Solid Waste Management Introduction Program Considerations • Supportive Policy Environment • Choosing Appropriate Technologies Bibliography Key Contacts

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Proper management of solid waste is critical to the health and well-being of urban residents. In developing cities, several tons of garbage are left uncollected on the streets each day, acting as feeding ground for pests that spread disease, clogging drains and creating a myriad of related h and infrastructural problems. The urban poor - often residing in informal settlements with little o access to solid waste collection and often in areas that are contiguous with open dumps - are particularly vulnerable. While urban residents in developing countries produce less solid waste capita than in high-income countries , the capacity of their cities to collect, process, dispose of, use solid waste in a cost-efficient, safe manner is far more limited. Municipal SWM efforts often on expensive 'end-of-pipe' measures, those involving the collection and disposal of solid waste, many of the 'best practices' for SWM improvement are far more accessible and cost-effective opportunities involving waste reduction programs and recycling strategies.

The challenges to be faced in collecting solid waste will dramatically increase in the next 30 yea a result of both the rapid growth of developing cities and increases in per capita waste productio was once believed that increases in per capita waste went hand-in-hand with economic growth, recent trends in developed countries show that aggressive efforts to reduce, recycle and reuse break this link. Environmentally-sound urban SWM strategies should address unsustainable pa of consumption and production. A framework for improved urban SWM combines the expansion safe collection and disposal with measures designed to minimize trash production and promote recycling, reuse or recovery of resources from solid waste. Fortunately for those involved in urb SWM, there is a great deal of experience represented in the literature on SWM, ranging from appropriate technologies and financing strategies to sanitary landfill development and the impor of community participation. (See the UN Best Practices for Human Settlements Database and t Development Clearinghouse)

Program Considerations Supportive Policy Environment The central government (and sometimes regional governments) play an important role in establ a policy environment that supports good SWM practices at the local level:

Enabling legislation (to protect public health, the environment and ensure safe handling practices)

. licenses. involving such measures as landfill liners. inspections for landfills.and small-scale providers contributes to the adaptati 'best-practices' and appropriate technologies. poorly maintained machinery and ineffi existing collection routes. The city can issue franchises or licenses to various firms who will compete for custom can select one firm per district/area based on a competitive procurement. they not necessarily have be owners and operators of SWM systems. Disposal and its alternatives. When planning for the adoption of solid waste technologies. mandated landfill disposal standards. among other. In developing their own comprehensive SWM plans. repair and site maintenance. Dump-upgrading. such as collection vehicles and processing plants. Municipalities often spend as much as 70% of their operating budgets for SWM on h costs alone due to rising transportation costs. SWM authorities must be aware that su shift usually requires both a decrease in employment in the waste sector [link to: World Bank's U Waste site: Private Sector Participation] and an institutional shift of focus for public-sector SWM authorities from service provision to oversight and regulation (both to ensure that companies ar meeting the relevant standards and that they are not colluding). emissions from incinerators. SWM authorities should consider the following. Collection. minimum percent recycled content) Choosing Appropriate Technologies All cities must weigh a number of factors in choosing appropriate technologies for collection and disposal of solid waste. outdated. cities should determine the extent of private and community servic provision. and low-cost remediation. issues: • • • The planning.) Enforcement (financial and criminal penalties) Solid waste planning (recycling and waste reduction targets) Market incentives for recycling (beverage container deposits. construction and implementation of new sanitary landfills are costly and le and small to medium-scale solid waste management practices will be needed in the inter The tendency for municipalities to import expensive "end-of-pipe" technologies. Experience has show private sector SWM costs 20-40% less than the same publicly-provided services and that privat of SWM and facilitating the entry of micro. resource recovery. composting. co-composting solid waste and sewage sludge produces so conditioner and shredded automobile tires can be added to soil to increase drought resistance. Although cities are responsible for SWM within their jurisdictions. etc. For example. along with improved waste minimization strategies prove to be cost-effective alternatives to the development of expensive new SWM sites. Recycling.• • • • Regulations and standards (permits. However. and resale of reusable solid waste can be an effectiv of minimizing waste and contributing to the economic welfare of those living at a destitute fringe the urban community. often leads to additional unsustainable costs in training.

impacting the pu health of the city at large through water supply. environmental and socia preferences Adoption of cleaner production practices Separation and control of hazardous waste to reduce the distribution of their environmen impacts Improved institutional management and increased citizen oversight Health.epa. Toxic runoff. whether to emphasize landfill improvements. 1998 "Guidance for Landfilling Waste in Economically Developing Countries" US Environmental Protection Agency" EPA-600/R-98-040 http://www.org/outreach/wssd/docs/sectors/final/waste_management. Additionally.M. throu direct hand-to-mouth contamination and inhalation of volatile chemicals and other pollutants. incentives for increased private sector participation and innovative multi-sectoral partnerships a often used to more effectively implement policy objectives such as: • • • • • • Recycling and waste minimization programs Resource recovery and commercial/industrial marketing or resale of reusable componen waste Localized appropriate technologies designed to meet economic. pollution of water and soil resources. air and soil contamination. should begin with a consultativ participatory process involving all stakeholders from slum residents and the informal sector tras workers to the municipal government and the private sector. 2002 http://www. Most municipal solid waste is haphazardly dumped on public lands or unprepared landf an unmanaged or unregulated manner. meth gas emission from unregulated landfills.al.gov/ord/WebPubs/projsum/600sr98040. Authorities must con the public health impact of their current SWM strategies as well as the health benefits and costeffectiveness of alternative strategies for upgrading SWM . "Conceptual Framework for Municipal Solid Waste Management . uncontrolled dumping has adverse effects for all urban residents . or other measures as an initial investment p (See Environmental Health brief) Bibliography International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) and United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). cities can reduce overall urban solid waste production by up to 30%.e. This assistance may be in developing cooperatives or other similar methods of labor organization and providing basic protective healt safety precautions (e. Effective SWM. et. G. Uncontrolled dumping greatly endangers the immediate health of both informal sector wa workers and nearby inhabitants. particularly when targeting informal settlements. expansion of solid waste collection.g. Community-based enterprises.uneptie. "Waste Management" in the Industry as a Partner fo Sustainable Development Series.g. and unstable areas subject to settling that often later be informal settlements are just a few of the environmental and health challenges resulting from po SWM. Peter et.pdf Schübeler. reu "landfill mining" techniques?beecome more efficient and established business. providing gloves and masks) for the avoidable environmental health ris these workers face.helping informal scavengers?who may collect 10-15% of urban solid waste using recycling..al.pdf Savage.. typically the poor residents of informal urban settlements.

unchs.sandec. and the World Bank) http://www.or.org/esa/sustdev/agenda21chapter21. section on "Waste" in State of th World's Cities Report 2001 http://www. 1996 http://wbln0018.asp WASTE (an NGO that works for organizations that aim at a sustainable improvement of the living conditions of the urban low-income population and of the urban environment in general.htm World Resources Institute (WRI) "Urban Priorities for Action" Chp.jp/ietc/Issues/Urban.org/istanbul+5/statereport. Urban Management Programme. New York. Urban Waste Management Division.unchs.worldbank. Christian. (a joint publicatio WRI. "Environmentally Sound Management of Solid Wastes and Sewage-Related Issues " Section 21 http://www. Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) at the Swiss Federal Institute for Environm Science and Technology (EAWAG) http://www.htm World Bank.un.org/External/Urban/UrbanDev.org/uem/waste/swm-matrix.org/istanbul+5/70. UNDP. Hari.unep. World Bank/UNDP/UNCHS.pdf Zurbrugg.worldbank.nl/ World Bank. No." "Financia Management.htm: in particular the sections on "K Topics" and "Key Readings" .org/urban/solid_wm/swm_body.) http://www. Agenda 21. "The Challenge of Solid Waste Disposal in Developing Countries" SANDEC News. 5 in The Urban Environment 1996-1997 Oxford University Press." "Institutional Arrangements. Urban Waste Management Division: http://www. No.ch/files/sandecnews_4.wri.gdrc.asp UNEP-IETC Environmentally-Sound Technology Database (maESTro) http://www.org/urban/solid_wm/swm_body.nsf/Attachments/UE_Conceptu Framework/$File/conceptualframework. 4. January 1999." and "Environmental Management" http://www. "Solid Waste Management: A Policy and Programme Matrix" http://www.bestpractices.waste.html Zurbrugg.pdf Key Contacts and Useful Websites Best Practices for Human Settlements Database http://www.sandec. Depart of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC) at the Swiss Federal Institut Environmental Science and Technology (EAWAG) http://www. Christian and Rehan Ahmed. January 1999. UNEP.in Low-Income Countries" Working Paper #9. International Environmental Technology Centre (UNEP-IETC)." Chp. see 'Key-Topics' sections: "Strategic Services Planning. 4.html United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) "Urban Environment.org/ United Nations Environmental Programme.pdf United Nations Sustainable Development.or. and Urban Issues Division: http://www.htm and http://www.jp/ietc/database/maestro_intro.worldbank. "Enhancing Community Motivation and Participation in Solid Waste Management" SANDEC News.pdf Srinivas. 4.org/wr-96-97/index.ch/files/sandecnews_4.unep." "Private Sector Participation.

business. local government agencies may provide disposal or recycling services themselves. On a larger scale. including discarded food. . A primary objective of waste management today is to protect the public and the environment from potential harmful effects of waste. and industry must make decisions and take some responsibility regarding its own waste. One gallon (3. which transform waste into useful products. But as industry and technology have evolved and the world's population has grown. mining.Waste management is the handling of discarded materials. and federal levels enact and enforce waste management regulations. and hazardous wastes. Some waste materials are normally safe but can be hazardous if not managed properly. government agencies at the local. leaves. These agencies also educate the public about proper waste management. and radioactive materials.750. and industrial wastes.75 liters) of used motor oil. One form of waste management involves the elimination of undesirable waste products by methods such as landfilling and incineration. waste management has become an increasingly difficult and complex problem. state.000 liters) of water. agricultural. But recycling and composting. for example. Civilization has always produced waste. In addition. Municipal solid waste is what most people think of as garbage. chemicals from a factory. or they may hire private companies to perform those functions. construction debris. disposable diapers. The term waste can apply to a wide variety of materials. Who manages waste? Every individual. which is often described as solid waste management. forms of waste Most solid wastes can be subdivided into one of three major categories: municipal solid wastes. candy wrappers. newspapers. The term most commonly applies to the disposition of solid wastes. also are forms of waste management. bottles. can contaminate one million gallons (3.

or metallic ore. or trash. or it can contaminate groundwater or surface water. and institutions such as schools and hospitals. sand. or manure. These wastes can be beneficial because they return nutrients to the soil.refuse. Because modern methods of mining are more efficient. mining. businesses (other than heavy industry). more than 95 percent of the 4. and industry. It is generated by households. But modern techniques of raising large numbers of animals in small areas generate great volumes of animal waste.5 billion tons of solid waste generated in the United States each year come from agriculture. Resource recovery plant Although we may be very conscious of municipal wastes. However. Many of the plant and animal wastes generated by agriculture remain in the fields or rangelands. These forms of solid waste are less visible to the ordinary person because they are usually generated at remote mining sites or in the fields. much more waste is produced in the process. whether the material being mined is coal. Mining nearly always generates substantial waste. clay. Indeed. gravel. building stone. they can extract the desired minerals from veins that are less rich. . they actually represent only a small fraction of all solid wastes produced annually. Waste in such quantities must be managed carefully. Early mining techniques concentrated on the removal of ores with the highest concentration of the desired mineral.

the proper handling of unused or waste pesticides is a daunting challenge for modern waste management. may be released as gases. flammable. or because they react with other substances in a dangerous way. Inc.An employee at a hazardous waste collection site in Santa Cruz County. Wastes may be deemed hazardous because they are poisonous. such as mercury and dioxins. (Reproduced by permission of Photo Researchers. California. Industrial operations have produced large quantities of hazardous waste for hundreds of years. Many hazardous industrial wastes are in liquid form. known as tailings. or corrosive. may contain hazardous . Hazardous waste Hazardous wastes are materials considered harmful or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. Some hazardous wastes. Pesticides used in farming may contaminate agricultural waste. Because of the enormous volumes of pesticides used in agriculture. Piles of mining waste. sorting through household hazardous waste items. One of the greatest risks is that these wastes will contaminate water supplies. Certain mining techniques also utilize toxic chemicals.

How these four methods are utilized depends on the kind of wastes being managed. four basic methods for managing wastes have been used: dumping. paint. recycling. glue. toxic acids may form and may be washed into the groundwater by rain.) substances. Many common household products contain toxic chemicals. and nail polish. When these substances react with the oxygen in the air. Twenty years ago. Management of wastes Throughout history. pesticides. incineration (burning).Hazardous waste being disposed of in special drums. (Reproduced by permission of Field Mark Publications . But local governments do not want them in the garbage. even if the containers were not empty. most people dumped these products in the garbage. Hazardous wastes come from the home as well. Examples include drain cleaner. and waste prevention. . paint thinner. since municipal sewage treatment plants are not well-equipped to remove them. They also do not want residents to pour leftover household chemicals down the drain. air freshener.

Ocean dumping makes use of barges that carry garbage out to sea. But those have largely been resolved at landfills built in the past 20 years. At a landfill. Today's landfills are lined with several feet of clay and with thick plastic sheets. even when it is generated with other types of wastes. This technique was once used as a . an explosive gas produced when organic wastes decompose under certain conditions. especially in heavily populated areas. Leachate is collected at the bottom. drained through pipes. Toxic chemicals can filter down through a dump and contaminate groundwater. The use of such open dumps for garbage is still common in some parts of the world. people began to place their waste in designated dumping areas. agricultural. it was the dominant solid waste disposal method in the nation.) Dumps also may generate methane. Landfilling became common in the United States in the 1940s. Early landfills had significant leachate and methane problems. and processed. But as permanent communities developed. But open dumps have major disadvantages. also known as sanitary landfills. garbage is covered at the end of every day with several inches of soil. Early humans did not worry much about waste management. The dumping of waste does not take place on land only. They simply left their garbage where it dropped. In many parts of the world today. The sanitary landfill was apparently invented in England in the 1920s. By the late 1950s. or mining waste. open dumps have been replaced by landfills. And hazardous waste poses such serious problems that it needs to be handled by specialized techniques. Methane gas also is safely piped out of the landfill. (The liquid that filters through a dump or land-fill—just as water percolates or filters through coffee grounds to make coffee—is called leachate.Municipal solid waste is much different than industrial. landfills .

Sewage sludge. or processed sewage. it had become difficult to find locations to build these facilities. In the 1930s and 1940s. The rest comes out as ash that often contains high concentrations of toxic substances. sewage sludge is not generally considered solid waste but is sometimes composted with organic municipal solid waste. many of which are still in operation. Incinerators usually reduce the volume of garbage by 70 to 90 percent. Since the mid-1970s. In addition to burning garbage. Some American cities began to burn their garbage in the late nineteenth century in devices called cremators. which must be landfilled. coastal cities and is still practiced by some nations. Another problem with incineration is that it generates ash. they produce heat or electricity that is used in nearby buildings or residences or sold to a utility.S. The new incinerators. however. once again mainly because of air quality issues. Many local governments became interested in waste-to-energy plants following the U. was dumped at sea in huge quantities by New York City until 1992. energy crisis in 1973. primarily because of the air pollution they create. Waste burning enjoyed yet another revival in the 1970s and 1980s.S. are called resource recovery or waste-to-energy plants. Also called biosolids. many cities built new types of garbage burners known as incinerators. Many incinerators have now been shut down. when it was finally prohibited. Recycling n waste prevention Re Municipal solid waste will probably always be landfilled or burned to some extent. But. and cities eventually went back to dumping or other methods. however. nondisposal methods such as waste prevention and recycling have become more popular. incineration IIncineration has a long history in municipal solid waste management. Because of public concerns .disposal method by some U. by the mid-1980s. These devices were not very efficient.

for example. With this technique. wet garbage. when scrap metal was collected to help the war effort. people found other uses for them. Reuse and repair are the earliest forms of waste prevention. Other underground burial . and other dead animals were cooked in large vats to produce grease and fertilizer. In reduction plants. A more familiar. from about 1969 to 1974 and another that began in the late 1980s. cities from about 1900 to 1930. One form of waste prevention. and other necessities were scarce. was common in large U. called reduction. local governments want to reduce the amount of waste that needs to be disposed. which also is known as waste reduction. At the beginning of the twenty-first century. type of recycling took place during World War II (1939–45). industrial waste management Industrial wastes that are not hazardous have traditionally been sent to landfills or incinerators. Broken pottery was often ground up and used to make new pottery. Modern-day recycling has had two recent booms. a manufacturing plant can reclaim certain waste materials by feeding them back into the production process. One unusual type of recycling. the recycling rate in the United States had risen to 28 percent. called source reduction. dead horses. liquid wastes are injected into a well located in a type of rock formation that keeps the waste isolated from groundwater and surface water.and the high costs of landfilling and incineration. Often. The rising cost of disposal has prompted many companies to seek alternative methods for handling these wastes.S. and certainly more appealing. When tools. is a reduction in the quantity or the toxicity of the material used for a product or packaging. Recycling has taken many forms. clothes. an increase of more than 10 percent from a decade before. Even the earliest civilizations recycled some items before they became garbage. An estimated 60 percent of all hazardous industrial waste in the United States is disposed of with a method called deep well injection. people naturally repaired them again and again. When they were beyond repair.

. and monitoring of waste materials. the environment or aesthetics. recycling or disposal. This export often takes place with the stated intent of recycling. Services and programmes that include proper waste disposal for management of hazardous biological and chemical wastes. Hazardous wastes are disposed of at specially designed landfills and incinerators. minimisation and recycling will be needed. Disposal of wastes is commonly done by dumping (on land or into water bodies). liquid. but some of the wastes end up being dumped.methods are also used for hazardous industrial waste and other types of dangerous waste. transport. Waste management can involve solid. Clear government policies and competent bureaucracies for management of solid wastes are needed urgently especially in countries where there is rapid population growth through urbanization into peri-urban areas. competent government institutions and bureaucracies to manage their wastes. A controversial issue in international relations is the export of hazardous waste. issues and problems of urban waste management in the industrialized and developing worlds are different. and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health. usually from industrial countries to developing nations. they have developed adequate facilities. Urban waste management issues The conditions. incineration or long term storage in a secured facility. All these methods have varying degrees of negative environmental impacts with adverse environmental and health risks if wastes are improperly disposed or stored. with different methods and fields of expertise for each.[1] The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity. Though the developed countries generate larger amounts of wastes. processing. gaseous or radioactive substances. Developing countries are still in the transition towards better waste management but they currently have insufficient collection and improper disposal of wastes. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management is the collection.

to dispose of different forms of solid wastes. 16 percent incinerated. One can see that dump toxic waste in industrial areas where industrial wastes are ignored or not properly followed. We are all equally responsible for the areas around us. Landfills are the most commonly used form of disposing wastes today. and for residential and industrial producers. Disadvantages of w m Municipal waste is disposed of in three different ways. The environmental effects of different waste management solutions will be discussed as well as ideal ways. Solid will be regarded as a perfect way to recycle waste and convert it in some useful material. A . One of the most miraculous benefits of waste management is that it includes requirements for burying or burning waste may cause health risks for people living near the area. in my opinion. and we have a white local authorities in some cases we found trash in the area surrounding us. It is also necessary to keep the environment pollution free and safe for residents. Domestic and industrial wastes pose a threat to our precious ecosystem and so we must begin to waste management. One may eliminate habitat for rats and insects through residential and commercial waste disposal. One of the most unfortunate fact that the most successful industries of negligence required the appropriate industry. You may feel intimidated by not knowing that the negligent care industry to regulations made for the waste management industry and continues to gain huge profit.Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations. It is also a form of disposal that causes many environmental impacts that are in need of addressing. and 13 percent recycled. while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities. Recycling of waste to be important in the present moment continues to increase environmental pollution. Industrial waste management is another popular method in each type of waste will be removed to reduce public health risk is that the solid waste or liquid waste. Rodents and insects can cause health risks. Other wastes that have to be disposed of are nuclear and hazardous wastes. and waste in the maker of this insect. As of 2004 it is estimated that 71 percent is land filled. Advantages of w m There are several advantages of solid waste management can control and use of mice can spread other diseases dangerous. Residents in these areas face serious health threats such as asthma. for urban and rural areas.

Another effect of landfills is air pollution. This contaminated liquid can soak into the ground and cause water contamination according to the Department of Agriculture and Life Sciences at NC State University. Not only can air pollution from landfills . a contaminated liquid that percolates through the waste in a landfill and probably the most addressed issue.major effect of landfills is Leachate.

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