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Modelling for abrasive wear

Balram meena, 09311028

Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science,
Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay


The abrasive wear rates of materials may be a sliding abrasive particle into a metallic
very simply related to their mechanical surface results in microploughin depending
properties, provided wear takes place under on the attack angle. Below a critical attack
very simple conditions. However, wear rates angle, the metallic material is mainly
in many practical situations can be elastic–plastic deformed and flows around
controlled by effects which either relate to and beneath the sliding particle but no
mechanical properties in more subtle ways, material is removed from the surface.
or which are controlled by quite different Increasing the attack angle leads to a
parameters. Mechanics models of the transition from microploughing to
abrasive process provide a means of linking microcutting, i.e. material flows up the front
these different effects together to understand face of the abrasive particle and it is
better the effects, which may determine detached from the wearing surface in the
wear under particular conditions. The graph form of a chip [2].
between the wear rates versus the load
applied taken for Aluminium (Al) is plotted
as a linear graph but the curve can also be
treated as a polynomial curve instead of a Fig1 Abrasive wear mechanism[2].
linear one. A particular curve fitting formula
was fitted on the nonlinear curve. By curve In fig 1 abrasive wear mechanism is shown.
fitting we got a mathematical function that Various methods are used for wear testing.
has the best fit to a series of data points The simplest form of wear test pin on disc is
leading to optimization of the wear rates. shown in Fig.2. A pin (1) is loaded against a
slowly rotating abrasive disc (3). The pin
holder (2) is attached to a rack (4) which
1. INTRODUCTION advances as the disc rotates, causing the pin
to traverse a spiral path, length, S over fresh
Abrasive wear can be caused by hard
particles sliding on a softer solid surface and
detaching material. Different types of
interactions are distinguished between the
sliding particles and the wearing surface of
the solid [1].
Models for two-body abrasion have been
developed to a substantially greater depth
than for three-body abrasion. Penetration of Fig 2 Pin on disc test [1].
The test avoids the complications caused by 2.1 CURVE FITTING
the clogging and wear of the abrasive, which Curve fitting is the process of constructing a
will occur in most practical situations. Thus, curve, or mathematical function that has the
it affords a simple method for ranking best fit to a series of data points, possibly
materials for abrasive wear resistance, and subject to constraints The graph shown in
for studying which of their properties figure 3 is plotted as a linear graph but the
influence it. curve can also be treated as a polynomial
curve instead if a linear one. The rate of
The graph between the wear rates versus the wear can be taken as ̇ .
applied taken for Al is plotted as a linear
graph but the curve can also be treated as a ……..(2)
polynomial curve instead of a linear one. Where
Wv = Wear volume
The goal of the present work is to fit a α = Attack angle
particular curve fitting formula on the non FN = Normal load
linear curve for Aluminium (Al). H = Hardness of the material
S = Sliding distance
Z = Polynomial variable
2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL C = Intercept constant
An optimization type of model is being used
to fit a particular curve fitting formula on a This particular formula needs to be fit on the
non-linear curve for Al. non linear curve for Al (Wrought) as shown
in figure 3 by a hit and trial method. Our
Governing formula:-
aim is to optimize the values of the Z, and C
so that the data will be fit on the curve of
wear rates versus applied load as ̇ is a
function of Z and C.

Wv = Wear volume
α = Attack angle
FN = Normal load
H = Hardness of the material
S = Sliding distance


Fig 3 Dependence of wear rate on normal
Wv = Wear volume
load [3]
α = Attack angle
Assumptions: The value of α is assumed
FN = Normal load
22 and hardness of material is HB 61 from
H = Hardness of the material
reference papers.
S = Sliding distance
Ranges of Z and C: Z value varying
Z = Polynomial variable
between 1 to 4 and C value varying
C = Intercept constant
between 0 to 1.
3. GENETIC ALGORITHM AS AN 3.1 Algorithm of PCX based G3 model:
The algorithm of the G3 model is as follows:
The objective function is defined as: 1. From the population, P(t), select the best
̇ parent and μ-1 other parents randomly.
O =∑ ( ̇
) 2. Generate λ offspring from the chosen μ
Where ̇ and ̇ are the calculated and parents using a recombination scheme.
experimental wear rates values. Objective 3. Choose two parents at random from the
function O is a function of two unknown population.
parameters i.e., the wear parameters Z and 4. From a combined subpopulation with two
C. O=f (Z and C) Therefore, we need to find chosen parents and λ created offspring,
two unknown parameters to minimize the choose the best two solutions and replace
value of objective function, which depends the chosen two parents with these solutions.
Generalized Generation Gap (G3) model
using Parent Centric Recombination (PCX)
operator is used in the present study for
optimizing the values of the unknown
variables. The Minimum Generation Gap
(MGG) model is modified to make it
computationally faster by replacing the
roulette-wheel selection with a block
selection of the best two solutions. This
model also preserves elite solutions from the
previous iteration. This scheme has been
shown in figure 4 below

Fig: 4 Generalized Generation Gap (G3) Fig: 5 Flowchart of a parallelized G3

model using PCX operator Model

Effect of various runs on G3-PCX model 3.00E-01

To see how GA works and how it optimizes
the values of the desired parameters 200.out 2.00E-01
was studied. Plots at different runs were
taken to see the effect of the model. Fig. 6, 7
and 8 shows distribution of initial population 0.00E+00
generated, population after 120, 140 runs 0.00E+001.00E+002.00E+003.00E+004.00E+00
and population after 146 runs. It can be
clearly observed that the values of the
parameters were randomly distributed Fig 8 Single best fit after 140 operation
initially begins to converge.


In order to generate the initial random
8.00E-01 population to start the calculations, the
6.00E-01 values of the two parameters were
4.00E-01 initialized based on their values reported.
2.00E-01 The used initialization ranges for these
0.00E+00 variables are as follows:
5.00E+00 Z = 3.76543994376504
C = 0.338725245527101
Fitness of this best solution:
Fig 6 Population generation after 120 2.015391294844449E-002
4.1 Validation of model for the obtained
values of unknown parameters:
3.60E-01 By substituting these values in
governing equation we have calculated d
3.50E-01 boride depth values at different time.
3.40E-01 After then we have plotted calculated
wear rates versus applied load.
3.20E-01 Table: Value of load and wear rates
Load (N) Wear rates Wear rates
(Exp) (Calculated)
Fig 7 Population generation after 140 7.5 0.5 0.52
operation 10 1 0.88
12.5 1.5 1.6
[2]. K.H. Zum Gahr, “Wear by hard
particles” Tribology International Vol.
31, No. 10, pp. 587–596, 1998
[3]. G.H. Borhani, A.N. Tiwari and
P.Ramakrishnan, “Tribological
behaviour of mechanically alloyed Al-
8Fe-2Cr system” Transactions of the PM
Al, Vol.20, 1993. Pp 7-12.

Fig 9 Dependence of wear rate on

normal load experimental and


The optimized values confirm that the

values of Z and C come in the given
experimental range. However the shape
of both experimental and calculated
graphs are not matching with each other
because its optimise graph which is
consider the both calculated as well
experimental values of wear rates. We
can say that our model represents our
systems to some satisfactory level and
optimized values of Z and C can be used
in further study of abrasive wear rates.

The author would like to express his
gratitude to Prof. Saurabh Mishra for his
suggestions during the period of coding
and analysis of this problem.


[1]. A.A. Torrance, “Modeling abrasive

wear,” Second International Conference
on Erosive and Abrasive Wear, Wear
Volume 258, Issues 1-4, Pages 281-293,
January 2005.