to her? A I told her not to marry Jim. 7. 4. B How long are you going for? A Just a week. B Where? ↘ ↗ A Seville. I think they call it ‘Sevilla’ in Spanish. 4. B OK. A I’m having dinner with Queen Elizabeth.In the conversations. ↘ ↗ ↘ ↗ www. 3.Listen to the questions. Underline the ‘Tonic Syllable’ and write the intonation pattern ↗ or ↘. A I’ve booked a holiday in Seville. Listen and check your answers. EG (Falling) Where are we going? ↘ (Rising) 1. ↘ ↗ 2. 3. What time does the ﬁlm start? A At 8:30 I think. We call her ‘Queen’ because she’s so posh. 8. A I’ll meet you at 8 outside the cinema.
24 End of Unit Checklist 2 EXERCISE .Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 111.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Fricative Consonant Long Vowel Sound Silent < r > weak form new information question Repeat Information Question www.anenglishaccent.
anenglishaccent.com əɪiu ↘↗? © Joe Hudson 2010 . 3 25 Consonant Sounds Plosive Vowel Sounds Short ɪ ʊ e ʌ æ ɒ wanted Spelling & Sound < ed > IPA Transcripiton I Structure Function Words Intonation Yes / No Questions www.
soft. lead. gasp. harbour. lake. time. bath. laid. ground. car. < c. day. rat. A Plosive is made by totally blocking air then releasing it in an explosion. game. rag.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . cab. voiceless / rear of tongue on velar kə kə kə kə ək ək ək ək 6. Voiced /b/ /d/ /g/ sound mouth spellings / words <p> port.Plosive 1. bank. down. orb. k. L 3. voiced / lips touching bə bə bə bə əb əb əb əb 3. trick <d> dice. voiced / tongue on alveolar ridge də də də də əd əd əd əd 5. odd. prize. 2. take. dog. pike. voiced / rear of tongue on velar gə gə gə gə əg əg əg əg p b t d k g www. ed > tan. voiceless / tongue on alveolar ridge tə tə tə tə ət ət ət ət 4. step.1 Repeat after the recording.2 position / practice 1.26 Consonant Sounds . quality <g> guy. queen. ﬁt. grasp <b> big. voiceless / lips touching pə pə pə pə əp əp əp əp 2.anenglishaccent. tub. deck. rack. pace. bag. ball. road. baby < t. q > cat. light. cake. There are 6 plosives in English: Voiceless /p/ /t/ /k/ a) PRACTICE L 3. lip.
gi: gɪ gə gɔ: pass the map take the lift call them back buy a hub don’t be sad get a bag Plosive Poem .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . But Bill Bones beleived she might’ve been.4 .Practice the poem paying attention to the sounds.27 Plosive Voice Exercise PRACTICE L3.3 .Repeat after the recording: Voice Exercise Phrase 1. di: dɪ də dɔ: 6. pi: pɪ pə pɔ: 2. “What is the point” he said. In ‘Thank you’ and ‘Please’ If the people you talk to. Taught to talk t-t-too quickly! He tried to explain.Penelope Pepper PRACTICE L3. stress and intonation: Penelope Pepper spoke politely. ki: kɪ kə kɔ: 4. ti: tɪ tə tɔ: 3. Can’t hear you with ease? www.anenglishaccent. bi: bɪ bə bɔ: 5.
There are 6 Strong Short sounds in English: ɪ ʊ e ʌ æ ɒ 2.relaxed jaw . blood. phrases and words with the recording.Short 1. thanks. cough.relaxed jaw . beg. shock.relaxed cat on the mat <a> man. should. check. a) PRACTICE L 3. have. sting look at a book < u. a. push.relaxed jaw . never. y > thing. sound phrase / spellings / words position lips . good.nearly closed. sad. love. watch. sum.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . head. tongue . cap.tip is low. suck. ou.nearly closed. wolf. o. ou. ship. gym. ea > sent. read.Repeat the sounds. bid. rest. melt lips .tip pushing up slightly (less than /i:/) ɪ ʊ e ʌ æ ɒ silly as Tim < i. took.relaxed jaw .rounded jaw .spread sideways jaw . au > lost.open very wide tongue . o .tip low. We will see short weak sounds ( ə ɪ i u ) in ‘Speech Structure’. sit. risk.tip is low. Australia.relaxed and open tongue .28 Vowel Sounds . lips . could.5 . enough. top. drank.open very wide tongue . went. rear high when was it sent < e. gun lips . ou > pull.anenglishaccent. want. run in the sun < u. oo > fun. rear is very high www. oo. bag. rear is very high watching the clock < o. tongue .pushing up at the front. chap lips . tongue . witch. wool. boss lips . rough.slightly open.
29 b) EXERCISE .anenglishaccent. Repeat each word with the correct vowel sound.Listen and check your answers.6 . This is covered in ‘Speech Structure’. sad love injure fan butcher head Fred match son chocolate wool none when tick hunt watch chicken summer let look list bread Harry put rob pin enough what could plastic send woman West Australia sun solve pad box should sit rabbit link ɪ ʊ e ʌ æ ɒ sad c) PRACTICE L 3. ! www. eg cottage.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ! Notice that the sound /ɪ/ can also be found in weak syllables.Place the words in the box in the correct column below.
John stopped the car. RULE . X . c) PRACTICE L3. X | Phrase I picked an apple I wanted an apple. X . John started the car. 3. < ed > endings can be pronounced in three different ways: /t/ /d/ /ɪd/ played /d/ wanted /ɪd/ 2.30 Spelling & Sound . RULE . ﬁnished ﬁned wasted pleaded raked faced prized hinted clocked fostered shopped liked printed fried plotted murdered rocked strayed lasted interested bored voiceless /t/ stopped voiced /d/ played exception /ɪd/ wanted b) PRACTICE L3. www. X . RULE .8 . |X |X X X . the ending will be voiced /d/.7 1. X | . X .If the root word (eg stop) ends in a voiceless sound.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Listen to check your answers. the ending will be voiceless /t/. the ending will be /ɪd/ a) EXERCISE .anenglishaccent.What is the difference in the < ed > ending in these words: shipped EG stopped /t/ dragged lifted L3.Repeat the rhythms and phrases. Rhythm |.< ed > TASTER . 4.If the root word (eg play) ends in a voiced sound. Phonetics | aɪ pɪkt ən æpᵊl | | aɪ wɒntɪd ən æpᵊl | | dʒɒn stɒpt ðə ka: | | dʒɒn sta:tɪd ðə ka: | |. Repeat the words. | .| .Put the words into their correct column.If the root word (eg want) ends in a /t/ or /d/.9 .
31 IPA .Write a word for each picture in IPA. A Why are you ironing your sh___t? 4. 3.10 . A Would you like a b___k to r___d? 5. I only k___p cats. A Is this y___ dog? B I’ve l___ft it in the g___rage.anenglishaccent. ɪ ʊ e ʌ æ ɒ i: x ɜ: ɔ: ɑ: u: tu: EXERCISE L3.Long & Short Vowels a) EXERCISE .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . A Can you ch___se the c___lour for the w___lls? www. A Wh___t have you d___ne with the c___? 2. B I h___ve to go to w___k. B As l___ng as it’s g___d! B I think the bl___ or the p___ple.Listen to the conversation & write the missing vowel sounds in IPA using only long and short vowel sounds: 1. B No. Use each long and short vowel once.
anenglishaccent.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .12 . Function words that contain /ə/ when they are weak: the a an and but that your them us at for from have of to as there can could shall should would must do does am are was were some əɪiu is been him his we be the* 3.11 1.14 .Repeat the phrases: a car ə ˈka: for John fə ˈdʒɒn an island ən ˈaɪlənd and then your brother ən ˈðen jə ˈbrʌðə in the car ɪn ðə ˈka: there are a few ðər ə rə ˈfju: to the bar tə ðə ˈba: and a bit ən ə ˈbɪt would you say wəd ju ˈseɪ there are three ðər ə θri: are you in love? ə ju ɪn ˈlʌv it’s for his bike ɪts fər ɪz ˈbaik she’s in the cellar ʃiz ɪn ðə ˈselə www. Function words that contain /ɪ/ when they are weak: it in with 4.Repeat the exercise replacing ‘to the’ with the words below: was a and the should have are a can be and a c) PRACTICE L3. Function words that contain /u/ when they are weak: *only before a vowel.Weak Vowels L3. There are 4 weak vowel sounds in English: 2.Repeat the rhythm exercise with the recording. 1 in a Phrase IPA Phrase IPA Phrase IPA to the 2 to the 3 to the 4 in the from Keith frəm ˈki:θ am I? əm ˈaɪ b) PRACTICE L3. a) PRACTICE L3. Function words that contain /i/ when they are weak: me you she to* he do* 5.13 .32 Structure .
Structure - Weak Vowel Joining
1. The words ‘the’ is pronounced /ðəә/ before a consonant, /ði/ before a vowel. 2. The word ‘to’ is pronounced /təә/ before a consonant, /tu/ before a vowel.
a) PRACTICE L3.15 - tə or tu? Say the word < to > before each of the words below:
go eat see enjoy avoid laugh make Scotland England rain employ understand
b) PRACTICE L3.16 - ðə or ði? Say the word < the > before each of the words below:
car aeroplane line only hour park other orange pear Scottish English
c) EXERCISE L3.17 - Listen to the sentences & ﬁll in the weak forms in IPA. - ONLY use ə, ɪ, i, u and consonant sounds.
həә əәn əәv bɪn EG _______ car _______ bike _______ _______ stolen.
1. What _______ _______ doing? 2. _______ John _______ Mary ﬁnished? 3. _______ _______ want _______ _______ go there? 4. I’m going _______ _______ concert tonight. 5. _______ ready _______ _______ couple _______ minutes. 6. Where _______ _______ put _______ keys? 7. _______ wanted _______ _______ employ her. 8. _______ _______ going _______ _______ park _______ lunch. 9. How many chocolates _______ _______ eaten? 10. _______ _______ _______ awful lecture.
© Joe Hudson 2010
Intonation - Yes/No Questions
TASTER L3.18 - Listen to the question said in three different ways:
1. Were you at ↘home last night?
2. Were you at ↘↗home last night? 3. Were you at ↗home last night?
- Which one sounds (i) surprised (ii) friendly (iii) serious? 1. Yes/No questions can use ↘falling, ↘↗fall-rising or ↗rising intonation. 2. Fall-rising is friendly and may show the speaker knows the answer. 3. Rising can be friendly or show surprise. The speaker may know the answer. 4. Falling intonation has a more serious feeling, the speaker does not know the answer
a) PRACTICE L3.19 - Repeat the questions with the recording using ↗ rising intonation.
1. Are you ↗OK?
2. Does he ↗know?
3. Have they ↗seen it?
4. Would it ↗ﬁt in there?
5. Do you think we should ↗go to it? 7. Did you do anything ↗exciting? 9. Is ↗that the best you can do?
6. Have they sent the ↗report yet? 8. Has ↗Peter been to see you?
b) PRACTICE L3.20 - Repeat the questions with the recording using ↘↗ fall-rising.
1. Are you ↘↗OK?
2. Does he ↘↗know?
3. Have they ↘↗seen it?
4. Would it ↘↗ﬁt in there?
5. Do you think we should ↘↗go to it? 7. Did you do anything ↘↗exciting? 9. Is ↘↗that the best you can do?
6. Have they sent the ↘↗report yet? 8. Has ↘↗Peter been to see you?
c) PRACTICE L3.21 - Repeat the questions with the recording using ↘ falling intonation.
1. Are you ↘OK?
2. Does he ↘know?
3. Have they ↘seen it?
4. Would it ↘ﬁt in there?
5. Do you think we should ↘go to it? 7. Did you do anything ↘exciting? 9. Is ↘that the best you can do?
© Joe Hudson 2010
6. Have they sent the ↘report yet? 8. Has ↘Peter been to see you?
d) EXERCISE L3.22 - Listen to the questions and circle the intonation pattern.
EG Did Arsenal win today? 1. Have you been here long? 2. Were the ﬁre brigade there? 3. Do you want to go home? 5. Can you play the piano? 6. Aren’t they ready yet? 8. Will this cable work with an i-pod?
↘ ↘ ↘ ↘
↘↗ ↘↗ ↘↗ ↘↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↘↗ ↘↗ ↘
↗ ↗ ↗ ↗ ↘↗ ↗ ↗ ↗ ↗ ↘↗ ↘↗ ↗ ↗ ↗
4. Would Mary be interested in coming?
7. Do I have to do all the exercises? ↘ 9. Can’t anyone help you with the packing? 10. Shall we rent a car for the weekend?
↘↗ ↘ ↘
e) EXERCISE - Match A + B to make a question, then ﬁnd the reply in column in C. A wə ju dɪd ju də ju həv ju ə ju wəd ju B driving home? seen her recently? like another one? in class yesterday? see the match last night? speak English? C Yes, would you like my ↗notes? Yes please. Did ↘↗you make them? Havenʼt you ↘↗heard? Sheʼs left. No. Did ↘↗United win? Yes. Would you like a ↗lift? A little. Can I ↗help you?
c) PRACTICE L3.23 - Listen to check your answers. Practice the conversations. d) EXERCISE L3.24 - Listen to the questions & underline the tonic syllable.
EG Can you put the oven on? 2. Was it worth the effort?
3. Won’t it be cold tomorrow? 6. Are Londoners welcoming?
1. Have you seen that program?
4. Is Jenny coming?
5. Could you help me with it?
© Joe Hudson 2010
ðə/ði yes/no question intonation www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . plosive Short Vowel Sounds < ed > endings 4 weak vowels tu/tə.Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 112.anenglishaccent.36 End of Unit Checklist 3 EXERCISE .
anenglishaccent.com . 4 Consonant Sounds Nasal Spelling & Sound < s > Structure Joining 37 Vowel Sounds Diphthong plays IPA Countries & Capitals ͜ʳ ʲ ʷ ͜ ↗is he? © Joe Hudson 2010 Intonation Question Tags www.
38 Consonant Sounds . sound mouth spellings / words <m> must. England. money. chain.Nasals TASTER L4. honour.anenglishaccent. them. now. could you?” 1.Mr. wrong 3. voiced / lips touching mə mə mə mə əm əm əm əm nŋ m n ŋ <n> night.2 position / practice 1.1 Repeat after the recording. sinner. never. think. ﬂying. plain. There are three nasal sounds in English: m a) PRACTICE L 4. singing. voiced / rear of tongue on velar ŋə ŋə ŋə ŋə ɪŋ ɪŋ ɪŋ ɪŋ www. Monday L 4. mile. Schwa has a cold.0 . plane. bring. hung. maze. mum. What is he trying to say? Why can’t he say it? “ I haved got ady buddy od be!” “ You couldn’t lend me ten pounds. ﬂing. voiced / tongue on alveolar ridge nə nə nə nə ən ən ən ən < nk. A nasal sound is made partly through the nose.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . hammer. 2. soon. nice. memory. lime. knee. ng > singer. need 2.
com © Joe Hudson 2010 . March in England Is coming again There maybe rain and snow Or rain and more rain Some sun may shine And see me smiling But then again. rhythm and intonation.3 Nasal warm up .say the poem focussing particularly on nasals.. kɪmə kɪnə kɪŋə 5.. sɪmə sɪnə sɪŋə 6. 1.. www. dɪmə dɪnə dɪŋə c) PRACTICE L 4.. mə nə 2. March in England has gone again But next Spring’ll be lovely..39 b) PRACTICE L 4. ɪmə ɪnə ɪŋə 4.anenglishaccent. then. I don’t really think so. ɪm ɪn ɪŋ 3.4 Poem .repeat after the recording. We’ll keep on hoping.
hair/hare. great. mould. there. gear. cheer. fried. billion.5 Listen to the diphthongs. like. a) PRACTICE L 4. sew. ﬂare © Joe Hudson 2010 . chair. quite. they. beer.ʊə ɒʊ 4. my no. buy. hear/here. bear. You will practice them individually in later chapters.eɪ ɔɪ aɪ əʊ aʊ ɪə eə 3. ploy. patient. bow. 2. annoy. stadium. The ﬁrst sound in a diphthong is stronger than the second. avoid why. round. eight. chose. There are 7 diphthongs in English . light.This chapter introduces the diphthongs. tower. made. stay eɪ ɔɪ aɪ əʊ aʊ ɪə eə e + ɪ = eɪ ɔ + ɪ = ɔɪ a + ɪ = aɪ ə + ʊ = əʊ a + ʊ = aʊ ɪ + ə = ɪə e + ə = eə www. go. NOTE . old. how. There are 2 additional regional diphthongs . choice. plough. ﬂow.Introduction to Diphthongs TASTER L 4. paid. shield.40 Vowel Sounds . A diphthong is a vowel sound that contains two mouth positions. care. boat. foul near. wear. stone.6 Repeat the diphthongs and words. ﬁne. nose. How are they different from short and long vowels? 1.com toy. cow.anenglishaccent. diphthong production words day.
in there? /eə/ b) EXERCISE . Repeat they words. A grey square indicates no possible word.Make a word for each space using ONLY the consonant and diphthong. Joe.8 . Which way to the train station? /eɪ/ Why don’t we try to climb it? /aɪ/ The boy enjoyed playing with the toy.41 b) PRACTICE L 4. eɪ b g dʒ r h t s d) PRACTICE L 4.Listen and check your answers. /aʊ/ A million? That’s nearly the real deal. bay ɔɪ boy aɪ buy əʊ aʊ ɪə eə www. /əʊ/ There are such crowded towns in the South.7 Repeat the sentences.anenglishaccent. /ɪə/ Where’s the rare bear. /ɔɪ/ Don’t go so slowly.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Each one focusses on a diphthong.
RULE .9 1.Repeat the rhythms and phrases. RULE .anenglishaccent. | Phrase The trains are late! The buses are late! Tim wished he hadn’t. |X |X X X . 3. < s > endings can be pronounced in three different ways: /s/ /z/ /ɪz/ 2. X . | . X . Tim wishes he hadn’t Phonetics | ðə treɪnz ə leɪt | | ðə bʌsɪz ə leɪt | | tɪm wɪʃt i hædᵊnt | | tɪm wɪʃɪz i hædᵊnt | |.If the root word (eg he) ends in a voiced sound. X | .42 Spelling & Sound .< s > TASTER . X . www. the ending will be voiced /d/. Repeat the words. 4.Put the words into their correct column. X .If the root word (eg it) ends in a voiceless sound.10 .11 . the ending will be voiceless /t/.If the root word (eg Josh) ends in a /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /tʃ/ or /dʒ/.What is the difference in the < s > ending in these words: stops EG it’s /s/ he’s /z/ plays Josh’s /ɪz/ ﬁnishes L4. things watches boss’s servants whose’s what’s voiceless /s/ stops thinks Mark’s Joe’s Liz’s employer’s Iraq’s England’s Greece’s how’s bus’s cart’s taxi’s ants horses lions voiced /z/ plays exception /ɪz/ finishes b) PRACTICE L4.Listen to check your answers. Rhythm |. the ending will be /ɪz/ a) EXERCISE . c) PRACTICE L4.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . RULE . X | .
13 Listen to the country names and write an IPA transcription: Bolivia France Wales bəˈlɪvɪə _____________ _____________ _____________ Russia _____________ Japan _____________ Finland _____________ www.anenglishaccent.12 Listen and check your answers.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Repeat the country names.43 IPA .æd ______ ˈli:mə ______ c) EXERCISE L4. 13 12 15 14 17 16 4 11 10 9 6 7 5 8 3 1 18 2 b) PRACTICE L4.Countries & Capitals a) EXERCISE .Match the capital cities with their numbers on the map.ul ______ dʒəˈhænəzˌbɜ:g ______ brəˈzɪlɪə ______ helˈsɪŋki ______ ˈedɪmbʌrə ______ ˈbrʌsəlz ______ kəˈbʊl ______ nju: ˈdelɪ ______ ˈæθənz ______ ˈæŋkərə ______ ˈwɒʃɪŋtən ______ ˌnaɪˈrəʊbi ______ ˈtrɪpəli ______ ˈri. ˈwɔ:sɔ: ______ beɪˈdʒɪŋ ______ məˈdrɪd ______ sʌ.
5. Notice the consonant moving into the next word. Consonant Joining 2. ɑ:. There ͜ are some clementines. Some words do not contain the joiner in their spelling: sigh (joins with /j/) go (joins with /w/) idea (joins with /r/) 9. eɪ. the joiner will be j. If the ﬁrst word ends in u.buy a CD u . In spoken English we join words together. 1 2 3 j w r i . to your right. we join the consonant to the vowel: got ͜ any Iʼm ͜ afraid this ͜ old ͜ English ͜ engine.anenglishaccent. If the ﬁrst word ends in ə. we add a /j/ /w/ or /r/ sound to join the words: # see $ any ʲ͜ go ͜ʷ over where ͜ʳ are they 4. A Where ͜ are they? I can’t see ͜ any.enjoy a ﬁlm aɪ .Joining TASTER L4.how is she? əә .no answer aʊ .brother and sister ɜ: .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ɔɪ or aɪ. What happens where you see this ͜ ? A Have you got ͜ any ͜ oranges? B I’m ͜ afraid not.care about ɑ: . the joiner will be r.are you in u: .16 . Can you see them? 1. If the next word begins with a vowel.Listen to the conversation. though. Vowel Joining 3.chew a bone əәʊ . particularly older and upper class. consider joining words with /r/ incorrect. and the previous word ends in a consonant.pour a drink ɪəә . Words spelt ‘aw’ join with /r/: law ʳ ͜ and order saw ʳ ͜ a ﬁlm 10. B Go ͜ over there. The joiner is often included in the spelling of the word: # there /ðeə/ how /haʊ/ why /waɪ/ 8.incurr a charge ɔ: .44 Structure .be a good boy eɪ . 7. ɔ:. or eə. ɜ:. however.pay a lot ɔɪ . If the ﬁrst word ends in i. It is now. u:.15 . widely practiced and is regularly heard on the BBC.Repeat the joiners followed by a phrase. a) PRACTICE L4.far away www. If the next word begins with a vowel and the previous word ends with a vowel. ɪə. 6. Some speakers. Ensure the words are joined. əәʊ or aʊ the joiner will be w.hear a song eəә .
I like tea in the afternoon. It's a toy in a box. War ͜ and peace. It's now or never.Repeat the sentences slowly then at normal speed. 5.18 . I’ll wear ͜ it tonight.anenglishaccent. Change gear in a moment.Listen and check your answers. Is it a car over there? 10. d) EXERCISE . Write them into the boxes I saw ͜ an eagle. 12. True ͜ or false? Near ͜ or far? I dare ͜ anyone to go.Each sentence in the grid contains a /w/. w High ͜ above the trees.17 . . 2. You'll pay a lot for a new bike. j How ͜ awful. 4. I prefer ͜ orange. It’s really ͜ interesting! Her ͜ arm is in a She ͜ understood sling. He tore into the meat. 6. r He ͜ isn’t here. you. Go ͜ away Come to ͜ India next year. There's a bar on the ﬁrst ﬂoor 9. I might refer another student to you.Listen and check your answers. www. 8. Law ͜ and order Blue ͜ or green? The ͜ only problem. 1. 11. /j/ or /r/ joiner. e) PRACTICE L4. It was so interesting! 3. A pair ͜ of shoes. Where are you going? 7.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .45 b) EXERCISE Write < ͜ > wherever two words are joined in the following sentences. Why ͜ aren’t you here? Poor ͜ e"ort. Wild boar ͜ are dangerous. Be ͜ a good boy Grow ͜ up! Employ ͜ another writer. eg My ͜ interest ͜ is ͜ in Physics. He ﬂew into that joke! c) PRACTICE L4.
↘isn’t it?’ ‘It’s a bit cold. Each tag is said ﬁrstly with ↗ rising then ↘ falling intonation. can’t he 9. ↗isn’t it? 3.Reply tag questions use ↗ rising intonation. are you 2. Standard Question Tags can use ↘ falling or ↗ rising intonation: ↘ falling intonation means ‘I know that my statement is correct’.21 .Repeat the tags after the recording. A I’m leaving. did they 3. ↗shall we? .Question Tags TASTER L4. ↗isn’t it?’ ‘It’s a bit cold. couldn’t you. ↗ rising intonation means ‘I am not sure. B ↗Are you? A I’ve ﬁnished. please reply’.19 . Positive + Positive Question Tags use ↗ rising intonation. ↗are you? (I do not believe it) You think you’re clever. ↘isn’t it? So they’ve won. ↘isn’t it? That car’s a bit expensive. ↗is it?’ L4.What is the difference in meaning between the following: ‘It’s a bit cold. shall I 7. The meaning can be sarcastic: You’re twenty one. ↗have they? 2. has she 4. Imperative Question Tags use ↗ rising intonation. ↗could you? 4. Suggestions use ↗ rising intonation: Let’s go to the cinema.anenglishaccent. wouldn’t it 10. ↗do you? (I do not.) 5.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . were they 5. That car’s a bit expensive.20 1. won’t they 8. B ↗Have you? a) PRACTICE L4. ↗shall we? Let’s buy that car then.46 Intonation . 1. A question tag is added to a statement to create a question: It’s a bit cold. Answer the phone. will he 6. www. ↗will you? Pass me the wine.
com © Joe Hudson 2010 .. have you? ↘ ↗ 2. would you? B Alright.Check your answers and repeat the sentences. has it? B No. ________________ 6. didn’t they? ↘ ↗ 3. ________________ 4. Pass me the paper. A It hasn’t been this warm for months. ________________ 8. This cable is suitable for an i-pod. ___________ Is he? 1. would you? ↘ ↗ 7. wasn’t it? ↘ ↗ 1. Been here long... Let’s raise a toast to the new president.000. will you? ↘ ↗ 8. EG That was such a good ﬁlm.. Let’s go out then. A The ﬁrst sight of the sun in months and you’d stay in. You can’t play the piano.Explain the intonation used in each question tag in the conversation. isn’t it? B Not bad. can you? ↘ ↗ 5. ________________ e) EXERCISE . You won’t forget to call. A Beautiful day..Listen to the sentences. shall we? ↘ ↗ 10.22 .47 b) EXERCISE L4. alright.22 . d) EXERCISE L4. ________________ 5. isn’t it? ↘ ↗ 9. EG ‘John’s going out with Sue’. Circle the intonation pattern you hear. Where do you want to go? B I don’t know. This ring is worth 2. ________________ 3. do you? ↘ ↗ 4. I’ll get my coat. So you want to go home. Pick up a newspaper for me. are they? ↘ ↗ 6. www.23 . are you? B Well. But they’re not ready yet.Listen to the recording and reply with a tag using ↗ rising intonation. shall we? A We could do. is it? ↘ ↗ c) PRACTICE L4. ________________ 9. ________________ 2. A Is it? But you aren’t going to watch telly. The police turned up last night. will you? I think ‘News at 1’ is on. ________________ 7.anenglishaccent.
anenglishaccent.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .48 End of Unit Checklist 4 EXERCISE .Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 112. nasal consonants Diphthong Vowels < s > endings joining /j/ /r/ /w/ joiners Question Tags www.
5 Consonant Sounds Glottal Spelling & Sound have 49 Vowel Sounds Diphthongs ending /ʊ/ hæv hæf həv əv IPA Transcription II c k q y Structure Contractions ʻ |.-.anenglishaccent.com .↘| © Joe Hudson 2010 Intonation Tone Units www.
hop. It can only appear at the beginning of a syllable. home. half. The glottis is at the bottom of the throat (see diagram). 5. have they? www.1 . a) PRACTICE L5. There are two glottal sounds in English: /h/ and /ʔ/ 3. 2.50 Consonants . heat. /h/ is a voiceless fricative. hat. hə hə hɪ hɪ hi hi ha: ha: hɜ: hɜ: həʊ həʊ haʊ haʊ əʔ əʔ ɪʔ ɪʔ ɒʔ ɒʔ h ʔ <t> See Spelling & Sound 5 b) PRACTICE L5.Repeat the sentences with a clean /h/ sound.Glottal Sounds 1. whom. L5.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . sound spelling < h > < wh > words hell. How much was your haircut? Whose house is that? It’s hideous! Do we have to go to Holland for our holidays? Harry and Heather haven’t had a baby. house.Repeat after the recording. here who.anenglishaccent. Aim for a clean sound. /ʔ/ is a voiceless plosive that can replace /t/ at the end of a syllable. with no fricative noise in the mouth. /h/ is often silent in spoken English. horse. 4.3 .2 voice ex. hoop. hair. wholesome. hitch. whose.
x x www. What have you been doing? 1. hour. 3.Cross out the < h > sounds we do not say.5 .Repeat the function words and sentences. exhibit. 5. exhausted.anenglishaccent. /h/ is often silent in function words if they are not at the beginning of the sentence/unit/.Silent < h > Where’s he gone. honest. exhilirate. It’s hours since he last had anything to eat. then listen to check: EG: You’re exhausted.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .4 1. 6. 2. shepherd. I’ve had enough of her new hairstyle.51 Consonants . What have you done? It had already gone. focussing on silent < h > Function Word 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 he her him have had has his Function Word with /h/ He’s ok. 3. Her car’s over there? Him? Have you finished? Had they seen it? Has Jane been in? His sister’s gone Function Word . Do we have to go? a) PRACTICE L5. Both his computer and his bike were taken by thieves. What have you done. Harry asked if he could have shepherd’s pie tonight. vehicle. Honestly. /h/ is never silent in ‘have’ when it is a content word.6 . /h/ is always silent in the following words: honour. The bus has broken down.Silent < h > L5. vehement. Where’s his sister gone? b) EXERCISE L5. How’s her job going? I’ll have a shower. What’s her name? They want him to help. heir. Has he honoured the payment? 2. has she ﬁnished her homework? 4.
the jaw slightly open. g. the lips slightly spread. the tongue tip low.Say the following consonant sounds followed by /əәʊ/ then preceded by /əәʊ/.Compare monothong /ɒ/ with diphthong /əʊ/ ɒ əʊ rob robe not note robot row boat block bloke cop cope Ros rose d) PRACTICE L5. f. ow. ou > opponent boat toe doughnut cone ghost though soak zone shown joke rope woke yolk nose lonely moment around the town < o. əʊ aʊ 1. 2.9 . Is it different from the recording? How? 1. the lips relaxed. a) PRACTICE L5.L5.8 . b) PRACTICE L5.Diphthongs Ending /ʊ/ TASTER .11 . the jaw closing. ð. 2.Compare monothong /æ/ with diphthong /aʊ/ æ aʊ band bound alas a louse tan town lad loud pat pout hand hound www. production Start in a neutral position with the tongue relaxed. rounded movement of the mouth. Start with the jaw open. s. It is important to make a full.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . l L5. ou > powder bow town doubt cow gown thousand south shout round wound now lousy mouse 1. 2. Move the lips into a forward and rounded position. o_e. the jaw closing. n. sound spelling / words row the boat < o.Repeat after the recording. Move the lips into a forward and rounded position. b. similar to /æ/.anenglishaccent. t. ʃ. m. oa.12 .Repeat the exercise with /aʊ/ c) PRACTICE L5. There are two diphthongs ending in ʊ in English: /əʊ/ and /aʊ/.52 Vowel Sounds .7 Say the word for ‘no’ in your mother tongue / accent.10 .
What do I really need __________? A __________ __________ www. | gəʊ ͜ʷ əˈweɪ ‖ 3.ə ə rəʊ ͜ʷ əv haʊzɪz e) PRACTICE L5. do you know where the station is?’ B ‘No idea. | ˈwɒt ə ˈʃəʊ ͜ʷ ɒf ‖ 6.anenglishaccent.16 . | ˈnəʊ ͜ʷ aɪˈdi.A ‘Excuse me.14 . | ɪts ˈnaʊ ͜ʷ ɔ: ˈnevə ‖ 5.13 1. EG . Away from __________.53 L5.15 .Practice the sentences below.Listen to the poem and place the words on the right into the gaps. 1. Can’t __________ __________ the __________. __________ you __________? At this __________ I’m __________.Listen to the recording & reply with one of the sentences above.ə ‖ f) EXERCISE L5.’ g) EXERCISE L5.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . snəʊ x3 plaʊ gəʊ məʊmənt nəʊ wɪðaʊt naʊ raʊnd əʊvə ələʊn həʊm dəʊnt saʊnd Snow Plough. Diphthongs ending in /ʊ/ and followed by a vowel. | lets nɒt ˈraʊ ͜ʷ əʊvə ˈmʌni ‖ 4. | ˈgrəʊ ͜ʷ ɪt ˈlɒŋ ‖ 7. __________ a __________. You can’t get __________ the __________. | ˈəʊ ˈrɪəli | haʊ ͜ʷ ˈɪntrəstɪŋ ‖ 2. will join with /w/: səʊ ͜ʷɔ:fəl nəʊ ͜ʷ aɪdi.
When have is a content word it is always pronounced /hæv/: /hæf tə/: I’ll have a black coffee with one sugar. A B A B A B A B Have you seen the time? It’s not eight yet. 5. you should have told me earlier. Alright. Fair enough.Have L5.54 Spelling & Sound . When have is a function word and not at the beginning of the sentence. is it? It’s a quarter past.com həv © Joe Hudson 2010 . sentence pronunciation Have you seen the time? Do we have to go? you should have told me earlier I’ll have a shower and then we’ll go www. it is often said with silent < h >: What have you done? 3.17 . it is pronounced Do we have to go to Holland for our holidays? 6. it is always strong /hævənt/: Why haven’t they? a) EXERCISE L5. When have is a function word it is normally weak. I’ll have a shower and then we’ll go. When have is negative.anenglishaccent. We’ll be late if you don’t hurry up! Do we have to go? If you didn’t want to go out.18 i) Read and listen to the conversation below. but be quick! I’ll be as quick as I can. When have is the modal verb ‘have to’ meaning obligation. and said with /ə/: Have you been here long? 2. ii) Write the IPA for the word ‘have’ in each sentence below.The word ‘have’ has 4 pronunciations in English: /əv/ /həv/ /hæv/ /hæf/ 1.
Transcribing Words TASTER . cab 10. extend ___________ www. yell 13. yolk /kri:s/ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 9. facial 4. lace 6.55 IPA .anenglishaccent. How would you spell them in English? ˈkwaɪt ˈeksreɪ <c><q><x><y> ˈjeləʊ ˈkɔ:n 1. The phoneme /j/ exists.Study the chart below showing IPA transcriptions for the letters c. Letter IPA /s/ /k/ /ʃ/ /kw/ /kj/ /ks/ /gz/ /j/ Examples race cart spacious queen queue explain example yes /reɪs/ /kɑ:t/ /speɪʃəs/ /kwi:n/ /kyu:/ /ˈɪkspleɪn/ /ɪgˈzɑ:mpᵊl/ /jes/ c q x y b) EXERCISE . quick 15.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . x & y. quarter ___________ 11. q. exam 8. quite 12.Say the words below. 1. x-ray 5. face 14. cry ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 3. crease 2. Some letters in the English alphabet do not appear in IPA: 2. quit 7. but it is pronounced differently: joke = /dʒəәʊk/ yolk = /jəәʊk/ a) EXERCISE . exist 16.Use your dictionary or the internet to ﬁnd an IPA transcription for the words below.
Double contractions are also possible: not have (wouldn’t’ve) will have (she’ll’ve) would have (I’d’ve) 5. I do not eat yoghurt.20 1. A contraction is weak. We do not normally write contractions in formal English. . Johnʼll theyʼve. but he is. sheʼll thatʼll. A You have ﬁnished all the yoghurts. it cannot appear at the end of a sentence/unit: She isn’t going.after a vowel nt example Iʼd.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . itʼs bagʼs.Contractions TASTER L5.What differences do you notice between what is spoken and what is written? L5. (not he’s) 3.anenglishaccent. whenʼd Iʼll.Listen to and read the conversation. weʼre wouldnʼt. then? B Joe might have taken them. donʼt 4. A Do you not? Who was it. B It was not me.56 Structure . Some verbs shorten in connected speech: I’m (I am) You’d (you would / had) 2. www. youʼd itʼd. The following contractions are possible in spoken English: contraction ʻd ʻll ʻve ʻs ʻre nʼt had / would will have is / has are not pronunciation /d/ after a vowel /əd/ after a consonant /l/ after a vowel /əl/ after a consonant /v/ after a vowel /əv/ after a consonant see ʻSound & Spelling < s >ʼ . peopleʼve whatʼs. Iʼve whatʼve.19 . A You are right. heʼs theyʼre. He is always eating other people’s food.
What are we going to eat? b) PRACTICE L5. You could have told me a bit earlier.57 a) PRACTICE L5. What’ve you done? I wouldn’t like that. We’ll’ve ﬁnished by Monday. John’ll eat it. A Are you going away this year? B We are thinking of going to Poland. We’ve ﬁnished. A B A B John and Jane are coming over tonight.Underline the possible contractions in these conversations. they will be here at 7. At seven? That is in half an hour. www. Practice the conversations.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . A Why have you chosen to go there? B Cracow is a beautiful place. We’re losing. and my husband has cousins there. B It might have been a good idea to bring a torch. can he? You shouldn’t’ve done that. It isn’t in the shed.Say the sentences. I did not know until this afternoon. He can’t. Anyway.anenglishaccent. A I cannot see the road properly. B You are probably right. then listen to the recording and repeat. There aren’t any left. A There is one in the car. but it is too late to go back now. I’ll go.21 .22 . I’d’ve bought two. b) EXERCISE .Listen to check your answers.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method of transcription? 1.. 1 Shall we go out. ↘ | 2 How many were there? | ˈhaʊ meni wə ðeə | | ↘ .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . . 2. They’ve done very well. . What did you say? Do you think so? Let’s go to Regent’s Park. | It’s really cold.. ↗ ` ` | . . . Sometimes I wonder why I bother..Below you can see three ways of transcribing them. 3. .24 . In written English. we divide language into units. www.Repeat the sentences following the three transcriptions. . . . . ↗ | 3 Does James want it? | dəz ˈdʒeimz wɒnt ɪt | | . . a) PRACTICE L5. . We’ve never eaten here before.23 . .. we divide language into sentences. . . Sentence Speech Unit | ɪts ˈrɪəli ˈkəʊld | | ðəv dʌn ˈveri ˈwel | | ˈwɒt dɪd ju seɪ | | də ju ˈθɪŋk səʊ | | ˈlets gəʊ tə ˈri:dʒəns ˈpa:k | | wiv ˈnevər ˈi:tən hɪə bɪfɔ: | | ˈsʌmtaɪmz aɪ ˈwʌndə waɪ aɪ ˈbɒðə | Tone Unit |. ↘ | | . ↘ | | ↗ ``` | | . | ʃəl wi gəʊ ˈaʊt | | .Tone Units TASTER L5.anenglishaccent. The intonation pattern in the unit begins at the Tonic Syllable and ends at the end of the unit. .Listen to the sentences. ↘ . ↘ .. . In spoken English. ↘ ↗ | | . ↗ | | . Every unit of speech has a Tonic Syllable..↘| | . . We show this in IPA with the symbols | (pause) and ‖ (long pause) 4.. .58 Intonation . 5.
5.. . ↗ | | .. ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ c) EXERCISE L5. . . ↘ . It wasn’t the pronunciation. .59 b) EXERCISE L5.25 . ↗ | C I was going to buy a television. . |. . . ↘ | |. I was hungry afterwards. .. ↘ .I hoped you’d be here.. 10.. . . . . Why don’t you? 7. If it’s alright with you. . Turn left at the station.26 . . . . . ↘ | |. . ↘ . ↗ | D I should be there by six.You said you would. . . . . . | |. . . . | |. . ↘ . ↗ | www. . .anenglishaccent.. . . A Are you going out tonight? 1 |. . . . . I hoped you’d be here. | B What are they doing in there? |↘ . underline the ‘Tonic Syllable’ and circle the intonation pattern. ↘ . . |. ↘ . . Match them with their tone diagrams. 3.. ↗| |. 2. . . . . . . . ↘ ↘↗ ↗ 1. .You will hear each sentence in three different ways. EG I haven’t seen you before. ↗ | |. . What are you doing there? 4. ↘ . I know you are.. . .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . 8.Listen to the sentences. ↘↗ | |. ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ↘ ↘↗ ↗ o 6. 9. . .
Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 113. x.anenglishaccent.60 End of Unit Checklist 5 EXERCISE . Glottal Consonants əʊ & aʊ 4 pronunciations of ‘have’ c. y ‘ |↘ˈtəʊn ju:nɪts| www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . q.
anenglishaccent. 6 Spelling & Sound < t > 61 Consonant Sounds Approximants Vowel Sounds Diphthongs ending /ɪ/ t tʃ ʔ IPA The Alphabet abcdefghi jklmnopqr stuvwxyz Structure Prominence ˈ ↘↗ Intonation The Fall-Rise www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .
br.1 . a) PRACTICE L6.Approximants 1.Repeat the words.Repeat the words. 2. 1. To produce an /r/. There are three approximants in English: /r/. c) PRACTICE L6. The tongue tip then moves down and into the position of the following vowel. gr.4 .Voice Exercise . the tongue tip should start near the alveolar ridge. At no point should the tongue touch the mouth sound spelling / words <r> read rid rest rat run grass rule rook raw rock ray Roy rye row row rear rare diagram r b) PRACTICE L6. Repeat with: tr. 3. Approximants can only appear at the beginning of syllables in RP. then the tongue moves into the position for the next vowel.62 Consonant Sounds . kr. sr. dr. An Approximant is a vowel-like consonant. Production Notes /j/.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . the tongue should be curved with the tip down at the front. ri: ru: rɔ: rɑ: reɪ raɪ rəʊ raʊ rɪə reə 2.2 .Voice Exercise . fr. but not touching it. ʃr. The air is pushed along the hard palate. θr.anenglishaccent. ji: ju: jɜ: jɔ: jəʊ jɪə www.Repeat regularly until you have a smooth sound.Repeat regularly until you have a smooth sound. Production Notes /r/. /j/ and /w/. sound spellings / words <y> <u> yeast yiddish yes piano yearn yummy you your yacht year pure queue diagram j d) PRACTICE L6. the sides of the tongue can touch the teeth.3 . pri: pru: prɔ: prɑ: 3. To produce a /j/. vr.
and the trees were swaying in the wind. ‘Britain In Crisis’ was the title. Make sure your teeth do not touch the lip. sound spellings / words < w > < qu > week wit well wack werenʼt won would wall what wait white quote weird where diagram w f) PRACTICE L6. h) PRACTICE L6. The tongue tip is slightly curled down and the air is pushed through the space between the lips.the lips should be rounded and pushing forward. wi: wɜ: wɔ: weɪ waɪ wəʊ waʊ wɪə weə 1. His only concern was writing the report which was to be released from the Ministry of Defence the following day. See Chapter 4 for the rules of joining g) EXERCISE .Repeat the words.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Repeat the extract after the recording.5 .anenglishaccent. It was a cold winter’s Tuesday in West London. The sky looked quite yellow. Production Notes /w/ . go_ʷaway be_ʲa good boy fair_ʳenough 2.Voice Exercise . but Rob wasn’t really worried about the weather.7 .Repeat regularly until you have a smooth sound. Approximants are found in spoken English between vowel sounds. and Rob was going to brief the Prime Minister on the exact details in a few hours.Underline the approximants in this extract. It looked like it might snow.6 . www.63 e) PRACTICE L6.
com © Joe Hudson 2010 . the tongue relaxed similar to /ɑ:/. i. ey. closing the jaw.anenglishaccent. i_e > ﬁne time high might pie die Riegate pike cry type right sigh chive Mike ﬁght arrive crisis bright white I ﬂy nice 1. production Start in a slightly open /e/ position with the tongue tip behind the lower teeth. Move towards the /ɪ/ position. www. the lips rounded in the /ɔ:/ position. closing the jaw. Start with the jaw open. eɪ aɪ ɔɪ Why be shy < y. a_e. ai. a. 2. ei. There are three diphthongs ending in ɪ in English: /eɪ/. 2.8 .Repeat after the recording. /ɔɪ/ and /aɪ/. oi > boy toy soil joy foil annoy appoint Roy employ loiter choice enjoy Freud 1. the tongue tip low. Start with the jaw open. Royal soil < oy. a) PRACTICE L6. ea > May stay make way steak train day break afraid Spain change Jake station raise place cake ray same 1.64 Vowel Sounds . the lips relaxed. closing the jaw. uy. ie. sound phrase / spelling / words Pave the way < ay. Move towards the /ɪ/ position. 2.Diphthongs Ending /ɪ/ 1. Move towards the /ɪ/ position.
b) PRACTICE L6.9 - Compare monothong /e/ with diphthong /eɪ/: e eɪ red raid bet bait weddin g wading hell hail shed shade wren rain
c) PRACTICE L6.10 - Compare monothong /æ/ with diphthong /ɑɪ/: æ aɪ band bind fan ﬁne sad side pram prime Mac Mike hand hind
d) PRACTICE L6.11 - Say the following consonant sounds followed by /eɪ/ then preceded by /eɪ/.
p, t, d, k, v, ð, s, z, dʒ, m
L6.12 - Repeat the exercise with /aɪ/.
Joining Diphthongs Ending /ɪ/
L6.13 1. Diphthongs ending in /ɪ/ and followed by a vowel, will join with /j/:
peɪ ͜ʲ ə lɒt
ɪndʒɔɪ ͜ʲ ə fɪlm
baɪ ͜ʲ ə ˈsi:ˈdi:
e) PRACTICE L6.14 - Read and repeat the phrases.
1. | tu: | ə bɔɪ ͜ʲ ən ə gɜ:l ‖ 2. | maɪ ͜ʲ æŋkl hɜ:ts ‖ 3. | waɪ ͜ʲ ɑ:n tʃu gəʊɪŋ ‖ 4. | baɪ ͜ʲ ə kʌpl fə mi: ‖ 5. | meɪ ͜ʲ aɪ hæv wʌn ‖ 6. | traɪ ͜ʲ ə bɪt hɑ:də ‖
f) EXERCISE L6.15 - Listen to the recording and reply with a sentence from c). EG ‘I’m going to the shops for some apples‘ “Buy a couple for me”
© Joe Hudson 2010
Spelling & Sound - /t/ and /ʔ/
L6.16 The letter < t > can be pronounced as /t/, /ʔ/, /tʃ/ or become silent in connected speech: 1. If the next sound is an approximant, /t/ often becomes /ʔ/.
t was football t year
that wall postman
2. If the next sound is a consonant, /t/ often becomes silent or /ʔ/. 3. If the next sound is /j/. t can become /tʃ/.
4. If the next sound is a vowel or nothing, we say t.
What are we going to eat?
t + consonant = t + vowel = t + approximant (r, j, w, l) = t+j=
ʔ or t t ʔ tʃ or ʔ
a) EXERCISE - Write the phonetic transcription for each < t > in the sentences below. Follow the rules in the box above, sometimes 2 answers are possible.
t t EG: What have you got? ____ ____
1. What are you doing? ____ 2. Is that your only dog? ____ 3. One last thing. ____ 4. She liked his haircut. ____ ____ 5. Most Europeans speak some English. ____ 6. East England. ____ 7. West Scotland. ____ ____ 8. They laughed about it later. ____ ____ ____ ____ 9. Don’t worry if it’s late. ____ ____ ____ 10. Josh stopped playing the piano. ____ 11. White water rafting. ____ ____ ____ 12. Can you light this up? ____
b) PRACTICE L6.17 - Listen and check your answers. Practice the sentences.
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IPA - The Alphabet
TASTER L6.18 - Listen to the alphabet song. 1. The letter < a > is pronounced /eɪ/ when we say it. < b > is /bi:/. a) EXERCISE - Fill in the chart below with the letters from the alphabet. /eɪ/ ʲ /i:/ ʲ b c /e/ /aɪ/ ʲ /əʊ/ ʷ /u:/ ʷ /ɑ:/ ʳ
- Check your answers before continuing.
2. When we spell something in speech, we join up the letters:
J o e dʒeɪ ʲ͜ əʊ ͜ʷ i:
l o n d o n el ͜ˡ əʊ ͜ʷ en di: ͜ʲ əʊ ͜ʷ en
3. These follow the same rules as joiners between words (see ‘joining’).
b) EXERCISE L6.19 - Listen to the spellings and write down the words. Check your answers.
finsbury EG ___________________
1. ___________________ 4. ___________________
2. ___________________ 5. ___________________
c) EXERCISE - Write the phonetic transcriptions for two of the words from exercise 1 including joiners, then check your answers. EG Finsbury = | ef ͜ aɪ ͜ʲ en ͜ es bi: ju: ͜ʷ ɑ: waɪ ‖ _________________ = __________________________________________________________________ _________________ = __________________________________________________________________
Follow-up: Spell your name and address out making sure you join the letters.
www.anenglishaccent.com © Joe Hudson 2010
it is not considered ‘new’ information. 4. A What are you putting in that apple tart? B It’s a pear tart. TASTER L6. we would stress the ﬁrst and last: L6.Why doesn’t person B stress ‘coffee’ or ‘sugar’? 1. 2. 1.anenglishaccent. (seafood is broader than oysters.Prominence & Stress A I’ll ˈhave a ˈblack ˈcoffee with ˈone ˈsugar. If the synonym is more precise. 4. B For ˈme a ˈwhite coffee. If there are more than two strong words next to each other. . 3. (mussels are more precise than seafood. it is considered ‘new’. A I’d like a vodka and tonic. so we do stress it: A Do you like ˈseafood? B Well. I like ˈmussels. A Would you like some milk in your tea? B I’m allergic to milk. ˈno sugar. If we use a synonym. 2. The last stressed word in the unit is the tonic syllable. 3.68 Structure . www.Mark the stress in these conversations with / ˈ /.21 A ˈcouple of thousand ˈkilometres (we don’t stress ‘thousand’) ˈThree billion ˈpounds (we don’t stress ‘billion’) Synonyms 5. We stress new information.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Stress is marked with / ˈ / before the stressed syllable.) a) EXERCISE L6.21 . A Is that letter for Joe? B No. B A gin and tonic for me.20 . it’s from Joe.Listen to the conversation.) 6. so we do not stress it: A Do you like ˈoysters? B I like ˈall seafood.
A Do you like jazz? B Well. A Have you heard the Yeah Yeah Yeah’s latest? B I never listen to rock music.Repeat column A followed by column B paying attention to the change in stress. A I’m going to make a dessert.24 . A Would you like to come to Paris? B Great.69 b) PRACTICE L6. 2. A Is that your Ford Fiesta? B I don’t drive a car. I’ve never been to France before.Underline the tonic syllable for person B in the conversations: Example 1.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Listen to the recording and reply with a sentence from B. a VW Golf. B Why don’t you make apple tart? 4. A Do you own a car? B Yes.anenglishaccent. d) EXERCISE L6. 5. X ˈﬁve pounds ˈﬁfty ˈthree and a half ˈhours ˈﬁve thousand ˈmiles ˈtwenty degrees ˈcelcius ˈtwo dozen ˈeggs ˈthree pints of ˈmilk ˈﬁve ˈpounds ˈthree and a ˈhalf ˈﬁve ˈthousand ˈtwenty deˈgrees ˈtwo ˈdozen ˈthree ˈpints c) EXERCISE L6. 3. Example 2. A Where shall we go in Germany? B How about Berlin? 1.23 .22 . 6. A Would you like some apple tart? B I can’t stand fruit. A) XX B) X . www. I like John Coltrane.
I ↘like jazz. A They’re coming on ↘Thursday.) You could come on ↘Monday. (A simple fact. A I’m the only person who eats meat.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .The Fall-Rise I’d like to go to ↘Iceland I’d ↘↗like to go to Iceland TASTER L6. On ↘↗Friday. Charles Mary Anthony Joe Sarah Jennifer James Caroline www.26 2. (A simple fact. then with ↘ falling intonation. The fall-rise (or the rise) is used to repeat information: A I’m going on Saturday. (Implies it might not be the best day. A I’m going to the hairdressers. How does the stress and intonation change the meaning? 1. (But not all types). The fall-rise can be used to correct information in a polite way. Correcting B On ↘↗ Saturday? B The ↘↗only person? B ↘↗Where are you going? 4.Listen to the sentences above.) Repetion 3. B No.70 Intonation .27 .25 . B Eighty ↘↗nine.Say each name ﬁrstly with the ↘↗ fall-rise. repeat and correct. A He was 88 when he died.) I ↘↗like jazz. The Fall-rise is a very typically English intonation pattern and is commonly used to show imply. Implicational Fall-Rise L6.anenglishaccent. a) PRACTICE L6. The fall-rise shows that there is an implied meaning to the words: You could come on ↘↗Monday.
ii) 1 example of a yes/no question with a fall-rise.71 b) PRACTICE L6. 6. John Barry.30 .Listen to the recording and correct the information you hear. No.28 .Listen to and read the conversation. you are. He was only ↘↗joking 4. No. EG 1. e) EXERCISE L6. 4.Think of a suitable implication for each statement above.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . No. the A5. 5. | www. Repeat each statement: 1. This is not for me to ↘↗say c) EXERCISE L6. | B | I’d say about two ↘ hours.anenglishaccent. No. | B | I’ll do the best I ↘can! | i) 2 examples of an implicational fall-rise. They’ll only be here two ↘↗nights 5. No.29 . It wasn’t ↘↗that bad 6. A | Are we going ↘↗out tonight? | Find: B | Well I’d ↘↗like to | but I have to ﬁnish this ↘essay. 2. 7. The ↘↗flights are booked 3. No. I’ve decided on the ↘↗starter 2. I’ve decided on the starter.Implicational Fall-Rise. 3. No. the A5. It’s 2 ‘o’ clock. iii) one example of repetition with a fall-rise. John Barry. with the information below: 1. you are. but I don’t know what to have for mains.31 . d) EXERCISE L6. iv) Which other tones are used? Why? A | How much longer do you ↘need? | A | Two ↘↗hours! | I can’t wait ↘↗that long.
Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 113. Approximant Consonants eɪ aɪ ɔɪ ʔ abcdefg prominence ↘↗ www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .anenglishaccent.72 End of Unit Checklist 6 EXERCISE .
anenglishaccent. IPA Structure 7 Vowel Sounds Spelling & Sound are Intonation 73 Consonant Sounds Lateral Approximant Diphthongs ending /ə/ ə ɑ: ɑ:nt Syllabic Consonants i:vn̩ / i:vᵊn ˈgrandmother Compound Stress Contrast ↘↗ © Joe Hudson 2010 www.com .
1 .Repeat after the recording. Production Notes: The tip of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge.anenglishaccent.74 Consonant Sound . <l> pill Iʼll full cull pal eel pool hurl fall gnarl theyʼll smile boil role towel www. /ɫ/ or ‘dark l’ is found at the end of a syllable. There are two < l > sounds in RP English: /l/ & /ɫ/.Repeat after the recording. lot fall lazy called pilot pale 3. Sound Spelling / words <l> lit left London lad lost leave lose learn lawn laughter late light lawyer loan allow clear Claire Mouth Position l ɫ PRACTICE L7. Production Notes: The tip of the tongue gently touches the teeth or the alveolar ridge.Lateral Approximant /l/ 1.2 . The lips DO NOT MOVE. PRACTICE L7. /l/ is found at the beginning of a syllable.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . 2.
Practice the poem London Railway Lines Nearly aɫ the peopɫe in London Have caɫed for less lies About delays on their raiɫway lines Russeɫ Square and Notting Hiɫ Gate Are beautifuɫ places but not to wait For a signaɫ faiɫure in Ealing Broadway The Piccadily line is oɫd and blue The Circɫe line is late.75 PRACTICE L7. 1.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Repeat the voice exercise making sure that your lips do not move for /ɫ/.3 . To traveɫ from Hounslow to Wimbɫedon Or Arsenaɫ to Waterloo Between Goɫder’s Green and Maida Vaɫe Try to avoid London Raiɫ. what’s new? From Kiɫburn Park to Wembley or London Zoo The Jubilee line wiɫ delay you So allow me to make a suggestion. www. li lu: lɜ: lɔ: lɑ: leɪ laɪ ləʊ lɪə leə 2.anenglishaccent. əɫ ɪɫ u:ɫ ɜ:ɫ ɔ:ɫ aɪɫ eɪɫ aʊɫ PRACTICE L7.4 .
ear. the tongue tip behind the bottom front teeth in the /e/ position.anenglishaccent. Whereʼs the bear < ar. 2. io.Repeat after the recording. Move towards the neutral /ə/ position.76 Vowel Sounds .Compare diphthong /ɪə/ with diphthong /eə/ ɪə eə sheer share fear fare beer bear dear dare peer pear steer stare www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . the tongue raised slightly at the front in the /ɪ/ position.7 . Start with the jaw slightly open.6 . There are two diphthongs ending in ə in RP English: /ɪə/. ie.Compare monothong /i:/ with diphthong /ɪə/ read reared seed seared feed feared he’s hears fees fears seas seers d) PRACTICE L7. 2.Diphthongs Ending /ə/ 1. 2. c) PRACTICE L7. Move towards the relaxed /ə/ position. eer. eo > dear clear appear area idea deer career steer here familiar billion billiards valiant sillier twentieth barrier theory 1. but it has widely been replaced by /ɔ:/ in modern RP. a) PRACTICE L7. /eə/. ere.Repeat after the recording. ia. ɪə eə i: ɪə b) PRACTICE L7. which is common in Northern English accents and among older speakers. There is another diphthong /ʊə/. production Start with the jaw nearly closed. sound phrase / spelling / words Nearly here < ea. air.8 .5 . ae > care rare ﬂare barely stair fair hair despair pear tear bear there where swear aeroplane aerial 1.
g. 2. ue > 1. ua. b.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . our.12 . 3. they all contain an /r/ joiner.anenglishaccent. the lips rounded in the /ʊ/ position. pure cure sure usual fuel poor gradual Start with the jaw nearly closed. ð. Diphthongs ending in /ə/ and followed by a vowel.13 1.10 .Say the phrases. will join with /r/: feə ͜ʳ ɪnʌf peə ͜ʳ əv ʃu:z dɪə ͜ʳ emɪli h) PRACTICE L7.11 . k. 1. the tongue tip low. oor.9 . t.ɪŋ ‖ | stɪə ͜ʳ ɪntə ðə kɔ:nə ‖ | ɪz ðæt jer aɪdɪə ͜ʳ əv ə dʒəʊk ‖ | peə ͜ʳ ɔ: ͜ʳ æpl ̩ ‖ | ɪts heə ͜ʳ əv ðə dɒg ‖ | hɪə ͜ʳ ən ðeə ‖ www. f.Repeat the exercise with /ɪə/. 6. 5. ʊə < ure. Move towards the relaxed /ə/ position.77 e) PRACTICE L7. f) PRACTICE L7.Listen to the /ʊə/ diphthong. d. z. | ˈweə ͜ʳ ə ju ˈgəʊ. m Joining Diphthongs Ending /ə/ L7. 2. L7.Place the diphthong /eə/ after the following consonants.14 . ʃ.Compare the diphthong /ʊə/ with its common replacement monothong /ɔ:/ ʊə ɔ: pjʊə pjɔ: kjʊə kjɔ: ʃʊə ʃɔ: pʊə pɔ: mʊə mɔ: g) PRACTICE L7. 4. p. tʃ.
..anenglishaccent.com _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 5. jər always eating out! Well..Listen to the conversation. There are a couple of people here.78 Spelling & Sound .. don’t we? Yes. But they’re not ready yet.. ‘To be’ is normally weak. ɑ:nt they? L7. Where are you going? 7. A B A B A B ə you coming out tonight? No.. 2.... I know you are. 6. If the next sound is a vowel. 4. The strong form of ‘are’ is /ɑ:/ How are you? 7. In three word questions. even if it is a content word: Where are you going? Funciton/weak Some are more expensive.Write the pronunciation of ‘are’ from the box next to each sentence.. The negative form is always strong /ɑ:nt/ Aren’t they? 8.. Oh yes.. Are you coming. I’m working.15 . but some ə more expensive than others. Where ə you going? wɪr all thinking of having a meal out.. We’re_all. Are you driving home? 4.17 . ‘we’ and ‘you’: You’re_always. Are you in love? www...‘Are’ TASTER L7. ‘Are’ is normally pronounced /ə/. ‘are’ will join with an /r/. paying attention to the highlighted words. The verb ‘to be’ is the most commonly mispronounced word in English. 9.16 1. ə x 5 ɑ:nt x 2 EG Are you OK? ə _____ ər x 1 ɑ: x 2 1. ‘are’ is normally strong: Where are they? a) EXERCISE L7. 5. Content/weak 3. and there are three carriages coming through. Aren’t they ready yet? 6... 3. Why aren’t you here? 8. are they? _____ © Joe Hudson 2010 . 2. we all have our pleasures in life. ‘Are’ can disappear after the words ‘they’.
medal 6. Another way of representing this is a small elevated schwa / ᵊ / 5. probable 3.Check your answers. but uncommon: / hɒspɪtəl / krɪtɪsɪzm̩ krɪtɪsɪzᵊm 3. Some unstressed syllables can be pronounced without using a vowel. seven ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ˈkætl ̩ ˈkætᵊl . It is possible to say a vowel in the space. The sufﬁx < ism > contains the syllabic consonant /ɪzm̩/ eg buddhism /bʊdɪzm̩/ classicism /klæsɪsɪzm̩/ a) EXERCISE . This is called a syllabic consonant: eg hospital / hɒspɪtl ̩/ eg hospital eg bɒtl ̩ i:vn̩ eg bɒtᵊl i:vᵊn action / ækʃn̩ /% 2. often 9. www. fiddle 5. little 4.79 IPA .com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Write or ﬁnd transcriptions for the following words in two ways: (i) with / ̩/ (ii) with / ᵊ /: (i) (ii) 1. passion 12. Syllabic Consonants are most commonly found before /l/ or /n/ in unstressed syllables: eg hæsl ̩ netl ̩ pɔɪzn̩ mɪʃn̩ 5.anenglishaccent. In IPA we mark a syllabic consonant with a line under the syllable / ̩/ 4. cattle 2. flatten 8.Syllabic Consonants 1. sudden 10. parcel 7. inflation 11.
I was in the sitting room with my laptop. I was about to explain that the internet had replaced the postman. she said ‘where’s my favourite grandson then’.Listen to and repeat the questions paying attention to the stress. Facebook background boardroom cupboard shipyard grapefruit childhood airline timetable cornﬂakes shopping bag lamp shade bed linen railway network basketball website alarm clock stepping stone Hotmail mother-in-law b) EXERCISE . 3. Can I ask you something? 2. but this gave me a headache. When she came through the front door.19 ˈﬁreﬁghter ˈbus ticket ˈsomething ˈfootball 2. Underline the remaining compounds.18 . reading an online newspaper. but I jumped up and gave her a hug.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . 1.‘Your e-mail address is “Jane Smith at hotmail dot com”’ I said. I asked her if she had seen the e-mail I sent her.Compounds My grandmother came to see me at the weekend.21 . Where’s my T-shirt? 10.20 . I calmly started to explain. 1. ‘But I live on Baker Street’ she replied. Are you a bricklayer? 5. What’s your brother-in-law’s surname? 7. Normally a compound will have ﬁrst element stress (as in the examples above). A compound is a combination of two or more words that create a singular meaning: L7.Underline any compounds in the questions below. Some compounds have double stress (see next page): ˈtown ˈhall ˈChristmas ˈeve ˈcentral ˈheating a) PRACTICE L7. Are those plants alright in the greenhouse? 9. Shall we go to the supermarket? 4. Does anybody have a screwdriver? 3. but I thought better of it. We sat at the kitchen table and I had another go. How on earth will it find me?’.80 Structure . TASTER L7. Do you accept credit cards? 8. www. Will you come to my birthday party? c) PRACTICE L7. ‘E-mail!’ she replied.First Element Stress Say the compounds in the box.anenglishaccent. ‘What on earth is an e-mail?’. Where are my car keys? 6. so I stopped and made our usual mid-morning filter coffee.Listen to the story.
22 The following types of compound have double stress: 1. decide if the compounds in the box are ﬁrst element.ʼ e) PRACTICE L7. Compounds with a material or ingredient in the ﬁrst element: ˈmango ˈsmoothie ˈsuede ˈshoes ˈchocolate ˈtart ˈmeat ˈpie ˈfruit juice NOT if the compound is ‘cake’ or ‘juice’: ˈcarrot cake d) EXERCISE L7. I live on ˌMilton ˈRoad in ˈHighgate.Say your own name. Pay attention to the correct stress in the compounds. Pay attention to stress if the name has ‘street’. Compounds with a place or time in the ﬁrst element: ˈTown ˈHall ˈkitchen ˈtable ˈsummer ˈholiday ˈChristmas ˈeve 3.81 L7. or double-stressed.Say the list of Underground Stations in London.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . EG ʻMy name is ˌJoe ˈHudson. www. ﬁre brigade country garden tuna sandwich summer solstice policeman winter olympics Christmas Day Boxing Day John Humphreys Regent Street garden shed steering wheel apple juice egg salad chocolate cake apple tart train station newspapers armchair Hackney Road L7. & your address.23 .Using the rules. A Goodge Street / Canada Water / Mile End / Burnt Oak / Oxford Circus B Kingʼs Cross / Warren Street / Clapham Junction / Kensal Rise / Liverpool Street C Piccadily Circus / Queenʼs Park / Stepney Green / Regentʼs Park / Kensington High Street D Gloucester Road / Leicester Square / Tottenham Court Road / Bond Street / Marble Arch E Mornington Crescent / Elephant & Castle / Kentish Town / Baker Street / Crystal Palace f) EXERCISE . we do not stress it. Names of people or places: ˈHyde ˈPark ˈSaudi ˈArabia ˈCaptain ˈBeefheart NOT if the second element is ‘street’: ˈOxford Street ˈChurch Street 2. ˌNorth ˈLondon.24 .anenglishaccent.25 Listen to check your answers.
TASTER L7.27 1. it needs a main clause: «subordinate clause» | «main clause» | if ↘↗I were you | I’d take a ↘map | 7. Main clauses use falling intonation: As soon as we’ve eaten ↗lunch | we can go ↘out. ‘if’. A subordinate clause does not make sense alone. The last item in the list is said with falling intonation. 8. Old information is shown with rising.anenglishaccent. www. or fall-rising intonation. We didn’t move to Spain because it’s ↘↗hot. ‘as soon as’. when. as soon as etc.82 Intonation . 4.Contrast We didn’t move to Spain because it’s ↘hot.What is the difference between the meaning of the two sentences? New & Old Information L7. I ↘↗thought it would rain today. Things to do: take the ↘↗rubbish out. New information is shown using falling intonation.) 5. Subordinate Clauses (If.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . We normally use rising or fall-rising intonation when we list things. Subordinate clauses use rising ↗ or fall-rising ↘↗ intonation. I thought it would ↘rain today (rain is new information) 2. clean the ↗car pick up some ↘food. ‘before’: «subordinate clause» | «main clause» | When you arrive at the ↗airport | give me a ↘ring. A subordinate clause begins with an adverb such as ‘when’. (rain is old information) Lists 3.26 . 6.
B Right. salad and tomatoes.I just haven’t had time to sort it out ☐ .so where is he? ☐ . anything else? Aren’t you making a lasagne tonight? A Oh yes. ☐ b) PRACTICE L7. eggs. The tonic syllables are underlined. A Are you going to the shops? B Yes. We should get a smoke alarm fitted . do you need anything? A Well. we need milk.30 Subordinate Clauses . ! 1.83 a) EXERCISE L7. When you arrive at Gatwick airport ☐ take the Southern train ☐ to London Victoria ☐ It will take about half an hour ☐ if you take the fast train ☐ If you canʼt afford the train ☐ there is a coach ☐ but it takes an hour and a half ☐ At Victoria station ☐ youʼll see a statue of Queen Mary ☐ My sister will be waiting for you ☐ underneath it ☐ www.Practise the following conversations.Where on earth are you? B ☐ 1. ☐ .You will hear each statement in two different ways. ! ! ! ! ! ! 2.28 New & Old .Write the intonation pattern you hear in the box after each unit. c) EXERCISE L7. I hoped the dinner would be ready .it’s the law.anenglishaccent. ☐ 4.it looks delicious. John told us he’d be early . I’ll need a some cheese and flour for the sauce. France.that’s why I openned the garage door.It’s lovely to see you.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Sweden and the UK of course. ☐ . ☐ 3. A Which countries have you visited in Europe? B Spain.why have you got that helmet on? ☐ . I thought you were coming by car! .29 Lists .Can you hurry it up a little bit? ☐ 2. Match each statement with its meaning: EG I thought you’d be here! A .and here he is.
/l/ & /ɫ/ ɪə eə l ̩ ᵊl compounds are if.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .↘ www.....Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 114.84 End of Unit Checklist 7 EXERCISE ...anenglishaccent.↗ | then.
com © Joe Hudson 2010 . IPA Structure 8 Vowel Sounds Spelling & Sound sufﬁxes Intonation Review 85 Consonant Sounds Affricates Reduced Vowels lu:s / lu:z / lu:zə -ment Transcription III Stress Shift 16 60 ↘↗ www.anenglishaccent.
anenglishaccent. An affricate is a plosive immediately followed by a fricative. 2.1 IPA mouth Position 1 spellings / words < ch > < ti > < tu > check chuck chat chop chalk chart chase child choke cheer chair itch wretch such watch Gucci lurch porch arch nature broach couch suggestion tʃ alveolar gliding to hard palate position / practice tʃ chicken watch tʃ tʃ tʃ tʃ tʃ tʃ tʃ tʃ tʃ tʃ Position 2 dʒ joke ledge < j > < g > < dg > < dj > ridge judge gadget lodge siege Goodge surge gorge barge page hijack shortage Joe jazz Johannesberg jockey gymn alveolar gliding to hard palate dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ dʒ www. /dʒ/ can replace /d+j/.86 Affricate Consonant Sounds 1. There are two affricates in English IPA: voiceless /tʃ/ and voiced /dʒ/ 3. L8. Tuesday = /tju:zdeɪ/ OR /tʃu:zdeɪ/ " " 4.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . /tʃ/ can replace /t + j/. a) PRACTICE L8. ‘do you’ is often contracted to /dʒu/ in connected speech. " " " " Did you? = /dɪd ju/ OR /dɪdʒu/ Do you like jazz? /dʒu laɪk dʒæz/ 5.0 Repeat after the recording.
Affricate or Fricative? d) EXERCISE . shirt chalk Japan leisure achieve machine joke joy butcher measure match sharp chocolate age short chose pleasure patient gradual station cheer closure injure ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ e) EXERCISE L8. A I have a question. 3. why do you ask? c) PRACTICE L8. www.2 Listen to the conversations and underline the affricate sounds: 1.Place the words in the box into the correct column below.87 b) EXERCISE L8.2 Repeat the conversations.3 Listen to check your answers. A Did you watch the match on Tuesday? B I can’t imagine how Manchester City won! 2. Are you a bachelor or are you married? B I’m a bachelor.anenglishaccent. A Where did you go on holiday last year? B To Germany in March and then China in June.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .
ə/ 2.anenglishaccent. The length of an English vowel will shorten if the next sound is a weak form or a voiceless consonant: full vowel lose /lu:z/ play /pleɪ/ reduced vowel before a reduced vowel before a weak form voiceless consonant loser /lu:zə/ place /pleɪs/ loose /lu:s/ player /pleɪ.88 Reduced Vowels TASTER L8. In which word is the vowel longest? lose loser loose 1.4 The vowel sound in each word is /u:/.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . This change is most noticeable in long monothong and diphthong vowels a) PRACTICE L8.5 Listen and repeat the words paying attention to the vowel length. full / reduced + voiceless cons i: u: ɜ: ɔ: ɑ: eɪ ɔɪ aɪ əʊ aʊ ɪə eə pea / piece fee / feet knee / neat boo / boot full / reduced + weak form leave / leave it chew / chewing dirt / dirty cheese / cheesy lose / loser queue / cute shoe / shoot heard / hurt turn / Turk nerd / nurse four / fought turn / Turner pour / port shore / short bar / bark play / plate not possible why / white grow / gross hide / height no / note star / start ray / rate talk / talking store / story hard / harder play / player laugh / laughing drain / draining hard / heart laid / late annoy / annoying employ / employment ﬂy / ﬂight throw / throat hide / hiding go / going height / heighten toast / toaster drown / drowning steer / steering tear / tearing how / house down / doubt bow / bout pout / power peer / pierce not possible feared / Fiat near / nearly bare / barely www.
Yes. ________________ 9. Do we need anything else? |X| . I’m going to the shops for a loaf of bread |.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . I don’t think so.7 Write the words and decide if the main vowel is full (f) or reduced (r). X . X |. | X | X . . . ________________ _________ www. . . maybe a couple of pints of milk. X | 4. . . X | 5. 1. X. . ________________ _________ 4. r . X | 3. . X . . r X X r . . | c) PRACTICE L8. ________________ 2.Write f (full) or r (reduced) under each strong vowel sound (X). X. .anenglishaccent. X . ________________ r _________ _________ 3. Fine. X X X | X |X . X . ________________ _________ 5. d) EXERCISE L8. |X|. X . Can you buy some more oranges and pick up a bottle of wine? |. X . Oh. ________________ 6. ________________ 8. . See you later then. ________________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ 10. X . No. laugh 1. ________________ 7. X f | | 2.89 b) EXERCISE .6 Listen and practice the conversation. | | .
c) EXERCISE .90 Spelling & Sound . Many sufﬁxes do not normally change the stress of the word. These include: -al -ic -ion -ive -ious -ulous -eous -orous -ity inˈvestigate / inˌvestiˈgation ˈhistory / hisˈtorical ˈmystery / mysˈterious 4. These include: -ment -less -ful -ish -ism -ist -ive -ize -y ˈlife / ˈlifeless proˈfession / proˈfessional inˈvest / inˈvestment 3. Serbia Taiwan Australia Chile Finland Malta _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ www. These include: -ade -ese -ette -esque -eer -ee ˈPortugal / ˌPortuˈguese ˈpicture / pictuˈresque ˈballad / ballaˈdeer 5. China Spain Columbia Iran Sweden Turkey Chi nese _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ . It is advisable to check the stress of words in a dictionary and learn them as you do.8 1. fanˈtastic beautiful African Congolese evaluation summarize mountain mountaineer partially partiality profitable employee statuesque pronunciation bottomless fanatic fundamentalist b) PRACTICE L8.Check your answers. A sufﬁx is added to a word (root): ˈpower / ˈpowerful ˈmanager / manaˈgerial 2.anenglishaccent. Some sufﬁxes are the main stress in a word.9 Check your answers and repeat with correct stress.Mark the stress in the words with / ˈ /.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . For every rule. there are exceptions. Some sufﬁxes change the stress of the word to the syllable before the sufﬁx.Write the adjective for each country name and mark the stress.Sufﬁxes L8. a) EXERCISE .
Listen and read the transcription above. . a) EXERCISE L8.anenglishaccent. but can be shown in phonetics transcriptions using the full IPA alphabet. 4. 2. Joining and intonation are not shown in broad transcriptions.Write a transcription of the recording. . www. The following symbols are used in transcriptions: symbol | ‖ ˈ .com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Check your answers.10 .ɪŋ ɒn səˈfɑ:ri next jɪə | ˈsəʊ ðəʔ wi kən si: ðə ˈkæts | ɪn ðeə ˈnætʃərəl ɪnˈvaɪrənmənt ‖ TASTER L8.Which information is not shown in the transcription? 1. 1. Tone and mouth positioning are not shown in broad transcriptions. 3. ˌ meaning pause / end of unit long pause / end of unit stressed syllable syllable boundary syllabic consonant 3.Transcriptions wi ˈwent tə ðə ˈzu: ɒn fraɪdeɪ ‖ ɪʔ wəz ˈreɪnɪŋ | bət wi ˈsɔ: məʊst əv ði ˈænɪməlz ‖ maɪ ˈdɔ:tə ˈrɪəli laɪkt ðə ˈtaɪgəz | ʃid nevə ˈsi:n wʌn bɪˈfɔ: ‖ wɪə ˈθɪŋkɪŋ əv gəʊ.11 . Broad IPA transcriptions show the pronunciation and stress of speech. 4.91 IPA . a d 2.
12 Listen to the recording. ˈeighty. If the next syllable is stressed. If there is a strong object. it will take the stress from the particle: Didn’t you take up ˈdancing last year. If the next syllable is stressed. Numbers ending -teen normally place stress on -teen. ˈninety Abbreviations 6. thirˈteen. fourˈteen. Where is the stress placed in each sentence? 1. Abbreviations place secondary stress on the ﬁrst letter and primary stress on the last letter: PˈC EˈU AGˈM BBˈC PTˈO RˈP 7. we stress the ﬁrst syllable of the abbreviation: Are you an ˈEU ˈcitizen? Phrasal Verbs 8. This commonly occurs in numbers. 2. Are we going ˈout tonight? 9. and certain verb/noun combinations. nineteen. eighteen. 10.com C past workers miles pounds years old degrees policemen © Joe Hudson 2010 . abbreviations.13 3. ˈsixty. ﬁfˈteen. (noun) This party’s deˈserted.92 Structure . phrasal verbs. Numbers ending -ty always place stress on the ﬁrst syllable. ˈthirty.14 i) Say A then B ii) Say A+C then B+C. the stress in the -teen number moves: ˈfourteen ˈworkers 5.Shifting Stress “Don’t let the handle go!” “Can you let go of me?” TASTER L8. ˈﬁfty. A thirty forty ﬁfty sixty seventy eighty ninety B thirteen forteen ﬁfteen sixteen seventeen eighteen ninteen www. ˈseventy. this is called stress shift. -teen Numbers L8. Some words and phrases can be stressed in two ways. ˈforty. seventeen. Some words are stressed on the ﬁrst syllable when they are a noun and the second syllable when they are a verb or adjective: The Sahara ˈdesert. Focus on the stress shift in B+C. Verb/noun combinations.anenglishaccent. (verb) a) PRACTICE L8. We normally place the stress on the particle. sixteen. 4.
PˈC EˈU AGˈM ETˈA PˈR IˈT BBˈC UˈK GDˈP PTˈO RSVˈP RˈP HˈR GMˈT OTˈT c) PRACTICE L8. c) PRACTICE L8. From ˈPC ˈWorld. What was he convicted of? 3. I’ll help you ˈout with that. b) The convict has escaped. d) EXERCISE L8.anenglishaccent. f) I’ve been recording a new album. Exports have been low recently. d) The proceeds will go to charity.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . g) You are suspected of burglary. www.Listen and mark the stress in the underlined word in each sentence.Say the sentences. ˈFinish your ˈdinner off. ˈwasn’t it? B B B B B A BLˈT. ˈFifteen hundred GMˈT Bring it ˈup at the AGˈM then. 6. Sales have decreased sharply. How shall we ﬁnance the deal? 4. A ˈThat was a bit OTˈT.16 Abbreviations . a) Proˈjections are low this year.17 Phrasal Verbs . We need to proceed quickly 5. c) Finances are low at the moment.93 b) PRACTICE L8. Don’t give ˈup. The transport system in London. 1. Yes. I’m working on a new ˈproject.Repeat the abbreviations stressing the last letter. e) Scotland exports woolly clothes. 10. A What kind of ˈsandwich do you want? A Are you an ˈEU ˈcitizen? A ˈ Where did you get that ˈlaptop? A What’s your ETˈA. It’s a new world record. 9. and a) have been done for you. stress the object. stress the particle.Say the conversations paying attention to stress (ˈ).Say the sentences. 8. I’m from the UˈK. Can you ˈwake ˈmum up? Have you really ˈgiven up ˈsmoking? Don’t ˈlet the ˈhandle go. 7. 1. I slept ˈin I woke ˈup really early this morning Shall I throw this aˈway? Can you take this ˈout? d) PRACTICE L8.19 Noun/Verb Words . j) There’s been a decrease in sales. 2. England’s win was a major upset. h) Can you transport this case? i) I’m very upset about that.18 Phrasal Verbs .15 Abbreviations . That tyre looks a bit suspect.
___ i) ↗ Yes/no question ___ 2 b) EXERCISE L8.Speaker does not know the answer.Place each sentence (nos 1-16) into one of the categories below: a) ↘ New Information ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ b) ↘ New Information Question .21 Listen and check your answers www.anenglishaccent.Speaker knows the answer. ___ d) ↘↗ Yes/No question.94 Intonation Review TASTER L8.Speaker uncertain of answer. ___ ___ e) ↘↗ Repeat Information.20 Listen to the conversation several times. A | ¹Shall we get some of those ↘↗oysters? | B | ²Well they look rather ↘tasty | ³↘don’t they? | A | ⁴↘Yes | ⁵How many shall we ↘get | ⁶Two ↗dozen? | B | ⁷Two ↘↗dozen | ⁸Are you out of your ↘↗mind? | | ⁹It’s only you and I ↘eating tonight | ¹⁰↗isn’t it? | A | ¹¹↘↗ No | ¹²↘Jane’s coming over | ¹³She’ll eat a ↘dozen | | ¹⁴↘easily | B | ¹⁵Oh well if ↘↗Jane’s coming over | ¹⁶we’d better get ↘three dozen| a) EXERCISE .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ___ c) ↘ Question Tag . ___ f) ↘↗ Polite correction ___ g) ↘↗ Subordinate Clause ___ h) ↗ Question Tag .
anenglishaccent. The tonic syllable is underlined in each unit and stress is marked /ˈ/. Try to explain the use in each pattern.22 . www.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Read the conversation.Question Yes/No Question Information new serious / open meaning new repeat friendly / closed meaning repeat implicational fall-rise correction Contrast Main clause polite correction list / subordinate list / subordinate ↘↗ repeat friendly / surprise / closed meaning repeat ↗ d) PRACTICE .95 c) EXERCISE .Study the chart below.Listen to the conversation and check your answers. it shows the intonation covered on this course: ↘ Wh. following the intonation patterns. A |¹ Are you ˈback in ↘↗England | B | ²↘ Yes |³ I’ve ˈjust arrived ↘ˈnow | A |⁴ So did you ˈhave a nice ↘↗time in Paris | B |⁵ ↘Fantastic |⁶ I ↘loved it | A |⁷ ˈWhat were the ↘museums like | B |⁸ There are ˈso ↘many |⁹ I didn’t have time to ↘↗see them all | A |¹⁰ Did you ˈgo to the ↘↗Louvre | B |¹¹ It ˈfeels like I spent an entire ↘day there | A |¹² ˈHow about the ↘food |¹³ What was ↘that like? | B |¹⁴ The ˈbread and ˈcakes were ↘amazing | |¹⁵ I ˈcouldn’t afford to eat ↘↗out much though | A |¹⁶ Did you try ˈsnails or ↘↗frogs legs | B |¹⁷ ↘↗No |¹⁸ but I ˈdidn’t see anyone ↘else eating them |¹⁹ ↘either | A |²⁰ It ˈmust be a ↘myth |²¹ So do you fancy meeting ↘↗up later | |²² You can ˈtell me all about it ↘then | B |²³ ↘Absolutely |²⁴ The ˈKing’s ˈHead at ↗nine? | e) EXERCISE L8.
Explain and give examples for each term below then check your answers on page 114.ɪŋ ‖ ˈexport / exˈport ↘ ↘↗ ↗ www.96 End of Unit Checklist 8 EXERCISE . Affricate reduced vowel sufﬁx stress | wɒt ə ju du.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .anenglishaccent.
a) EXERCISE L1.ɪŋ www.Introduction b) EXERCISE .L 2.6 .D 16.plays & freeze contain voiced /z/.L 8.S 11.3 .4 .Introduction b) EXERCISE L1.S 14.97 ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 1 Consonant Sounds . c) EXERCISE L1.7 Voiceless .walked = voiceless /t/ entered = voiced /d/ present = voiced /z/ price = voiceless /s/ bake = voiced /b/ sprout = voiced /b/ Paul = voiceless /p/ yes = voiceless /s/ was = voiced /z/ thought = voiceless /θ/ those = voiced /ð/ b) EXERCISE L1.The spelling < s > does not show us the voicing. ˈdeɪvɪd ˈbekəm kəˈnu:. chase Voiced .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . place & lights contain voiceless /s/ .S 3. pass.Voicing TASTER L1. crease. lose. is.1.1/c 2/f 3/a 4/g 5/e 6/b 7/d Vowl Sounds . place 3. who’s. L 19.D 4.D 6.L 9.1.D 15. D IPA bəˈnɑ:nə ˈkærəlaɪn məˈseɪdɪz ˈkwi:n ɪˈlɪzəbəθ ˈpɜ:pəl məˈdrɪd ˈtɒməs ˈkærət ˈpɔ:tʃəgəl ˈeləfənt.lease. IPA . L 20.S 5. peas. it’s. lights 4.L (Can be S when weak) 18. lights. loose. plays 2.‘pəә təә kəә’ all produce more air than ‘bəә dəә gəә’. S 17.D 12. S Spelling & Sound . as. stop. please. us.S 13.5 .plays. was.9 NAME IT! Category colour city man’s name woman’s name make of car fruit vegetable animal famous English man famous English woman sport country 10.Mouth Diagrams b) EXERCISE . he’s. freeze . what’s.L1.anenglishaccent.L 7.
mother.98 ANSWER KEY Speech Structure . Sleep is the mother of invention. particular. ↘↗ 2. London Intonation .Introduction EXERCISE L1. ↗ 6. d) EXERCISE L2.4 θ think bath thought theatre thorough authorise breath faith North thanks cloth thigh fourth worth South Vowel Sounds . ↘↗ CHAPTER 2 Consonant Sounds . ↘ 5.Fricative b) EXERCISE 1. ↘ 3. I think she’s fine though. ↗ 4.England.6 i: please achieve machine steep police relieve these u: improve chew booze lose reduce loose new ɜ: word further turkey heard internal worm shirt ɔ: ð these bathe though further mother breathe Northern the clothes feather with there father Southern ɑ: heart calm mark laugh palm dance cause court restore chalk raw poor ﬂoor www. darken.12 . potato.Long b) EXERCISE L2.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . 4. bottomless. ↘↗ 7. The first thing Safi saw was the North 5.anenglishaccent.1.Schwa EXERCISE L1. 2. Thanks ever so much. Shall we measure the volume? 3. congratulations.21 .
Where are you going to get spare parts? 4. ʃɑ:pən 18. nɔ:ðən 4.ən/ ! NOTE . θɔ:t 9. ɔ:fəl 6. A weak B strong! ! 3. tɜ:nə 16.13 ə i or ɪ 2.Crossword a) EXERCISE Across . 3.1. əlɜ:t 5. pɑ:t 8. A strong B weak father machine annoy shepherd compose walking risky employ market Spanish occur rubber London England funny running money enough shopping between www. 5.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . fɑ:stə 12. ɜ:n Speech Structure . IPA . Charles. ɜ:θ 9. Rain water is the most important resource we have.99 ANSWER KEY Spelling & Sound < r > a) EXERCISE L2. A strong B weak! ! 5. ɔ:fən 17. Four and a half hours later it was still burning.Some dictionaries may have slightly different transcriptions. ɑ:t 14. 2. c) EXERCISE L2.Weak Forms a) EXERCISE L2. dʒu:n Down .9 ! bath sharp court/caught learn door ! ! ! park peace/piece worse move car ! ! ! leave short water hard need ! ! ! burger internal appalling law bought d) EXERCISE ! alarm /əˈlɑ:m/ Portugal /ˈpɔ:tʃəgəl/ balloon /bəˈlu:n/ achievement /əˈtʃi:vmənt/ ! happiness /ˈhæpɪnəs/ guardian /ˈgɑ:di. That’s rather a fast car. 6. si:m 6. pi:tə 7.8 EG Her interest is in Romanian card tricks. məʃi:n 13. Let’s go for a walk in the park. nu:n 3. A weak B strong! 4. Could mister Roberts come to the airport security desk. fɑ:m 10. tɔ: 11. səpɔ:t 15. A weak B strong! Structure . A weak B strong 6.Function Words a) EXERCISE 1.2.anenglishaccent. 1.
↘ (going) CHAPTER 3 Vowel Sounds . A) ʊ i: B) ɒ ʊ 5.Short b) EXERCISE L3. A) ɔ: B) i: 4. ↗ (whose) 7. A) u: B) u: ɜ: 3. ↘ (tie) 8.Long & Short Vowels a) EXERCISE tu: pɪg +:t fɔ: hænd bɜ:d bel sʌn klɒk kɑ: bʊk /d/ played ﬁned prized fostered fried murdered strayed bored /ɪd/ wanted wasted pleaded hinted printed plotted lasted interested b) EXERCISE 1.19 1. ↗ (who) 3.6 ɪ injure tick chicken list pin sit link ʊ butcher wool look put could woman should e head Fred when let bread send West ʌ love son none hunt summer enough sun æ sad fan match Harry plastic pad rabbit ɒ chocolate watch rob what Australia solve box Spelling & Sound <ed> TASTER . ↘ (they) d) EXERCISE L2. ↘ (teacher) 4. ↗ (where) 9.8 /t/ stopped ﬁnished raked faced clocked shopped liked rocked IPA . ↘ (ﬁlm) 4.anenglishaccent. ↗ (how) 6.20 1. A) ɒ ʌ ɑ: B) e æ 2. ↘ (been) 2. ↘ (apples) 5./ʃɪpt/ /drægd/ /lɪftɪd/ a) EXERCISE L3.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ↘ (say) 2. ↗ (where) 5. ↗ (whose) 3.100 ANSWER KEY Intonation .Information Questions Tonic Syllable in brackets. c) EXERCISE L2. A) ɜ: B) æ ɜ: www.
Friendly 3. ɪts ɪn ə əv 10.0 .“I havenʼt got any money on me!” He cannot say the nasal sounds /n/ or ! ! /m/ Vowel Sounds .17 1.101 ANSWER KEY Structure . ↘↗ 10. ə wi tə ðə fə 9. ↘ e) EXERCISE L3.22 1.8 eɪ b g dʒ r h t s say bay gay Jay ray here toy soy joy rye high/hi tie/Thai toe/tow sew/so ɔɪ boy aɪ buy guy əʊ bow go Joe row aʊ bow ɪə beer gear jeer eə bear row how rear hear/here rare hair/hare tear sear tear sigh www. ↘↗ 4. ↗ 7.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . əv ju Intonation . ↘↗ 8. d) EXERCISE L3.23 Use sound ﬁle to check answers. Is (↘↗) 5.Weak Vowel Joining c) EXERCISE L3. ʃi ɪm tu 8. effort (↘↗) 3. welcoming (↘↗) CHAPTER 4 Consonant Sounds . ↘↗ 6.Yes/No Questions TASTER . Surprised d) EXERCISE L3. də ju əs tə 4. Serious 2. ↗ 2.1.Diphthong b) EXERCISE L4.24 1. tu ə 5. help (↘↗) 6.anenglishaccent.Nasals TASTER L4. dɪd ju ðə 7. seen (↘↗) 2. ə ju 2. cold (↘) 4. ↘ 9. ↘↗ 5. həv ən 3. ↘ 3. ɪt wəz ən 6.
(r) She understood you. (r) Go away. (w) Come to India next year. I might refer ͜ another student to you.102 ANSWER KEY Spelling & Sound <s> TASTER . (r) I prefer orange.ul ___8___ dʒəˈhænəzˌbɜ:g ___2___ brəˈzɪlɪə ___18___ c) EXERCISE helˈsɪŋki ___11___ ˈedɪmbʌrə ___13___ ˈbrʌsəlz ___12___ kəˈbʊl ___5___ nju: ˈdelɪ ___6___ ˈæθənz ___16___ ˈæŋkərə ___9___ ˈwɒʃɪŋtən ___15___ ˌnaɪˈrəʊbi ___3___ ˈtrɪpəli ___17___ ˈri.10 /s/ stops thinks marks servants Iraqʼs whatʼs carts ants IPA . (j) Her arm is in a sling. 5. He ﬂew ͜ into that joke! I saw an eagle. (r) Wild boar are dangerous. 11. You'll pay ͜ a lot for ͜ a new bike.Countries & Capitals a) EXERCISE ˈwɔ:sɔ: ___10___ beɪˈdʒɪŋ ___7___ məˈdrɪd ___14___ sʌ.18 8. Where ͜ are you going? 7. (r) Law and order. It's ͜ a toy ͜ in ͜ a box. (r) www./stɒps/ /pleɪz/ /fɪnɪʃɪz/ a) EXERCISE L4. It's now ͜ ! r never. (r) I dare anyone to go. Change gear ͜ in a moment.æd ___4___ ˈli:mə ___1___ /z/ things Joeʼs employerʼs Englands howʼs taxis lions plays /ɪz/ ﬁnishes watches Lizʼs bossʼs Greeceʼs whoseʼe busʼs horses frɑ:ns Structure . He tore ͜ into the meat. (w) A pair of shoes.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . (j) True or false.anenglishaccent. It was so ͜ interesting! 3. There's ͜ a bar ͜ on the ﬁrst ﬂoor 9. 4. (j) How awful.17 1. 12. 6. d) EXERCISE L4. o 2. (w) Near or far. Is ͜ it ͜ a car ͜ over there? 10. (r) Itʼs really interesting. (w) High above the trees (j) Why arenʼt you here? (j) Poor effort. (r) He isnʼt there.Joining weɪlz ˈrʌʃə dʒəˈpæn ˈfɪnlənd c) EXERCISE L4. I like tea ͜ in the ͜ afternoon. (r) War and peace.
Where do you want to go? imperative B I don’t know. 3. www. Has he honoured the payment? 2.22 1. ↗ 7.103 ANSWER KEY Blue or green.Itʼs a bit cold. ↘ 3. positive / positive A The ﬁrst sight of the sun in months and you’d stay in. ↗ d) EXERCISE L4.Use recording to check. TASTER . alright.6 1. ↗shall we? suggestion A We could do. ↘isn’t it? B Not bad. has she ﬁnished her homework? 4. Pass me the paper. (r) Be a good boy. Let’s go out then. It’s hours since he last had anything to eat. ↘isnʼt it? Speaker knows it is cold.24 A Beautiful day. (j) Iʼll wear it tonight. ↘ 6. ↗would you? B Alright. reply tag speaker needs an answer speaker knows answer A ↗Is it? But you aren’t going to watch telly. ↗is it? Speaker possibly being sarcastic. ! Itʼs a bit cold.23 .. ↘has it? speaker knows answer B No. (j) Intonation . (w) The only problem. e) EXERCISE L4. I’ll get my coat. Both his computer and his bike were taken by thieves. ↘ 8. ↗ 2. 5. A It hasn’t been this warm for months.. ↗ 4. ↗will you? I think ‘News at 1’ is on. CHAPTER 5 Consonants .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ↗ 9.. b) EXERCISE L4.. ! Itʼs a bit cold. ↗ 10. Harry asked if he could have shepherd’s pie tonight.Question Tags. (w) Employ another writer. Honestly. I’ve had enough of her new hairstyle.Silent <h> b) EXERCISE L5. ↗ 5. (j) Grow up.anenglishaccent. ↗are you? B Well. 6.. ↗isnʼt it? Speaker is uncertain of the answer.
www. kri:s 2. kwɪt 7. corn. ˈeksreɪ 5. feɪs 14. Can’t gəәʊ əәʊvəә the snəәʊ. ‘you’re’.Transcribing Words TASTER . What do I really need naʊ? A snəәʊ plaʊ. ˈkwɔ:təә 4.anenglishaccent.19 . yellow. x-ray.quite. ‘don’t’. You can’t get raʊnd the snəәʊ. kæb 10.‘you’ve’. jəәʊk 9. kraɪ Structure . ˈfeɪʃəәl 3. ɪgzɪst 16. the written conversation does not.15 .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Away from həәʊm. ‘don’t’.104 ANSWER KEY Diphthongs Ending /ʊ/ f) EXERCISE L5. wɪðaʊt a saʊnd. ɪgˈzæm 8. yel 13. ɪksˈtend 12.The recording contains contractions.Use recording for answers. g) EXERCISE L5.Contractions TASTER L5.16 Snow Plough. . b) EXERCISE 1. ‘might’ve’. kwɪk 15.Have a) EXERCISE sentence pronunciation Have you seen the time? Do we have to go? you should have told me earlier I’ll have a shower and then we’ll go həv hæf əv hæv IPA . leɪs 6. Spelling & Sound . kwaɪt 11. dəәʊnt you nəәʊ? At this məәʊməәnt I’m əәləәʊn. ‘he’s’.
A I did not know until this afternoon. ‘Britain In Crisis’ was the title. ↘ here 10. but Rob wasn’t really worried about the weather.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . ↘↗ hungry 6. ↘↗ left 8. ↘ doing 4. 1. It looked like it might snow.Approximants g) EXERCISE L6. www. The sky looked quite yellow. A John and Jane are coming over tonight. B It might have been a good idea to bring a torch. and the trees were swaying in the wind. 1.105 ANSWER KEY b) EXERCISE L5. 3. His only concern was writing the report which was to be released from the Ministry of Defence the following day.Tone Units b) EXERCISE L5.anenglishaccent.26 A) 3. and my husband has cousins there A I cannot see the road properly. What are we going to eat? Intonation . 3 2.25 1. B You could have told me a bit earlier. 2 D) 2. ↘↗ hoped CHAPTER 4 Consonant Sounds . B You are probably right. ↗ why c) EXERCISE L5. and Rob was going to brief the Prime Minister on the exact details in a few hours.22 A Are you going away this year? B We are thinking of going to Poland. Anyway. 2 B) 2. B At seven? That is in half an hour. A There is one in the car.7 It was a cold winter’s Tuesday in West London. A Why have you chosen to go there? B Cracow is a beautiful place. 1 C) 1. ↘ know 5. ↘↗ you 3. but it is too late to go back now. they will be here at 7. 3. ↘↗ pronunciation 7. ↘ would 9.
magdelaine c) EXERCISE magdelaine = | em eɪ dʒi: di: ͜ ʲ i: ͜ ʲ el eɪ ͜ ʲ aɪ ͜ ʲ en i: | summerfield = | es ju: ͜ ʷ em em i: ͜ ʲ ɑ: ͜ ʳ ef aɪ ͜ ʲ i: ͜ ʲ el di: | hiccough = | eɪtʃ aɪ si: si: ͜ ʲ əәʊ ju: dʒi: ͜ ʲ eɪtʃ | reentered = | ɑ: ͜ ʳ i: ͜ ʲ i: ͜ ʲ en ti: ͜ ʲ i: ͜ ʲ ɑ: ͜ ʳ i: d | lillingstone = | el aɪ ͜ ʲ el el aɪ ͜ ʲ en dʒi: ͜ ʲ es ti: ͜ ʲ əәʊ ͜ ʷ en i: | Structure .14 . They are not new information. Spelling & Sound .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . t 11.Use recording to check answers.anenglishaccent. a) EXERCISE L6. A vodka/tonic B gin/me 3. tʃ 6. tʃ or ʔ 3. t 4. t t 10. t 2. hiccough 4. A Joe B From 2. ʔ IPA . A putting/apple/tart 2.Person B does not stress ‘coffee’ or ‘sugar’ because both of these words have already been used in the conversation. t ʔ 8.21 1. ʔ t t 12. summerfield 3./t/ and /?/ 1.106 ANSWER KEY Joining . t t ʔ 9. t 7.Diphthongs Ending /ɪ/ f) EXERCISE L6. lillingstone B pear www. reentered 5.20 . ʔ ʔ t a h j k b c d e g p t v f l m n s x z i y o Q u w r b) EXERCISE 1.The Alphabet a) EXERCISE /eɪ/ ʲ /i:/ ʲ /e/ /aɪ/ ʲ /əʊ/ ʷ /u:/ ʷ /ɑ:/ ʳ 5. A milk B allergic 4.Prominence & Stress TASTER L6.
sevn ̩/ sevᵊn 4.Syllabic Consonants a) EXERCISE 2. ˈlɪtl ̩/ ˈlɪtᵊl 4. drive 2. = Fact I’d ↘↗like to go to Iceland. Golf 5. tart 4.23 .Use recording for answers. c) EXERCISE L6. ɪnˈﬂeɪʃn ̩/ ɪnˈﬂeɪʃᵊn 11.31 A | Are we going ↘↗out tonight? | Yes/No Question B | Well I’d ↘↗like to | Implicational Fall-rise | but I have to ﬁnish this ↘essay.Use the recroding for answers.107 ANSWER KEY c) EXERCISE L6. | New Information A | How much longer do you ↘need? | New Information Question B | I’d say about two ↘ hours. d) EXERCISE L6.29 . əә 2.com © Joe Hudson 2010 .Use the recording for answers. ˈﬂætn ̩/ ˈﬂætᵊn 8. ˈɒfn ̩/ ˈɒfᵊn 9. pɑ:sl ̩/ ˈpɑ:sᵊl 7. pæʃn ̩/ pæʃᵊn 12.16 1.The Fall-Rise TASTER L6. əә IPA . d) EXERCISE L6. ˈmedl ̩/ medᵊl 6. | New Information A | Two ↘↗hours! | Repeat Information | I can’t wait ↘↗that long. never 6. sʌdn ̩/ sʌdᵊn 10. ɑ: 9. we expect the speaker will not go. əә www. ɑ:nt 8. | Implicational Fall-rise B | I’ll do the best I ↘can! | New Information CHAPTER 7 Spelling & Sound . ˈprɒbəbl ̩/ ˈprɒbəbᵊl 3.30 . əә 7. ɑ:nt 5. ɑ: 6.anenglishaccent.24 1.25 I’d like to go to ↘Iceland. Coltrane 3. stand Intonation .‘Are’ a) EXERCISE L7. e) EXERCISE L6. ˈfɪdl ̩/ ˈfɪdᵊl 5. əәr 3. = Implication.
We didn’t move to Spain because it’s ↘↗hot. Hackney Road Intonation .26 We didn’t move to Spain because it’s ↘hot. Are those plants alright in the greenhouse?! 8. but the reason was not the hot weather. Regent Street. Whatʼs your brother-in-lawʼs surname?! 7. train station. apple juice. newspapers. Do you accept credit cards? 5. Whereʼs my T-shirt? ! ! 10. a) EXERCISE L7. winter olympics. I calmly started to explain. Will you come to my birthday party? 9. so I stopped and made our usual mid-morning filter coffee.! f) EXERCISE First Element Stress ﬁre brigade. Where are my car keys?! 3. = We moved to Spain. chocolate cake. ‘What on earth is an e-mail?’. policeman. b) EXERCISE 1.108 ANSWER KEY Structure . = The reason we did not move to spain was the fact that Spain is hot.Compounds TASTER L7.anenglishaccent.‘Your e-mail address is “Jane Smith at hotmail dot com”’ I said. I was about to explain that the internet had replaced the postman. B/A 2. A/B When you arrive at Gatwick airport ↘↗ take the Southern train ↘↗ ☐ ☐ to London Victoria ↘ It will take about half an hour ↘ ☐ ☐ ☐ ☐ if you take the fast train ↗ If you canʼt afford the train ↘↗ ☐ ☐ there is a coach ↘ but it takes an hour and a half ↘ At Victoria station ↘↗ youʼll see a statue of Queen Mary ☐ ☐ ↘ ↘ ☐ My sister will be waiting for you ↘↗ underneath it ☐ www. Can I ask you something. We sat at the kitchen table and I had another go.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . armchair Double Stress country garden. tuna sandwich. Christmas Day. ‘But I live on Baker Street’ she replied. Are you a bricklayer?! ! 6. How on earth will it find me?’.17 ‘E-mail!’ she replied. B/A c) EXERCISE L7. garden shed. John Humphreys. Boxing Day.Contrast TASTER L7. A/B 4. summer solstice. apple tart. Does anybody have a screwdriver?! ! 2. but I thought better of it.28 1. but this gave me a headache. steering wheel. Shall we go to the supermarket? ! ! ! 4. egg salad.30 3.
A Did you watch the match on Tuesday? B I can’t imagine how Manchester City won! 2.3 . moment r 7. where/wear f 10. r d) EXERCISE L8. bird f www. . | . . Oh. . Yes.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . X f f | X | f X . . X |. I don’t think so. why do you ask? e) EXERCISE L8. father r 4. Are you a bachelor or are you married? B I’m a bachelor. . r! ! X f X f X. X . X f | 5. X r r .2 1. r .7 2. machine f 6.4 . | X |X .Affricates b) EXERCISE L8. Reduced Vowels TASTER L8. X . .‘lose’ contains the longest vowel sound. r X | f 3. | r X | | . worn f 5. |. lose f 9. I’m going to the shops for a loaf of bread |.anenglishaccent. 3. Do we need anything else? |X| . maybe a couple of pints of milk. Fine. . . X r . r 4. A Where did you go on holiday last year? B To Germany in March and then China in June.109 ANSWER KEY CHAPTER 8 Consonant Sounds . r! ! |X|. Can you buy some more oranges X. | X | f and pick up a bottle of wine? 2.6 1. X . X . f r . b) EXERCISE L8. See you later then. round f 8. X r .Use recording to check answers. !f X r . f X f . A I have a question. No. side f 3. .
20 2.22 to check. New information 6. New information 12. Wh Question . | aɪɫ bi ˈkʌmɪŋ bæk ɒn ˈtju:zdeɪ | ɪn ði ˈi:vnɪŋ | 4. ˈupset i) upˈset 10. deˈcreased j) ˈdecrease Intonation Review a) EXERCISE Use recording L8. Wh question . New information 19. Yes/no friendly 5.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . New information 15. New information 20. Yes/no friendly 2. 1.23 1. Stress is on ‘handle’.13 Don’t let the ˈhandle go.Intonation and joining are not shown.new information 13.anenglishaccent. | wəәd ju laɪk əә ˈsɪŋgᵊl | ɔ:r əә rɪˈtɜ:n | 3. proˈceed d) ˈproceeds 5.Suffixes a) PRACTICE L8. Implicational fall-rise 18.New Information 14. New Information 9. Can you let ˈgo of me? Stress is on ‘go’. New information www. Yes/no friendly 22. Implicational fall-rise 10. New information 7.9 fanˈtastic ˈbeautiful ˈAfrican Congoˈlese evaluˈation ˈsummarize ˈmountain mountaiˈneer ˈpartially partiˈality ˈprofitable emploˈyee statuˈesque pronunciˈation ˈbottomless faˈnatic fundaˈmentalist b) EXERCISE Chiˈnese ˈSpanish Coˈlumbian Iˈranian ˈSwedish ˈTurkish ˈSerbian Taiwaˈnese Ausˈtralian ˈChilean ˈFinnish Malˈtese IPA . ˈtransport h) transˈport 9. Wh Question . ˈsuspect g) susˈpected 8. Implicational fall-rise 16. fiˈnance c) ˈfinances 4. New information 4. d) EXERCISE L8.New Information 8. New information 21. | ðæts ˈθɜ:ti ˈpaʊnz ðen sɜ: | Structure .Shifting Stress TASTER L8. New information 3. conˈvicted b) ˈconvict 3. Yes/no friendly 17.Transcription TASTER .110 ANSWER KEY Spelling & Sound . ˈExports e) exˈports 6. Yes/no friendly 11. | aɪd laɪk əә ˈtɪkɪt təә ˈlʌndəәn pli:z | 2. d) EXERCISE L8. ˈrecord f) reˈcording 7.
New Information Question . Weak Form .111 End Of Unit Checklist Answers End Of Unit Checklist 1 Vowel Sound . fall-rise. ↘ ↘↗ ↗ . Compare /z/ (voiced) with /s/ (voiceless). Weak forms appear in unstressed syllables and are most commonly /əә/ or /ɪ/. rise. Tonic Syllable .anenglishaccent. Repeat Information Question .Made by aqueezing the air through a tight gap in the mouth.A question which begins with a wh.Spoken English is made up of strong and weak forms. There are three types of vowel sound in English: short. There are 8 fricatives in English: /f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/ Long Vowel Sound .In spoken English < r > is only pronounce before a vowel sound.A voiced sound made by shaping the flow of air in the mouth. The schwas in this sentence are in bold.The most important syllable in a unit/sentence of speech. It will be silent before a consonant or if there is no following sound. There are different types of consonant sound in English: plosives and fricatives for example.A sound made by blocking the flow of air in the mouth.word (or how) and where the speaker already knows the answer. Consonant Sound . long and diphthong.The three intonation patterns in English: fall. The intonation pattern starts here and ends at the end of the unit/sentence.The most common vowel sound in English. These use ↘ falling intonation. End Of Unit Checklist 2 Fricative Consonant .There are five long vowels in English: /i:/ /u:/ /ɜ:/ /ɔ:/ /ɑ:/ Silent < r > .word (or how) and where the speaker does not know the answer. www. It is neutral and appears in unstressed syllables of words and sentences. These use ↗ rising or ↘↗ fall-rising intonation.A question which begins with a wh.Voiced sounds use vibration in the voice box whereas voiceless sounds only use air.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . The weak forms in this sentence are in bold. Voiced/Voiceless . Schwa /əә/ .
The words ‘to’ and ‘the’ change before a vowel.An < s > ending can be pronounced /s/. There are three nasals in English . positive/positive and suggestions all use rising intonation.A combination of two vowel sounds./əә/ /ɪ/ /i/ /u/ These are found in unstressed syllables of words and sentences. End Of Unit Checklist 4 Nasal Consonants . This depends on the last sound of the root word. This depends on the last sound of the root word.When the next word begins with a vowel. There are six plosives in English: /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/ /k/ /g/.When the next word begins with a vowel and the previous word ends with a vowel. /r/. 4 Weak Vowels .anenglishaccent.Standard tags use ↘ falling or ↗ rising intonation. Yes/No Question Intonation .112 End Of Unit Checklist 3 Plosive Consonant . The most common pattern in British English is ↘↗fall-rising.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Imperatives.Made partly through the nose. www. this will change the feeling and attitude of the question. or /w/. Question Tags . /d/ or /ɪd/. < s > endings . ðəә/ði ./n/. < ed > endings . This depends on the first word. we join the two words with a /j/. Joining .Yes/no questions can use ↘ falling ↘↗ fall-rising or ↗ rising intonation.Made by completely blocking the air flow in the mouth then suddenly releasing it like an explosion. we join it to the previous word. tu/təә. /z/ or /ɪz/. / m/ and /ŋ/ Diphthong Vowels .The six strong short vowels of English are /ɪ/ /ʊ/ /e/ /ʌ/ /æ/ /ɒ/. Short Vowel Sounds . /j/ /r/ /w/ joiners .An < ed > ending can be pronounced /t/.
will) shorten in speech. ↘↗ . abcdefg .There are 2 glottal consonant sounds in British English . /əәʊ/ & /aʊ/ . Many letters are joined when we spell them aloud. www.Three diphthong vowels ending /ɪ/.113 End Of Unit Checklist 5 Glottal Consonants . ‘ .com © Joe Hudson 2010 . EG ‘bay’. q. In phonetics. ‘buy’.Letters in the alphabet that do not appear in the English IPA alphabet. every unit has a tonic syllable and an intonation pattern. prominence is marked /ˈ/ before the syllable.Strong stress placed on words that contain important information in the conversation. ‘now’. have.Vowel like consonants that do not involve any contact of the tongue or teeth in the mouth. eɪ aɪ ɔɪ . Prominence . would. x. End Of Unit Checklist 6 Approximant Consonant Sound . repetition.The alphabet. correction.anenglishaccent. | ↘ˈtəәʊn ju:nɪts | . ‘boy’. EG ‘no’. yes/no questions. y . The last prominent word in any unit is the ‘Tonic Syllable’.We speak in tone units. do.Contractions occur when certain auxiliary verbs (be. c.The fall-rise has many uses in British English: implication.Two diphthongs ending in /ʊ/./h/ & /ʔ/.
ball).A combination of two words which have a singular meaning. /l/ appears at the beginning of a syllable (eg.anenglishaccent.Shifting stress changes the word from a noun to a verb. Phonemic transcriptions show sounds and stress.. Compounds ..there is no vowel.A vowel sound will become shorter if followed by a weak form or a voiceless consonant.A suffix is added to a word to change it’s form. ɪəә eəә ..The two < l > sounds. /ɫ/ appears at the end (eg. others (eg. are . There is a third diphthong /ʊəә/ which is not common in neutral accents.Contrast intonation. EG ‘boar’.com © Joe Hudson 2010 . Most are stressed on the first word (eg. Reduced Vowel . ˈkitchen ˈsink). End Of Unit Checklist 8 Affricate . It is normally weak (əә) and joins with /r/ if the next sound is a vowel. but there clearly is a syllable.Can be pronounced in many different ways.Two diphthongs ending /əә/. Suffix Stress . if.. ↘ ↘↗ ↗ ..114 End Of Unit Checklist 7 /l/ & /ɫ/ .. ˈfootball) but others are double stressed (eg.Syllabic consonants .ɪnŋ ǁ‖ . www.↗ | then. EG ‘beer’. but do not show details such as mouth position and tone. it uses rising intonation on the subordinate clause and falling intonation on the main clause. -al) do change the stress of the word. | ˈwɒt əә ju ˈdu.A consonant sound made up of a plosive directly followed by a fricative. ‘bear’. ̩l ᵊl . -ment) do not change the stress of the word.A phonemic transcription of the sentence ‘What are you doing?’.↘ . There are two of these in English: /tʃ/ and /dʒ/. ˈexport / exˈport .The three intonation patterns of spoken English. Some suffixes (eg. lost).
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