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Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science,

Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Abstract

The abrasive wear rates of materials may be a sliding abrasive particle into a metallic

very simply related to their mechanical surface results in microploughin depending

properties, provided wear takes place under on the attack angle. Below a critical attack

very simple conditions. However, wear rates angle, the metallic material is mainly

in many practical situations can be elastic–plastic deformed and flows around

controlled by effects which either relate to and beneath the sliding particle but no

mechanical properties in more subtle ways, material is removed from the surface.

or which are controlled by quite different Increasing the attack angle leads to a

parameters. Mechanics models of the transition from microploughing to

abrasive process provide a means of linking microcutting, i.e. material flows up the front

these different effects together to understand face of the abrasive particle and it is

better the effects, which may determine detached from the wearing surface in the

wear under particular conditions. The graph form of a chip [2].

between the wear rates versus the load

applied taken for Aluminium (Al) is plotted

as a linear graph but the curve can also be

treated as a polynomial curve instead of a Fig1 Abrasive wear mechanism[2].

linear one. A particular curve fitting formula

was fitted on the nonlinear curve. By curve In fig 1 abrasive wear mechanism is shown.

fitting we got a mathematical function that Various methods are used for wear testing.

has the best fit to a series of data points The simplest form of wear test pin on disc is

leading to optimization of the wear rates. shown in Fig.2. A pin (1) is loaded against a

slowly rotating abrasive disc (3). The pin

holder (2) is attached to a rack (4) which

1. INTRODUCTION advances as the disc rotates, causing the pin

to traverse a spiral path, length, S over fresh

abrasive.

Abrasive wear can be caused by hard

particles sliding on a softer solid surface and

detaching material. Different types of

interactions are distinguished between the

sliding particles and the wearing surface of

the solid [1].

Models for two-body abrasion have been

developed to a substantially greater depth

than for three-body abrasion. Penetration of Fig 2 Pin on disc test [1].

The test avoids the complications caused by 2.1 CURVE FITTING

the clogging and wear of the abrasive, which Curve fitting is the process of constructing a

will occur in most practical situations. Thus, curve, or mathematical function that has the

it affords a simple method for ranking best fit to a series of data points, possibly

materials for abrasive wear resistance, and subject to constraints The graph shown in

for studying which of their properties figure 3 is plotted as a linear graph but the

influence it. curve can also be treated as a polynomial

curve instead if a linear one. The rate of

The graph between the wear rates versus the wear can be taken as ̇ .

applied taken for Al is plotted as a linear

graph but the curve can also be treated as a ……..(2)

polynomial curve instead of a linear one. Where

Wv = Wear volume

The goal of the present work is to fit a α = Attack angle

particular curve fitting formula on the non FN = Normal load

linear curve for Aluminium (Al). H = Hardness of the material

S = Sliding distance

Z = Polynomial variable

2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL C = Intercept constant

An optimization type of model is being used

to fit a particular curve fitting formula on a This particular formula needs to be fit on the

non-linear curve for Al. non linear curve for Al (Wrought) as shown

in figure 3 by a hit and trial method. Our

Governing formula:-

aim is to optimize the values of the Z, and C

so that the data will be fit on the curve of

wear rates versus applied load as ̇ is a

function of Z and C.

Where

Wv = Wear volume

α = Attack angle

FN = Normal load

H = Hardness of the material

S = Sliding distance

MODIFIED EQUATION:

……..(2)

Where

Fig 3 Dependence of wear rate on normal

Wv = Wear volume

load [3]

α = Attack angle

Assumptions: The value of α is assumed

FN = Normal load

22 and hardness of material is HB 61 from

H = Hardness of the material

reference papers.

S = Sliding distance

Ranges of Z and C: Z value varying

Z = Polynomial variable

between 1 to 4 and C value varying

C = Intercept constant

between 0 to 1.

3. GENETIC ALGORITHM AS AN 3.1 Algorithm of PCX based G3 model:

OPTIMIZATION MODEL:

The algorithm of the G3 model is as follows:

The objective function is defined as: 1. From the population, P(t), select the best

̇ parent and μ-1 other parents randomly.

O =∑ ( ̇

) 2. Generate λ offspring from the chosen μ

Where ̇ and ̇ are the calculated and parents using a recombination scheme.

experimental wear rates values. Objective 3. Choose two parents at random from the

function O is a function of two unknown population.

parameters i.e., the wear parameters Z and 4. From a combined subpopulation with two

C. O=f (Z and C) Therefore, we need to find chosen parents and λ created offspring,

two unknown parameters to minimize the choose the best two solutions and replace

value of objective function, which depends the chosen two parents with these solutions.

on-linearly.

Generalized Generation Gap (G3) model

using Parent Centric Recombination (PCX)

operator is used in the present study for

optimizing the values of the unknown

variables. The Minimum Generation Gap

(MGG) model is modified to make it

computationally faster by replacing the

roulette-wheel selection with a block

selection of the best two solutions. This

model also preserves elite solutions from the

previous iteration. This scheme has been

shown in figure 4 below

model using PCX operator Model

3.2 ANALYSIS OF G3-PCX MODEL 4.00E-01

To see how GA works and how it optimizes

the values of the desired parameters 200.out 2.00E-01

was studied. Plots at different runs were

1.00E-01

taken to see the effect of the model. Fig. 6, 7

and 8 shows distribution of initial population 0.00E+00

generated, population after 120, 140 runs 0.00E+001.00E+002.00E+003.00E+004.00E+00

and population after 146 runs. It can be

clearly observed that the values of the

parameters were randomly distributed Fig 8 Single best fit after 140 operation

initially begins to converge.

1.20E+00

1.00E+00

In order to generate the initial random

8.00E-01 population to start the calculations, the

6.00E-01 values of the two parameters were

4.00E-01 initialized based on their values reported.

2.00E-01 The used initialization ranges for these

0.00E+00 variables are as follows:

0.00E+00

1.00E+00

2.00E+00

3.00E+00

4.00E+00

5.00E+00 Z = 3.76543994376504

C = 0.338725245527101

Fitness of this best solution:

Fig 6 Population generation after 120 2.015391294844449E-002

operation

4.1 Validation of model for the obtained

values of unknown parameters:

3.70E-01

3.60E-01 By substituting these values in

governing equation we have calculated d

3.50E-01 boride depth values at different time.

3.40E-01 After then we have plotted calculated

3.30E-01

wear rates versus applied load.

3.20E-01 Table: Value of load and wear rates

3.75E+00

3.75E+00

3.76E+00

3.76E+00

3.77E+00

3.77E+00

3.78E+00

Load (N) Wear rates Wear rates

(Exp) (Calculated)

Fig 7 Population generation after 140 7.5 0.5 0.52

operation 10 1 0.88

12.5 1.5 1.6

[2]. K.H. Zum Gahr, “Wear by hard

particles” Tribology International Vol.

31, No. 10, pp. 587–596, 1998

[3]. G.H. Borhani, A.N. Tiwari and

P.Ramakrishnan, “Tribological

behaviour of mechanically alloyed Al-

8Fe-2Cr system” Transactions of the PM

Al, Vol.20, 1993. Pp 7-12.

normal load experimental and

calculated.

5. CONCLUSION :

values of Z and C come in the given

experimental range. However the shape

of both experimental and calculated

graphs are not matching with each other

because its optimise graph which is

consider the both calculated as well

experimental values of wear rates. We

can say that our model represents our

systems to some satisfactory level and

optimized values of Z and C can be used

in further study of abrasive wear rates.

Acknowledgments:

The author would like to express his

gratitude to Prof. Saurabh Mishra for his

suggestions during the period of coding

and analysis of this problem.

REFERENCES:

wear,” Second International Conference

on Erosive and Abrasive Wear, Wear

Volume 258, Issues 1-4, Pages 281-293,

January 2005.

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