# [ZACHARY DECKER] Chapter 10

Waves
Section 1 The Nature of Waves
y Wave a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space - Example Things like light or ocean waves - When ocean waves or ripples in a pond occur, the water is not moving but the energy is. Something stationary in the water with not move with the energy but stay in place - All waves are produced by some sort of vibration - Medium anything may it be a solid liquid or a gas - Mechanical waves need some kind of medium to travel through except for electromagnetic waves such as radio waves which can travel through space - Transverse waves matter in the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction that the wave travels. - Example the waves in the ocean move horizontally while the water moves up then down when the wave passes - Compression waves The medium moves in the direction of the wave. - Example A toy slinky when pulled apart then let go at one end. - Sound waves are a form of compression waves because as they travel they compress the air around them - Seismic Waves Combination of compression and transverse waves - Example Earth quake

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[ZACHARY DECKER] Chapter 10

Section 2 Wave properties
y Parts of a wave - Wavelength the distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point just like it - Frequency the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point each second. - Example Choosing the radio station on a radio - You can find the frequency by simply counting the wave lengths - Expressed by Hz and Hz is the amount of wave lengths in one second - Wavelength is related to frequency  Making the waves faster makes the wavelength shorter - Period the period of a wave is the amount of time it takes one wavelength to pass a point - As the frequency increases the period decreases - Sound waves travel faster through liquids and solids then they do gasses - Light waves travel faster through gasses or empty space then they do liquids and solids - Sound waves also travel faster in warmer mediums then cooler ones - Formula (Wave speed)          Amplitude energy transferred by a wave Greater the amplitude then greater the energy transferred Measured differently by compression and transverse waves In compression waves the amplitude is lower when the rings are farther apart
Wave Length

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[ZACHARY DECKER] Chapter 10

Section 3 The Behavior of Waves
y Diffraction when an object causes a wave to change direction - When an object is smaller than the wavelength the waves bend around the object - When an object is larger than the wavelengths it does not cause very much diffraction - AM radio waves have longer radio lengths then FM do - AM wave lengths easily diffract around buildings and obstacles while FM has trouble - Interference When 2 or more waves overlap to combine and form a new wave - If you have 2 waves going simultaneously so that their crests and troughs are in the same place at the same time then this will cause a even larger wave called constructive interference - When you have to waves that s troughs and crests are not in the same place at the same time then the product wave will be less, this is called destructive interference Standing wave A special type of wave pattern that forms when wave equal in wavelength and amplitude, but traveling in opposite directions continuously interfere with each other Resonance Process by which an object is made to vibrate by absorbing energy at its natural frequencies is called resonance.

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02/1/09 | Section 3 The Behavior of Waves

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