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Real Places in Virtual Spaces
David Kolb Abstract: We can distinguish geometrically defined or indicated areas of space from those areas of space where a structure of social norms gives special meaning to movements and actions. A courtroom, a restaurant, a corridor each have their appropriate norms that distinguish sub-areas and assign behaviors to them. We might call such areas places as opposed to mere areas of space that have no special significance. In this sense of the word place there are real places located in the virtual spaces within online games, conferencing systems, or mixed physical-virtual spaces. As with places in physical space, the value of places in virtual space depends on the detailed character of their spatiality, the way their textures fit with their social use, and on the complexity and humaneness of the actions guided by their social norms. Introduction: Places and Areas Real events happen in real places in virtual spaces. This may seem a strange claim, if places are supposed to be in physical space, reachable by some combination of movements starting from where you are now sitting. I am claiming, though, that while places need to be within a perceptible space, that space does not have to be physical. Virtual spaces can become inhabited places. In daily English place and related terms are used in many overlapping ways. A beautiful field of flowers is a place, the broom has its place in the closet, the children's place is upstairs, the third line on the form is the place to fill in this year's income, and so on. While there are some different nuances between saying that a location is the place for the game, the site of the game, or the position of the game, in daily usage the terms often have little distinction from one another. Yet there are distinctions we can make. There are beautiful areas in a forest that are obviously "somewhere" locatable on a map, and we can walk to them, and they have a striking unified character, but they are "nowhere in particular" in the sense that there are no expectations or rituals or actions associated with the area. Many things are happening in those areas as the plants grow and the birds fly, but in another sense nothing human or social happens there. Such areas are places in one sense of the word but not in another. I want to distinguish those senses. For the purposes of this discussion I will use the term space to denote the larger wholes within which areas and places are distinguished. Spaces can be divided into areas, which
Real Places in Virtual Spaces 2 are geometrically defined or indicated regions. a place is a space which is invested with understandings of behavioural appropriateness. . cultural expectations. passing a law -. Areas can be designated very precisely by measurements. Here is where you sit. or loosely as "over there. and so on. In a discussion of systems for cooperative work. There are action possibilities that give practical meaning to a doorknob or a ballpoint pen. and there are norms involved in temporary places. Large social actions -. sounds. . as when a group sets up a picnic blanket or rearranges chairs at a restaurant table. rather than just stretches of places-where-something-is. But less explicit and looser norms apply to a dining room or a corridor. or a ball field. or a courtroom. Those possibilities in turn get their signiﬁcance from connections to still others in a net that has no deﬁnite boundaries. For instance. Harrison and Dourish remark that Physically. involve areas of space permeated by social norms that lay out spatial possibilities for action. but that experience is not a simple temporal sequence. The parts of a place stand in more complex relations. now there that color and shape. and if you move that chair too far you are violating a (temporary) expectation and so making a statement about your role in the conversation. . can be entered. images. and so on. but we act in "place". A place in my sense of the word is an area of space that has social norms defining appropriate actions and movements. no present moment or place stands isolated on its own. A present perception gets its meaning from its relations within a net of other connected but absent perceptions and socially deﬁned actions for the past and future." We experience a place in time as we move around. That area over there is just an arbitrarily defined space. We know what to do with those objects. music.get their meaning through the wide ranges of possibilities they open and deﬁne. but this one here is the town picnic spot. and so forth. or by reference to landmarks. A conference hall and a theatre share many similar spatial features (such as lighting and orientation). position. Those norms prescribe divisions within the area and govern what is expected or appropriate to do and not do there. yet we rarely sing or dance when presenting conference pa1 The experience of a place is not just a sequence of "now here this color and shape. Spaces can also contain places. Places. perceiving a visual outline as a house involves the expectation that the object has a back side." There are many purposes for designating areas. The parts of an area stand in spatial relations of adjacency. in this sense. Places in my special sense are those areas that are places-where-we-do-something. smells. 1 Place norms are very explicit in highly ritualized areas such as a courtroom or a parliament. but the contrast between them is more than geometrical. . Many things can have social norms attached to them: clothing. which are areas permeated by spatially articulated social norms and expectations for what people do there. We are located in "space". Because there must be such connections. and distance. Their meanings are captured in the norms for their use. but designating them does not automatically make them places in the sense I want to emphasize.founding an institution. At a political speech the speaker's area and the press area might be adjacent.
It is a sense of place.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 3 pers. along with their appropriate placements and borders and transitions and performances. Even well-defined place norms are liable to revision since they are kept in force by ongoing processes of interpretation and reproduction that may consciously adapt to changed contexts or unconsciously introduce unintended alterations. There is so much more to the thick embodiment and the psychological investment we have in places. but moving three feet forward might cross a border into a more sacred part of the church. rather than at other people's windows peering in. You would have moved in a normative dimension of significance and this would change your relation to the other people there. None of this says that the norms for a place have to be clear or uncontested. Place. I need to emphasize the social dimension. Virtual Places If places are perceptible spaces surrounding us. and how virtual areas acquire consensual social structures for what is done there. for associations and narratives see Tuan 1977. if faced with it suddenly. The normative range of behavior changes as you move from the courthouse steps into the courtroom. and this feeling is so strong that we might try quite hard to interpret a song or a dance as part of a presentation. Not every act performed in a place makes a move that is significant in terms of the norms of the place. In a city park. and to do so would be regarded as at least slightly odd (or would need to be explained). where our spatial movements and perform2 For the sense of bodily orientation. but not at a Cambridge high table. but it would most certainly be "out of place". Some places are normatively vague or liminal. to be naked in the bedroom. Real social events happen there. Some acts are just things that happen there. We wouldn't describe this behavior as "out of space". not space. which makes it appropriate to dance at a Grateful Dead concert. What I've described may seem too thin a notion of place. . not space. see Casey 1993. (Harrison and Dourish 1996. Shifting three feet to the left on a church pew may not change your normative status. taking off your shirt would not make much normative difference. and to the historical and personal associations and narratives that shape our responses.2 Yet those richer responses and that sense of bodily identification may connect to areas that are not socially defined places. but not in the street. while at the parliament it might make an enormous difference to your "position" in the place. frames appropriate behavior. not just private identifications and associations. 69) Place norms specify types of actions and movements and locations. In order to argue for real places in virtual spaces. and to sit at our windows peering out.
but there is no reason to presume it is impossible. . where we can see from a particular spatial location. Geo- 3 Michael Heim (1998) provides an overview of the then-available virtual reality technology and describes artistic creations of virtual realities that do offer a contemplative experience. as can be seen in the virtual reality effects used in theme parks. Virtual space can provide the required area and social practice can create real places there. Whether through a screen or through more elaborate equipment we experience a spatial perspective within which we or our avatar can move about. where our body movement. changes of perspective. they construct and return to shared artifacts "in" these virtual spaces. contemplative virtual experiences. Discussion about whether virtual spaces can be real places should not be limited to the current state of the art. or we don special devices and cooperate with software that produces a passable effect. there are already real places in virtual spaces. There are areas of virtual space governed by social norms for action. and the surrounding crowd combine in an experience too rich for current simulations.3 It is hard to imagine that virtual reality could ever replace the experience we get walking in a city. Theme parks have little use for slow. the wind. the far horizon. or in some teleconference systems. they get into arguments "there". Virtual spaces today can be useful and exciting but are not yet easy. In those cases we do move physically and our movements in physical space are translated into movements and changes of perspective in the virtual space. and there are plausible-seeming fictional descriptions of what it might be like. the multiple lighting. or even walking outside at the theme park surrounded by the exhibit buildings. where spatial motions and actions take on special significances. then places do not have to be in physical space. People have conversations "in" such spaces that don't exist physically. He also offers a provocative comparison of virtual and natural reality. We sit in front of a computer and peer into a space presented on the screen. but artists are beginning to develop them. When players work in teams they can see teammates' representations in the virtual space as they rush about. Fullbody involvement in virtual reality is a long way off. Consider virtual spaces presented in multi-player online games. The technology improves rapidly.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 4 ances are regulated by social norms and expectations. These provide entrance to shared virtual spaces for adventure or story. See Hansen 2004 for a discussion of more recent experiments and art works. most famously in William Gibson's novels. or we have an "avatar" or self-representation that we can move about in the virtual space. Or we go into a special "cave" with screens for walls and sensors to detect bodily movements. Yet even if the technology never progressed beyond what is possible today.
or insult the others by turning my avatar's back on them. then the meeting would be taking place there in that virtual room. I might be physically at home in my bathrobe. If I converse with you by using instant messages that appear on each of our computer screens. Most multi-player online games allow a detached view that keeps the . instead of voices coming over a phone during a conference call with a committee. but a more detached view will still give the sense of embodiment if my avatar is especially responsive to my commands. If one asks of these activities in what place they happen. Why should virtual reality be any different? The answer is that a participative virtual space is not the same as a phone call. and so field of possible movements open to social norms and expectations. if how I position my virtual body matters in a way that my physical bodily position does not when I talk on the telephone. we do not think that there is a new place where our conversation is happening." Responding to an objection may make the point clearer. it would seem that "in the virtual space" is a better answer than "at the scattered physical locations of people sitting at desks all over the world. It would be best if I see the virtual room from a point of view of my avatar.a video phone might show the participants each other's home but it would not establish a different. A virtual space provides new perceptible areas that that can be divided into sub-areas and overlaid with social norms and expectations. A virtual space offers a new area. shared area in which to perceive one another and move together. If. and they could get married during a conference call. People have conversations on the telephone. It is not the visual connection that matters -. if the virtual space is differentiated into sub-areas for talking and sub-areas for other activities. When a committee meets by conference call the members do not think of themselves as meeting in some common place. and my sense of spatially articulated actions and their meanings in that space gives me the sense of being there.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 5 graphically separated couples have been married online. but it is the presence of norms on the virtual spatiality that makes the virtual area into a place. but people do not think of telephone conversations as happening in a unified place separate from the places of the people on either end of the line. and if I can pound the virtual table. I might want to violate that norm for some reason. but my virtual body might have to be properly dressed lest it violate some norm of the place. I see the avatars of the committee members and myself in a virtual meeting room.
72). . Neophyte queries may be more or less appropriate. a community needs a setting that holds memory and allows social patterns to become established. . Those are the places people live in. . When users can change the state of objects . however. teaching each other what they've learned about the world.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 6 player's avatar in the center but allows the point of view to move around it. . . yet even they could create a real places in a limited sense. that such groups should be thought of as having developed cultures but not places. Interacting in a MOO feels somewhat like being in a physical place wearing a blindfold and hearing what people tell you is going on. opinions. a work of consumption with no trace. However. and metaphors. and figuring out together how they're going to face the oncoming day -. our actions there can have real-life consequences for our ongoing relationships and projects. sharing day-to-day experiences. One obvious source of such examples are USENET news groups and Internet mailing lists.145) 5 Because of the social norms and expectations defining places in virtual space. The original text-only MOOs and MUDs were transitional cases. They refute "the common fantasy of [virtual reality as providing] a laborless pleasure. There will be virtual stores that look like physical stores.those are the places that thrive. 45). and when those changes persist from day to day. A place needs a perceived space that provides areas with spatially articulated norms and patterns so that movements can take on new signiﬁcance. . virtual places can develop patterns that have 4 Games such as Doom were a signiﬁcant advance because they allowed the maze of corridors to be seen in real time from the perspective of the actor whose "body" was both mobile and slightly visible to the player. where you can stroll the aisles and fill your virtual cart with tokens of goods. I think. if only as a gun barrel. inhabitants must be able to build on their experiences there. as they describe a shared spatial area in which movements and gestures are signiﬁcant and regulated by social norms. 5 Harrison and Dourish argue that if a common body of norms and expectations develop. (Rossney 1996. . Most virtual places are likely to resemble physical places. depending on the culture of the group. . no residue" (Grosz 2001. even completely space-less processes can be places: "The distinction between 'space' and 'place' is perhaps most strongly demonstrated by examples of the emergence of place without notions of space. I've visited just about every kind of place a computer and modem can take you. I've spent more than a decade on-line. so are ﬂames. no cost of labor. . it becomes possible for those objects to embody meaning. 4 Virtual or physical. using already established habits and expectations. you understand the place by analogy to familiar physical places. . no effect. and yet the resultant groups exhibit very different notions of place. fostering a mode of interaction and a style. a pleasure or desire that has no responsibilities. These styles are relatively independent of topic" (Harrison and Dourish 1996. Where you find people building relationships. The places I've seen on-line that flourish do so when people bring themselves to the table. . contributing their own ingredients to a communal stew of ideas. This is another sign of the reality of such virtual places. . . The technology of each USENET group is exactly the same.
the seating arrangement is different for each participant. and sees the other members sitting around (Clarke 1956). turning towards the mantel. Virtual Areas and Places Another indication that virtual spaces can be real places is that not every virtual area automatically becomes a place.6 Virtual spaces could have wild geometries and counterintuitive features. looking away from one's companions. it may provide as much as humdrum awareness often brings. Does the virtual pervert the notion of place? It is true that in dealing with people and nature physically present there are thicker modes of contact than any virtuality is likely to contain. A virtual space could also be much larger than the social places established within it. However. or a conversation. Even if a virtuality cannot provide the fullness of our most awake encounters. Such a hall could not exist in physical space since while everyone is present and can see everyone else. A game. Why stroll the aisles when you can teleport to the desired section. Once it is possible to create large virtual spaces. the objection overestimates the immediacy of normal encounters. he does not give enough weight to more humdrum motivations. the place would offer a sensed space that allowed appropriate movements. see also Dimendberg 1999 for a discussion of the "unused" portions of film sets). Heim invokes Plato's doctrine of our hunger for more reality than the everyday to explain the fascination with virtual spaces. (For a fictional example. one room with some furniture and no exterior.com. 82 for a list of policy questions relating to the design of virtual spaces. Yet even then. you can't delay the game and go off hiking in the hills. though you may be able to see mountains in the distance. The virtual areas in computer games offer a limited space that has no outsides or nonfunctional spaces. . perhaps. containing virtual real estate not yet developed into inhabited places. Clarke describes a virtual assembly hall where each participant views the assembly from a position directly in front of the speaker's podium. Still. there will be the virtual equivalent of in-between space. see Neal Stephenson's description of the unused portions of the virtual planet in Snow Crash (Stephenson 1993. virtual areas where no particular pattern of human action takes place. and the like. Places get made in spaces that offer areas and directions and textures that invite inhabita- 6 See Heim 1993. The imaginings in Stephenson 1993 about "The Street" as a virtual mall provide a corrective to overly artistic conceptions of virtual spaces. Arthur C. as in No Exit. as when a small house is much larger inside than out. could take place in a virtual space comprised solely of one place.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 7 no physical counterparts. His approach to virtual reality owes more to striking artistic productions such as those described in Heim 1998 than to everyday activities such as shopping at Amazon.
the community. but they can interact. virtual spaces are created whole. see Casey 1997. However. While physical areas are always parts of a larger space. There is no spatial connection between the space of a dream and the space of the physical world. If virtual spaces are not linked. and changing them takes work. In a third sense. what is outside the virtual space is the world of physical causal interactions and ordinary life busily sustaining the virtual experience. But that inside/outside relation is not like the relation between the inside and outside of a house.) In a second sense. but such links do not cross physical space. The creation of the background areas and the creation of the places are not the same. It is more like relation between a dream and waking life. a virtual area's background features are also consciously created. Dealing with physical spaces. . In one straightforward sense there is no outside for a virtual space. though there may be qualitative relations and references from one to another. I could wear a device that added fantasy characters to my room or library items to the documents on my desk. but then they would be of little use for place-making until qualitative distinctions were introduced. (This issue has a long history. If the virtuality had an edge. In such cases the virtual would be inserted without disrupting physical spatial relations. Surgeons have experimented with special lenses that add information from X-rays or brain scans to what they are seeing during an operation. and the norms of action in the place. allowing our body to be oriented there. There are also examples of enhanced reality where virtual items are overlaid on physical space. We will have to learn how to use the revisability of virtual areas to solicit the mutual creations of the place. just as happens in physical space. d. and receiving social norms. Once it is set up the features of a virtual landscape might be changed more easily than the 7 Michael Heim (1998) describes the experience of artworks that mix virtual and real spatialities. In virtual spaces the textures of an area can be set up at the same time as the social norms. The spaces of two computer games stand in no spatial relation. and there was something "outside" to be encountered by going to that edge. then what was outside would be part of the virtuality. then there is no distance or direction between them. They are not contained in anything larger. There is one type of connection in the causal mechanisms and another at the level of experience and symbols. If there is no larger sensuous or physical continuum from which virtual spaces are cut.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 8 tion. Virtual landscapes could be created bland and featureless. we can ask: What is outside a virtual space? There is no single answer to this question. we have to start from areas' already given textures and shapes. where the textures and geometry of an area may be more appropriate for some actions than for others. what lies outside the virtual space are other virtual places that it might be linked to.7 Virtual places are created by social norms that make use of the textures and features of a virtual area. This is likely to be the major way virtuality enters our lives.
The place may include other physical or virtual areas at a distance. such as buying at a virtual mall or attending a virtual town meeting. but not a discontinuous place. in a busy virtual place most inhabitants would treat the features of the space as given and unalterable. Such virtual places are discontinuous mainly at their borders. place norms make distinctions within the same spatial area. these might be treated as a single object for accounting reasons but there seems no reason to think of them as a single place. Discontinuous Places Any place involves some discontinuities at its transition zones. It might seem though. Most commonly. This differs from a physical place whose spatial connections . power over virtual public places would likely be confined to a planning elite -. The more recent Second Life uses more elaborate graphics and allows for a wide range of social interactions. There are activities that occur across separated areas: educational sequences. Compare Donald Trump's scattered real estate holdings. Yet social norms for action could turn scattered parcels into a single place. There are activities that are activities of the university as a whole and which happen jointly or interactively in more than one area. aside from private palaces where you might enjoy modifying the landscape. defining subareas for actions as spatial performances. as happens with buildings and frustrates modernist dreams. But spatially distinct areas can also be bound into a single normative place. since they have no direct spatial relation with any particular area of physical space. However. Yale University occupies spatially distinct parcels of land in New Haven.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 9 color of a physical wall. you don't want to be distracted by negotiations over the visual background or the physics of the place. In this sense virtual places realize the modernist dream of working from a completely cleared space. The largest of these spaces are the multiple player interactive games such as EverQuest and World of Warcraft. Many major medical centers are composed of a number of hospitals that are scattered around their city. If your purposes are practical. commencement and other rituals. But then. that Yale would be a discontinuous object. sports. Virtual places offer other kinds of discontinuity. Alphaworld is an early online virtual community that allows inhabitants to build their own structures into a cooperative cityscape. They are accessible by a jump from many different physical spaces. joint research.which realizes another dream of modernist architects. Most familiar are virtual social spaces where widely dispersed individuals come together to build and sustain a new environment. So. the design features of a virtual space would end up being used other ways than the designers intended. at least those at its border.
where both parties coexist. They might have very different internal geometries and "physical" laws. If a socially unified place contained linked subareas that were widely scattered about the landscape of a larger virtual space. Allen appears lifesize. 49) . . . I enter Hilton's TeleSuite. In many virtual spaces you can hike laboriously about discovering new features. . and vice versa. (Rubin 1997. yet be part of the same office suite. 129) The Infinity Room allows Texas students to communicate live with colleagues in Mexico using a network of video cameras. and sit down at a semicircular table that could easily accommodate a half dozen people. It's more like an actual conversation. A room in a virtual space might contain a portal to a different virtual space. they might involve linked areas with wildly varying textures and geometries. On the other hand. Still other types of discontinuity can be found in places linked by media. or to fixed transport links. once you step over the border into one of these virtual spaces. the space offers a more or less familiar spatial landscape unity. a small room garishly decorated with faux columns. Since the viewers are present in each other's space. so it's nothing like looking at a big-screen TV. both parties perceive an overlap of spaces. The presence of links across virtual distances begins to subvert the familiar spatiality that current virtual spaces work to preserve. but the software also provides a teleport command to take you quickly about. the flexible spatiality of virtual areas tempers the effect of such discontinuities. . . my table is flush against a wall that holds a backprojected 100-inch diagonal video screen on which Allen appears. This produces a hybrid of physical space and cyberspace . (Anders 2000. or jumps between "spatially" discontinuous virtual realities. the Infinity Room projects full body images. Texas students "see" their Mexican counterparts as if they were actually in Texas. While such an oddly linked place would be different from what we are used to. . Chatting with TeleSuite's Scott Allen . . Whereas conventional videoconferencing shows only the correspondents' heads. projectors. perhaps as the office of some Virtual Universe Oversight Committee. The office could include unified trajectories of action across discontinuities where portions of separate virtual spaces came together as parts of the same place. and screens. the possibility of immediate jumps among the sub-areas would make inhabiting such a place more like moving from one room to another in a large building. or across several virtual spaces.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 10 are restricted to what is adjacent. More discontinuous virtual places are possible. and the areas around both sides of that door could belong to one single place in terms of social norms for action.
are neither desirable nor hateful in themselves. A local school or library or church could expand and connect into a larger shared virtual/physical facility. Most virtual spaces . Local physical stores could become part of a virtual mall. discontinuous add-on places could overlay virtual real estate and new place norms on existing buildings without the costs of physical construction. My suburban room could become a part of a newly defined assemblage of physical and virtual rooms. the flexibility possible in virtual spaces may bring a sense of freedom and experimentation. "Two people can be in what they think of as the same place (like an electronically shared office) but will not be in the same physical space" (Harrison and Dourish 1996. On the other hand. in the suburbs. their value depends on the detailed character of their spatiality. 73). If this leads only to playing out values and behaviors that are socially defined as deviant. and above all on the complexity and humaneness of the actions guided by their social norms. A world-wide task group could have an office composed jointly of their scattered local offices and provided with additional virtual conference rooms. sounds originating in each office were heard in the other. Besides the ability to see the other all the time. A mixed virtual/ physical library would have more in common with an ordinary physical library than it would with a mixed virtual/physical shopping mall. As with places in physical space. A webcam could integrate it into a place composed of a virtual meeting space plus my and my friends' physical rooms shared on wall-sized screens. Real places in virtual spaces. and mixed virtual/physical spaces. Studies showed that the workers treated the two joined spaces as one place. how well it harmonizes with their functions. and." where television links physical areas together.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 11 These examples are what Harrison and Dourish call "media spaces. Such discontinuous places would be defined more by their particular place norms than by their peculiar spatiality. Whether created by television or by virtual reality. then the virtual novelty remains just another way of staying confined by the current definitions. A virtual shopping mall that reinforces standard consumption patterns gains no special value by being virtual. A scattered group of private tutors could create a hybrid "school" composed of some laboratories in physical space and classrooms in virtual space. In another experiment co-workers located in separate geographical areas occupied a shared office composed of their physical offices plus TV images of the other persons' offices. Other kinds of mixed places can be imagined. through which we or our avatars could wander and interact. Dizzying novelties in virtual geometry and instant transportation do not guarantee that a virtual place will offer any new social roles. without running afoul of the defenders of property values or a community's architectural controls. and visitors routinely greeted both workers when stopping by one of the offices.
1993. Heim. Lessons for Students in Architecture. The connections between them cannot be sorted out into neat hierarchical or binary relations. 1996. Casey. 75ff. 1993. available at 8 See Hertzberger 1991. Dimendberg. "Building a Space for the Imagination: Modern Architecture and Cinema. For more on virtual spaces and on the criterion of complexity applied to places. . 8 We might hope that the availability of real places in virtual spaces. The Fate of Place: A Philosophical History. Heim. We should not presuppose that our ideal inhabitation should be easily defined. 1991. Elizabeth. New York: Harcourt. and the ability to mix and join them to physical spaces. 1999. but may emerge as people interact in more flexible spaces and worlds. Cambridge."Acadia '99. Harrison. Arthur C. see Kolb 2005. MA: MIT Press. Kolb. David Kolb Bates College References Anders. New York: Oxford University Press. and judgments of place quality cannot be made on any simple scale. Edward S. Getting Back Into Place. Virtual Realism. New York: Oxford University Press. Grosz. 2001." ACM Computer Supported Cooperative Work. A hypertext web essay. David. Brace. Peter. 2005. Michael. Herman. may allow us to express more fully the complexities of contemporary social roles and interactions.Real Places in Virtual Spaces 12 available today provide simplified social situations. 2000. Architecture from the Outside: Essays on Virtual and Real Space. The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality. and Paul Dourish. Edward S. simple and single-ply. Michael. As our contexts become more complex. Indiana University Press. Sprawling Places." Architecture (January 2000): 49. "Re-Place-Ing Space: The Roles of Place and Space in Collaborative Systems. Hertzberger. Casey. we live at once in many intersecting roles and places with many complex norms. 1998. 1997. Clarke. 1956." Harvard Design Magazine (Winter/Spring 1999): 81-83. The City and the Stars. Edward. Steve. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010 Publishers. True social creativity is rarer. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Rossney. Tuan. "Sweet Tele-Suite" Wired (August 1997): 129. Snow Crash. Chris. 1993. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press." Wired (June 1996): 145-6.org/sprawlingplaces. New York: Bantam. Neal. Rubin. Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience. "Metaworlds. 1997. 210. .Real Places in Virtual Spaces 13 http://www. Robert. Stephenson.dkolb. 1977. Yi-Fu.