Schizotypal Personality Disorder Symptoms The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , a professional manual, specifies nine

diagnostic criteria for schizotypal personality disorder:
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Incorrect interpretations of events. Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder often have difficulty seeing the correct cause and effect of situations and how they affect others. For instance, the schizotypal may misread a simple non-verbal communication cue, such as a frown, as someone being displeased with them, when in reality it may have nothing to do with them. Their perceptions are often distortions of what is really happening externally, but they tend to believe their perceptions more than what others might say or do. Odd beliefs or magical thinking. These individuals may be superstitious or preoccupied with the paranormal. They often engage in these behaviors as a desperate means to find some emotional connection with the world they live in. This behavior is seen as a coping mechanism to add meaning in a world devoid of much meaning because of the social isolation these individuals experience. Unusual perceptual experiences. These might include having illusions, or attributing a particular event to some mysterious force or person who is not present. Affected people may also feel they have special powers to influence events or predict an event before it happens. Odd thinking and speech. People with schizotypal personality disorder may have speech patterns that appear strange in their structure and phrasing. Their ideas are often loosely associated, prone to tangents, or vague in description. Some may verbalize responses by being overly concrete or abstract and insert words that serve to confuse rather than clarify a particular situation, yet make sense to them. They are typically unable to have ongoing conversation and tend to talk only about matters that need immediate attention. Suspicious or paranoid thoughts. Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder are often suspicious of others and display paranoid tendencies. Emotionally inexpressive. Their general social demeanor is to appear aloof and isolated, behaving in a way that communicates they derive little joy from life. Most have an intense fear of being humiliated or rejected, yet repress most of these feelings for protective reasons.

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Nursing Interventions: y y y y y y y y y y Maintain safety against self-destructive behaviors Allow the client to make choices and be as independent as possible Encourage the client to discuss feelings rather than act them out Provide consistency in response to the client's acting-out behaviors Discuss expectations and responsibilities with the client Discuss the consequences that will follow certain behaviors Inform the client that harm to self. In fact. Their personal appearance may look unkempt clothing choices that do not "fit together. Schizotypals are noticeably anxious in social situations.y Eccentric behavior. but prefer to avoid as much interaction as possible because their self-perception is that they do not "fit in. As they withdraw from relationships. it may progress into distorted perceptions of paranoia involving the people with whom they are in social contact. y y Treatments The patient with schizotypal personality disorder finds it difficult to engage and remain in treatment. the goal will be to help them function more effectively in relationships rather than restructuring their personality. their social anxiety does not seem to lessen. They can interact with people when necessary. it is usually restricted to immediate family members. and property is unacceptable Identify splitting behavior Assist the client to deal directly with anger Develop a written contract with the client . especially with those they are not familiar with." Even when exposed to the same group of people over time. People with schizotypal personality disorder are often viewed as odd or eccentric due to their unusual mannerisms or unconventional clothing choices. or clothes may be noticeably unclean. Lack of close friends. they prefer privacy and isolation. others. If they do have any ongoing social contact. they increasingly turn inward to avoid possible social rejection or ridicule. Socially anxious." clothes may be too small or large. Because they lack the skills and confidence to develop meaningful interpersonal relationships. For those higher-functioning individuals who seek treatment.

the use of videotape feedback to help the affected person perceive his or her behavior and appearance objectively. The hope is that some degree of attachment in a therapeutic relationship could be generalized to other relationships. Gradually the therapist would hope to engage the patient after becoming "safe" through lack of coercion. This would relax some of the social anxiety felt in most interpersonal relationships and allow for some exploration of the thought processes. The goal would be to develop trust in order to help the patient gain insight into the . and praise non-manipulative behavior y y y Set and maintain limits to decrease manipulative behavior Remove the client from group situations in which attention-seeking behaviors occur Provide realistic praise for positive behaviors in social situations Psychodynamically oriented therapies A psychodynamic approach would typically seek to build a therapeutically trusting relationship that attempts to counter the mistrust most people with this disorder intrinsically hold. Constructive ways of accomplishing this might include communication skills training. among others. Interpersonal therapy Treatment using an interpersonal approach would allow the individual with schizotypal personality disorder to remain relationally distant while he or she "warms up" to the therapist. More highly functioning schizotypals who have some capacity for empathy and emotional warmth tend to have better outcomes in psychodynamic approaches to treatment.y y Encourage the client to keep a journal recording daily feelings Encourage the client to participate in-group activities. and practical suggestions about personal hygiene. Cognitive-behavioral therapy Cognitive approaches will most likely focus on attempting to identify and alter the content of the schizotypal's thoughts. An important foundation for this work would be the establishment of a trusting therapeutic relationship. employment. Offering interpretations about the patient's behavior will not typically be helpful. Distortions that occur in both perception and thought processes would be addressed.

New self-talk can be introduced to help orient the individual to reality-based experience. If they do marry they often have problems centered on insensitivity to their partner's feelings or behavior. . and depression. among others. is a tricyclic antidepressant with antipsychotic properties. Family and marital therapy It is unlikely that a person with schizoid personality disorder will seek family or marital therapy. Most group members would be uncomfortable with these behavioral displays and it would likely prove destructive to the group dynamic. Marital therapy ( couples therapy ) may focus on helping the couple to become more involved in each other's lives or improve communication patterns. Group therapy Group therapy may provide the patient with a socializing experience that exposes them to feedback from others in a safe. Medical Interventions Medications There is considerable research on the use of medications for the treatment of schizotypal personality disorder due to its close symptomatic relationship with schizophrenia. Other antidepressants such asfluoxetine (Prozac) have also been used successfully to reduce symptoms of anxiety. and has been effective in improving schizophrenic-like and depressive symptoms in schizotypal patients. It is typically recommended only for schizotypals who do not display severe eccentric or paranoid behavior. Among the most helpful medications are the antipsychotics that have been shown to control symptoms such as illusions and phobic anxiety. paranoid thinking. Many schizoid types do not marry and end up living with and being dependent upon firstdegree family members. controlled environment. The therapist can mirror this objectivity to the patient.distorted and magical thinking that dominates. Amoxapine (trade name Asendin).

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