Zachary Decker

Vocab 10

March 02

1. Kinetic-molecular theory the idea that particles of matter are always in motion 2. Ideal gas A hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory 3. Elastic collision When there is no net loss of kinetic energy 4. Diffusion Spontaneous mixing of the particles of two substances caused by their random motion 5. Effusion - the flow of a gas through a small aperture under pressure, particularly when the aperture is so small that the distance between molecules is significant 6. Real gas a gas that does not behave according to the assumption in the kinetic molecular theory 7. Fluid - a substance whose molecules flow freely, so that it has no fixed shape and little resistance to outside stress, e.g. a liquid or gas 8. Surface tension - the property of liquids that gives their surfaces a slightly elastic quality and enables them to form into separate drops. It is caused by the interaction of molecules at or near the surface that tend to cohere and contract the surface into the smallest possible area. 9. Capillary action - a phenomenon in which a liquid's surface rises, falls, or becomes distorted in shape where it is in contact with a solid. It is caused by the difference between the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. 10. Vaporization - to change into vapor, or cause something to change into vapo 11. Evaporation - a process in which something is changed from a liquid to a vapor without its temperature reaching boiling point 12. Freezing - The physical change of a liquid becoming a solid 13. Crystalline solids Consisting of crystals 14. Crystal - a solid containing an internal pattern of atoms, molecules, or ions that is regular, repeated, and geometrically arranged 15. Amorphous solids - without a crystalline structure 16. Melting The physical change from a solid into a liquid 17. Melting point The temperature at which a solid melts 18. Super cooled liquids Substances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures at which they appear to be solid 19. Crystal structure The total three dimensional arrangement of particles 20. Unit cell - the smallest structural unit of a crystal that has all its symmetry and by repetition in three dimensions makes up its full lattice 21. Phase Is any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties 22. Condensation The process when a gas changes into a liquid 23. Equilibrium - the state in a reversible chemical reaction in which the reaction and its reverse reaction proceed at the same rate and balance each other so there is no further change 24. Equilibrium vapor pressure The pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature 25. Volatile liquids - a substance that evaporates at a relatively low temperature 26. Boiling The conversion of liquid to vapor 27. Boiling point the temperature that causes boiling

Zachary Decker

Vocab 10

March 02

28. Molar enthalpy of vaporization The amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at the liquids point at constant pressure 29. Freezing point The temperature at which a substance becomes a solid 30. Molar enthalpy of fusion the amount of energy as heat required to melt one mole of solid at the solids melting point 31. Sublimation - a process in which a substance is converted directly from a solid to a gas or from a gas to a solid without an intermediate liquid phase 32. Deposition - the accumulation of natural materials by a gradual process 33. Phase diagram IS a graph of pressure that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist 34. Triple point indicates the pressure and temperature conditions at which the solid, liquid and vapor of the substance can be achieved 35. Critical point The critical temperature and pressure 36. Critical temperature The temperature above which the substance cannot exist 37. Critical pressure the pressure above which the substance can not exist

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