Skills for Green Jobs European Synthesis Report
Not for quotation or circulation
This synthesis report is a joint work and reflects the contributions of all those working on the project. Peter Szovics from Cedefop ensured the overall coordination and management of the project. Valuable contributions were made also by other Cedefop experts, namely Manfred Tessaring, Alena Zukersteinova and Eleonora Schmid.
Cedefop would like to acknowledge the contribution of James Medhurst (research team leader), Vanessa Foo and Jeppe Graugaard from GHK Consulting in cooperation with the Danish Technological Institute, Economix Research & Consulting, CEET, and Olav Aarna. They gathered and carried out the initial analysis of the material and drafted and presented their findings to Cedefop. The country reports including case studies belong to the study contract with Cedefop No 2009-0134/AO/RPA/PSZO-AZU-Skills-green-jobs/004/09. The list of country experts is provided in the country reports.
This project was conducted in cooperation with the International labour organisation and will result in the Global Synthesis Report to be published in June 2010. Many thanks go to Olga Strietska-Ilina who commented on the emerging findings.
Parts of this publication were presented during the technical validation workshop on ‘Skills for green jobs’ held in Geneva in 17-18 May 2010.
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................................. 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 8 1 ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND SKILLS RESPONSE STRATEGIES................................ 9 1.1 Environmental Challenges and Strategies ..................................................................................................... 9 1.2 Green Stimulus Packages .............................................................................................................................. 9 1.3 Sectoral Focus of Recent Environmental Strategies and Programmes........................................................ 10 1.4 Development of Skills Response Strategies as Part of Environmental Strategies and Programmes ........... 11 2 EMERGING SKILL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................. 13 2.1 Green Restructuring .................................................................................................................................... 13 2.2 New Occupations and Greening of Existing Occupations .......................................................................... 14 2.3 Overview of Occupations Generating a Demand for Green Skills.............................................................. 15 3 APPROACHES TO ANTICPATING SKILLS NEEDS........................................................................... 17 3.1 Tools and Institutional Frameworks............................................................................................................ 17 3.2 Anticipating ‘Green’ Skill Needs as the Basis of Skills Responses ............................................................ 18 4 RESPONSES TO SKILLS NEEDS ............................................................................................................ 19 4.1 Skills Responses to the Greening of Occupations within Existing Education and Training Systems ......... 19 4.2 Regional / Local and Sectoral / Company Responses to the Greening of Occupations .............................. 21 4.3 Skills Responses in the Context of Green Restructuring............................................................................. 21 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................... 23 5.1 Conclusions ................................................................................................................................................. 23 5.2 Recommendations ....................................................................................................................................... 24 A.1 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN GERMANY............................................................................... 26 A.1.1 Environmental Challenges, Priorities and Skills Response Strategies .................................................... 26 A.1.2 Emerging Skill Requirements.................................................................................................................. 27 A.1.3 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs ................................................................................................ 28 A.1.4 Responses to Skill Needs......................................................................................................................... 29 A.1.5 Conclusions and Recommendations........................................................................................................ 30 A.2 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN DENMARK............................................................................... 33 A.2.1 Environmental Challenges, Priorities and Skills Response Strategies .................................................... 33 A.2.2 Emerging Skill Requirements.................................................................................................................. 34 A.2.3 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs ................................................................................................ 35 A.2.4 Responses to Skill Needs......................................................................................................................... 36 A.2.5 Conclusions and Recommendations........................................................................................................ 37 A.3 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN ESTONIA.................................................................................. 39 A.3.1 Environmental Challenges, Priorities and Skills Response Strategies .................................................... 39 A.3.2 Emerging Skill Requirements.................................................................................................................. 40 A.3.3 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs ................................................................................................ 41 A.3.4 Responses to Skill Needs......................................................................................................................... 42 A.3.5 Conclusions and Recommendations........................................................................................................ 44 A.4 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN SPAIN........................................................................................ 46 A.4.1 Environmental Challenges, Priorities and Skills Response Strategies .................................................... 46 A.4.2 Emerging Skill Requirements.................................................................................................................. 47 A.4.3 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs ................................................................................................ 48 A.4.4 Responses to Skill Needs......................................................................................................................... 49
..........................................5 Conclusions and Recommendations............. 63 A...1 Environmental Challenges...............................................................................6.......................................6...................................2 Emerging Skill Requirements......5 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN FRANCE ................. 61 A.................. 52 A..............6........................................ 53 A....................................................................... 62 A....................................................................5 Co1nclusions and Recommendations ............................................................................................ 54 A............................... Priorities and Skills Response Strategies .... 52 A.............................5.............................................................4.........1 Environmental Challenges...................................... 61 A................................................................. 55 A..........4 Responses to Skill Needs..........................................................3 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs ...................6................................... 57 A..........A............3 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs ..................................................................5 Conclusions and Recommendations.................................. 49 A.....6 SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN THE UK ...............................................5............5...........5.............................6..................................2 Emerging Skill Requirements............. 62 A..........4 Responses to Skill Needs....5....... 63
.......... Priorities and Skills Response Strategies ......................................................................
Industry is beginning to take a more pro-active role in meeting climate change obligations. Even when such policies are in place. It is widely acknowledged that government intervention is crucial to supporting this job creation. Second edition
. specialist skills.050 to do so(2). (c) Response to consumer demand and companies seeking first-mover competitive advantage by developing.14 in exchange rate conversion as of 15th April 2010 (3) New South Wales Department of Education and Training and BVET (2009). Growth in demand is likely to increase competition for workers with high-level. Government subsidies for research and early stage deployment can accelerate the innovation and provide a signal of certainty to industry that they too should be coinvesting in. they were reluctant to pay the training provider €2. A recent survey found that although the majority of electricians were keen to train in photo-voltaic (PV) installation. It has gained further ground as governments look for pathways out of the economic downturn and means of reducing unemployment at the same time as meeting their climate change obligations. Persuading the workforce to upskill requires convincing them that it is both affordable and profitable. SMEs also face barriers in accessing affordable training to upskill and take advantage of new market opportunities. for instance. investing in the development of new technologies can be prohibitively risky for businesses and expensive in the early stages. as governments and industry increase efforts to take advantage of the economic opportunities provided by the low carbon economy. South West Observatory Skills and Learning. driven by considerations that include3: (a) New markets growing around greenhouse gas emissions – from carbon credit trading to new technologies and processes. and (d) Rising economic costs associated with climate change – reflected by the fact several large insurers now rate climate change as a top risk alongside terrorism However. £1 = €1.EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The potential for green job creation is enormous – and the case for government support to drive this forward is clear – industry cannot do it alone The case for moving towards a low carbon economy and achieving ‘green’. Government action to reduce damage to the environment and health is often a prerequisite for the development of markets for greener technologies and services. sustainable growth has been well documented over recent years. (b) Global supply chains responding to changing regulatory requirements and purchasing demands. Green Jobs: Opportunities for the South West Low Carbon Economy’. ‘Skills for Sustainability’. the need to ensure there is a workforce with the skills required to exploit those opportunities becomes more pressing. The skills strategies developed by governments with the private sector need to recognise and anticipate this demand to ensure new and existing workers are equipped to support and share in the success of these future growth sectors. specific measures from the innovation policy toolkit may be needed to address market failures that impede the development and deployment of new green technologies. The challenges of funding innovation are particularly acute for small and medium enterprises.
Europe’s policy-makers now need to ensure that their support for skills and training matches the focus and ambition of their strategies for promoting investment in green innovation and infrastructure
(2) Quoted in workshop entitled ‘Green Skills. renewing energy infrastructure and complying with other environmental legislation. As in other sectors. clean energy. They tend to have greater problems accessing finance (an issue made worse by the current economic recession). UK (November 2009). deploying and selling low emissions services and products.
Across Europe. STEM subjects are declining in popularity at secondary and tertiary education levels. technology. Demographic and cultural changes are contributing to the skills shortages being experienced by the low-carbon sectors. The French Ministry of Environment states that “very few jobs today are based purely on new competencies”. energy efficiency and renewable energy. Yet shortages in these disciplines are already imminent.construction. there is an emerging consensus that few of the skills critical to the transition to the low carbon economy are new. ThyssenKrupp Steel and Volkswagen.are a greater concern than shortages of ‘new’ green skills. and that the emphasis of skills investment should be to develop training to enhance existing skills rather than creation of new skills. has stressed the importance of improving Europe's competency in mathematics in order to improve competitiveness. Across all of the Member States reviewed in this study. a shortage estimated to cost the German economy around €6. Some Member States are moving faster than others to rectify this. GHK and Economix Consulting for Cedefop
. there is a shortage of engineers able to replace those who are retiring. calling for measures to substantially curbing this downward trend in enrolment in technical studies and restore the health of the European talent pipeline. engineering and mathematics (STEM)) . ‘Jointly Tackling Demographic Change in Europe’ (5) ‘Skills for Green Jobs – Germany report’ (2010). puts innovation and green growth at the heart of its blueprint for competitiveness. Competency in mathematics. He draws a direct link between technical knowledge and economic growth. The lack of availability of engineers remains the largest problem for the environmental sector in Germany. and is exacerbated by the fact that graduation rates have been low in recent years and fewer school graduates are applying for apprenticeships(5). 64. The Aldersgate Group. and the UK Government recently launching a consultation. Indeed. With the challenges ahead. with France launching its recent Mobilisation Plan for Green Jobs. or those which are seen as requiring ‘retraining’ – already possess a
(4) Laboratory Demographic Change (2009) in association with BMW. a fiscal stimulus of around €200 billion launched in 2008 that focused investment on clean technologies and infrastructure. innovative and competitive Europe. according to the calculations made by the German Economic Research Institute. entitled ‘Meeting the Low Carbon Skills Challenge’. It follows on from the European Economic Recovery Plan. job-specific skills (many of which are related to science.6 billion(4). However. science and technology (MST) is becoming more and more fundamental as a strategic enabler for a sustainable." said van der Loo. resulting in a shortage of people with the skills to deliver major infrastructure projects.000 job vacancies for engineers were still open in 2008. has suggested that the fundamental skills for the majority of environmental or low carbon jobs already exist. it will become even more important in determining the future of Europe’s prosperity and role in the world.1: Europe’s skills in science and technology underpin its long term competitiveness Hans van der Loo. head of European Union Liaison at Royal Dutch Shell. a high-level coalition group of UK businesses. economic stimulus packages have been directed towards the same types of activity . Europe 2020. Metro. the bulk of jobs – whether these be classed as ‘new green jobs. In some countries.
The fundamental weaknesses in the EU’s skills base matter more to its capacity for green growth than shortages in specialist ‘green tech’ know-how The EU suffers from systemic weaknesses in its skills base which limit its productivity and competitiveness in today’s economy. Hitachi. and reduce its capacity to exploit the opportunities offered by green growth. Salzgitter. there are no explicit overarching national strategies targeting green skills needs in any of the six Member States in this study.The European Union’s new strategy for sustainable growth and jobs. but notes that interest in maths and sciences tends to decline as countries become more prosperous Education has long been acknowledged as the cornerstone of Europe’s success. politicians and environmental groups.’ existing occupations which require greening of skills. These deficits – in management skills and technical.
Fundamentally. the automotive sector.
‘greener’ industry may be less than expected. This study shows that the level of retraining required for workers to convert to an occupation in an entirely different.base of highly relevant skills and simply require a ‘topping-up’ of their competences. entrepreneurial skills Installation and maintenance of lowcarbon technologies. operation and services Technical training. This is most notable in energy efficiency and construction of zero-carbon homes. or ‘adding to’ existing core skills. workers with experience in shipbuilding and in the oil and gas sector are highly sought after in the wind turbine industry for their skills in welding. The table below illustrates how existing occupations can upskill to fulfil ‘new green occupations’.1: MS examples of upskilling to new occupation MS
Industry electrician / energy technologist Industrial operator / industry electrician Construction worker
VET qualifications / tertiary engineering qualifications VET qualifications / upper secondary qualifications No professional standard
Knowledge of energy sources. project management Assembly. mainly through an ‘add-on’ of knowledge. knowledge of administrative procedures. ability to integrate energy systems. surface treatment and outfitting. but at a level which is unlikely to be onerous. installation of parts. mainly because of the scale of action required. Case studies suggest the skills development responses required to enable a person to fulfil a new occupation are often a matter of upskilling. project management Sorting and reception techniques. integrated assessment and life cycle analysis Electronics and hydraulic systems. both of which are heavily driven by national legislation. Figure 1. data analysis. safety procedures. The concern over the ability of the construction industry to meet low carbon requirements with its existing workforce is
.General Certificate of Vocational Qualification
Waste Recycling Operator
Product Design and Services
22 initial training courses with varying specialisation
Electronic / Mechatronic Technician Plumber / Electric and Heating Installer
Initial vocational training
Wind Power Service Technician Solar Energy Entrepreneur / Installations Project Designer Smart Energy Expert / Smart Energy Manager
Initial vocational training
Engineer in energy sector
Tertiary engineering qualifications
Commodity Trader / Broker
Carbon Trader / Broker
There are some areas in which significant investment in skills delivery will be needed. understanding of trading tools
Manager in renewable energy
Wind turbine operator
Recycling sector worker
CQP . knowledge of conditioning and storage Integrating environmental criteria in design process. use of tools Knowledge of energy systems. This ‘toppingup’ is most likely to be characterised by additional training to familiarise workers with new concepts and practices that will enable them to operate in low-carbon industries. customer service skills Practical skills on functioning of carbon market. For example.
but have indicated that these methods. commercial understanding or management – and generic ‘green’ skills that also should apply to any occupation. One clear finding is that efforts to identify skill needs for jobs in the low carbon economy have been taken most prominently by the regions. as well as improving the generic skills of people across the entire workforce. the national ministries update labour demand forecasts each year. approaches. in collaboration with other partners – industry and educational bodies. ‘Meeting the Low Carbon Skills Challenge’. These largely relate to an understanding of how to prepare the workplace for new environmental legislation. tend to be more effective. there are calls for British businesses to take greater responsibility in defining their skills needs and to collaborate more closely with universities to deliver them. ‘The Future’s Green: Jobs and the UK low-carbon transition’ (7) Reference to CBI in 2009. These ‘generic skills’ refer both to skills required in almost any occupation – such as leadership. In Denmark. ‘HM Government.7 The country reports in this study have all described the way in which skills needs are identified for the economy as a whole. Figure 1.2: Skills responses for the low carbon economy
Importance for transition to low carbon economy LOW HIGH
‘Top Up’ Existing Skills
Generic Green Skills
Specialised Green Skills
Proportion of workforce
Regions are taking the lead in both identifying the skills needs associated with the low carbon economy and providing the skills development responses to match. and improving energy and resource efficiency. In Estonia. observatories help social partners to make decisions on employment and training policies by generating employment and training forecasts. The approach to identification of skills needs for the economy as a whole varies across the six Member States examined in this study.based more on the volume of workers that requires upgrading of skills – even if the actual skill requirement for the individual is actually relatively low(6). identification of skills needs is primarily the responsibility of trade committees which draw on labour market information and external studies. where the regions. the more specialised. ‘Joined-up’ approaches. In the UK. systems and institutional responsibilities do not explicitly identify current and future skill needs for the ‘green-jobs’ labour market. such as universities and vocational institutions.
(6) Ippr (2009). A consultation. The diagram below illustrates that relative to topping up existing skills sets and the more generic skills required. In France. industry and educational bodies work together to identify gaps and provide solutions. Skills development responses ought to be prioritised in favour of building on existing skills sets. ‘newer’ skills sets are of less importance in moving towards a low carbon economy. 2010
Technical and business skills. just because an occupation may lack a set of corresponding occupational standards does not make it necessarily new. through the creation of a number of Low Carbon Economic Areas (LCEAs).
Box 1. A focus is placed on stimulating employer demand for low carbon skills. Member State experts disagree on whether a job is ‘new’ or simply an existing job but with some new elements – for example. GHK and the Danish Technological Institute (2010). such as accessing finance. In the UK. ‘Skills for Green Jobs – Country Report for Denmark’ for Cedefop (9) Workshop entitled ‘Green Skills. much of the skills base relevant for low-carbon jobs can be found in existing occupations. fill labour market information gaps and demonstrate skills solutions for the wider skills system. and accelerating the growth of low carbon industries and supply chains.
Skills development responses need to focus on adding to existing competences. which is intended to be the ‘first large-scale wave energy farm in the world’. a typology which distinguishes between ‘new green occupations’. It is estimated that up to 6. At the universities of Exeter and Plymouth. Regional actors are well-placed to identify local strengths and weaknesses and can bring together key players such as industry. Local and regional governments often also hold the powers that can be used to incentivise and support the development of new technologies and are boosted by a more detailed knowledge of the local context. is underpinned by engineering skills. Innovation and Skills to develop a ‘marine energy skills demonstrator’ and is looking to identify needs now to develop future training. research institutes and educational facilities to provide appropriate responses.14 in exchange rate conversion as of 15th April 2010 (11) ippr (2009). South West Observatory Skills and Learning (November 2009) (10) where £1 = €1. engineering. existing occupations which require a ‘greening of skills’ and those occupations which are declining and are deemed to require retraining. and as this study has illustrated. Denmark. tends to be flawed and adds confusion to the debate. such as degree programmes in Renewable Energy. and an ‘offshore electrical socket’ connected to the National Grid by a buried underwater cable. €37 million10 of investment is being pumped into a ‘Wave Hub’. LCEAs are also intended to attract skills investment. These are intended to capitalise on the particular geographic and industrial assets of individual regions to secure global competitive advantage for the UK. are likely to be particularly important. regions are taking a primary role in identifying the skills needs for jobs in the low carbon economy. Interesting regional initiatives have been identified in these four Member States. to which a series of wave energy devices could be connected. These case studies show regions working closely with industry – in some cases launching employer surveys to gather information8 – to understand skills gaps and shortages and to develop training initiatives to address them.Within four of the Member States examined.000 people with the right skills could be required in wave farm installation if the sector takes off. an energy auditor in Estonia may be considered to be a
(8) See Danish case study on the Lindoe shipyard. For this reason. Green Jobs: Opportunities for the South West Low Carbon Economy’. Firstly. France. The region is working with the central government’s Department for Business. given the appeal of the word ‘green’ in the current financial climate as a promoter of job creation(11). technology and science It is widely agreed that the use of the word ‘green’ in reference to both jobs and skills is unhelpful. The boundaries between what is and is not ‘low carbon’ work are becoming increasingly blurred. and as many as 90% of graduates each year are already being recruited into the ‘low carbon sector’. Spain and the UK. and placing emphasis on core skills in mathematics. Strategic skills responses therefore ought to focus more on topping up current competencies than to try to ‘reinvent the wheel’ in creating new competencies. regional-level intervention has been encouraged by the central government.2: A region leads the way in wave energy(9) The South West of England has 70% more coastline than any other region in the UK and is seen as sitting on an ‘untapped source of wave energy’. and only really has value in attracting students and apprentices to work in the low-carbon economy. These are seen as crucial in ensuring graduates have the appropriate competence base for the low-carbon economy. ‘The Future’s Green: Jobs and the UK low-carbon transition’
. the curricula for courses relating to the low carbon economy.
communication and so-called ‘generic green skills’ – such as improving resource efficiency in the workplace and understanding environmental legislation – are equally as important to the skills agenda. Core skills – namely STEM skills – need to be improved at secondary and tertiary level. Focus needs to be placed on ensuring that a large proportion of the workforce tops up on their current skills sets. leadership. Taking a cross-sectoral perspective to skills needs identification is therefore crucial. France is the most advanced in this respect. to further attract students to the industry. The creation of networks of regional training centres coordinated at the national level to create synergies and disseminate such best practices would improve inputs into course design and mobility of workers between regions. the positive employment impacts of the strategies are noted with reference to the need for skills responses to exploit potential. it ought to be recognised that both generic skills – e. It is also broadly agreed that more emphasis needs to be placed on application. providers and employers. management. through affordable and accessible modules that are bespoke to their particular needs. it could be seen merely as a shift in the competencies of an auditor. On the contrary. and that VET providers should improve linkages with those companies that are developing demonstration technologies. they should also be aware of the implications of removing support such as subsidies and feed-in tariffs. Much of the competence base they have is directly transferable to the emerging low-carbon sectors. However. to prevent engineering graduates from ‘disappearing’ into sectors completely unrelated to the low-carbon economy. as illustrated by the recent collapse of the solar PV industry in Spain. Skills strategies that address systemic weaknesses in the labour market are being updated and will have benefits for ‘green jobs’. the skill set of people in occupations which are declining may not necessarily be obsolete. and that improvements in the provision of training on both is crucial to almost the entire workforce and not just a small sub-section of the population who work in ‘low-carbon jobs’. every job will be a green job. Conclusions and recommendations (a) None of the MS examined have put in place integral skills response strategies as part of their environmental strategies and programmes. developing successful public-private initiatives that have achieved impressive results and could be considered best practices. particularly in engineering and maintenance roles within renewable energy. such as financial services. In many cases. with its recent ‘Mobilisation Plan for Green Jobs’. as they provide the basis of high-level low carbon skills. Furthermore. but no over-arching skills strategies are integrated. as opposed to theory.new green occupation but in Germany. (d) Regional governments lead the way in providing comprehensive and organised skills responses. Government has a role to play in ensuring that learners. (c) National and regional governments need to play a proactive role in ensuring that countries’ firstmover advantage in alternative energy (e. which is a long-established occupation. skills upgrading and innovation policy. are more ‘joined up’ to allow for training products to be created which are relevant to industry needs. Furthermore.g. wind energy in Denmark) is used in a systemic way to stimulate job creation through coordinated employment. Understanding the environmental impact of an occupation needs to be mainstreamed into education and training systems.g. Integration of sustainable development and environmental issues into existing qualifications is much more
. (e) In the future. (b) A sectoral approach to identifying and anticipating skills needs for the low-carbon economy is not sufficient – and misses the innovation and job growth potential in exploiting new markets for green energy. case studies covering diversification from one industry to another suggest that such ‘declining’ occupations have extremely valuable skills sets for the so-called new occupations. The Grundfos case in Denmark shows that businesses are able to exploit their core competencies for new forms of service provision – which would not have been captured with a narrow sectoral focus on skills. and engineering needs to be made more attractive by both governments and industry.
should be promoted across the other Member States. E-learning. Early promotion of STEM careers is also necessary. and will help to improve the accessibility of skills development responses to the broader population of the workforce. as is the case in Australia now. (g) Continuing initiatives for targeted support and promotion of science. as are incentives for the take-up of STEM subjects at university (the Confederation of British Industry in the UK is currently considering a €1.100 ‘golden carrot’ for each student enrolling on a STEM degree) (h) The number of trainers and teachers able to teach new techniques and aware of environmental issues is not sufficient.effective than creating new training standards. and efforts should be made by both governments and industry to enhance the attractiveness of taking up a career in such occupations
. (i) Improving the image of low carbon occupations is also crucial. and shortages are particularly acute in agriculture and the built environment sector – more emphasis needs to be placed on ‘training the trainers’. engineering and mathematics (STEM) in compulsory-level education are needed. technology. Every new apprenticeship ought to have a low carbon element. such as the online library and interactive tool dedicated to energy efficiency training that is being tested in France (FEE-BAT initiative). (f) Diversifying the range of training tools used needs to be encouraged.
identifies major sectors with a greening potential and those particularly affected by green stimulus packages and programmes adopted in response to the crisis. and examines whether skill response strategies are incorporated into larger ‘greening’ policies and programmes. delivery channels. company and training provider levels. new skills for greening existing occupations and retraining needs in sectors undergoing structural change due to policy implementation and the introduction of greening technologies and practices. systemic provisions. regional.INTRODUCTION
This Synthesis report brings together the findings from the 6 country reports. Chapter 3: Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs: summarises methods. quantitatively and qualitatively.
. ad hoc versus anticipated skills responses. stand-alone documents and contain within them the detailed analysis including case studies on which the findings are based. paying particular attention to the planning of initial and continuing training. Chapter 2: Emerging Skill Requirements: summarises skills needs of new occupations. Chapter 4: Responses to Skills Needs: summarises the way skills responses are organised to provide an effective response to the challenge of greening the economy. and the skills response of different actors. skills provision at the national. institutional frameworks. the current and future labour-market demand for greencollar workers at the national. local or enterprise levels. The study is based on research in six selected Member States: (a) Denmark (b) Estonia (c) France (d) Germany (e) Spain (f) UK The report comprises the following sections: Chapter 1: Environmental Challenges and Skills Response Strategies: summarises the major challenges and priorities arising from climate change and the resultant greening policies and strategies. tools. including those caused by stimulus packages adopted in response to the current economic crisis. Annexes 1 to 6 contain a summary of the country reports which are individual. and on further research needed to meet the demands created by the greening of the economy. Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations: summarises skills policies and strategies. sectoral. systems and institutional frameworks for the anticipation and assessment of skills used to ensure that the skills supply meets. sectoral.
Spain and the UK have included ‘green stimulus packages’ which outline significant
. DK. In the case of Spain. At the same time the clear climatic pressures of higher temperatures. UK) the broad range of environmental challenges are well understood and have featured in well developed environmental policies and regulations for many decades.1 Environmental Challenges and Strategies The dominant environmental challenge across all MS studies is climate change. low carbon vehicles (driven in part by the restructuring benefits) and other forms of more sustainable transport (rail.g. In the case of Estonia. lower rainfall and higher sea levels has driven a clear policy focus on the management of energy and water resources. low carbon vehicles and sustainable transport. At the same time the historic legacies of pollution provides a well defined problem set. In the case of four MS (DE. 1. 1. albeit representing a major new policy area.1
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES RESPONSE STRATEGIES
Climate change is the main environmental policy priority across all MS and is often related to other environmental pressures and policy areas. Although all MS recognise the skills dimension of effectuating climate change and low carbon policies there are few overarching. In these cases. FR. This is likely to be due to existing education and training systems being considered adequate to meet future challenges. waterways) As part of the economic programmes designed in response to the economic crisis. in part because of the availability of the Structural and Cohesion Funds. with climate change mitigation and adaptation the dominant challenge resulting in a very strong focus on the energy producing sector and energy using activities in subsequent policy responses. renewable energy. A particular characteristic of Estonia is the extraction of oil from oil-shale reserves that gives rise to significant environmental impacts.2 Green Stimulus Packages Not all MS have introduced a ‘green stimulus package’. France. The economic importance of the resource means that investment to mitigate impacts is a high priority. strategic skills responses for the environment – the exception being France which has implemented a plan for the mobilisation of green jobs and the UK where a strategy is currently in consultation. A significant amount of money has been dedicated to dealing with climate change and moving towards a low carbon economy through national stimulus packages adopted in response to economic crisis. In the other MS that have well established environmental policies. water scarcity and energy. climate change is but an extension to previous policies. This has in turn given rise to well developed environmental industries that have generated demand for an increasing number of jobs and corresponding skills responses. In Spain climate change is the most critical environmental issue and has been for a number of years. as a new Member State previously operating under the Soviet regime. The focus for ‘green’ stimulus spending tends to be energy efficiency in buildings. Germany. managing labour market responses to new environmentally driven activities is not a new requirement. the track record in defining and formulating environmental challenges and policy responses is smaller. In Estonia climate change is one of a wide range of environmental challenges. However. e. The availability of the Structural Funds has forced attention on to the specification of environmental needs and investment in basic environmental infrastructure. the development of environmental policy and regulations and the associated environmental sector is in its infancy. Packages introduced target the same types of activity – energy efficiency (especially in buildings). The reported environmental challenges are similar in all six MS. definition of environmental needs and responses has developed extensively over the past 15 years.
concerns about meeting state budget deficit requirements in order to join the Eurozone in 2011 has resulted in a failure to introduce any significant economic stimulus package. low carbon vehicles (scrappage bonus. loans to develop lowcarbon engines. although approximately EUR 390 million has been spent on a package aimed at supporting the export sectors of the economy and increasing energy efficiency of buildings. 5. together with energy efficiency especially in buildings in all the MS. Extension of Renewable Obligation from 2027 to 2037. new carriages. 13. 6.8%
Another round of stimulus spending suggested as a possibility in 2009. grid infrastructure Energy efficiency (buildings. the ‘stimulus’ was based on tax cuts equivalent to around €3 bn. with ‘greener focus’ Tax cuts form the basis of the stimulus plan Approximately €390m have been proposed for supporting exports and increasing energy efficiency in buildings (only partially adopted)
Tax cuts (June 2009)
€3bn. investment in high speed rail).3 Sectoral Focus of Recent Environmental Strategies and Programmes All Member States focus on the same areas of ‘greening potential’ – energy efficiency in buildings.1bn.2% Composition Comment
Twin stimulus packages (November 2008 and January 2009)
Energy efficiency (buildings).reflecting the dominant focus on climate change. emissionbased vehicle taxation scheme).environmentally related investment mainly in energy efficiency in buildings. public transport systems Energy efficiency (buildings). construction and transport . Table 3. British waterways network. In Estonia. Renewable energy is the primary focus of recent environmental priorities. low carbon vehicles and other forms of sustainable transport. flood defence funding Water / waste infrastructure
Biggest stimulus package with largest absolute amount dedicated to climate-related themes in the EU
Economic revival plan (December 2008)
€26bn. This reflects the importance of the sectors for
Stimulus package (November 2008)
€11bn. 21. Not applicable
Not officially a ‘stimulus package’ as such
No stimulus package adopted
Source: Member State Reports 1.2%
Highest proportion of package allocated to climate-related themes in the EU
Recovery Plan (November 2008) and additional support for automotive industry
£22.1: Overview of green stimulus packages in each of the Member States and the major components
MS Package Total fund and % green investment €100 bn. Denmark and Estonia did not create explicit environmentally focused investment packages. low carbon vehicles (scrappage bonus. renewable energy. renewable. low carbon vehicles. scrappage scheme). In Denmark. premium for low-carbon cars.
as the lack of adequate skills. Graduates are rarely trained in energy efficiency and professionals are not always familiar with new technologies. Box 3. products and services. at a national conference on green jobs which took place in January 2010. 1. utilities and suppliers in environmental infrastructure. FR and DE because of the benefit of restructuring and investment in new vehicles for jobs and industrial regions. with its recent ‘Mobilisation Plan for Green Jobs’. The plan is considered necessary.reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) as well as having the potential to increase energy security at national level and generating employment.
Source: Plan de mobilisation des territoires et des filières sur le développement des métiers de la croissance verte. It has also to be realised that there continues to be major investment through state funded investment programmes. The vehicle sector has also been a major sectoral priority in UK. has already been shown to hinder new job growth. albeit it represents less a departure from ‘business as usual’ and hence less need for specific labour market responses to meet skills needs. In many cases. All MS acknowledge the importance of skills development in enabling climate change policies to be fully effective and to realise economic and employment goals. Skills strategies that address systemic weaknesses in the labour market are being updated and will have benefits for ‘green jobs’.4 Development of Skills Response Strategies as Part of Environmental Strategies and Programmes None of the MS examined have put in place integral skills response strategies as part of their environmental strategies and programmes. (b) Definition of training needs and setting up training and qualification pathways – this will enable professional skills to be recognised. An assessment of the available initial training. The corresponding jobs created should be accessible to all levels of education. Companies are struggling to recruit qualified technical staff. Public strategy documents identifying the need for more skills training are found across all MS but there is no overarching. comprehensive skills training strategy identifying the skills needs for the occupations involved. however. Despite the inclusion of some individual skills training responses in environmental strategies and programmes and the progressive development of diverse environment-related programmes in the vocational and higher education systems.000 green jobs that the Grenelle Round Table suggested could be generated by 2020. France is the most advanced in this respect. but no over-arching skills strategies are integrated. the positive employment impacts of the strategies are noted with reference to the need for skills responses to exploit potential. notably in the construction industry. with the exception of the new French plan (for the mobilisation of green jobs – see Box 2. (d) Promotion and development of the professions for green growth – announced by the French President. This plan is articulated along four themes: (a) Identification of the relevant professions – this includes setting up a national observatory in order to understand the new professions and relevant fields and to quantify these. lifelong learning and recognised acquired experience will allow the creation of a reference system of the relevant professions and skills in SD as required by employers and to set up measures required for skills adaptations. These activities are at least as significant as the more ‘headline grabbing’ stimulus packages. Sep 2009
.1) there is no strategic skills response for the environment in any of the MS. in line with the 600. there are no explicit national strategies targeting skills needs for greening the economy. (c) Recruitment for SD jobs – actions to help job seekers meet the requirements of the numerous jobs currently on offer cannot to be taken up due to lack of skills.1: Mobilisation of Green Jobs Plan in France (2009) The objective of the Plan is to adapt existing training programmes and qualifications and create new ones where necessary.
In Spain. there is a less well developed national system but this is compensated. even if they also apply to the environmental sector. To the extent that existing systems are considered less than adequate. These problems include the weaknesses in the integration of labour demand assessments and skills responses and the lack of take-up of technical education and training in science and engineering. There are common problems across the MS relating to the labour market that undermine economic performance and labour market efficiency as a whole.
. this is seen to be a systemic weakness rather than specific to the environmental sector.In MS with a more established history of responding to environmentally driven skills requirements there is a view that. except for some immediate short-term issues especially in relation to renewable energy and energy efficiency programmes. existing systems of anticipating and responding to skills needs are adequate. at least in part. by strong regional initiatives to define and address climate change policy-induced employment change.
e. Skills shortages have been addressed by producers without major problems. such as turbines for offshore wind farms. there is a strong focus on the need to invest in higher skills as part of the process of adjusting to. Box 4. (b) Vehicle manufacture and related supply chains are becoming re-focused on hybrid vehicles capable of reducing GHG emissions and meeting other customer demands. as observed in the provision of training in hybrid technology at the BMW production plants in Germany.1
Green Restructuring Examples of green restructuring have been identified. measures to increase efficiency and reduce pollution by employing new technologies and management systems are creating new skills requirements. have been created. This is generating demand for new skills. wave and tidal energy devices. manufacturing. In the UK.1: Green restructuring Restructuring of occupations and skills profiles has been observed in heavy industry. In Denmark. Where ‘new’ green occupations. have required further green competences. the closure of Lindoe Shipyard has led public authorities and the energy sector to establish a forum for retraining workers in offshore renewable energy as a means of creating new jobs for the Lindoe workforce. In Estonia. In general. and the Heuliez electric cars manufacturing plant in France. The relevant experience of green restructuring in the MS examined. higher education programmes related to the oil shale industry have been revised and
EMERGING SKILL REQUIREMENTS
Sectors examined in this report undergoing ‘green’ restructuring due to environmental concerns or declining markets have generally been able to adjust production models to take advantage of growing markets for green products and services. shipbuilders Harland & Wolff have employed a diversification strategy using their expertise in ship manufacturing to produce a range of renewable energy products. Even in Estonia. the creation of a low carbon technologies training centre by Nissan and the regional authority in North East England. aided by existing sectoral support systems Labour market policies including education and training responses to industrial restructuring are well developed in all MS. structural industrial change.g. including the construction of off-shore wind farms and their supply and maintenance. such as energy auditors.
2. new or additional green dimensions to occupational profiles can be delivered through a ‘top up’ of existing skills and no occupation has been identified where there is a total lack of skills provision. with similar experience across the MS. in agriculture and forestry. which has less experience of these types of policies. Examples of sectors where this process have been effectively managed are: (a) Ship-building and related marine engineering activities which have become re-focused on off-shore renewable energy activity. (c) In extractive industries and power production. and managing. power and transport. Many of the European automotive manufacturers are developing and producing low carbon vehicles for commercial deployment. or where existing green jobs.1). tends to be concentrated in a small number of activities where traditional industries faced with declining markets have been able to re-orientate their production models and processes to take advantage of markets driven by environmental priorities (see Box 4. existing training systems have coped with the demand for new skills.
In the case of Estonia. 2.g. Systems for defining and responding to environmentally driven skills needs are already well established in most of the MS. New occupations for optimising energy use in Grundfos have a skills profile somewhat similar to that of a building service technician. Greening of existing occupations occurs with the addition to / subtraction from or changes in existing competencies. This is partly a reflection of the long-standing environmental policies and related development of the environmental industries which has already generated a structure for the definition of environmentally driven competencies and related qualifications. Grundfos.coordinated to minimise pollution across the supply chain and advance production and uptake of new oil shale technologies. given the major modernisation of the economy. the national reports have tended to define the occupations driven by the expansion in the renewable energy sector as ‘new’. The Estonian energy company Eesti Energia has developed a training programme for employees aimed at furthering integrated management principles and sustainable practices. It is considered unlikely that the environmental policies and programmes will give rise to completely new occupations with a novel set of competencies. the refocusing of these traditional sectors has not been substantially limited by a lack of relevant skills. The existing sectoral related training systems have been able to cope.2: New green jobs – old wine in new bottles? In the sectors covered in this report. but at the same time producers have invested in defining and responding to the new skills that are required. FR and UK where the scope to define new occupations seems to be lowest. reflecting the emergence of a new energy sub-sector. It is in DE. ‘New’ green jobs tend to evolve as skills are ‘topped up’ in existing jobs or competencies become applied across traditional sectoral demarcations. or where the occupation is related to the adoption of new business models (typically a greater emphasis on services than on production of goods). The national reports find a general problem in seeking to differentiate between the emergence of ‘new’ occupations and the evolution and change in existing occupations. with a view to improving energy use. e. Box 4. A good example of how ‘new’ cross-sectoral qualifications combining technical and analytical skills emerge from existing competencies is the case of the Danish producer of pumps. no entirely new skill sets for green occupations were found. In the main. Grundfos expects that energy systems analysis could become a major new global service market. Grundfos were contracted to carry out an analysis of energy consumption across all activities of Deutsche Bahn. In the main.2 New Occupations and Greening of Existing Occupations The distinction between new environmentally driven occupations and the greening of existing occupations is often difficult to sustain. Grundfos are a global manufacturer of pumps. the increase in environmental management
. often recognised as either a diversification of an existing occupation (or sometimes seen as a hybrid of two or more existing occupations. the emergence of specific environmentally driven occupations has tended to be swamped by the overall step-change in investment in industrial productivity and efforts to up-skill the labour force. and requires a significant element of judgement. It is therefore a matter of degree in the addition to and changes in existing competence profiles that would differentiate an occupation as new or existing. In a recent contract with Deutsche Bahn (German Railways). Although they are a manufacturing company. This illustrates how a purely sectoral approach to skills anticipation will often be insufficient to capture innovation and job growth potentials where companies are broadening their service offers across sectors and entering new markets. business growth in recent years has been based on applying core competencies to new forms of service provision. as emphasised in Denmark.
business models). requiring improved production methods and the use of new technologies (called ‘cleantech’ in Denmark). Automation.dk/Uddannelse/Erhvervsuddannelser/Om%20erhvervsuddannelserne/Nyheder/Erhvervsuddannelser/Udd/Er hvervs/2009/Dec/091217%20Flere%20kompetencer%20til%20cleantech-branchen. This has given rise to ‘new’ occupations.responsibilities).g. Knowledge about material technologies. as a result of the general requirement for producers to be more environmentally aware and to improve resource efficiency. such as alternative materials. technologies. Environment. Understanding of market and user behaviour ( specification of solutions).installation and maintenance. waste and energy consumption (cleantech).
Brøndum & Fliess (2009) Erhvervs. A study by Brøndum & Fliess(12) reviewed the new occupational profiles that have emerged as a result of new market opportunities from eco-friendly solutions in Denmark and found that 12 competency fields characterise cleantech occupations: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) 2. business models. materials. product. reuse of materials. This broader requirement is perhaps most explicit in the UK ‘industrial activism’ strategy that seeks to focus industrial R&D investment in globally significant technologies and sectors including low carbon industries. such as energy auditing and efficiency services. It is also implicit in the industrial investment strategy in Estonia.aspx 15
. Process and planning.uvm. Knowledge about production technology .including English and team collaboration.3 Core vocational knowledge (processes. Box 4.og efteruddannelser i et cleantechperspektiv.
Overview of Occupations Generating a Demand for Green Skills The case studies in the individual MS have identified a range of specific occupations that have generated a demand for ‘green’ skills. Innovation (process.1. Communication . Available at: http://www. Impact of globalisation . such as managers and operators of renewable energy systems and ‘hybrid’ or cross-sectoral occupations. ICT. market and market dynamics). climate. in water or waste sectors as technologies and operations become more advanced). Test and documentation. These occupations and related sectoral context are summarised in Table 4. or an increased specialisation of occupation (e. The skills profiles for such occupations are not entirely new and often amalgamate skills from related occupations. partnerships.3: Competencies for cleantech occupations Across all MS there has been a growing support for products and services improving operational performance and efficiency while reducing inputs.competitive advantage. sustainability. Greening is also associated with industry at large.
Table 4.1: Overview of MS Case Studies on Green Skills
MS Sector Occupation DE NEW Process industries Power Waste Services Research and Training Renewable Energy Management Solar Energy Wind Power Waste Recycling Green Business Management Energy Auditing / Smart Energy GREENING Primary Agriculture & Fishery Forestry / Land Management Marine Technology Power Water Waste Power Technology Nuclear Desalination Plant Maintenance Recycling & Waste Management Schemes for upskilling across construction sector occupations Construction Technology Installers System Mechanics Eco-design Services Energy Auditing Carbon Trading RESTRUCTURING / RETRAINING Extractive industries Process industries Manufacture Power Transport Oil Shale Mining Chemical Technician Shipbuilding to Wind Turbine Manufacture (diversification) Solar Energy Entrepreneurs Power Technology Low Carbon Vehicles DK EE ES FR UK
. This is especially strong in support of the German apprenticeship system. This improvement relates as much to environmentally driven skills needs as to the economy generally. This will make a contribution to supporting active industrial policy through allocating public funds to sectors and markets. There are well established institutional frameworks in both France. This framework employs a combination of quantitative forecasting. to ensure a direct feedback from industry of their needs to training providers. developed by RDAs.3
APPROACHES TO ANTICPATING SKILLS NEEDS
MS frameworks for identifying future skills needs are well established and tend to be organised around formal qualification or sectoral training systems.
3. Denmark and Germany for reflecting changes in skills needs into education and training responses. The strategy will be used by the newly-formed SFA and skills agencies in the devolved administrations to commission effective skills provision that meet national and regional sector priorities.’ which licences vocational training provision on the basis of well defined needs assessments that require regular four year reviews and updates. The UK has established the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES) to undertake an annual Strategic Skills Audit and a clear mandate to identify what green skills employers in priority sectors require. The new Plan for the mobilisation of green jobs includes the establishment of a new observatory for emerging environmental professions. sectoral agencies and even companies themselves are usually the first to identify green skills needs but they often lack coordination and formal methods for anticipating skills needs. the UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES) will produce a National Strategic Skills Audit on an annual basis. The UK is instituting a new system for the identification of skills needs and their articulation as the basis of education and training responses (see Box 5. Under the new system. France has also introduced the ‘Licence Pro. including in-depth case studies of the sectors identified in the Government’s New Industry. This is focused at the regional scale using regional development agencies (RDAs) together with Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) in order to better understand the needs of industry. qualitative needs assessments and formal and informal dialogue with education and training providers. The use of observatories in France to forecast occupational changes based on the collaboration of the various players in the labour market is perhaps one of the most well developed systems. The audit will inform the development of a “Strategic Skills Strategy” to specifically target skills gaps and shortages in low-carbon emerging industries.1
Tools and Institutional Frameworks The general identification of skills needs within most of the Member States as the basis of skills responses remains in need of improvement. New Jobs strategy. SFA is responsible for ensuring a network of training providers such as further education colleges and training institutions is available to meet skill needs across England. These frameworks have tended to be built around qualification systems and established sectoral activity and rely on important contributions from the social partners. SSCs and local authorities.1: Reconfiguration of the UK skills response system In April 2010.1). Box 5. Priorities for funding will be determined by the regional skills strategies. learning and skills for under-18s was transferred to local authorities and the new Skills Funding Agency (SFA) became responsible for adult learning and skills policy. Regional or local authorities. ‘Green’ skills identification is not an integrated aspect of these systems and is mostly made in an ad-hoc manner at a sub-national level. The audit will forecast and identify skills needs in 25 sectors. the system for skills development in the UK went through a major change when the Learning and Skills Council ceased to exist and responsibility for education.
with the government reporting on the outcomes of the consultation in Autumn 2010. The consultation also looks at how the education and skills system can respond so that it is strongly focused on the needs articulated by businesses. the identification of specific skill needs in the building sector and related responses has tended to be ad hoc and has led to a number of un-coordinated programmes and initiatives. with funding from the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) to support central coordination.Estonia. national-level quantitative model-based projections being conducted. transferable and cross-sector skills. The project is due to be completed in June 2010. eight sector bodies (AssetSkills. there is still a reliance on initiatives at regional / local and sectoral / company levels. Even in France. Cogent. The UK Government launched a consultation in March 2010 setting out the Government’s views on the key skills-related priorities and challenges which are to be met if the country is to successfully enable workers and businesses to take advantage of the opportunities in the sectors key to reducing carbon emissions. SEMTA. The steering group includes representatives from the sector bodies. It is scheduled to close in June 2010. SummitSkills and ECITB) have worked together to deliver a renewable energy skills strategy.2: Working together to analyse skills needs for the renewable energy sector In the UK. and usually at a small-scale in relation to a specific occupation The experience from the selected countries is that even where there are well established institutional systems. including a supply side and gap analysis. and in-kind contributions from the sector bodies. Box 5. Member States other than in the new French Plan have not undertaken formal skills anticipation occupational forecasting with little or no formal. challenges and gaps identified and seeks to explore how businesses can best be incentivised and encouraged to respond so they have the necessary skills at all levels. Most approaches tend to be far less formal. Lantra. The whole supply chain is scoped. ConstructionSkills. construction and installation. consisting of employer surveys and various stakeholder consultations regarding skills. deficiencies and skills gaps. EU Skills. The consultation seeks views on the priorities.2 Anticipating ‘Green’ Skill Needs as the Basis of Skills Responses The anticipation of ‘green’ skills needs tends to be made on an ad-hoc basis mainly by regional bodies and industry.
. design and maintenance. development and planning. 3. including research and development. covering specialist. as well as from government departments across the UK. operation and maintenance. relies to a great extent on industry to identify and provide the skills needed for green jobs where occupations have not been identified in national strategies as important to the greening of the Estonian economy and training is provided through the formal education and training system. where the framework for skills identification and development is still in an early stage. The project will deliver a skills analysis for this emerging sector. and to embed the necessarily skills across all sectors to move the UK to a low carbon and resource efficient economy.
well developed responses have been formulated. and this explains why there are very few additional or alternative initiatives to this ‘dominant' public system. In Germany. apprenticeships and other initiatives that are embedded within the formal education system. Further changes as a result of continuing environmental investment in skill requirements can be expected to be reflected in future revisions in VET curricula and qualifications.
4. the existing VET system is considered to be a sound basis for the responses required. In Estonia. Environmental protection has been included in both dual vocational training and university education and new initial training courses and university studies have been introduced and additional degrees with environmental specialisations have been added. established as part of vocational training systems or
. Where skills development tends to take place within the formal education system there is a focus on the development of new higher level education and vocational training courses. because Germany has been involved in the development of green technologies for several decades. In Denmark. The relevance of the current system is in part a reflection of the continuing evolution of the system to environmentally driven competencies and the growth in green occupations. In addition. Companies generally expect training to be provided by the public education and training system. closely cooperating with training providers. labour market programmes based on continuing adult education for skilled and unskilled workers have played a major role in facilitating structural change and greening processes since they are highly responsive to changing needs. including identification and provision of skills. the development of the education and training system as part of the broader restructuring and modernisation of the state brings with it new capacity to manage the greening of industry. However. DK and EE particularly. In addition to formal education and VET systems. training activities are considered to have ‘left’ the initial . skills development responses are characterised predominantly by academic and vocational education and training courses. sectoral agents and companies have been observed. to the upper secondary VET to better reflect changes in required learning outcomes in relation to the environment.4
RESPONSES TO SKILLS NEEDS
‘Green’ skills responses vary across MS education and training systems. In cases where formal skills response systems are unable to provide the necessary training a mix of planned and ad hoc measures involving local authorities. the absence of previous experience in responding to changes in environment related competencies suggests that the translation of the national provisions to the specific requirements of the greening process may take considerable effort and resources to ‘fine-tune’. the autonomous regional structure means that skills responses tend to have a stronger regional character. Training for green jobs is a well established area of public vocational training. Furthermore.1
Skills Responses to the Greening of Occupations within Existing Education and Training Systems The nature of skills development responses in relation to ‘green jobs’ depends in large part on the previous development of skills responses to environmentally driven changes in competences within formal skills response systems. The ‘Greening of occupations in construction’ is a good example of a strategic skills response framing future changes in VET provision.more company related phase a long time ago. sectoral bodies and trade unions often provide upskilling programmes for specific occupations where there is an immediate need for new green skills In DE. Regional bodies are often responsible for key tasks in national skills strategies. the integration of environmental aspects has already strongly influenced the German education and training system in recent years. In Spain. Industry does play a role in the re-organisation of university courses. Combined with clear demands from the renewable energy and water sectors. Some changes are suggested however.
and helping electric installation companies diversify into solar energy. waste managers and public authority officers. and applies to a wide range of job profiles. and companies are increasingly adopting an ecodesign approach in product design and services in order to anticipate market developments. With a budget of 44. The inability of the system to respond fast enough to the demand for changes in construction sector qualifications to better reflect energy efficiency considerations provides an example of the problem. the Green Hiring Programme subsidises projects that train and improve the environmental abilities of the self-employed and SME workers. In the UK. The introduction of the new system in April 2010 will
. Energy and Environment was created at Nancy University to address industry needs. including the French Integrated Product Policy and the EU Directive 2005/32/EC.1). Box 6. The vocational licence in Ecodesign. there are not enough teachers trained to the revised standards. This updating of occupations can be seen especially in agriculture and energy.000 new green companies and to provide skills training for 50. manufacturing. In France. It involves actors across the product cycle in design. The licence is now widely recognised by businesses and companies have made requests for the creation of a second vocational licence dedicated to ecodesign based on a similar structure but focused on SMEs. which is that where there is a major increase in the demand for new competencies and revised qualifications. a transition to a new system for integrating the identification of skills needs with investment in and specification of vocational education and training provision and the design of curricula and qualifications is taking place. Box 6. The growth of the water and renewable energy sectors have largely been fostered through national and regional funding for training schemes for unemployed and SME workers. A number of initiatives have been instigated to secure the dual aims of diminishing the problem of water scarcity and decreasing dependency on energy imports. reflected in the development of new training courses with 5. there are also recognised systems for updating skills responses using the VET system on the back of changes in ‘mentions’ or components of specified occupations that reflect new or changing competencies. managerial and other entrepreneurial skills supporting the creation of new photovoltaic energy companies. The responsiveness in the continuing training provision is considered to be higher. The programme develops a comprehensive set of skills for all phases related to the start up of solar energy projects. retail and final consumption. reducing the responsiveness to changing needs. However. A range of legislative and regulatory incentives for promoting ecodesign exist. from technical design and orientation of solar panels to administrative.000 workers and improve employment and the environment by creating strategic links between the public and private sectors. marketing. The qualification is designed to have a broad scope in terms of competencies. consultants. such as project managers.1 million Euros for 20072013.000 places for occupations in the building sector to improve competencies in relation to energy efficiency. Experience in France has also highlighted another problem with a reliance on conventional skills responses systems.within management post-graduate programmes. the process especially for initial education and training can be drawn-out over a number of years. stemming from increasing end-user expectations related to environment and sustainable development in the initial design phase of industrial products.1: Training Solar Energy Entrepreneur through the Green Hiring Programme in Spain The Green Hiring Programme (Emplea Verde) aims to create 1. The Biodiversity Foundation and the Telecommunications Installations Businessmen Association (FENIE) obtained a grant through this scheme to provide skills training in solar energy technologies for electric installers in the construction sector.2: Furthering Ecodesign in France Ecodesign aims at reducing the environmental impact of products throughout their life cycle and is one of the key priorities of the national sustainable development strategy. Many of these schemes are publicly funded but provided by external trainers (see Box 6.
trading desk managers. indicates the need for corporate leadership supported by regional and local (and sometimes national) investment to design and deliver the required training. in theory at least. be a clear framework for responding to the skills needs arising from climate change related industrial change. Navarre has been able to cover the jobs needed for this new occupation. and are regularly approached for advice on the development of training responses. Extremadura and the Navarre region have both been cited as ‘front-runners’ in this aspect. Often the scale. the functioning of carbon markets and applying knowledge directly to different professions within carbon trading.
. In particular. in response to very high technology and production expansion.2). especially in wind energy (on-shore and off-shore) and solar thermal energy. Since RDAs are charged in part with co-ordinating investment programmes in low carbon industries there should. even where there are strategic policy frameworks Compared to the systems for responding to the greening of occupations. 4. France and Spain and to a lesser extent in the other MS. of change is such that ad hoc initiatives are required. Company responses are also important especially where the evolution of new occupations with significant changes in the number and level of competencies is required. the experience in the countries examined is that the restructuring responses are far more ad hoc. lawyers. This can be seen especially in the UK. or pace.2 Regional / Local and Sectoral / Company Responses to the Greening of Occupations The existence of established skills response systems does not mean that they are always able to respond to new skills needs. Box 6. The experience of Navarre in organising a major expansion of training provision for the renewables sector is noteworthy (see Box 6.3 Skills Responses in the Context of Green Restructuring Green restructuring is ad hoc with responses designed on a case by case basis. 4. including practical skills on understanding trading tools.require time to establish itself.3: Upskilling workers in the financial services sector for carbon trading In response to the skills needs identified by Financial Services Skills Council (FSSC) in the financial services sector the European Climate Exchange has provided a suite of education and training activities. driven by the urgent needs of companies and industries. auditors and senior managers who need to understand compliance with emissions regulations. however. Box 6. being opportunistic responses to new market demands reflected in changing skills requirements.4: Skills Response for Renewable Energy Production in Navarre Region Since 1994. accountants. technical and financial staff in companies holding emission certificates. The response does not deal with the fundamental skill shortages and lags identified in the underlying labour market for derivatives but rather focuses on upskilling of a number of occupations including traders and brokers in oil. facilitating the rapid expansion of renewable energy production in the region in the last 15 years. the region has expanded its electricity production from renewables to 65% with a target of 100% of electricity from renewable sources in the coming years. The regional government cooperated with the Cenifer Foundation to develop workforce training and to ensure its large scale roll out. and requiring local and/or sectoral responses Regions are increasingly important actors in the identification of skills needs and in organising the provision of training related to ‘green jobs’. The range of company initiatives in the renewable sector. when there was no renewable energy production in Navarre. gas and energy. The autonomous regions in Spain have been pro-active in identifying skills needs for new green occupations and the greening of existing occupations. the integration of regional development agencies (RDAs) charged with promoting economic development into the system should improve the translation of needs into responses.
Even where there are national strategies e. Box 6. with current initiatives focused on the automotive and ship-building sectors. in relation to the vehicles sector. heat coproduction. The experience to-date in the selected MS is that the scale of green restructuring is not large. The programme consists of lectures. including operators and managers in wind and hydro plant. as well as technology developers and managers.
. In-service training is provided in these areas covering practically all groups of personnel. there is still a reliance on regional or company level initiatives to design skills responses.g. Achieving their strategic aims of reducing CO2 emissions from energy production requires large-scale transformation of production methods and management regime. energy auditing. excursions and seminars. Eesti Energia AS (EE) is a state-owned company engaged in the production. Courses are delivered in 6 thematic modules over a 6 or 12 month period. New skills needs have partially occurred as a result of market changes and structural change stemming from EU and national strategies and regulations.This means that the responses are largely case specific and built around the regeneration efforts of particular regions / localities or sectors / companies (see Box 6.4: Re-skilling workers in the power sector in Estonia Changes in the energy sector in Estonia have been rapid over the last 15 years creating new challenges for in-service training. This has created a need for several new occupations.4). sale and transmission of electric and thermal power. fluidized bed combustion.
5. There are however. especially in buildings and by transport.1 5. a range of sector or regional level schemes in most MS designed to assist with the definition of particular sub-sets of skill needs and to develop responses. such as: (a) The Danish Industry Trade Committee is currently developing a range of VET labour market training courses directly aligned to climate friendly and energy efficient industry. (c) In France. (d) UK professional bodies are active in identifying skills needs and developing skills responses and trade groups are directly involved in developing qualifications for their sector.1. responding to low carbon demands for hybrid vehicles and off-shore investment in wind and tidal energy. foundations. These strategies have been updated in the light of the emerging issue of climate change. Generally. These packages reinforced the climate change related priorities. However. and (e) In Germany. (b) Social partners. whilst the environmental and climate change strategies acknowledge the need for skills to enable producers to respond to the policy drivers. higher standards and investment. Whilst this is especially significant in the energy sector as a result of the major investment and expansion in the renewables
. UK. The most prominent examples are in the automotive sector and in ship-building. the Federal Association of Wind Energy (BWE). targeting young people and adults to ensure vocational development. trade unions or private training centres form an integral part of skills identification and training in Spain.2
Environmental Skill Needs ‘Green’ restructuring generates a demand for new skills as existing producers re-orientate activities towards new markets and products. such as business associations. with new policies and targets for the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate adaptation plans. This in turn has prompted an almost universal focus on the energy sector (especially renewables) and on energy using activities and energy efficiency.5
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Existing systems for skills identification and provision in the MS investigated in this report could be improved to incorporate strategic measures for developing ‘green’ competences and supporting the transition to the low carbon economy. there are no strategic skills responses for the environment with the exception of the French plan for the mobilisation of green jobs. skills needs are reflected in the demand for additional competencies for existing workers. regional plans for vocational training development (PRDFPs) define medium-term objectives for VET.
5. with a major investment in the vehicles sector. the employment agency in Husum. FR and ES introduced specific ‘green stimulus packages’ as part of responses to the economic crisis. They also promoted a measure of ‘green restructuring.1.’ investing in traditional sectors capable of responding to the demand for low carbon products. Only in Estonia does there seem to be an absence of sectoral and regional skills initiatives. the Chamber of Industry and Commerce and local manufacturers and operators of wind energy facilities are working together on a centre for renewable energy. A range of best practices have been identified in this report which will be relevant across a range of institutional settings and governmental levels. DE. Experience from France and the newly instituted UK system will provide valuable lessons for national green skills strategies but due to the highly differentiated skills response systems across the EU each MS will have to develop a distinctive approach.1
Conclusions Environmental Strategies and Skills Responses Environmental strategies are well developed in most of the MS and have a long history of driving better regulation. Greening of occupations also raises the demand for new competencies. respectively.
1. where the scale or pace of change in the demand for new environmentally driven skills outstrips the capacity of the existing system. the particular engagement of the social partners. 5. 5. This will have a particular focus on establishing the skills demands as a result of investment in low carbon industries. To the extent that the pace of change allows. such as for workers for the insulation and renovation of buildings to improve energy efficiency.2 5.
. at least in part. A number of the case studies in the selected MS reflect this process in operation. supported by contributions from employers and trades unions. including those driven by investment in low carbon goods and services. However. where businesses have responded to new market opportunities by refocusing or diversifying their existing activities. In France. and where the investment requires new competencies. reflecting. then the skills responses are highly company specific. However.and energy management sub-sectors (giving rise to ‘new’ occupations). However. the existing systems for forecasting occupational change and framing education and training responses are not without their difficulties.2.1 Recommendations Strategic Responses The absence of an overarching strategic response in the MS to address the continuing greening of occupations has been addressed in France and potentially in the UK. 5. Systems in France and Germany are especially well developed. These systems employ a mix of quantitative and qualitative assessment of labour market and occupational changes. the main need is to revise and upgrade the skills of existing workers. leading to a deficit in the available technical skills. the new mobilisation plan seeks to augment the already well developed systems by introducing a new observatory for green skills together with the related infrastructure. the role of social partners is likely to be important in establishing the necessary analysis and subsequent qualification and training reform. and oil shale processing). leading to new qualifications and courses and changes to established curricula. These systems have previously reflected past changes in environmentally driven competencies. They also relate to new management requirements because of the changes in production methods and also the adoption of new business models (with the emphasis on added value services).1. These initiatives tend to be driven by specific company or sector demands and encourage local or regionally supported investment in education and training provision. but also waste management. has decided to establish a new system in April 2010. the UK. for example. the absence of such a strategy may not be a major problem given the emphasis on managing the demand for green competencies within the general system for anticipating and responding to new skills needs. In the case of ‘green’ restructuring. An illustration is the important role of trade committees and councils in Denmark in defining changes in competence requirements and promoting changes in the vocational and education training system. these systems might be expected to continue to reflect and animate the need for new skills responses.4 Developing Skills Responses The existing systems allow the gradual adjustment to qualifications and curricula in response to changing demands. This is a common form of response in the MS examined. To the extent that existing systems need to be revised or expanded. then more immediate and specific initiatives are required. These new environmentally driven competencies relate to new technologies (for example in solar thermal power or new vehicle power-trains.3 Anticipating Skills Needs All the MS have some form of system for forecasting future skills needs and occupational change as the basis of state driven investment in new qualifications and related education and training provision. Skills needs are also compounded by the general weaknesses in the labour force and in particular the lack of interest in science and engineering. This is the case even where there have been major increases in demand. desalination.
The case studies in the national reports provide good evidence of the progress being made to secure these improvements and could serve as exemplars. This general weakness is however thrown into particular light when there are major and rapid changes in competencies and skills needs.3 Supporting Skills Responses The need for improvements in the capacity of existing education. UK) the lack of interest in science and engineering and shortage of technical skills has a particular impact in the context of climate change driven skills because of the strong technological focus. which in any case provide a quicker response than relying on the national or regional systems for meeting new skills. construction) then new initiatives are likely to be required. transport. To the extent that resource efficiency improvement is an economy wide requirement. The role of lifelong learning in contributing to a broader skills response is acknowledged.2 Anticipating Skills Needs The weaknesses of the formal national systems for forecasting and adjusting to occupational change in terms of accuracy and timing are acknowledged across the MS.This partly reflects the general integration of these competencies across industry and the workforce (as part of broader requirements for improved resource efficiency) which would be most efficiently made within the existing system. National responses to this shortage will have particular benefits in the context of climate change polices. The recent evidence has however been that the transition to a low carbon economy is triggering a need for new skills at a pace and scale that highlight the weaknesses in the current systems. and to acknowledge the need to improve general environmental awareness. The need for these improvements is partly reflected by the strong regional or sectoral led initiatives that have had to be developed in the interim. The further mapping of the demand for and nature of environmentally driven competencies is a common requirement across the MS to minimise the risks of policy failure and could be linked to ‘green’ strategies. to avoid an over-reliance on workplace based training. training and qualification systems to respond to environmentally driven skills needs is broadly acknowledged in all MS. especially in Denmark and Germany. Skills shortages might also be limited by exploring how environmental education and training measures and approaches (including pilot projects) can be used to reduce both the level of students dropping out of school early and to improve the career prospects of youths from immigrant backgrounds. However.
. These initiatives also provide potential exemplars for other sectors and regions concerned about the lack of progress in responding to skill needs. FR. The particular focus for improvement has tended to be on initial vocational education and training. then improvements in the current system are needed. 5.2. This stems from problems where the demand for skills has grown strongly and adequate education and training responses have been lacking. The general importance of joint public-private partnerships in these initiatives is however easily transferable. There have been concerns about the lack of preparedness of policy makers to the demand for new skills as part of the greening of the economy.2. the moderate pace and scale of the emergence of environmentally driven skills needs has enabled the existing systems to map and recognise new competencies and to promote changes to qualifications and curricula. There is a balance to be struck between improving the present system for anticipating skills needs and developing specific responses for climate change related pressures on skills. recognising the strong institutional frameworks in which they were developed. this tends to be well defined and discrete. enabling direct targeted responses. As a particular feature in some MS (DE. 5. and especially the time to reformulate qualifications and course content. To the extent that there are clear priority sectors (energy. this is to some extent being addressed by specific sectoral initiatives. rather than continuing adult education or higher education. where the pace of change or scale of demand is such. Previously. and would not be met by particular sectoral responses.
This is mostly due to the continuing vocational training regulation (Fortbildungsordnung) being renewed. Retraining across the economy in response to green restructuring is mainly focused on the education and training system.
A. The challenge of achieving a huge decline in GHG emissions implies a focus on energy efficiency and cleaner power production than previous policies. German priorities regarding climate protection have come to the fore over the past 10 years.3
Green response to the current economic crisis The Federal Government introduced two economic stimulus packages. which makes it a priority to integrate environmental protection issues. Both measures should safeguard and perhaps stimulate new job creation. given their limited scale.4
The skills development strategy in response to greening German environmental technology firms are now well established and often market leaders. together worth around 100 billion Euros.1
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN GERMANY
Environmental Challenges. with a key goal of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. a key challenge is that Germany suffers from demographic changes which negatively affect the number of young people enrolling for vocational education and training. German policies on environmental protection have not only been perceived as a step towards better living conditions. The roll out of environmental policies has therefore been used to create new jobs and support economic growth. However.8 million people in 2006 (4. Priorities and Skills Response Strategies Environmental challenges Broadening earlier environmental protection measures. training centres for in-company training or the integration of green modules supplementary to formal training
. Indeed. with a Reconstruction Loan Cooperation offering another 2.2
The response strategy For decades. The environmental technology and services sector is now one of Germany’s major economic sectors.1
A.1. In contrast. However. Continuous investment in R&D of new products and processes helps Germany to maintain its competitive advantage as well as an appropriate supply of qualified workers (particularly those with a technical focus). Investments will support employment growth and lead to 500. The combination of legislation and incremental awareness has influenced the restructuring of German economic sectors and occupational competencies. where technical qualification training courses are offered and new study courses and further training with environmentally relevant subjects have been developed. The proportion of the stimuli packages on green investments was around 13% . beside demand for their products. It also means that industrial restructuring will be necessary and environmental considerations increasingly influence both technological innovations and people’s lifestyles.000 by 2030. in November 2008 and January 2009.
A.1.1.one of the highest in the EU. qualified personnel are the single most important factor in determining a firm’s location. initiatives by firms are seen as marginal.5 billion Euros of credit for energy-efficient building renovations and energy efficiency also promoted by a higher tax deduction for craft services for maintaining and modernising buildings. Both recovery packages set a focus on the promotion of energy efficiency. even though the focus was not primarily on green issues. The range of continuing vocational training courses related to environmental protection is now substantial.1 A. employing 1.1.000 additional jobs in environmental protection by 2020 and 800. environmental protection has been at the centre of public policy development.
A.A. The greening of the economy has thus been associated with significant impacts on occupational profiles and formal vocational training in Germany.1.1.1. but also as a mechanism to develop market opportunities for domestic suppliers of environmental technologies and services.1.5% of the labour force). From the outset.1.
2. A. natural sciences have created a shortage of highly qualified engineers and technicians of around 165. all occupations have integrated environmental protection to a certain extent in recent years. fewer school graduates are applying for apprenticeships. 82 occupations were created and 219 occupations modernised. According to firms. the high safety and technical standards of Siemens’ wind turbines requires constant training regarding safety and technical developments.1. However. the extent to which environmental issues are integrated differs widely according to job type. namely the: Recycling and Waste Management Technician (Fachkraft für Kreislauf. Additionally. This follows a long tradition of German industries organising dual training rather than company-based continuing training. Initial vocational training focused on renewable energy does not yet exist and the number of students on corresponding university studies is still marginal. New or modernised occupations at the level of dual apprenticeship programmes arise due to revisions in the training regulations of an existing occupation or the integration of a new training regulation.1. engineering. Low graduation rates in recent years in mathematics. the economic downturn has reduced labour shortages and it is assumed that environmental industries are now more easily able to fill recent job vacancies.1 Emerging Skill Requirements Green Structural Change It is difficult to find any incidence of occupations or occupational profiles completely disappearing as a result of ‘greening’ the economy. In terms of greening. Case study 6) Water Supply Engineering Technician (Fachkraft für Wasserversorgungstechnik)
. Three skills responses in the case studies were initiated by companies (Q-Cells. It will therefore be important to find the right balance between short-term adjustments and long-term accumulation of human capital. Pursuing a continuing vocational training course provides students with the opportunity to gradually build up their training competencies and receive additional specialist certificates or higher degrees. Technicians employed by Siemens Wind Power are usually electronic technicians or mechanic graduates. however. which trains apprentices and students for flexible employment in the labour market.2 A. While such shortages can hardly be avoided in boom periods. a Sewage foreman can train and build on a completed initial vocational training. Siemens Wind Power and BMW). However. since graduation rates have also been low in recent years and near-term prospects have not changed. In this way. This is mainly a result of the education system.programmes are being developed.2 New Skills Across the economy. for example. Clearly. four new dual apprenticeship trainings were established from the existing Provider and Disposer training in 2002. Skill needs in the environmental sector have mainly been covered by the creation of formal training courses within the German system of dual training and university training.1. which will enable them to develop in their chosen vocation. dual training courses did not exist either for renewable energy or for solar techniques and there was no solar industry drive to establish a national-wide training programme.2. The greening of existing occupations in Germany has affected a very wide range of occupations.und Abfallwirtschaft. Environmental protection always represents an additional qualification integrated into existing training. A. education and training policies have to follow a medium or long term path. The largest problem for the environmental sector remains the availability of engineers. Moreover. skills shortages were already limiting the growth of the environmental sector. Solar manufacturer Q-Cells faced a lack of suitable job applications for open vacancies in recent years.000 in 2006. Between 1996 and 2009.
health and environmental protection over the whole training period to increase their awareness in these subjects. especially in private households. due to legislation. Only a designated group of specialists who have completed a continuing training and become an energy consultant may issue an energy performance certificate. Training regulations for Chemical Technicians and four other trades in the chemical industry were revised in 2002.
. This means that apprentices continuously receive training in work safety. only trained electricians or mechatronics technicians who have acquired the relevant knowledge may carry out work on hybrid cars. environmental protection has been integrated in all initial vocational training regulations and therefore a greening of the whole dual vocational training can be observed.5% across all sectors in Germany. This means Motor Vehicle Mechatronics Technicians need to develop new skills. The integration of this concept into the dual apprenticeship training in this sector guarantees its implementation and its internalisation at all stages of work.lies at around 5%. A. Indeed. recently included two hybrid cars in its product portfolio. The target group are craftsmen. German car manufacturer BMW. i. as the concept of Responsible Care was introduced. a trade in special areas was needed to help prevent facility breakdowns and to ensure air pollution emissions regulations were being met.the ratio between apprentices and total employees within a company . landlords and others who sell buildings and homes require an energy certificate that defines the energy needs of the building.und Industrieservice) Training rates for the renewable energy sector .1. Kanal.3 Greening Existing Occupations At the dual apprenticeship training level. meaning that renewable energy firms more often than not recruit qualified workers rather than offer dual training courses. required greater specialisation as well as intensive training in customer-orientation and service-orientation to meet the increasing professional nature of the industry. Heating and Air Conditioning and Electronics. integration focuses on basic knowledge in waste recycling and energy conservation. who learn the required competencies with the help of continued vocational training. the EU Energy Performance in Building Directive) a case study on energy consultants was included.Sewage Engineering Technician (Fachkraft für Abwassertechnik) Pipe. The extent of integration strongly depends on the company offering the apprenticeship. Cars are equipped with both a combustion engine and additional electric motors and energy storage devices in order to reduce both fuel consumption and GHG emissions. In this way. which require technicians to have good overall technical knowledge of hybrid technologies. This implies a pull from other sectors in Germany.2.3.1 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs Green Restructuring Low carbon hybrid propulsion is a growing trend in the car industry.1. A good example of greening an existing occupation as a result of technological change is Solar Installation Technicians. Sewer and Industrial Service Technician (Fachkraft für Rohr-. the X6 and its 7 series. There is a need for skilled craftsmen to install these systems.e.3 A. To illustrate skills adaptation as a consequence of new legislation (i. compared to an average of 6. Plant Mechanics for Sanitary. A.1. the increased complexity and technological changes brought about by the change in the waste management law. According to the legislation. The use of voltages up to 400 volts within hybrid systems creates obvious health and safety issues. craftsmen who previously only worked on fossil-fuel based systems are retraining for low carbon systems (see below). As the waste management sector became more complex and technically sophisticated. For occupations outside the environmental sector.e. Whilst the former vocational training course provided a general training. for example.
the German chemical industry has adjusted all their working processes to be intrinsically cleaner and more energy efficient (Case study 2). Green Business Management (Case Study 4) was established at the private University of Applied Sciences BiTS (Business and Information Technology School) in Iserlohn (North Rhine-Westphalia). Revision to the 2003 training regulation for central-heating and ventilation required more focus on service-oriented training as well as the use of sustainable energy inputs.
A.4 A.4. The Energy Savings Act 2007 requires specialists to be trained who can evaluate energy use and GHG emissions from buildings. The university believes that firms that do not fully integrate environmental protection into their operations (particularly in light of energy and carbon cost considerations) will suffer competitive and cost disadvantages in the future. designed to enhance the training of its own personnel and customers to improve health. a course on solar techniques was recently established at the University of Applied Sciences in Köthen (Saxony-Anhalt) in cooperation with solar cell manufacturers.1
Responses to Skill Needs Green Restructuring BMW decided in 2009 to meet the hybrid vehicle mechatronics skills gap by integrating this training as a new training module directly into its dual apprenticeship.2
New Skills There is a perceived business need and actual gap in the training market for business environment courses. This means all Motor Vehicle Mechatronics Technicians who complete their training at BMW will be qualified to work with all hybrid cars. Solar manufacturers like Q-Cells have experienced a shortage of solar technicians with the range of requisite skills to guarantee production levels and growth targets for the solar industry.1. The course contents were designed to have precise objectives in order to promote successful execution of service activities (Case Study 5). but primarily by solar manufacturing giant Q-Cells (Case Study 3) teaching a wide range of required disciplines and integrated specialist technical and production knowledge in PV from Q-Cells’ solar cell production lines. A third case study outlines the new Siemens Wind Power training centre. safety.1. From 2010. technical performance and the perceived high quality in the marketplace of the overall Siemens Wind Power brand.3.3. As a result of the Responsible Care programme.1. The module has now been integrated in the dual apprenticeship programme for apprentices at other BMW production plants in Regensburg and Dingolfing.A. Further greening of occupations might occur in the following fields: Agricultural occupations that commit to organic farming
.1.1. all BMW production plants in Germany will include the new training module.2
New Skills In terms of new occupations.4.
Greening Existing Occupations New and stricter waste disposal laws implemented in the 1990s coupled with more technically sophisticated waste technologies have required significant new technical and environmental skills training in the waste sector. special training for adapting qualifications were identified by the industry. As wind turbine technologies have become more specific and complex. two new university degree courses are outlined in the case studies: To meet the technical requirements of solar cell production. This also provides flexible training to enable technicians to move firms. Around 100 apprentices per year receive the training (Case Study 1).
New and changing skills needs by sector / occupation An important finding of the study is that the majority of workers’ occupations have been modified to take account of environmental considerations. The third case study in this section is about Energy Consultants. and does react flexibly to the changes in demand for skill needs and was first to adapt to new skills needs. Overall. Whilst new occupations have emerged.training has become more service-oriented as customer relations became more important in recent years. heat and air conditioning) where apprentice numbers are low.5. further integration for non-environmental occupations needs to be pursued and there needs to be a higher occupational specialisation for the environmental sector.1. many occupations and training curricula have been adjusted and refined to take account of the skills needs of increasingly green aspects of mainstream industry and business. as discussed. two case studies about initial vocational training are presented by case studies covering: Plant Mechanic for Sanitary. in line with the overall German objective of greening the economy.5 A. A. leading to problems recruiting apprentices in craft businesses. The focus of an integrative approach rather than on a specialised occupation guarantees the flexible use of skilled workers and better job opportunities.1. the skills response has followed an integrated approach. However. sewage and SHK (sanitary. The continuing vocational training system on the other hand can.4. Pace of change in the definition of new and emerging skills needs The modernisation of the German dual apprenticeship training or the establishment of new apprenticeship training programmes is decided in consensus and thus takes time.established to meet the requirements of an increasing technical need within the waste sector (Case study 6).Implications for structural change and sunset industries A key finding is that rather than creating new. with the main focus on energy performance certificates in buildings which has been driven by new legislation and thus defining a very clear skills and training requirement for consultants (Case study 8). Waste Management and Recycling Technician . this does not really apply to the German VET system. specific ‘green’ occupations. To enhance the green skills provision. In that respect.3 Greening Existing Occupations In terms of greening existing occupations. Heating and Air Conditioning (Case study 7) . There are sector image issues especially in the areas of waste.
.Traffic occupations that support an environmentally friendly mobility act Energy occupations that focus on renewable energy and energy conservations Manufacturing occupations that produce products from recycled materials Chemical occupations that use biodegradable substances Motor vehicle occupations that invent alternative propulsion technologies A.General nature of change in the MS (drivers and impacts) . Moreover.1 Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions Main ‘greening’ shifts in economies and labour markets . which decelerates the pace of change. while the aim of this study relied on the idea of a mainly demand-side driven adaptation of training. their relevance is small compared to the great number of existing occupations which have been modified. knowledge about the use of sustainable energy input was part of the revision.1. companies still complain about the low number of apprentices from the course as the demand for apprentices is sometimes higher than the supply. Skills implications and development . as well as eco-industries.
The BMU can only offer learning and teaching materials. 6. which has led to some skills shortages. as 16 Länder Governments have to be included in the process. its close connection to the dual apprenticeship programme and its labour market relevance.
. In 2006. In particular. the Federal Environment Ministry started an educational initiative entitled ‘Environment creates perspectives’ in association with firms from the environmental technologies/renewable energy sectors.5.2 Recommendations For MS skills forecasting approaches It will be important to measure green skills and competencies better. The tripartite system is moreover regulated on Länder level which decelerates the cooperation. particularly for higher skilled jobs. and the agencies which are responsible for education and training. A. skills and competencies required by the environmental sector. caused by demographic changes. An evaluation of the adequacy. The BMBF and BIBB are mainly responsible for the education and training system.1. however.000 additional apprenticeships were created in 2009. As a result. requires a much greater emphasis on this area in the future. particularly the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) could be improved. however. For example. Germany has long since been reluctant to develop such a life-long learning system. No skill identification or forecasting system exists which defines the need for green skills or green jobs. Further research is needed to ascertain the demand for additional jobs or other training forms. The use of these materials should be guaranteed with better cooperation. Scope and capacity of MS/Regional skills forecasting and VET systems to anticipate and respond The collaboration between the Federal Ministry for the Environment. The initiative aims to identify the required apprenticeship trades. German educational policy underestimated the environmental sector’s high growth and hence skills and labour needs. BMW received the Innovation Prize 2009 from the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) for the exemplary function of its hybrid training module.Universities established new university courses recently in response to new demands. despite the overall supply side performing quite well. it may be useful in the future to introduce two-year apprenticeship training programmes or apprenticeships in renewable energy. The changes. the job creation effects of environmental expenditures could be further refined. There is some belief that. which includes a lot of expert knowledge. Skills shortages might be prevented by exploring how environmental education and training measures and approaches (including pilot projects) can be used to reduce both the level of students dropping out of school early and improve the career prospects of youth from immigrant backgrounds. and responding to skills needs According to the Vocational Training Act a specific skill need has to be identified in the economy for a modernisation or the establishment of a new training regulation. posed fewer problems than in the dual vocation training system where adaptations took longer. Similarly. anticipating. has not been conducted yet. Good practice lessons in relation to identifying. nevertheless a declining skills supply. as well as being able to quantify green jobs more systematically to help shape training provision. For MS / Regional VETS systems A publicly-financed lifelong learning system is needed to provide the skills demanded by labour markets rather than workplaces. Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). the net effects of green investments are not adequately measured.
. The supply of professionals will be pivotal to success particularly if future growth forecasts in the sector turn out to be correct. For social partners Social partners play an important role in the formation of training courses. both in dual training and university training. A higher level of knowledge integration of green competencies will be needed for both the application of environmental technologies and the implementation of higher environmental standards in many non-environmental occupations. This is required to achieve the ambitious environmental protection goals of German environmental policy.For employers A higher level of occupational specialisation will be needed to improve the competitiveness of environmental goods and service suppliers. driving demand for skilled workers. Trade unions can also help to shape the content of new training programmes.
CVET. For example. Various IVET. Most sectors in Denmark have experienced greening of existing occupations over the past 30 years.2. biomass and biogas.1. Specific measures regarding the reduction of GHG emissions have also been set out for a range of industry sectors as well as for transport (e. Priorities and measures for energy reductions and energy efficiency focus on transport. energy technology and cleantech solutions.e. this ‘re-greening’ of the Danish economy (which refers to the fact that the green focus in Danish energy policy is not a new phenomenon) is likely to entail greening of existing occupations. there is already a green occupational component in the outcome and competence based
. a 2009 strategy focused on reduction of energy consumption in buildings).1 A.3
Green response to the current economic crisis Denmark did not use its national growth stimulus packages as a means to facilitate green restructuring of the economy. and green restructuring of certain sectors. emergence of new green occupations. Measures to increase the capacity of renewable energy focus on wind energy. often driven by regulations and based on existing technologies. and tertiary programmes have over the years been adjusted to match the demand for skills and knowledge related to green technologies and aligned to the ongoing restructuring. However.g. The main priorities concern energy efficiency.2. Overall. To stimulate alignment of efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change with growth and innovation policies. Priorities and Skills Response Strategies Environmental Challenges and Priorities The current focus on climate change and the impact on restructuring and subsequent changes in occupational profiles is to some extent a continuation of long term policy priorities. i. Green employment represented a key priority in the late 90s.
A.1. The long term green focus in Danish policy is already reflected in the educational sector. and the emergence of novel ‘cleantech’ technologies . and the long-term prioritised research agenda for public research investment “Research 2015”. that efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change go hand in hand with economic growth and job creation in green growth industries reflected in the Government’s climate and energy policy: The energy agreement (2008 – 2011).2
A.a much broader notion than a green focus – is leading to technology convergence. promoting greener vehicles) and building and construction sectors (e.1
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN DENMARK
Environmental Challenges. construction and the retrofitting/renovation of existing buildings. so the stimulus initiatives do not entail very wide green measures.1. Framework conditions for Danish industry are seen as enabling proactive market behaviour to exploit market opportunities as advanced global suppliers or first movers in emerging markets. reflected by a new law in 1997 regarding a pool for green employment which aimed to create new and enduring green jobs. the third stimulus package did target the construction sector with priority grants for renovation/retrofitting and improving energy efficiency in homes.2. often complemented by new business models and partnerships and driven by the market.
The response strategy – general environment strategy The Government has a strategy focus on ‘green growth’. renewable energy and R&D support into clean technologies (cleantech).g. no overall skills response strategy has to date been developed as part of a coherent policy response to climate change and environmental degradation.4
The skills development strategy in response to greening In Denmark.2. the Government has developed a Business Climate strategy (October 2009).2. Individual strategies occasionally state that the greening of the economy and/or priorities regarding climate change may or will impact future skills requirements. Recent policies to move more rapidly towards a low carbon economy are introducing further refinements to occupations.
and to exploit technologies that can be used to optimise and monitor energy consumption. in metal. as the stakeholders have turned to offshore renewable energy as a means of creating new jobs for the Lindoe workforce (Case study). and food processing industries) whereas there has been an increase in service jobs. Examples include the cooling technician and building service technician occupations. advisers in the building and construction sector. The strategy “Denmark out of the crisis“. offering services instead.2. The steel cluster in Southern Jutland is an example of a successful and gradual restructuring process that led to the steel cluster becoming a global player within the process industry value chain. and in service intensity in production. Grundfos Pumps have become increasingly serviceoriented in its fundamental business and value-added proposition to the extent that it may not even be selling pumps to some clients in the near future. The closure of MAN Diesel’s production of engines in the small town of Frederikshavn (23. leaving high value work in Denmark.goals for the specific VET qualification in IVET as well as in CVET.1 Emerging Skill Requirements Green Structural Change Restructuring is a gradual and ongoing phenomenon that in industrial terms goes back at least 30 years.2. It also recognises that insufficient professional awareness of existing opportunities for energy efficient solutions forms a barrier to increased demand. energy efficiency services and energy generation (new occupations include wind energy operator (case study) and the Manager in Renewable Energy).000 people) has had a large impact on the machinery sector and local area. A characteristic feature of these qualifications is that they are usually driven by joint demand and supply side initiatives. A. and employees in maritime sectors. However. Business models are also changing – e. there is an emerging need for technicians who possess interdisciplinary knowledge about different sources and who are able to manage and provide consultancy services in renewable energy implementation projects. The closure of the Lindoe Shipyard is a particularly interesting case regarding green structural change.
. so the company was badly affected by decreasing orders and cancellations of orders from the shipbuilding industry (Case study). A. This trend to a shift in service offers as technology production and supply is increasingly off-shored is expected to increase. MAN Diesel specialises in marine engines. shipyards.Manager in Renewable Energy). waste management. To improve this. facility management. it recommends a green component be integrated into different vocational education and training programmes and further education is needed for workforces in different trades. developed by the Danish Growth Council Committee and endorsed by the current government.2 New Skills Emerging industries are cleantech. Restructuring of the site is primarily the result of the effects of the financial crisis.2 A.2.2.2. routine work has been outsourced or automated. (Case study . construction. The 540 persons laid off so far include mostly skilled workers (72%) and low qualified workers (27%). Examples are: energy generation and the reuse of energy. Lowvalue.g. New qualifications have been developed to comply with the increased focus on energy reduction and energy efficiency. calls for specific measures in education and training and continuing training to stimulate job creation by exploiting green technologies further. Jobs in manufacturing and process industries have declined (e. To fully exploit renewable energy sources with different properties. transportation. and emerging occupations have been identified in cleantech companies. and agriculture. a sectoral approach to analysing the greening of occupations is likely to be insufficient because it will not capture job creation opportunities from the occupational convergence between analytical skills service elements and technological skills elements.g.
and maintenance of wind turbines. The agenda has focused on how to switch from industrial production to services in the sector and how such a switch would likely change the demand for skills. A. where maritime and energy efficiency sectors may become the lifeline for redundant workers. These contributed to skills needs identification. energy assessors.2. The shipping industry in Denmark has taken various initiatives aimed at reducing CO2.000 new jobs (Case study .
. skills gaps were identified by a project led by representatives from the Federation of Danish Industry and the unskilled workers employees’ organisation 3F.g. Energy efficient renovation could create 5.2. The government believes that this drive will require new green skills and knowledge for all people involved in the construction sector – from engineers and architects to electricians and construction workers. existing qualifications need modification to match emerging skills needs.e. solar installers. assembly. 95% of all responding companies experienced an increasing need and skills gaps for project managers with competencies across different renewable energy sources.2. A. Many wind turbine companies have traditionally been forced to train their own employees to ensure that they fit the job profile (Case study .Skills gaps in the wind turbine sector comprise knowledge and competencies related to the production.2 New Skills According to an industry analysis.2. bio energy technicians. who dominate the industry and represent the large majority of employees in the industry. Core competencies of marine technicians are having to be modified to take account of these developments (Case study .3.Greening of existing occupations in construction). Municipal authorities conducted a series of counselling sessions and job search courses on site at MAN Diesel. A.1 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs Green Restructuring No major coherent initiatives have been taken as yet to analyse the labour market consequences and identify the (re)training needs in the wake of the greening of the economy and the green restructuring of industries. local municipal authorities have the formal responsibility for identifying skills needs in relation to Lindoe’s employees as part of public employment services. DTU (Technical University of Denmark) and the vocational academy CELF backed financially by the Ministry of Education and the Region of Zealand.3 A. A shift towards service-oriented professions is evident in the MAN case study. in particular Vestas and Siemens. In the wind turbine sector. IWAL (International Wind Power Academy Lolland). The specifics of the requested training programme were identified by surveying wind turbine companies. agricultural meteorologists. The Strategy for Reduction of Energy Consumption in Buildings focuses on building renovation and installation of energy efficient solutions for new and existing buildings. there appears to be no justification for developing completely new training programmes targeting cleantech. and inspectors on energy efficiency. In the renewables sector. e.2.3. i. At Lindoe Shipyard. Workers must be capable of functioning in a global market where language and broad knowledge around wind turbine technology is essential. a skills analysis was organised in a public-private partnership project led by Siemens.Wind turbine operator). green accountants. Marine technicians are responsible for implementing and handling machines and technologies to reduce emissions. at different qualification levels. Tightening regulations and increased efficiency efforts are driving investment in new technologies.3 Greening Existing Occupations Some of the emerging occupations arising from cleantech and energy sector are ‘hybrid’ occupations.Marine technician). A range of activities were also conducted relating to the maritime and energy sectors.
The plan includes an application for a subsidy from the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund but this is not yet guaranteed so it is too early to say what the outcome will be. industry operator. Labour market programmes (adult continuing training programmes for unskilled and skilled workers) have played a major structural and restructuring role as they are very responsive and adaptive mechanisms to changes in the labour market (a key factor is the short duration of the programmes. innovation and education centre for Green technologies and jobs. metal technician. to thoroughly assess the skills requirements/needs for different occupations.2
New Skills There has been a gradual greening of existing occupations adaptation of curricula starting in the ‘80s and ‘90s. The identification of the skills needs was thus mainly supply-driven at the local level. process technician.3. including for auto mechanics. A proposal had been sent for pre-approval from the Confederation of Danish Industry and to public authorities before being subjected to a formal
.4.2. A similar Centre exists in Southern Denmark which could create competitive tensions for jobs. the actual skills response in relation to offshore renewable energy is still under planning. education institutions. an interministerial committee established a working group with members from relevant business organisations. industry technician. a network of educational institutions and local companies in the Frederikshavn area entered into strategic dialogue regarding skills needs and suggestions to ensure an adequate skills supply as well as ideas and guidelines for the educational response. In October 2009. However. but in cooperation with demand side representatives. The intention is to make it applicable to national needs. cooling technician. However. revisions to a range of outcome-based competency goals in a number of upper secondary VET programmes have been suggested. plastics technician.
A. Studies have found that the existing VET qualifications represent a solid foundation for providing the competencies for the emerging occupations in cleantech. The Manager in Renewable Energy case study represents good feedback mechanisms between the education/training system and business. wind technician. The Frederikshavn municipality has prioritised two sectors with the potential to create new employment opportunities: maritime and energy efficiency sectors. supply technician. which enable people to move quickly into new job functions in the labour market). and public authorities. More importantly. The outcome of the process will be an action plan that describes the existing supply and skills initiatives for the sector (value chain) and that presents new initiatives and recommendations. an assessment showed the need for a programme that would supplement existing qualifications. technical insulation. and automation technician. A new local/regional tailored tertiary qualification was developed in cooperation with industry and the public sector. electro technician. The municipality hopes that the implementation of new environmental regulations will turn into business opportunities.4 A. Faced with the apparent skills gap in the marine technician area.2. primarily because the financing package of €8m is not yet in place.1
Responses to Skill Needs Green Restructuring Lindoe Offshore Renewable Centre (LORC) was established in January 2010 as a knowledge. Municipal authorities have prepared new training modules in collaboration with social partners covering both priority sectors although they have yet to be implemented. electrician.2. The identified occupational profile builds on skills and knowledge elements in existing VET qualifications.
A.2.4. industry electrician.3
Greening Existing Occupations The Strategy for Reduction of Energy Consumption in Buildings states that existing educational programmes should be revised in accordance with the overall strategy to ensure that all future employees have solid basic skills regarding energy efficient construction. The Municipality is awaiting a grant from the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund.A.
The first students completing the programme are set to enter the job market in 2011-2012.000 new jobs in the energy sector.accreditation process before it can be approved by the Danish Ministry of Education. cleantech. the second relates to the creation of entirely new occupational profiles not yet covered by education supply (e. for example regarding non-fossil fuels.
. such as highlighted by Grundfos.5 A. for cleantech). an initiative was taken to establish a new educational programme in “energy and environmental skills for marine technicians” (as well as a completely new training school) at the vocational college MARTEC in Northern Jutland.2. The training is expected to commence in 2011.Dansk Metal have developed specific recommendations which according to their estimates would create up to 50. Various skills initiatives have been taken at various levels to adjust to the greening of occupations in the construction sector. particularly the lowly qualified. In response to changing requirements in the occupational field of marine technicians. changes of content and requirements in occupations as responses to innovation.g.the Danish Metalworkers’ Union (Dansk Metal) and the Union for Unskilled workers (3F) have called for actions which can stimulate job creation in cleantech and other “green areas” with growth opportunities . the third concerns innovation whereby the technological competency base is being used to create new business services. Rather than a shift per se. the greatest job potential is likely to be found in the energy sector and in cross-sectoral themes such as energy efficiency. skills upgrading. Despite these positive developments. Unions argue that the Danish government needs to be more proactive to ensure that Denmark’s potential first mover advantage in alternative energy . In response to the wind turbine skills need. and regulation related to energy efficiency. there are no indications that the Lindoe innovation initiative (see case study) will be accompanied by structural measures to ensure that the right skills are available to turn innovation advance into sustainable job creation.1 Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions With respect to: Main ‘greening’ shifts in economies and labour markets At least three green ‘shifts’ are observable in Denmark: the first concerns greening of existing occupations. Whether the response adequately reflects the need of the industry will depend on the willingness and ability of companies to offer apprenticeships to new students and later employ these young people in job profiles that take full advantage of what they have learned. However.3 Greening Existing Occupations It is quite likely that technological developments. a new upper secondary vocational programme leading to a formal VET qualification as a skilled wind turbine operator has been developed. A. i. A. Overall. could end up in structural unemployment.2. Overall. Currently. The programme is now offered by four vocational colleges. The current skills gaps analysis being undertaken is likely to lead to new interventions. and energy optimisation in process industry and manufacturing.5. So far no students have yet completed the programme.e.is used in a systemic way to stimulate job creation through coordinated employment. companies are not hiring new employees due to the recession and have proved reluctant to take in new apprentices. and innovation policies. in cooperation with relevant schools and vocational colleges.4. The first marine technicians specialised in energy and environmental issues are set to enter the job market within the next 2-3 years. For example. will lead to further revision of VET qualifications and the development of new qualifications. it is still too early to assess the effectiveness of the skills response. new solutions and approaches. this response represents the only example of a coherent skills response that forms part of a wider strategy regarding the greening of the economy and/or priorities regarding climate change.2. Diversification of existing companies is also seen as critical .particularly wind energy . there are concerns that workers laid off through the latest recession. this represents a continuation of a long term development.
anticipating. there is a need for cooperation at a European level to further analyse which type of methods are best suited to capture these skills changes. analyses. from compulsory school to higher education. Lack of data is confirmed through interviews with Director Generals for IVET and TVET. e.2 Recommendations Since sectoral approaches to skills anticipation may not fully capture the industry dynamics which may be driven by technological convergence. The aim is to ensure that the climate agenda is not only covered in a focused and coherent manner but that it also stimulates climate-conscious behaviour and encourages more young people to choose a science education after compulsory education.for example cleantech . However. Linked to this development. etc.) currently exists regarding the consequences of the greening of the economy on the Danish occupational structures and skills requirements. 13 CVET competence centres connect providers of CVET and basic adult education and are responsible for anticipating and monitoring skills changes at the local level. Trade committees undertake studies on skills anticipation for a “family of occupations” within IVET and CVET. disruptive changes in business models or repositioning of value chains.or regarding changes in particular work functions that may also be crossoccupational. cleantech and disruptive and innovative changes in business models which are now occurring and do not follow the traditional sector logic (e.5. and that processes of restructuring have been on-going and supplemented by a high absorptive capacity in labour markets. Scope and capacity of MS/Regional skills forecasting and VET systems to anticipate and respond Very little information (statistics.
. there is debate as to whether the right education programmes and CVET measures are in place to fully harvest the potential from. the Danish Technological Institute is currently preparing a guidebook of methods for anticipating skills needs. pump manufacturer Grundfos moving into more service oriented sales). A. and responding to skills needs Trade committees and respective councils monitor occupational changes and may call for development or adaptation of IVET qualifications and CVET certificates. They also carry out cross-sectoral studies to analyse the impact of technological convergence .g. Labour market organisations have called upon actions to stimulate job creation in the energy sector which is regarded as the major growth area in Denmark.2.New and changing skills needs by sector / occupation The educational sector has a strong basis for meeting the renewed global and national focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy within the existing occupations. The Ministry of Education has taken various initiatives to integrate climate and energy topics in the existing curriculum.g. The Danish ‘flexicurity’ model combined with high CVET participation rates explains the success of the Danish economy prior to the crisis.Skills implications and development . Good practice lessons in relation to identifying.
Developing skills by increasing the financing of life-long learning.1. Renewable energy is seen as important for development. and sustainable transport. the Act on Sustainable Development (1995) and the National Strategy on Sustainable Development (2005).3. environmental impact of energy production.3.1. Priority sectors for the greening the Estonian economy are energy.2
The response strategy To enhance moving towards a greener economy. Priorities and Skills Response Strategies Environmental challenges and priorities During the last two decades. and agriculture. A raft of legislation has been adopted for energy. the Estonian government has defined four major lines of action: (a) Efficiency of energy consumption. bringing down energy consumption of buildings. ensuring more resources for continuing education and retraining activities and using the period of lower employment to raise the skills of 50. forestry. transport and construction. waste management.3. along with the diminishing impact of oil shale energy production.
A. Skills forecasting and training is mainly provided by the different state departments and the skills responses are thus characterised by policy measures and reforms of the formal education system. and (d) Decreasing the overall environmental impact of the economy and development of green entrepreneurship.3. Sectoral employment is expected to stay on the current level. chemical industry. social and economic restructuring processes and the process of greening the economy and the corresponding skills response have to be analysed in this context. energy.3
The response to the economic crisis The key priorities identified in the Estonian Action Plan for Growth and Jobs 2008–2011 are: Adopting a conservative macroeconomic policy with the aim of keeping the public deficit within the limit of 3% of GDP. forestry. The occupational structure has changed with the economic structure. (b) Diversifying the use of renewable energy.3
A. the share of professionals and service workers has increased while number of craft workers has decreased more than the total number of employed. joining the Euro area in 2011 and maintaining low public debt levels in order to be able to sustain high investment levels and a favourable level of taxes in the medium and long-term. agriculture. gas and water supply. (c) Development of oil shale based energy production – increasing the efficiency and decreasing the environmental impact. transport.1.000 people by at least one EQF level. The aim is to maintain the share of exports relative to GDP at its 2008 level.1 A. through support measures for export companies.1
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN ESTONIA
A. The sectors with major greening potential include: oil shale industry.
. building materials industry and food industry sectors in line with the main policies for sustainable development. Key concerns are security of the energy supply. The majority of the occupations in Estonia belong to the greening occupations. Raising the export potential of enterprises primarily by improving the general business environment in order to increase investment and productivity. Estonia has gone through fundamental political.A. energy prices. In general. tourism.
3. than those which focus on technology development. Mining and quarrying (applying new technologies. combined burning of renewable fuels. the Minister of the Environment and the Minister of Education and Research signed the Memorandum of Cooperation. Also the availability and flexibility of career counselling will be increased. new technologies for producing chemicals from oil shale). electricity networks and heating pipelines. products. Electricity. bio-fuel and bio-energy. applying new technologies. organic farming). by focusing on reducing withdrawals from school.3. and enhancement of additional training and retraining opportunities. The priorities of the Estonian Government for the coming years are to raise people’s qualifications and their sense of security by making the education system more effective. energy conservation in energy enterprises. for which export orientation and environmental sustainability are considered significant advantages. Manufacture of refined petroleum products. services and processes. Among other activities. which are oriented towards the implementation of new technologies and increasing the productivity of enterprises. waste and oil shale. the Government has adopted the Action Plan for Reducing Unemployment (2009). increasing public investments and providing additional subsidies with the aim of preventing long-term unemployment. In total. design and productivity management. the development of human capital and recruitment of leading development personnel and implementing professional design as a competitive advantage.4 The skills development strategy in response to greening Promoting green skills is a part of environmental education in Estonia. The development of cooperation networks and clusters based on the initiative of enterprises will be promoted. chemicals and chemical products (new technologies for producing motor fuels from oil shale and renewable sources of energy.
. The goal is to use the educational process to shape responsible citizens who value and care for the environment.3. active labour market measures will be financed in the amount of 459 million kroons in 2009 and 618 million kroons in 2010 within the framework of the programme “Increasing the supply of qualified labour force”. New measures are also being prepared for supporting traditional industries. Continuous and extended support will be provided to the projects developing new competitive technologies. thermal and/or power plants and boiler plants that use renewable energy sources. water management). measures for preventing inactivity. Based on the needs of many traditional sectors of economy.2. by intensifying efforts to promote lifelong learning.Maintaining employment levels by improving the business environment and stimulating job creation. support will be offered for projects that include testing and certifying.1. A.1 Emerging Skill Requirements Green Structural Change The potential for green restructuring of the Estonian economy is most obvious in the following sectors of the national economy: Agriculture (biomass. To better support the recovery of the labour market. the action plan includes support for the creation of new jobs. by promoting science and technology as fields of study to help ensure competitiveness and by helping higher-risk groups to enter the labour market. A. which established development of environmental education as a priority for Estonia. In 2005.2 A. remediation of open quarry territories). which in most cases are smaller in size. Forestry (complex management of forests. gas and water supply (application of environmentally friendly technologies in energy production. water management in mines. Besides improving people’s skills. production of wood pellets). the Government is also hoping to encourage emigrant workers to return to Estonia. and lower in risk.
and (b) Upgrading competencies important for key technologies that play a key role in Estonia. renovation and reconstruction of apartment buildings). construction of passive houses). such as biofuels. including: Engineers.1
Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs Green Restructuring The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications (MEAC) has been preparing labour demand forecasts since 2003.3. designers and researchers who are driving technological change and innovation in the green economy. as well as generic skills like team work. are important. Therefore it is also necessary to improve the knowledge and skills base of those who already active in labour market.
A. Energy auditors and environmental impact assessors. Architects.3. communication. Consultants advising enterprises and consumers on the application of new technologies. Forecasts are updated annually. the labour market is characterised by a mismatch between employers’ demands for qualifications. The development and implementation of new energy technologies in Estonia has implications for skills needs on two levels: (a) Development and export of new technologies in spearhead technology used in oil shale production. there is no evidence of occupations or trades becoming obsolete as a result of environmental degradation. learning and entrepreneurship. climate change or environmental policies in Estonia. Although the labour force surveys and forecasts indicate some shift inside large groups of occupations. Nevertheless.g. the Innove Foundation (Cedefop partner in Estonia) organised the first seminar on the green economy in Estonia. it is difficult to predict which of the new green collar jobs will be subject to the highest demand during the greening of Estonia’s economy. Amongst the engineers. and the actual skill levels of the generally older. there are many new specialisations developing green technologies such as solar and fuel cell technologies. new technologies for timber modification). Forecasts are used by MER as one of the inputs for preparing proposals for state-commissioned study places in initial vocational education and training (VET). e.3. The conclusions from this seminar indicate an increasing demand for some groups of occupations and professions with specific technical skills related to green economy. designers and researchers involved in the green economy development. higher education and adult education. Real estate and renting activities (energy certification and energy auditing in apartment buildings. city and transport planners. At the moment. renovation of old heating pipelines in district heating networks. Construction (new materials and technologies for construction and renovation. working-age population. Three components of labour demand are
. Technicians capable of operating green technologies. Other economic activities.3 A.2.
A.Manufacture of wood and wood products (complex use of timber. Transport and supporting transport activities (sustainable transport).2
New Skills and Greening of Existing Occupations In November 2009. leisure and tourism.3. The experience to date of developing occupational standards for new green collar occupations indicates that both technical skills related to new technologies.
Heat production and distribution systems are areas with especially significant potential for efficiency gains. universities. employers associations. the MEAC commissioned a study on the Estonian energy technology strategy – this process brought together viewpoints of companies. it has been possible to define three key areas for development: Development and improvement of the entire oil shale process. A.3. ME).4 A. The following common horizontal objectives were also identified: Reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency. Projections are made for 35 sectors of the economy and 5 aggregated occupational groups. research institutes. Training vouchers enable the unemployed person to quickly find a suitable additional training course based on individual needs (through Unemployment Insurance Fund). The study and development of new emerging sources of energy. A. and the new challenges brought about by the increasing use of wind power. Mapping. The following initiatives have been implemented during 2009 to improve the availability of additional training and retraining: A personalised training voucher system for the unemployed as an additional option for labour market training. the dropout from the labour market (mortality and retirement) and labour movement between different sectors of the national economy. Three bodies advise the Minister of Education and Research on the need for state-commissioned study places. However. there is no specialist area in which Estonia excels in the international arena.3. infrastructure. As a result of expert analysis and social dialogue. Training vouchers for employers with the aim to raise the skills level of managers and employees (through Enterprise Estonia). Through this. including different ministries and governmental agencies (MER. and The adult education council. The higher education council.3. trade unions and education providers. MSA.4. Improved environmental sustainability. MEAC. utilisation. this will require investment in both improving existing. The composition of these bodies is diverse. and. Essential areas of particular importance to the environment are the development of the transmission network to improve efficiency and reliability. the state order for the respective institutions (VET institutions. and the public sector in different energy-related industry segments. and are then approved by the Minister of Education and Research (MER).3. and development of renewable sources of energy.
. whilst there is a good general level of knowledge and skills. and universities) is prepared across fields of study and groups of study programmes (according to ISCED97).forecasted: the creation of new jobs. Overall. Increased R&D investments and IPR value generation. and developing new.2 New Skills and Greening Existing Occupations In 2006.1 Responses to Skill Needs Green Restructuring The main focus to date has been on updating the qualifications of the working-age population via vocational education and the help of state funds. and. The vocational education and training council. professional higher education institutions. Thus the councils also provide a platform for social dialogue in skills development issues related to respective sectors of formal education.
a new initiative in financing adult education was approved. higher professional education and non-formal education institutions.3.21 43
. Launching the DoRa programme (programme for doctoral studies and internationalisation) to increase the quality and competitiveness of higher education. The principles of the APEL system (accrediting prior experiential learning) have been introduced. This approach has been successful in providing publicly funded training for a number of greening occupations (see e. Promoting science and technology study fields by increasing the importance of science subjects at basic and secondary school levels and by increasing the freedom of choice for secondary school and vocational education students. developing curricula in technology and the natural sciences for non-formal education institutions. higher and adult education during 2007-200813: Modernisation of higher and vocational education curricula and matching higher education learning outcomes with labour market needs. Support for studies abroad for Estonian Master level students in order to ensure the availability of highly qualified people. Offering free in-service training helps to update the knowledge of workers with low levels of education. namely the state financing of in-service training in vocational schools for working-age people. Meanwhile. The strategy foresees a considerable expansion in learning opportunities for adults. and initiatives for attracting more people to the education and training system. Raising the qualification of teachers in vocational and general education by developing a needs-based additional training system for teachers.
Estonian Strategy for Competitiveness (2009) p. the share of adult education has increased in vocational schools. However.Simplifying and shortening procedures for public procurement of labour market training to increase the availability of active labour market measures.2 New Skills and Greening Existing Occupations To increase people's overall skills. A reduction in the share of people with no vocational education or professional specialisation. These have been particularly effective in the energy sector (see e. The main aims include the overall improvement of skills and educational levels. Most recently. Modernisation of the infrastructure (classrooms. therefore reducing both the likelihood and persistence of unemployment. the new Development Plan for Adult Education 2009–2013 was approved in September 2009. During 2008. A. case studies oil shale mining. case studies on forestry and energy auditors).g. learning equipment) of higher and vocational education institutions. and an increase in the numbers of adults participating in lifelong learning. are also high on the agenda.g. Due to Estonia’s socio-economic structure skills anticipation and provision is almost entirely the responsibility of the government. encourage them to stay longer and forge ties with the Estonian labour market (especially in research and development work) after they finish their studies.4. Eesti Energia and ABB). and the creation of a high-quality training system to provide opportunities for people wishing to increase their qualification level. several measures have been implemented in general. Extension of additional training and retraining opportunities for adults through vocational education. vocational. at the company level a number of initiatives have been observed where firms are initiating skills forecasting and providing in-service training. Financial support measures to educational institutions to enable them to better attract foreign students at Master and PhD level to study in Estonia. Further development of the system for career services based on the needs of society and the labour market.
privatisation and lower production levels have significantly decreased environmental pollution.A. Decreasing overall environmental impact of the economy and development of green entrepreneurship. According to the forecast. Two major directions of development towards greener economy can be identified: Implementation of new cleaner technologies in many sectors of economy. Good practice lessons in relation to identifying. the share of craft workers will stay on the current level. Estonia will move from the current economic crisis better prepared for the challenges of the green economy. the Estonian economy has become much greener. anticipating. Growing economic activities are in the services sector and also in the manufacturing industry. either individual or corporate. The share of the primary sector.
. The Government has defined four major lines of action to enhance environmental friendliness of the economy: Efficiency of energy consumption. has decreased multiple times. The tertiary sector has become more important. Motivation among people to raise their skill levels and qualifications according to the changing needs of the labour market is one of the crucial factors for the forthcoming economic upswing. For example.New and changing skills needs by sector / occupation The occupational structure has changed as has the economic structure. the number of craft workers (ISCO 6-8) has decreased more than the total number of employed. A good example of this is impressive progress in the development of adult education and training. Nevertheless. especially agriculture. and state support. and responding to skills needs Effective delivery mechanisms are based on a combination of private initiatives. Skills implications and development . According to several assessments. Support from EU structural funds has played an extremely important role in the implementation of different projects towards greening the Estonian economy.General nature of change in the MS (drivers and impacts) During the last two decades. Diversifying the use of renewable energy. Restructuring of the economy has caused substantial changes in the structure of the labour market. the secondary sector has held its share.5. the primary sector will reduce its employment also in the coming years. especially in the field of organic farming and bio-energy production. Remediation of the results of Soviet heritage in the environment.3. On the other hand. According to the forecast. but also all levels of higher education and general education. the sector has further greening potential. The share of professionals (ISCO 2-3) and service workers (ISCO 4-5) has increased and it is assumed that this trend will continue at a moderate pace. Green restructuring of the national economy is heavily dependent on the development and implementation of new technologies and changing attitudes of the people. in the agriculture sector.1
Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions With respect to: Main ‘greening’ shifts in economies and labour markets .3. Some steps towards a greener economy happened automatically as a result of lower demand. Therefore the skills response to meet the challenges of the green economic restructuring should include not only initial and continuous VET. Development of oil shale based energy production – increasing the efficiency and decreasing the environmental impact.5 A. including in-service training during the last five years.
It is highly recommended that these two aspects of skills identification move closer to each other.
. The national qualifications system is an interface between the labour market and the lifelong learning system. It is also advised that the implementation of national R&D programmes be used to facilitate creating a culture of cooperation between the stakeholders. it is recommended that the qualitative skills need surveys be incorporated into the regular Labour Force Surveys performed by the Statistical Office of Estonia. Finally.A.3. It is recommended that the development of modular occupational standards as prototypes for partial qualifications and the development of new generation of modular national curricula for VET be better coordinated and based on learning outcomes approach. As part of the above processes. as well as of labour market trends within a sector. The Government and the Parliament are invited to initiate the preparation of the long-term Lifelong Learning Strategy. national curricula. Inclusion of partial qualifications into the national qualifications system will substantially increase the flexibility of the system. For MS / Regional VETS systems It is recommended that the experience of state commissioning of study places be regularly assessed and the appropriate policy recommendations made.2
Recommendations For MS skills forecasting approaches It is recommended to strengthen coordination mechanisms of sectoral and other mid-term strategies with the Estonian National Strategy on Sustainable Development – Sustainable Estonia 21 and increase the visibility of the strategic process. it is advised that functional mapping of competences in major sectors of economy becomes a regular activity. From this research.5. school curricula) are quite separate activities. it follows that the quantitative identification of skills needs (state order for study places) and the qualitative identification of skills needs (occupational standards. This will allow identification of competence profiles of occupations.
approximately 1% of GDP. and the 2007 Spanish Sustainable Development Strategy (EEDS). renewable energy production and desalination technologies have been developed extensively over the last decade.3
Green response to the current economic crisis In December 2008.A.4.4. autonomous communities and local councils. The Spanish Economy and Employment Stimulation Plan (Plan E) is a comprehensive and extensive strategy containing short term packages oriented towards introducing long term reforms in the economy to move towards a more sustainable structure. and has linkages with policies and strategies on other fields. existing specific bodies for climate change response strategy. decreases in precipitation and sea level rise. The strategy is comprises different laws. as well as potential negative consequences for water supply in many cities.4. and the Railway Freight Transport Promoting Plan. with important consequences for agricultural production. water and energy.1. signalling the importance placed by Government on the “green economy” and its role in promoting growth and development. The strategy is supported by a raft of measures to enhance environmental sustainability. plans and decrees. Several initiatives from the autonomous communities complement the government strategies. the Renewable Energy Plan 2011-2020. In response to economic crisis the government launched the Spanish Economy and Employment Stimulation Plan (Plan E) in early 2009 and consulted on a Law of Sustainable Economy (LES) later that year. the 2007 Spanish National Climate Change Adaptation Plan (PNACC). the Spanish government launched a EUR 11 billion economic stimulus package. soil erosion and fertility. Economic development and population growth also affect efforts to mitigate climate change.
The response strategy The Spanish policy response to the challenge of climate change is fostered at different administrative levels of the state: central government.4.1.
A. Priorities and Skills Response Strategies Environmental challenges and priorities The challenge of adapting to climate change in Spain is three-fold: increases in temperature. Priorities in Spain are therefore focused on energy security and solving the problem of water scarcity.1
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN SPAIN
Environmental Challenges. The package included 600 million in environmental projects and EUR 500 million on research and development. including funding for sustainable transport (Plan VIVE) and R&D in low carbon vehicles (MOVELE project) as well as additional support for the Energy Efficiency and Saving Plan 2008 – 2011. Water problems are enhanced by the current trend of urban growth and periodic droughts. together with Agenda 21 on the local council level. pollution.1. Decreases in precipitation will diminish water resources. together with funding for infrastructure projects and investment in the ailing automotive sector. Sectoral plans have also been implemented on a national level for transport. Global warming will have serious effects on biodiversity affecting agriculture and livestock industries. Energy and water strategies form the core of Spain’s transition to a greener economy. from primary education to R&D projects in universities and research centres. Plan E includes an important and comprehensive skills development strategy. which to some degree addresses the skills needs brought about by environmental policies. Key environmental strategies at the national level are the 2006 Spanish Climate Change and Clean Energy Strategy (EECCEL). forest density. To this end.4
A. the Law of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.
In the last decade.4
The skills development strategy in response to greening Despite the inclusion of several skills training responses in environmental policies. or installation sectors have diversified their core activities to the renewable energy sector. Navarra. there are many interesting initiatives from public bodies that contribute to skills training (see e. they adapt employment and education strategies to their needs and strategic priorities. for electricians. especially the renewable energy sector. Due to the impact of the economic crisis on the construction sector a concerted effort to aid employees to diversify into renewables has been launched.4.g. funding these programmes directly or through managing EU funding. and Awareness. in Pamplona. Waste Treatment.pdf
. and the progressive development of diverse environment-related programmes in the higher education system. increasing the demand for professionals that has developed a skills response from universities. Only half of the renewable energy companies are specialised in renewable energy. In Spain.2. while the other half perform additional activities.g.2 A. However.g.4.4.
A.4.navarra. which include employment creation and occupational training for unemployed. comprehensive skills training strategy identifying the skills needs for the occupations involved and a recent Symposium of Environmental Training within the Spanish Public Administrations(14) found that there has been a lack of strategic coordination of skills responses for the greening economy at different administrative levels.es/NR/rdonlyres/082E5062-6051-4B97-B9637D401D59382B/130725/PROGRAMA. This means that new skills required are relatively easily acquired through retraining in skills related to renewables
(14) “Jornadas Técnicas sobre la Formación Ambiental en las Administracionoes Públicas Españolas” held during 3th. The greening strategy focuses on renewable energy but includes promotion of waste treatment and green management in public and private bodies. Regional approaches to the “green jobs” agenda and associated skills requirements vary greatly but there are several existing environmental education plans by the Spanish autonomous communities (see e. case study on Biodiversity Foundation and the Telecommunications Installations Businessmen Association). the case study on Cenifer foundation). For many occupations in the construction sector the skills gap for renewables energy is small.1. Though harmonised and coordinated at the state level.2
New Skills New green collar occupations are found across several sectors involving quite different occupations. Public bodies also participate in skills training programmes designed by private sector academies or associations. Green structural change involves several retraining needs. According to their greening function. Many public strategy documents identify the need for more skills training but there is no overarching. Green Management. 4th and 5th of June of 2009. e.1
Emerging Skill Requirements Green Structural Change Green restructuring in Spain is mainly policy driven.A. Greening of the economy started about ten years ago with reform in energy policy and has been reinforced by policies aimed at dealing with economic crisis. Certain technical skills are needed for these occupations to adapt to the particular technical specifications for installing photovoltaic and thermal solar panels but these new technical skills are not too different and can be acquired in a relatively short time span. new green collar occupations can be classified in the following four broad groups: Renewable Energy. education levels and skills. electricity.
A. Many companies from engineering. certain public bodies and private sector. there is no explicit national strategy targeting skills needs for greening the economy. Many non-public agents in the private sector or civil society are complementing the skills training offer for the greening of the economy.2. New skills training is needed in all the activities described below. plumbers or installers training to install solar energy panels on buildings. They also manage education policies including formal vocational training and tertiary studies. the regions are responsible for managing active labour market policies (ALMP). Available at: http://www. the green sector. has grown rapidly.
new green jobs and greening of existing jobs: (a) worker demand.4. motivating the organisation of several courses (see case study on Proyecto Sol). renewable energy and other key green sectors. maintenance and management. New recycling and waste management approaches have been developed in response to increased urbanisation. (c) private academy marketing studies. A non-capital greening gap could be found in almost every occupation from farmers to highly qualified white collar workers. and (e) comprehensive and organised studies at national or regional level The first method of skills identification. Workers in environmental education and the environmental information sector have a key role in reaching environmental by influencing the behaviour of consumers. is expected to grow in the coming years requiring additional jobs and skills training responses.2. A. A. demand from workers. involving different methods. should continue and perhaps incorporate new training methods. Greener waste management. Closing this non-capital greening gap involves training in conceptual skills. and this is one of the key challenges of greening economy. By contrast. This study found five main methods of identification that apply across restructuring cases. Moreover. Thus. Secondly. hence the potential greening gap is wider for blue collar workers than for white collar workers. such as environmental awareness. forest areas management. such as the waste treatment sector. Green management organises and controls the shift in production to a more environmentally sustainable productive structure or manages goods with a high natural value. As an example. Waste management in Spain includes activities across urban waste management. Greening occupations tend to be blue collar rather than white collar workers. two different skills gaps have been identified in this study. which includes selective waste collection or recycling techniques. private and mixed bodies.such as knowledge of technology systems.4. mainly consist of blue collar workers.
. Occupations related to environmental education and awareness have experienced a considerable growth and diversification in the last years with more people acquiring skills for environmental training and awareness. installation procedures. has played a key role for the identification of skills needs in solar energy sector. (d) public initiatives. a capital greening gap would be the change in agriculture from old harvesters to new and less polluting ones. Blue collar activities tend to be more energy intensive than white collar activities. conceptual skills training responses. population growth and development of the tourism industry while technological innovations involving mechanisation of tasks have changed the skills set for the sector. corporate environment protection activities and public body technicians and inspectors (located in local councils). there is a non-capital greening gap which could be addressed by increasing energy efficiency through organisational changes or improving attitudes of workers.3 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs Identification of skill needs for the greening economy in Spain is made through several initiatives in public. (b) company demand. an example of a non-capital greening gap would be switching off the lights in office buildings when they are not in use. Examples of occupations in this sector are: protected natural reserves management. regulation. Firstly. dangerous waste management and recycling. there is a capital greening gap which could be narrowed by increasing energy efficiency though capital substitution (generally involving technological change). such as awareness campaigns.3 Greening Existing Occupations In shifting to more environmentally responsible production methods.
such as business associations. training centres or corporate associations (see case study on Fonama).4. Corporations identify the skills needed for their activities within their departments and the skills training response is internally organised. as when an initiative is created by a private agent (an academy.4 A.4. Navarre or Extremadura.1 Responses to Skill Needs Green Restructuring The skills training response needed for green structural change is carried out by several agents from public. A. the programmes undertaken in the Basque Country. and funded by some public body (city councils.2 New Skills Sometimes skills training programmes are both public and private driven.4. Private training centres have played an important role in this kind of skills response. which provide the relevant retraining in order to become professionals in renewables. The third method of skills identification. In the case of the retraining needs for construction sector workers moving into renewable energy occupations. Courses for specific occupations have been fostered and financed both by public and private bodies. These courses are either set within the vocational training system for technical occupations or within managerial postgraduate programmes in universities. Social partners. some of them coming from regional or local governments.4. A. an association). is marketing studies by private academies. e. The fifth identification method observed is the skills studies at regional and national level. private and mixed bodies. Some are integrated within a certain skills development response. SMEs usually communicate skills gaps to regional bodies.1 Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions With respect to: Main ‘greening’ shifts in economies and labour markets .The second identification method.4. which is entirely market driven. though multiple initiatives coming from different agents. By contrast.4. company demand. associations.4. there are several initiatives. identifying in the skills gaps for greening economy. trade unions or private training centres also form part of skills responses for restructuring.4. A. One such example is a comprehensive study undertaken by the Public Employment Service in order to identify the occupations and the skills needs in the renewable energy sector. Skills responses in corporations are focused on specific skills needed for the new green collar occupations. while in others consist of studies on skills needs. have developed around these three core sectors. Many local and regional governments are organising skills training in this context. regional governments. such as green management and awareness. A.5. The fourth method of identification consists of several initiatives from public bodies. This identification procedure is for example used by the IIR training centre in its skills response for desalination plant maintenance and operation managers. foundations. The greening strategy is policy driven with the central
. EU funds). These agents usually have the role of designing courses and monitoring performance.4.5 A.3 Greening Existing Occupations The education system is providing a growing range of courses related to green collar occupations. Large companies tend to identify needs in their own departments and provide the skills training needed internally. Green activities. foundations and trade unions. including regional and local governments.General nature of change in the MS (drivers and impacts) Main shifts in the economy relate to problems concerning the two basic resources of energy and water as well as waste treatment. is clearly differentiated depending on company size.g.
government fostering the main greening shifts through regulatory changes and long term programmes. Energy and water development have achieved some important results. Firstly, a huge increase in investments in renewable energy production and desalination has taken place, stimulating creation of new jobs. Secondly, there has been a shift in energy and water consumption patterns towards more sustainable trends. And finally, the growing influence of Spanish renewables and desalination companies in the global market shows the technological development in these fields. These achievements indicate that the skills training response has achieved good results, because without the appropriate skills such green restructuring could not have taken place. Implications for structural change and sunset industries The core of the Spanish energy strategy is based on energy efficiency and energy production from renewable sources. This strategy involves a shift from imports to national production and therefore has a positive impact on GDP. Hence, this greening shift creates employment and economic growth. Moreover, the shift requires additional labour, and thus skills, as integration and installation of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies require considerably more labour than operation and maintenance tasks. New green production methods or diversification into renewables are possible in ailing construction and automotive industries. Skills implications and development - New and changing skills needs by sector / occupation Two main groups of skills have been identified across occupations: technical and administrative on the one hand and managerial on the other. The second group of skills needs is partly a result of the complex and changing incentive system of environmental policies, particularly with regard to renewable energy. Pace of change in the definition of new and emerging skills needs Considering the high unemployment rates due to the economic crisis, it can be argued that this is the right time for greening. In Spain, the crisis is especially severe in the construction sector, where many occupations have a high potential for training in renewable energy and energy efficiency. In fact, many occupations in the construction sector, such as electricians, installers or plumbers, can easily perform the tasks of green occupations like solar photovoltaic or thermal energy installers. Scope and capacity of MS/Regional skills forecasting and VET systems to anticipate and respond There is no coherent response at the national level but good examples at regional level, e.g. Navarre and Extremedura. National studies should be linked with the design of the main greening strategies (one is currently being undertaken by the National Employment Service) and stronger public-private cooperation is recommended for anticipating skills future skills needs in order to avoid possible skills bottlenecks. Good practice lessons in relation to identifying, anticipating, and responding to skills needs Since 1994, when there was no renewable energy production in Navarre, the region has expanded its electricity production from renewables to 65% with a target of 100% of electricity from renewable sources in the coming years. Navarre has been able to cover the jobs needed for this new occupation, facilitating the rapid expansion of renewable energy production in the region in the last 15 years. The regional government cooperated with Cenifer Foundation for training the workforce needed for this large scale roll out. A.4.5.2 Recommendations For MS skills forecasting approaches Integrate skills studies with policy: identification of skills needs could be better forecasted with a positive effect on the timing of skills provision. A comprehensive study of skills needs at the national level is currently being undertaken by the National Employment Service. It would have been positive if such a study was linked with the design of the main green strategies (many of them conceived around a decade ago).
For MS / Regional VETS systems Stronger public-private cooperation is highly recommended for anticipating skills future skills needs in order to avoid possible skills bottlenecks.
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN FRANCE
Environmental Challenges, Priorities and Skills Response Strategies With a large proportion of its electricity derived from nuclear power, France has the advantage of a low-carbon power base, although France is now increasingly dependent on imported fossil fuels. Despite the nuclear power stance, France is still expected to exceed its Kyoto GHG target by 10% in 2010, due to increasing emissions from buildings and transport. The main challenges and priorities are to reduce energy use by improving efficiency in buildings and transport, as well as to increase renewable energy generation. The major challenges set within the scope of France’s energy policy are to manage energy demand, extend the range of technological sources of production and supply, develop research in the energy sector, and guarantee the provision of energy transportation and storage infrastructures adapted to consumption requirements.
The response strategy - General environmental strategy The general environmental strategy has two main dimensions: National adaptation strategy to climate change highlights the key priorities for adaptation in France: in particular, public security and health; social aspects, including inequality of risks, costs and opportunities and preservation of natural heritage. It focuses mainly on mitigation efforts. Grenelle Round Table – a major government initiative launched in 2007 to address energy efficiency improvements and a range of other environmental issues. 13 measures adopted in 2009 focus on: Built Environment; Planning; Transport; Energy; Biodiversity; Water; Agriculture; R&D; Risks, Health and the Environment; Waste; Governance, information and training; Overseas territories. France has committed to a ‘factor four’ reduction in GHGs by 2050. Key measures to implement this goal include a ‘bonus malus’ tax system for CO2 emissions from cars. Key priorities: Built environment sector: the number one priority in the fight against climate change by reducing energy use in both new and existing buildings. In France, the building industry uses up to 70 million tonnes of oil equivalent, making it the biggest consumer of energy across all sectors of the economy. This energy consumption represents 25% of France’s national emissions. All of these figures need to be reduced by 75% by 2050. Developing renewable energies and materials is the key priority of France's energy policy.
Green response to the current economic crisis The green new deal is based on: The 2009 Budget Amendment, which provided for a recovery package worth €26 billion over two years, including €10.5 billion of public investment (State, local authorities and public enterprise). The package also included help for the ailing automotive industry, with incentives to scrap older vehicles and buy new, more environmentally friendly models. The climaterelevant portions of the plan amount to more than 20%, the highest in the EU. Of these €10.5 billion of public investments shared between the State (€4 billion), public enterprise (€4 billion) and local authorities (€2.5 billion), €1.1 billion in 2009 and 2010 (i.e. 11%) are for speeding up implementation of the Grenelle Round Table through investment primarily in transport and buildings.
5. However. Promotion and development of the professions for green growth – a national event on green professions will be organised for early 2010 during which the green growth plan will be detailed. the automobile sector was characterised by important redundancies and the suppression of almost all temporary jobs in the sector.2.2
New Skills Regardless of the net volume of job creation.
A. protection of bio-diversity. The objective is to adapt existing training programmes and qualifications and create new ones where necessary.3
The skills development strategy in response to greening Following the Grenelle Round Table.000 in the automobile industry being lost. This plan is articulated along four themes: The identifications of the relevant occupations – this includes setting up a national observatory in order to understand the new professions and relevant fields and to quantify these.000 jobs lost. however their diffusion will be slow and progressive. The definition of training needs and setting up training and qualification pathways – this will enable professional skills to be recognised. the built environment and renewable energy are sectors which potentially could lead to the creation of the most jobs within the environmental economy through implementation of the Grenelle measures (recognising most studies do not take into account substitution effects and the potential job losses in other sectors) Estimates of job losses include 138. they are mostly related to audit and consulting in the energy sector. (WWF study) in 2009. It estimated that the job losses related to the decrease in the production of heat engines produced in France could reach 8. green growth will not generally be characterised by the creation of new occupations but will contribute to the evolution of existing occupations. New occupations mostly concern highly
Plan de mobilisation des territoires et des filières sur le développement des métiers de la croissance verte 53
.5. This represents a major effort in identifying the skills requirements and sectors.1. job losses could be compensated by the creation of a electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles (between 15.000 jobs by 2025-2030).000 and 30. in line with the 600.2. which should be focused on building a competitive green economy and fulfilling the economic and environmental potential of the Grenelle Round Table.000 jobs together transport. a full-fledged skills development strategy has recently been launched with the Mobilisation Plan for Green Jobs15.200. (09/2009) a plan to mobilise the relevant sectors of the economy and the regions to develop occupations for green growth.1
Emerging Skill Requirements Green Restructuring Key impacts on the labour market: the sector consistently identified as having the highest potential in terms of job creation is the renewable energy sector . When new occupations have been identified.000 jobs in the conventional energy sector and 107.2 A. given that the renewal of the fleet of vehicles takes about fifteen years. Recruitment for SD jobs – actions to help job seekers meet the requirements of the numerous jobs currently on offer cannot to be taken up due to lack of skills.A. Low carbon vehicles and clean technologies are very promising. or eco-mobility.
A.5.5.000 green jobs that the Grenelle Round Table could generate by 2020.
Construction in the renewable energies (solar.5.000 pupils. In particular the training of trainers (20. understanding of other occupations related to building renovation and counselling /advice to clients to adapt to new demands of the market. This should take into account complementarities between building trades due to the integration of RE technologies and energy efficiency. auditing and consulting (see case study on Energy Performance Experts): The most dynamic sector in terms of creation of newly emerging green occupation is the renewable energy sector. objectives set by Grenelle involve gradually moving to 20% organic production by 2012. In agriculture. An important effort in terms of upgrading existing training programmes will be needed.qualified jobs: occupations related to expertise linked to new technologies (measurement. Sectors: Since May 2004 law. Two sectors with the highest greening potential and representing high employment volumes are the built environment sector and the agriculture sector.2. and combining macro-economic projections and quantitative surveys with qualitative information. every sector has to create an Observatory for employment and training forecasts
. optimisation of logistic chain.3. or related to organisation and coordination: transport flow management. The ‘core’ competencies of most existing occupations will not change fundamentally. the agricultural education system trains each year 172.3 Greening Existing Occupations Existing occupations will become greener because: Specific competences are currently lacking. but it is first and foremost the articulation of the work undertaken by each building trade that will guarantee efficient construction.5.000 apprentices and 118. and understanding of requirements of environment friendly objectives. cross-cutting knowledge of energy issues.5.000 adults. New technical skills are needed for switching to organic farming.1 Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs Green Restructuring France is characterised by the existence of a broad network of ‘observatories’ in occupational forecasting. taking a sectoral (industry observatories) or regional view (regional industry observatories).3 A.000 craftsmen who now have to work with eco-materials and integrate energy efficiency techniques for the construction and maintenance of sustainable buildings (see case study FEEBAT). metrology). the COE identified occupations related to diagnosis. New competencies required include: knowledge of new technologies and technical solutions adapted to energy efficiency. Nevertheless. These research and monitoring centres most often work at the national level. for example: techniques for the reduction of fertilizers and chemicals. geothermal). each trade will have to integrate notions of sustainable development. A. wind. This is particularly true for the 260. 32. In addition. it is clear that sustainable development will become a common ‘backdrop’ for all occupations and that new competencies will be necessary to adapt professional practices. (See case study on RE installers (Qualit’ENR) Waste sector: also a booming sector with new occupations such as Waste Prevention Managers Operators in recycling industries (see case study Waste Operator) A. Sustainable development constraints will be increasingly taken into account. manager of major building projects etc. Some occupational tasks will necessitate more global approaches.000 teachers in the agriculture school system) will be an important issue (see case study on agriculture). which bring together the various players in the labour market with the aim of reaching a common diagnosis. In the built environment sector for instance.
+ EDEC (Development agreement for the employment and the skills) developed by the public authorities. A.3. CVT is managed by both enterprises and the social partners.1 Responses to Skill Needs Green Restructuring Responses have been made by a range of stakeholders: In the private sector. helps provide an overview of the economic. Social partners are involved. A. the tools and methodologies in the field of occupational forecasting. The process for designing vocational licences aims to ensure that the qualification responds to the needs of the industry.Companies: Forward Employment and Skills Management scheme (GPEC).4 A. Companies use tools such as training plans.g. is mandatory in all French companies with more than 300 employees. France has one of the most comprehensive ranges of tools in this field in Europe. The qualification is also overhauled every four years when the Ministerial authorisation has to be renewed (see case study on Ecodesign for a more detailed analysis).5.5.5. which restructured its assembly facility for heat engines in 2009 (see case study HEULIEZ).3. The process for designing and modifying qualification standards takes place in consultation with social partners in the framework of specific Committees (see Case Study on Waste Recycling Operator to see how employers’ representatives request creation of new qualification). Limitations: Due to the large numbers of stakeholders involved and the volume of their research production. Regional observatories (OREFs) have published a number of studies on green occupations. National level: General Planning Commission carries out studies to gauge developments in trade areas and qualifications. is designed to enable enterprises to anticipate their future skill needs. VAE (recognition of experience and prior learning. Training plans have been carried out in car manufacturing companies such as Heuliez (conversion to the production of electric vehicles).4. Regional Training and Employment Observatories. technological and social changes that a given sector might undergo. 55
. Ministry level: identification of skills needs through the process of overhaul of existing qualifications and creation of new qualifications: design of qualifications is increasingly characterised by the effort towards matching the needs of the labour market. prospective studies carried out by the branches) contribute to identifying new skills needs.5.
The vocational licence is a diploma equivalent to three years of post-Baccalaureate training. GPEC. a lack of coherence and visibility has been highlighted. A. giving the right to qualifications). An increasing number of initiatives focus on green jobs and green growth. most of the tools used to determine and forecast training needs are found at the regional level e.2 New Skills The systematic forecasting of employment and skill needs is fully integrated into economic planning in France and is based on a range of institutions and experts. Regions: Given that powers are now decentralised in France and that they are currently being transferred in the specific area of continuing vocational education and training (CVET). It was created in 1999. in addition to identifying re-training needs and employment shifts. Mechanisms described (sectoral and regional observatories.3 Greening Existing Occupations The creation of the vocational licences (Licences Pro)16 also illustrate how the identification of skills needs by professionals on the ground feed back into the institutional decision making process.
Requests for the creation of new qualifications. initial education is lagging behind in the requirements of the RE sector. The number of training programmes specifically dedicated to ecodesign and number of enrolled students has steadily increased. Fiso) will coordinate short-term and temporary anti-crisis measures with training measures aimed at increasing the employability of the workforce affected. the national training providers for adult learning. DUT.4. A. ANFA is implementing accompanying measures to support workers and companies. qualifications related to energy efficiency. Given the rapid evolution of the sector. The role of training providers: ANFA (Association for Training in the Automobile sector) . The recent creation of Licences Pro (vocational licences) has played an important role in the improvement of initial training provision. The provision of initial training in the RE sector is however increasing.2 New Skills Initial Education &Training: Creation of new qualifications In relation to green occupations. A concern expressed by business representatives. New vocational licences have been created in eco-design for instance (see case study). at BTS (Higher Technician's Certificate) or DUT (University Technological Diploma) level. Provence-Alpes-Cote-d’Azur region (PACA) financed the training of employees in the Eiffel site (metallic construction) for the new wind turbine factory set up in 2008 (with a crucial role played by the regions in terms of cushioning the effects of restructuring and implementing skills development programmes). Licences. training providers and public authorities is a lack of coherence with the multiplication of training programmes and the absence of clear standards. more time is needed to see how new standards and techniques will impact occupations in the built sector. continuing training in the area of renewable energies is more advanced than initial training. National level: The Social Investment Fund (Fonds d’investissement social.
. Overall.in the current economic context affecting the automobile sector. wind power and installation of solar PV are lacking. The main objective is to raise the level of competences of the sector’s staff. Active support to redeployment/ recovery plans: The Poitou Charente region invested 5 million euro in the car manufacturer Heuliez to support the training of employees for the production of the new electric car (case study). In particular. Whilst specific training courses focusing on renewable energies were rare in the early 2000s. with the multiplication of higher education qualifications specialised in RE or integrating RE modules in more traditional training programmes at all levels: DUT. renewable energies). BTS. Continuing VET Overall. Masters and engineering schools degrees. mostly concern the built sector. They are responsible for the managing public funds dedicated to the training delivered by AFPA.5.g. They consider that there are today very few jobs purely based on new competences (e.Regions: fundamental actors in the training system define and implement the regional vocational training policy of young and adult learners (2004 law). the number of training programmes in this sector has increased (see qualit’enr scheme case study). the Ministry of Education has so far adopted a prudent approach towards the emergence of ‘new’ occupations.
eco-citizenship etc. very specific ‘green’ skills in highly specialised fields.5.Updating qualifications (overhaul) Over the past years many qualifications have been overhauled17 especially in agriculture. with a good response. however the objective to have the qualification updated by 2010 will not be reached. This concerns in particular qualifications at level III (BTS or DUT) in the construction sector. electro-mechanics. renewable energies) which means that occupations will evolve without changing core technical skill sets. Agriculture: The Ministry of Agriculture has started to redesign its qualifications to integrate green issues. Built environment sector: there is an urgent need to integrate new competences in the qualification standards of the diploma delivered by the Ministry of education.4. Initial training for architects has been integrating sustainable development modules for a number of years already. Additional modules to core training standards will be needed. They address diverse audiences.
This is the case of the BTS Fluids. For most existing occupations. A reason for the response of the profession is that companies have to react immediately to the emergence of new needs. craftsmen and employees) by 2010.5.5. The DUT Hygiene. environment. Environment which now replaces the former BTS Technical equipments (since 1999). and needs are well addressed. eco-design. Skills needs for green growth are the following: For the whole labour market.3
Greening Existing Occupations Initial Education and Training . For some ‘green’ occupations. The wealth and diversity of CVET in the built environment sector: 5. to integrate a strong environment dimension to respond to the new requirements of the labour market. Continuing training Continuing training is generally adapting rapidly to the green economy. Energy. in particular organic farming and phyto-protection. A key initiative is the training scheme (see FEE Bat case study) in the built environment sector. Adding new ‘mentions’ or components to existing qualifications can sometimes be a slow process. The French Federation of Electricians have worked on the integration of a new mention ‘Renewable energies’ to the existing ‘Bac Pro Electrician’ for the past three years. replaces the former DUT Hygiene and security. and include short and long training pathways. A number of important initiatives aim to bring new competences to the professionals of the sector. new production processes (built sector. security. 57
.A. Key concern: Important efforts in terms of training of trainers will be necessary to ensure the coordination between the different building trades and the adaptation of the services provided to new practices.
A.5. The priority for the built environment sector is to overhaul existing qualifications standards. transversal competences related to general awareness raising of eco-activities. the ‘core’ competences will not change fundamentally. which aims at training 50.5
Conclusions and Recommendations
With respect to: Main ‘greening’ shifts in economies and labour markets Significant job creation in green sectors of the economy such as renewables and energy efficiency may be offset by changes in the automobile and conventional energy sectors that might be affected by job losses.000 professionals (entrepreneurs.000 training courses have been identified in 2009. new skills needs related to new standards. For most occupations.
is considered to be effective. Good practice lessons in relation to identifying. In the majority of cases. no new skills will be needed because occupations have already integrated sustainable development (waste. Mismatch between the types and levels of qualification needed by companies (surplus of over-qualified graduates). This would be a major obstacle hampering the skills development for a transition to a green economy.g. recycling) or limited impacts of green growth (e. the mechanisms for the anticipation and identification of skills needs in France can be considered as efficient. Skills Response The training provision in France is diversified. ensure that the needs identified on the ground are taken into account by the education system. with the multiplication of training programmes in certain sectors without established quality standards. The regional level seems to be the most relevant for anticipation and planning of training needs. but a need for ‘greening’ existing qualifications. AFPA etc. training centres managed by the branches. Skills implications and development Overall. The process for the overhaul of existing qualifications and for the creation of new ones is sometimes too slow. There are concerns that in the context of public spending cuts. skills forecasting at company level. 75% of the job offers related to green jobs concern qualifications at upper secondary education levels of education.For a minority of occupations. apprenticeship centres (CFA). existing qualifications and training pathways adequately cover the needs of the professionals. whereby requests from the professional branches feed into the work of the Committees reviewing qualification and training standards. catering) Expectations in terms of creation of new jobs should not be exaggerated. Overall. network of commercial chambers. The elaborated system of sectoral. and in the management of continuing training. however it could be accelerated. The main weaknesses of the current training provision concern: The lack of adaptation of the current training provision to reach the green growth objectives and address the needs of the labour market in particular in the built environment sector. regional and national observatories. where part of the retiring staff is currently not replaced. In most cases. private sector. the needs in terms of teaching staff will not be addressed. The most pressing issue concerns the training of trainers. anticipating. The number of trainers and teachers able to train to new techniques and who are aware of SD issues is clearly insufficient. The lack of visibility and coherence in the provision of CVET. in particular in the agriculture and built environment sector. Stakeholders highlighted the relative flexibility and responsiveness of initial training with the regular overhaul of qualifications through the CPC process. the process has already started. However. in particular in the education sector. the diversity of methodological approaches may mean that findings are not precisely comparable between one sector and another. or one area and another. and delivered by a variety of actors: the national education system. and responding to skills needs Range of Observatories (sectors and regions) seems to function well Support of regions to restructuring / revival plans is key for sectors such as automobile / Set up of Networks specifically focusing on green jobs (see Ile de France region TEE network)
. as they are based on a number of assumptions (conditions to be met such as realisation of Grenelle objectives). agricultural education bodies. One of the key assets of the French system is the active participation of social partners in the anticipation mechanisms of initial training. there is no need to create new qualifications. The bottom-up process.
is significant. A fully-fledged skills development strategy is now being developed. however sustainable development should be integrated in training plans of teaching staff (in particular for overhauled qualifications). As part of the next step of the Mobilisation Plan. The creation of new observatories for green jobs. the MEEDDM has announced the following measures: o o o A.
Recommendations For MS skills forecasting approaches Further research is needed to identify more precisely competences needed for green jobs.5.5.2 Inventory of green skills and green occupations: creation of a unique directory of qualifications for green occupations. quantify the volume of jobs they represent.Companies are making important efforts to train their employees. Janvier 2010
. The provision of continuing training is a pressing issue. Revision of the names of the occupations to make them understandable and marketable. The number of workers to be trained. to reach the green growth targets.
18 Présentation par Pole Emploi d’un outil de cartographie des métiers de la croissance verte. particularly in the solar PV. of a common methodological framework (especially with respect to the work of the observatories. SD could be integrated as one of the core components of all technical and vocational training. and the corresponding needs in terms of skills and training.18 Pôle emploi has produced a mapping of green growth occupation. taking part on a voluntary basis to training schemes especially in the built sector (FEEBAT) . following the results of the work carried out by the committees of the Mobilisation Plan for Green Jobs. Less than 50% of young people find a first job that corresponds to their initial training. Many stakeholders warn against the risk of creating new qualifications entirely based on sustainable development or green skills that would be too narrow or poorly suited to the labour market. Rapport final du comité de filière énergies renouvelables. Creation of a national observatory under the responsibility of the Ministry of environment. Results of the mapping have been taken into account in the report produced by the Sectoral Committees.FEEBAT considered as an exemplary training scheme by government and will be extended Feedback system of the QUALIT’ENR training scheme (on basis of audits of the work carried out by the newly trained staff) considered as innovative and extremely efficient to ensure training programme updated / improved Pôle emploi (National Employment Agency): the recent efforts made by Pôle emploi to identify new occupations related to the green economy. should improve data collection. Improvements could include promoting the emergence. Reaching these objectives will require additional efforts in terms of training of trainers. Priority should be in occupations where tensions are high on the labour market. as announced by the government. rather than creating new qualifications. in order to enhance cross-sectoral analyses and occupational mobility) and creating a synthesising procedure and/or space for exchange and pooling of information between the various levels involved in forecasting studies. and to identify not only job creations but potential job losses. wherever possible. For MS / Regional VETS systems There is a need for initial VET to integrate sustainable development issues in their training standards. water sanitation and built environment sector.
to make them more attractive (also in terms of remuneration): the majority of green and greening occupations correspond to low levels of qualifications. For employers Efforts to improve the image of occupations related to green jobs. professional skills certificate. quality charters such as for training providers in the renewable sector should be further developed in other sectors.g. at the bottom of the salary scale (e.g.
. CAP). joint training such as FEEBat). Cooperation between building trades should be increased to develop transversal competences (e.Quality labels should also be further developed e.g. to avoid the risk of anarchy in the development of continuing training programmes. waste sector). creating recruitment issues (e.g.
1. A new strategy for the Higher Education sector recognizes a need to prioritise funding to growth industries. Train to Gain.
A.22% of GDP. and. civil nuclear power. For example. low carbon manufacturing.1.6.6. the Low Carbon Transition Plan notes that “the growing carbon industry in the UK can flourish only if workers have the right skills to meet the demands that businesses will face” and calls for the development of courses and qualifications that reflect these skills (especially in renewable energy and nuclear power).1
SUMMARY OF KEY FINDINGS IN THE UK
Environmental Challenges. built environment. engineering.6
A.1. technology and maths) in compulsory education.
. through funding for technology demonstration and R&D projects at higher education institutions and research institutes.4
The skills development strategy in response to greening The latest National Skills Strategy (2009) links to the Industrial Strategy and ‘New Industries.equivalent to 14.5% of the total stimulus and 0. New Jobs’ white paper to provide a skilled workforce for future economic growth.000 people employed in markets for low carbon and environmental goods and services in the UK so it is already an important sector. mainly for higher level skills.2
The response strategy The 2008 Climate Change Act set binding targets for emissions. Food.3bn – set out in the Low Carbon Investment Fund . There are almost 900. speed new renewable infrastructure and facilitate a fast transition to a low carbon economy. wave and tidal power. it is unclear how responsive the higher education funding council (HEFCE) will be on this issue.
A. These industries have had over £400 million set aside in the 2009 Budget specifically to aid their growth and development. Acts covering Energy and Planning have been passed in the last two years to reduce carbon emissions. The green portion of the UK stimulus packages was £3. through reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from key polluting sectors and adapting to the impacts of global warming.1 A. renewable chemicals. and flood defence are also encompassed within climate change strategy. transport and food sectors in particular. renewable construction materials.6. transport and environment policies have also recognised low carbon considerations. this is usually through generalised statements rather than specific policy measures. Actions announced cover basic and technical skills (e.6. The Scottish strategy is more substantial than equivalent strategies in Wales and Northern Ireland.1. waste management. ultra low carbon vehicles.
A. While these policies recognise skills gaps and shortages. apprenticeships.A.6. Traditional environmental problems such as industrial pollution control. air/water quality. However. Priorities and Skills Response Strategies Environmental Challenges The UK’s main environmental priority is responding to the challenges of climate change. Government has also introduced measures to promote the take up of skills for green jobs (STEM skills – science. Devolved administrations in the UK have their own skills development mechanisms – although the Sector Skills Council (SSC) system is nationwide.g. The Fund supports skills development. University Technical Colleges).3
Green response to the current economic crisis The Low Carbon Industrial policy (2009) contains detailed proposals on how Government will facilitate the development of low carbon business through targeted industrial policy for the following sectors: offshore wind. The 2009 Low Carbon Transition Plan explained how these will be achieved. This includes developing strategies to reduce GHG emissions from energy.
The UK Commission for Employment & Skills (UKCES) is responsible for coordinating SSCs and responding in particular to central government on “priority industries” .for example: • Shipbuilders. The Skills Funding Agency will be informed by SSCs and RDAs at to what skills are needed and what training is funded.A. • Low carbon vehicles. In the North East of England.6.including low carbon industries.2
New Skills and Greening of Existing Occupations SSCs are responsible for identifying sector skill needs through Sector Skills Agreements and Sector Qualification Strategies.2. and ultra low carbon vehicles.
A. Local authorities will be responsible for learning for 16 to 18 year olds.6. the machinery of government changes from April 2010 will alter the way skills are funded and identified. In shipbuilding. wave and tidal.6. electric cars. New green collar occupations in the UK are forecast to be stimulated through economic and regulatory drivers in: wind. and.
Emerging Skill Requirements Green Structural Change The UK has experienced job losses in manufacturing. low carbon aerospace.3. with areas either losing or gaining jobs from the transition to a low carbon economy.000 new environmental/low carbon jobs being created by 2015.
A. carbon markets. which has in some cases contributed to a general shift in services.6. Unequal geographical effects are also prevalent in the UK. business and financial services. Diversification of existing sectors into low carbon industries will provide a lifeline in many cases which will offset job losses . The system should be (in theory) be more responsive to skills gaps and shortages. utilities and primary sectors. Nissan’s car factory is shedding jobs and a new battery-assembly plant for Nissan’s electric vehicles is creating new employment opportunities which require new skills to be developed amongst the existing workforce. electronics and ICT.2
New Skills A forecast of an additional 400.3
Greening Existing Occupations In a general sense. carbon capture and storage.6.2 A.3.2. civil nuclear power. offer an opportunity for the automotive industry to develop new cleaner products and create jobs (case study). chemicals and industrial biotechnology. The main skill needs are likely to be: STEM disciplines and leadership. Labour market investigations are frequently used to build a picture of skills
. although this is possibly overly optimistic.1
Approaches to Anticipating Skills Needs Green Restructuring At a policy level. ship building and high polluting automotive sectors. Specific occupations in the UK where there are strong environmental/greening dimensions include: low carbon construction and energy efficiency. Working Futures 2007 projections forecast that these losses will continue (although forecasts were made prior to the economic slowdown). Obsolete occupations/job losses have been predicted in the near future in UK coal mining. Structural change policies in the UK have focused on increasing value added activity. Harland and Wolff. have pursued a product diversification strategy that is enabling them to build components for wind turbines (case study). partly as a result of environmental pressures and regulations such as the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. all jobs are greening to some extent.2.6. new challenges for engineers and designers and for the flexibility of craft workers and labourers require a training response. and an enlargement in the case of the financial services sector.3 A. while the skills required to construct new products for the wind industry are similar to those accrued for the construction of ships and offshore platforms for the oil and gas industries. such as battery-powered.
3 Greening Existing Occupations The three ‘greening’ responses show the significance of SSC’s in facilitating the delivery of skills responses across sectors: • Civil nuclear power . creates career path.2 New Skills Across the new and emerging wind.6.4.6. OneNorthEast. for both existing and new sectors. In response to a shortage of training for smart energy meters.000 entrants to the wind and marine energy industries by 2020. wave and tidal sectors.
A. Nissan and the Regional Development Agency.5 A. tackles problem of not enough new entrants to workforce to replace ageing/retired workforce. The RDA is leading the skills response with a: National Training centre (technical skills). future workforce with greener skills.1 Responses to Skill Needs Green Restructuring Harland and Wolff are retraining ship building/oil rig workers for wind turbines through the company’s own training structures and individual training plans. creating demand for smart energy installers (case study) The latest development is that the UKCES is forecast to produce an annual report of skills needs across priority sectors which will mainly comprise those low carbon sectors mentioned above (see case studies covering emerging low carbon sectors).4. These accords commit the UK power sector and skills bodies and education sector to train up to 60. are working in partnership to develop workforce skills for electronic vehicles and battery manufacturing. foundation degrees to provide more high level technical skills. skills passport developed. labour force survey and surveys/consultations with employers/sector.5. A. New employees will undergo a 23 week externally accredited qualification training programme with a mixture of on and off-the-job training. including: Working Futures Projections. graduate placement programme (graduates) and R&D facilities (test track) for higher level skills and knowledge.6.needs and gaps.led by SSC/employer-led through National Skills Academy. National Employer survey. changes in legislation will see smart energy meters being rolled out nationwide. development of Diploma for 14-19. an employer-led response from British Gas is seeing five new training centres being developed to train new recruits for this massive undertaking.
Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions With respect to: Main ‘greening’ shifts in economies and labour markets In the UK the government’s environmental strategies do not generally have a significant skills development component although the implications of structural change on skills overall are generally acknowledged.“topping up” of skills for commodity traders. financial sector/carbon trading and environmental/land based industries ) but legislation also plays an important role. • Environmental Land Based – led by SSC.4. For example.6. private provider/employer led (no SSC involvement) and training delivered through the European Climate Exchange.4 A. This process has led to the identification of a broad range of skills needs (see case studies covering civil nuclear power.6.6. • Carbon trading . A. A. industry-led accords have been established with government to develop apprenticeships and career guidance (focusing on STEM) in order to stimulate and increase entry into these sectors.
The Skills Funding Agency. the key responses to green skills and green occupations should be found in the work of the SSCs and the responses to their sector skills agreements. would be responsible for this.
.2 Recommendations For MS skills forecasting approaches It will be important that the UKCES delivers on its role of coordinating SSCs and ensuring that cross-sectoral green skills are covered. For MS / Regional VETS systems The key challenge to development of low carbon sectors is the low level of STEM skills among the workforce – as well as the future workforce.5. we should expect to see skills strategies for sectors and sub-sectors of the workforce which reflect future forecasts of demand for labour and the skills required. A. We should also expect to see assessment of skills gaps and shortages over the next 10 years and the qualifications and skill sets that are priorities for public funding. which comes into being in April 2010. As a consequence.Skills implications and development The Government’s Skills Strategy does respond in general terms to the Government’s Low Carbon Industrial Strategy in relation to both lower level skills and investment in increasing opportunities for advanced technical and higher vocational levels in key sectors of the economy. There is a need to improve the links between skills forecasting and funding of further education. Improving the take-up and achievement in STEM subjects and skills is needed across all education and training levels.6. Within the UK’s system for developing skills responses. A better skills response is required in Wales and Scotland to ensure a full national response to greening the economy.