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NOTA KURSUS

CCNA Exploration Module 2
Routing Protocols & Concepts

Siri    /2010 
 

Nama Peserta : Tarikh Masa : : 8:30 pagi - 5:00 petang INTAN NetAcad, Makmal Siber 4, Aras 3 IMATEC, INTAN Bukit Kiara, Kuala Lumpur

Tempat :

Anjuran: Program Pembangunan Kepakaran ICT Pusat ICT Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara (INTAN) Jabatan Perkhidmatan Awam Malaysia http://www.intanbk.intan.my

Introduction to Routing and Packet Forwarding g

Chapter 1: Routing Protocols and Concepts
Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin

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Objectives
ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Identify a router as a co pu e with a OS a d de y ou e computer an and hardware designed for the routing process. Demonstrate the ability to configure devices and apply addresses. Describe the structure of a routing table table. Describe how a router determines a path and switches packets

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Router as a Computer
ƒ Describe the bas c pu pose o a router esc be e basic purpose of ou e
-Computers that specialize in sending packets over the data network. They are responsible for interconnecting networks by selecting the best path for a packet to travel and forwarding packets to their destination

ƒ Routers have many of the same hardware and software components that are found in other computers p p including:
–CPU –RAM –ROM –Operating System
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Router as a Computer
ƒ Router components and their functions” p
ƒCPU - Executes operating system instructions
ƒ such as system initialization, routing functions, and switching functions.

ƒRandom access memory (RAM) -RAM stores the instructions and data needed to be executed by the CPU. RAM is used to store these components:
–Operating System: The Cisco IOS (Internetwork Operating System) is copied g p into RAM during bootup. –Running Configuration File: This is the configuration file that stores the configuration commands that the router IOS is currently using. –IP Routing Table: This file stores information about directly connected and g y remote networks. It is used to determine the best path to forward the packet. –ARP Cache: This cache contains the IPv4 address to MAC address mappings, similar to the ARP cache on a PC. The ARP cache is used on routers that h h have LAN i interfaces such as E h f h Ethernet i interfaces. f –Packet Buffer: Packets are temporarily stored in a buffer when received on an interface or before they exit an interface. RAM is volatile memory and loses its content when the router is powered down or restarted.
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Router as a Computer
ƒ Router co po e s a d their functions” ou e components and e u c o s
ƒRead-only memory (ROM) - Holds diagnostic software used when router is powered up. Stores the router’s bootstrap p g program.
–ROM is a form of permanent storage. Cisco devices use ROM to store: –The bootstrap instructions –Basic diagnostic software –Scaled-down version of IOS ROM uses firmware, which is software that is embedded inside the integrated circuit. – Firmware includes the software that does not normally need to be modified or upgraded, such as the bootup instructions. – ROM does not lose its contents when the router loses power or is restarted.
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ƒ Router components and their functions”

Router R t as a C Computer t
ƒNon-volatile RAM (NVRAM) - Stores startup configuration. This may include IP addresses (Routing protocol Hostname of router) protocol,
ƒNVRAM (Nonvolatile RAM) does not lose its information when power is turned off. This is in contrast to the most common forms of RAM, such as DRAM, that requires continual power to maintain its information. ƒNVRAM is used by the Cisco IOS as permanent storage for the startup configuration file file. ƒAll configuration changes are stored in the running-config file in RAM, and with few exceptions, are implemented immediately by the IOS. ƒTo save those changes in case the router is restarted or loses power, the running-config must be copied to NVRAM, where it is stored as the startup-config file. NVRAM retains its NVRAM file contents even when the router reloads or is powered off.

ƒFlash memory - Contains the operating system (Cisco IOS)

ƒIn most models of Cisco routers, the IOS is permanently stored in flash memory and copied into RAM during the bootup process, where it is then executed by the CPU. ƒFlash consists of SIMMs or PCMCIA cards, which can be upgraded to increase the amount of flash memory memory.
ƒInterfaces - There exist multiple physical interfaces that are used to connect network. Examples of interface types: -Ethernet / fast Ethernet interfaces -Serial interfaces -Management interfaces
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Router as a Computer
ƒ Router co po e s ou e components

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Internetwork Operating System
ƒ The operating system software used in Cisco routers is known as Cisco Internetwork Operating System (IOS) (IOS).
– Cisco IOS is a multitasking operating system that is integrated with routing, switching, internetworking, and telecommunications functions.

ƒ Although the Cisco IOS may appear to be the same on many routers, there are many different IOS images.
– An IOS image is a file that contains the entire IOS for that router. Cisco creates many different types of IOS images, depending upon the model of the router and the features within the IOS. – Typically the more features in the IOS, the larger the IOS image, and therefore, the more flash and RAM that is required to store and load the IOS.

ƒ Although some routers provide a graphical user interface (GUI), the command li i t f d line interface (CLI) i a much more common method of is h th d f configuring Cisco routers.
– The CLI is used throughout this curriculum.

ƒ Upon bootup the startup config file in NVRAM is copied into RAM and bootup, startup-config stored as the running-config file.
– IOS executes the configuration commands in the running-config. Any changes entered by the network administrator are stored in the runningconfig and are immediately implemented by the IOS IOS.

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Inc.Managing Cisco IOS Software (cont) © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 Router as a Computer ƒ Major p ases to the ajo phases o e router boot-up process ƒTest router hardware Power-On Self Test (POST) Execute bootstrap loader p ƒLocate & load Cisco IOS software -Locate IOS Locate -Load IOS ƒLocate & load startup configuration file or enter setup mode p program looks -Bootstrap p g for configuration file © 2010 Cisco Systems.Overview . Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

© 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Step 3 and 4: Locate & load Cisco IOS software -Locate IOS and Load IOS Locate –The IOS is typically stored in flash memory. you will begin to see output on the screen. All rights reserved. but can also be stored in other places such as a TFTP server. –Note: At this point. and NVRAM •Execute bootstrap loader –The main task of the bootstrap program is to locate the Cisco IOS and load it into RAM. a g . if you have a console connection to the router. –If a full IOS image can not be located. RAM. All rights reserved. scaled-down version of the IOS is copied from ROM into RAM. This version of IOS is used to help diagnose any problems and can be used to load a complete version of the IOS into RAM. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 ƒ Major phases to the router boot-up process Router R t as a C Computer t Step 1 and 2: Test router hardware •Power-On Self Test (POST) P O S lf T t –During this self-test. Inc.Stages of the router power-on boot sequence © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 . –Note: A TFTP server is usually used as a backup server for IOS but it can also be used as a central point for storing and loading the IOS. the router executes diagnostics from ROM on several hardware components including the CPU.

•Setup mode is a series of questions prompting the user for basic configuration information.255. one line at a time. © 2010 Cisco Systems.255. it is copied into RAM as the running-config. always answer o answer yes and enter setup mode.Router R t as a C Computer t Step 5 and 6: Locate & load startup configuration file or enter setup mode -After the IOS is loaded. passwords. running config. Inc. •The default running-config is a basic configuration file that includes the router interfaces. prompts the user to enter setup mode. –When booting a router that does not contain a startup configuration file. the bootstrap program searches for the startup configuration file. or other specific configuration information. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Router as a Computer 14 . When prompted to e te enter setup mode. Inc. and it is not configurations commonly used by network administrators. All rights reserved. –When setup mode is not used. •The default running-config does not contain any Th d f lt i fi d t t i interface addresses.255/network confg %Error tftp://255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 ƒ Locate & load startup configuration file or enter setup mode –Enter Setup Mode (Optional). If you ode. Setup mode is not intended to be used to enter complex router configurations.255/network-confg (Timed out) •%Error opening tftp://255. the IOS creates a default running-config. known as startup-config. you will see the following question after the IOS has been loaded: •Would you like to enter the initial configuration dialog? [yes/no]: no –Setup mode will not be used in this course to configure the router.255/cisconet. and certain default information.255. You will eventually see message like the following one: •%Error opening tftp://255. • If the router detects that it has an active link to another configured router.255.255.cfg (Timed out) © 2010 Cisco Systems. is located in NVRAM. you can press Ctrl-C at any time to terminate the setup process. management interfaces. the router may search for a TFTP server. •The IOS loads the commands in the file. routing information. If the startup configuration file can not be located the router located.255. in NVRAM. time –If the startup configuration file does not exist in NVRAM. All rights reserved. This parameters including: interface •interface addresses •routing information •passwords •any other configurations y g –If the startup-config. it sends a broadcast searching for a configuration file across the active link. a ays a s e no.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 15 Router as a Computer show version ƒ Verify the router boot-up process: ƒPlatform model number ƒCPU ƒAmount of RAM ƒSome series of routers. In this example. d for buffering k t ƒTo determine the total amount of DRAM on the router.120 KB is dedicated for packet memory.416 KB (kilobytes) of free DRAM used for temporarily storing the Cisco IOS and other system processes. V i 12. like the 2600. Inc.Router as a Computer show version ƒ Verify the router boot-up process: -The show version command is used to view information about the router during the bootup process. use a fraction of DRAM as packet memory. Packet memory is used f b ff i packets.2(28). All rights reserved. Information includes: ƒImage name & IOS version IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M). or 64 megabytes (MB) of total DRAM. All rights reserved. The y p other 5.536K. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 . O S Version 12.122 28. add both numbers. ƒBootstrap version stored in ROM ƒROM: System Bootstrap.1(3r)T2. the Cisco 2621 router has 60. Inc. RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1) ƒImage file name & where it was loaded from ƒSystem image file is flash:c2600 i mz. (C2600 I M) Version 12 2(28) RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc5). © 2010 Cisco Systems. The sum of these numbers is 65.bin "flash:c2600-i-mz 122-28 bin" © 2010 Cisco Systems.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 Router as a Computer show version ƒ Configuration register ƒ Configuration register is 0x2102 –The last line of the show version command displays the current configured value of th software fi d l f the ft configuration register in hexadecimal. Inc. This value indicates that the th router will attempt t l d a t ill tt t to load Cisco IOS software image from flash memory and load the startup configuration file from NVRAM. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –The configuration register has g g several uses. All rights reserved. ƒNVRAM is used to store the startup-config file startup config file. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –Note: The configuration register is discussed in more detail in a later course. Flash is used to permanently store the Cisco IOS. The factory default setting for the configuration register is 0x2102. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 18 .Router as a Computer show version ƒ Verify the router boot-up process: ƒNumber & type of interfaces 2 FastEthernet/IEEE 802. If there is a second value displayed in parentheses. ƒAmount of flash ƒ16384K bytes of processor board System flash (Read/Write) ƒThis is the amount of flash memory on the router. it denotes the configuration register value that will be used during the next reload. All rights reserved.3 interface(s) 2 Low-speed serial(sync/async) network interface(s) ƒAmount of NVRAM ƒ32K bytes of non-volatile configuration memory. i l di password l including d recovery. Inc.

Use a hexadecimal number as the argument for this command. set the configuration register to NVRAM any value from 0xnnn2 to 0xnnnF. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 Configuration register (cont.15 = Boot system from Flash © 2010 Cisco Systems. Using boot system commands in NVRAM is the default. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 . ROM set the configuration register to 0xnnn1.) (cont ) ƒ To enter the ROM monitor mode.Configuration register C fi ti i t ƒ The order in which the router looks for system bootstrap depends on the boot field setting in the g g configuration register. Check Configuration Register value (NVRAM) 0 = ROM Monitor mode 1 = ROM IOS 2 . This value sets the boot field bits to 0001 binary. The default configuration register setting can be changed with the global configuration mode command config-register. ƒ To configure the system to boot automatically from ROM. The lowest four bits of the configuration register form the boot field. All rights reserved. di it This value sets the boot field bits to 0000 binary. Inc. changing only the value of the last hexadecimal digit. set the configuration register value to 0xnnn0. where nnn represents the previous value of the non-boot field digits. Then use the config-register command. Inc. ƒ To configure the system to use the boot system commands in NVRAM. To ensure that the upper 12 bits are not changed. All rights reserved. boot the operating system manually by using the b command at the ROM monitor prompt. These values set the boot field bits to a value between 0010 and 1111 binary. From ROM monitor. first retrieve the current values of the configuration register using the show version command. ƒ The configuration register is a 16-bit register in NVRAM. © 2010 Cisco Systems.

1.com/cisco/downloads. All rights reserved.How a Cisco device locates and loads IOS The config-register can be Downloaded from: http://www. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 . All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 Configuration register: 0.htm lilligren com/cisco/do nloads htm ƒ Demo http:// config-register © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.lilligren. and 2 and above © 2010 Cisco Systems.

Inc.Configuration register: 2102 and 2142 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 Configuration register 1 Router(config)#config-register value 2 3 © 2010 Cisco Systems.

can be interrupted by using the boot system command and/or config register. Flash (sequential) b. POST 2. Check Configuration Register value (NVRAM) 0 = ROM Monitor mode 1 = ROM IOS 2 . Check for IOS boot system commands in startup-config file (NVRAM) If boot system commands in startup-config a. copy to running-config b. Locate and load startup-config a. (Tony) The router has its own default fallback sequence This default sequence sequence. Run boot system commands in order they appear in startup-config to locate the IOS b If boot system commands fail. ROM) 3. 2 3 4 2. q The router looks to the boot system commands saved in NVRAM. ƒ The settings in the configuration register g g g enable the following alternatives: Global configuration mode boot system commands can be specified to enter fallback sources. Inc. the router then attempts to use TFTP to load an IOS image from the network.15 = Boot system from flash 1.The router uses the configuration register value to form a filename from which to boot a default system image stored on a network server. prompt for setup-mode c.If no IOS located. If startup-config not found. use default fallback sequence to locate the IOS (Flash. If startup-config found. setup-mode bypassed c If setup mode bypassed. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 . All rights reserved. Bootstrap code executed 3. c. ROM 1. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. (Tony) No b t system commands (T ) N boot t d (Tony) IOS specified in the boot system does not exist If flash memory is empty. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 How a Cisco device locates and loads IOS ƒ The router can use its own fallback sequence to load the software. create a “skeleton” default running config (no startup config) skeleton running-config startup-config) © 2010 Cisco Systems. TFTP. Locate and load IOS.Stages of the router power-on boot sequence 1. If NVRAM lacks boot system commands the system by default uses the Cisco IOS software in flash memory. get partial IOS version from ROM 4. Default fallback sequence: No IOS boot system commands in startup-config a. TFTP server (netboot) . Inc. ROM (partial IOS) or keep retrying TFTP depending upon router model .

However. However the system image in ROM is a subset of the Cisco IOS that lacks the protocols. features of the full Cisco IOS. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Flash memory – A system image from flash memory can be loaded loaded. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 Using th b t U i the boot system command t d ƒ The three examples show boot system entries which specify that a Cisco IOS software image will l d ft i ill load First from flash memory. All rights reserved. and Network server – In case flash memory becomes corrupted. booting from ROM is the final bootstrap option in software. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 . Also. the router may have an older version stored in running-config startup-config saves the commands in NVRAM. Then from a network server. Inc. •The command copyROM. if the software has been updated. All rights reserved.How a Cisco device locates and loads IOS © 2010 Cisco Systems. Finally from ROM: ROM – If flash memory is corrupted and the network server fails to load the image. a system image can b l d d f i be loaded from a TFTP server.

–The console port must be used during initial The configuration of the router. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 . These connectors d to th t Th t are known as management ports. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –At times the auxiliary port can be used in ways similar to a console port.How a Cisco device locates and loads IOS • What happen when both config-register and boot system both exist in the startup-config? • Which one has the priority? p y © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 29 Management Ports ƒ Routers have physical connectors that are used t manage the router. ƒ Another management port is the auxiliary port. –The console port is used to connect a terminal The terminal. to configure the router without the need for network access to that router. It can also be used to attach a modem. f di ƒ The most common management port is the console port. –Not all routers have auxiliary p y ports. Inc. –Unlike Ethernet and serial interfaces. All rights reserved. Inc. –Auxiliary ports will not be used in this Auxiliary curriculum. management ports are not used for packet forwarding. All rights reserved. or most often a PC running terminal emulator software.

the interfaces connect to various types of networks. ƒWhen two routers are connected directly through the Ethernet interfaces. Inc. straight through switch a straight-through cable is used. which means that different yp types of media and connectors are required. ƒCan be assigned a Layer 3 IP address ƒUsually consist of an RJ-45 jack ƒWhen a router is connected to a switch. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 32 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. Types of router interfaces: -Ethernet Ethernet -Fastethernet -Serial -DSL -ISDN -Cable Cable 31 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. interfaces or when a PC NIC is connected directly to a router Ethernet interface.Routers determine the best path ƒ Router Interface is a physical connector that enables a router to send or receive packets –Each interface connects to a separate network •different IP network ƒ Typically. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Two major groups of Router Interfaces: LAN & WAN ƒ LAN Interfaces: such as Ethernet and FastEthernet ƒAre used to connect router to LAN network ƒHas a layer 2 MAC address ƒa router Ethernet interface participates in the ARP process for that LAN. Inc. a crossover cable is used.

Inc..such as serial. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. –Both of these serial point-to-point Both point to point protocols use a broadcast address for the Layer 2 destination address when encapsulating the IP packet into a data link frame. and Frame Relay F R l ƒAre used to connect routers to external networks that interconnect LANs. and HDLC (High. i t f –Each interface has a Layer 3 IP address and subnet mask that configures it for a different network. –The Ethernet interfaces also have Layer 2 Ethernet MAC addresses. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 . Inc. ( g Level Data Link Control). y.Two major groups of Router Interfaces: LAN & WAN f f ƒ WAN Interfaces. usually over a larger geographical distance. which identifies it as a member of a specific network. ƒPPP. ƒDepending on the WAN technology. ISDN. ƒThe Layer 2 encapsulation can be of different types. Frame Relay. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 Two major groups of Router Interfaces: LAN & WAN f f ƒ The router in the figure has four interfaces. each WAN interfaces interface has its own IP address and subnet mask. layer 2 address may be used. –Serial 0/0/0 is using HDLC S C –Serial 0/0/1 is using PPP. ƒ The WAN interfaces are using different Layer 2 encapsulations. a p g gy. ƒUses a layer 3 IP address ƒSimilar to LAN interfaces.

All rights reserved. Inc. ƒ Routers are the network center -Routers generally have 2 connections: -WAN connection (Connection to ISP) -LAN connection © 2010 Cisco Systems. or it may be a network connected to another router that is used to reach the destination network. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 Routers determine the best path ƒ Routers e a ou e s examine a pac e s des a o IP add ess a d e packet’s destination address and determine the best path by enlisting the aid of a routing table © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒThe interface that the ro ter uses to for ard the packet ma be The router ses forward may the network of the final destination of the packet (the network with the destination IP address of this packet). Inc. ƒWhen a router receives an IP packet on one interface it interface. determines which interface to use to forward the packet onto its destination. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 36 . p ƒThis means that it has multiple interfaces that each belong to a different IP network. All rights reserved.Routers determine the best path ƒ A router connects multiple networks.

Inc. the router will encapsulate it in a different type of data link © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. –When the router receives a packet. the router encapsulates the IP packet into the data link frame of the outgoing or exit interface. 2 & 3 ou e s Operate at aye s . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 37 Routers determine the best path ƒ Routers Ope a e a Layers 1. –The routing table also includes the interface to be used to forward the packet. such as an Ethernet frame and when forwarding the packet. –A router makes its primary forwarding decision at Layer 3. All rights reserved.Routers determine the best path ƒ The primary responsibility of a router is to direct packets destined for local and remote networks by: –Determining the best path to send packets –Forwarding packets toward their destination ƒ The router uses its routing table to determine the best path to forward the packet. All rights reserved. ƒRouter receives a stream of encoded bits ƒBits are decoded and passed to layer 2 ƒRouter de-encapsulates the frame ƒRemaining packet passed up to layer 3 -Routing decision made at this layer by examining destination IP address ƒPacket is then re-encapsulated & sent out outbound interface © 2010 Cisco Systems. Once a match is found. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 . but as we saw earlier. it examines its destination IP address and searches for the best match with a network address in the router's routing table. ƒ It is very likely that a router will receive a packet that is encapsulated in one type of data link frame. and the packet is then forwarded toward its destination. it participates in Layer 1 and Layer 2 processes as well.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 40 . to Layer 3 where R2 makes its routing decision. to PC2. Inc. ƒ R1 receives the stream of encoded bits on its interface. R2 decapsulates the frame and passes the data portion of the frame. encapsulating the data and sending the frame out as a stream of encoded bits to R1 its default gateway R1. Inc. R1 then re-encapsulates the packet into a new Layer 2 data link frame and forwards it out the outbound interface as a stream of encoded bits. R2 then re-encapsulates the packet into a new Layer 2 data link frame and forwards it out the outbound interface as a stream of encoded bits. including a broadcast or multicast address. ƒ R2 receives the stream of bits. and the process repeats itself.Routers determine the best path ƒ PC1 operates at all seven layers. gateway. the IP packet is passed up to Layer 3. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 39 Configure Devices and Apply Addresses ƒ Implementing Basic Addressing Sc e es pe e g as c dd ess g Schemes ƒ When designing a new network or mapping an existing network you must provide the following information in the form of a document: -Topology drawing that Illustrates p y p gy g physical connectivity y –Address table that provides the following information: ƒDevice name ƒInterfaces used ƒIP addresses ƒDefault gateway © 2010 Cisco Systems. which forwards the IP packet. The router examines the destination address of the data link frame to determine if it matches the receiving interface. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. where R1 makes its routing decision. The bits are decoded and passed up to Layer 2. encapsulated inside a data link frame and encoded as bits. where R1 decapsulates the frame. the IP packet. If there is a match with the data portion of the frame. ƒ This process is repeated once again by router R3.

All rights reserved. ƒ After entering in the basic configuration the following tasks should be completed -Verify basic configuration and router operations.At a minimum banner should warn against unauthorized use Banner minimum.Use strong passwords -Interface configurations – •Specify interface type. •If DCE serial interface issue clock rate command. -Passwords . Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 42 .Host name should be unique -Banner . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 41 Configure Devices and Apply Addresses ƒ Basic Router Configuration ƒ A basic router configuration should contain the following: -Router name .Configure Devices and Apply Addresses © 2010 Cisco Systems. •Issue no shutdown command. •Describe purpose of interface. •IP address and subnet mask. -Save the changes on a router © 2010 Cisco Systems.

****************************************** WARNING!! Unauthorized Access Prohibited!! ****************************************** # Configuring an appropriate banner is part of a good security plan. Never configure a banner that "welcomes" an unauthorized user. R1(config)#banner motd # Enter TEXT message. © 2010 Cisco Systems. End with the character '#'. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Configure Devices and Apply Addresses brief review from CCNA1 Configuring a Banner From the global configuration mode. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 44 . A delimiting character. At a very minimum. such as a "#" is used at the beginning and at the end of the message. a banner should warn against unauthorized access. configure the message-of-the-day (motd) banner. All rights reserved.Configure Devices and Apply Addresses brief review from CCNA1 Router> Router>enable Router# Router#config t Router(config)#enable secret class Router(config)#enable password cisco Router(config)#hostname R1 R1(config)# R1(config)#line console 0 R1( fi )#li l R1(config-line)#password cisco R1(config-line)#login R1(config-line)#exit R1(config)#line vty 0 4 R1(config-line)#password cisco R1(config-line)#login ( g ) g R1(config-line)#exit 43 © 2010 Cisco Systems. The delimiter allows you to configure a multiline banner. Inc. as shown here.

session would appear this way: Switch>enable % No password set Switch> © 2010 Cisco Systems. bl d d ibl ƒ The following commands are used to set the passwords: Router(config)#enable password password Router(config)#enable secret password ƒ If no enable password or enable secret password is set. Inc. Without an enable password having been set a Telnet set. Inc.Limiting Device Access – Enable and Enable Secret Passwords ƒ To provide additional security. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 46 . Always use the enable secret command. use enable password or enable secret command to establish authentication b f h i i before accessing privileged EXEC i i il d (enable) mode. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 45 Limiting Device Access – Enable and Enable Secret Passwords ƒ Example of enable password and enable secret: © 2010 Cisco Systems. if possible. All rights reserved. the IOS prevents privileged EXEC access from a Telnet session. not the older enable password command. All rights reserved.

However it is often desirable that a unique password be set for one line to provide a fall-back for administrative entry to the device if the other connections are in use. The same password can be set for all connections. This command causes the encryption of passwords to occur when a password is configured. This prevents Telnet access to the device without first requiring authentication. ƒ Once the encryption has been applied. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. A password needs to be set for all available vty lines. the no login command is set. fi i fil This is the service password-encryption command. By default. which removes the requirement for authentication. ƒ The service password-encryption command applies yp yp passwords. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 47 Encrypting Password Display ƒ Another useful command prevents passwords from showing up as plain text when viewing the configuration files. weak encryption to all unencrypted p This encryption does not apply to passwords as they are sent over media only in the configuration. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 48 . removing the yp pp . unauthorized persons could connect to the line using Telnet. by mistake. All rights reserved. This would be a major security risk. If. many Cisco devices support 5 VTY lines that are numbered 0 t 4 b d to 4. g encryption service does not reverse the encryption. All rights reserved.Limiting Device Access – VTY Password ƒ The vty lines allow access to a router via Telnet. © 2010 Cisco Systems. the IOS includes the login command on the VTY lines. Inc. However. p p p The purpose of this command is to keep unauthorized individuals from viewing passwords in the configuration file. ƒ The following commands are used to set a p g password: Router(config)#line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#password password Router(config-line)#login ƒ By default.

Inc.boson. All rights reserved.) WARNING ƒ service password-encryption uses a Cisco Level 7 encryption which is very easy to decrypt. Inc.com ƒ However.Configuring router passwords (cont ) (cont. the enable secret <password> uses a stronger encryption method and cannot be easily hacked.) g g ( ) Doesn’t work for enable secret! © 2010 Cisco Systems. and ! © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ For the GetPass! software www. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 50 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 49 Configuring router passwords (cont. All rights reserved.

1.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 52 .1 255.0 R1(config-if)#description Ciruit#VBN32696-123 (help desk:1-800-555-1234) R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 Note: When cabling a point-to-point serial link in our lab environment. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 51 Configure Devices and Apply Addresses ƒ th FastEthernet interface needs to be configured the F tEth ti t f d t b fi d R1(config)#interface FastEthernet0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 192 168 1 1 255 255 255 0 R1( fi if)#i dd 192.168.2. All rights reserved. Inc.255.255. one end of point to point the cable is marked DTE and the other end is marked DCE.1 255. Inc.0 R1(config-if)#description R1 LAN R1(config-if)#no R1(config if)#no shutdown © 2010 Cisco Systems.255. All rights reserved. This step is only necessary in a lab environment © 2010 Cisco Systems.255.Configure Devices and Apply Addresses R1(config)#interface Serial0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 192. The router that has the DCE end of the cable connected to its serial interface will need the additional clock rate command configured on that serial interface.

All rights reserved.1.Displays all interface configurations ƒShow IP int brief .2 YES manual administratively down down © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.1. ƒ R1#show ip interface brief <output omitted> FastEthernet0/1 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 53 Configure Devices and Apply Addresses ƒ Verify Basic Router Co gu a o e y as c ou e Configuration -Issue the show running-config command •displays the current running configuration that is stored in RAM. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 54 .0 192. you will get the following message: R1(config)#interface FastEthernet0/1 R1(config-if)#ip address 192. Inc.255. what if you attempt to configure the FastEthernet 0/1 interface on R1 with an IP address on the 192.168.0/24 network.0/24 t 192 168 1 0/24 network? FastEthernet 0/0 has already been k? F tEth t h l d b assigned an address on that same network.0 overlaps with FastEthernet0/0 –If there is an attempt to enable the interface with the no shutdown command. FastEthernet 0/1.Configure Devices and Apply Addresses ƒ Each interface must belong to a different network. is still down. –For example.Displays routing table p y g ƒShow interfaces .168.1.168.1. Inc. the router will not activate the second interface.168. -Issuing the copy running-config startup-config command •Save the basic router configuration -Additional commands that will enable you to further verify router configuration are: ƒShow startup-config .168.2 255 255 255 0 192 168 1 2 255.168.0 overlaps with FastEthernet0/0 FastEthernet0/1: incorrect IP address assignment ƒ The output from the show ip interface brief command shows that the second interface configured for the 192. the following message will appear: R1(config-if)#no shutdown 192.1. –Although the IOS allows you to configure an IP address Alth h th ll t fi dd from the same network on two different interfaces.255.Displays abbreviated interface configuration information © 2010 Cisco Systems.Displays configuration file NVRAM Show startup config ƒShow IP route .1.

All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 56 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 55 Configure Devices and Apply Addresses © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.Configure Devices and Apply Addresses © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

a router needs to search the routing information stored in its routing table. All rights reserved. ƒ A remote network is a network that is not directly connected to the router router. This association occurs on the router's directly connected networks. are entered into the routing table as a directly connected network.thi i a network th t is not directly R t l t d t k this is t k that i t di tl connected to a particular router ƒnetwork/next hop associations . Dynamic routes are routes to remote networks that were learned automatically by the router. All rights reserved. such as a web server. along with the interface type and number. The network address and subnet mask of the interface.this occurs when a device is connected to another router interface ƒRemotely connected networks . network address & subnet mask. ƒ Routing Table is stored in ram and contains information: ƒDirectly connected networks . © 2010 Cisco Systems.about the networks include source of information. –To do this. When a router interface is configured with an IP address and subnet mask. Static routes are routes to networks that a network administrator manually t l St ti t t t t k th t t k d i i t t ll configured. Inc. When a router forwards a packet to a host.Routing Table S Structure ƒ The primary function of a router is to forward a packet toward its destination network. ƒ A directly connected network is a network that is directly attached to one of the router interfaces. and Ip address of next-hop i f ti t k dd b t k d I dd f th router ƒ Show ip route command is used to view a routing table p g © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 58 . Remote networks are added to the routing table using either a dynamic routing protocol or by configuring static routes. a remote network is a network that can only be reached by sending the packet to another router. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 57 Routing Table Structure ƒ The network/exit-interface association can also represent the destination network address of the IP packet. that host is on the same network as a router's directly connected network. In other words. the interface becomes a host on that attached network. which is the destination IP address of the packet network packet. using a dynamic routing protocol.

168. static route or a dynamic routing protocol. At this point. both entries in the routing table. Inc. you can see the route print command output. the following information is included: g . © 2010 Cisco Systems. The C represents a directly connected route. th d thi i t there h have not b t been any static routes configured t ti t fi d nor any dynamic routing protocol enabled.The information at the end of the route entry represents the y p exit interface and/or the IP address of the next-hop router. In this example. For each network listed in the routing table.168.Thi i th network address and subnet mask of th di tl 192 168 1 0/24 This is the t k dd d b t k f the directly connected or remote network. 192.1. Therefore.168. It is shown here to emphasize the p all IP configured devices should have a routing table.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 60 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. –192.Routing Table Structure ƒ As shown in the figure the routing table is displayed with the show ip route command. Inc. connected. Cs also a e ou g ab e In the figure. All rights reserved.0/24. The command reveals the configured or acquired default gateway. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 59 Routing Table Structure ƒ PCs a so have a routing table. multicast. connected loopback multicast and broadcast networks networks./24 and 192. loopback. g –C . the routing table for R1 only shows the router's directly connected networks.2. The output from route print command will not be analyzed g p point that during this course. directly connected network. both FastEthernet 0/0 and Serial0/0/0 are the exit interfaces used to reach these networks.0/24 . All rights reserved.The information in this column denotes the source of the route information. are directly connected networks. In this example. –FastEthernet 0/0 .

" th t t ƒ Static Routes .To visit a g you y go neighbor. you can "d "dynamically" choose a i ll " h different path based on traffic. Inc." the street. All rights reserved. or other conditions. Thi This path is similar to a directly-connected route because the "destination" is available directly through your "connected i t f " t d interface. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 62 . dynamic routes: ƒ Directly Connected Routes . static. ƒ Dynamic Routes . Inc. y only have to g down the street on which you already li hi h l d live.Routing Table Structure ƒ The following analogies may help clarify the concept of connected static and connected.When driving a car.A train uses the same railroad tracks every time for a specified route. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 61 ƒ Adding a connected network to the routing table -Router interfaces ƒEach router interface is a member of a different network ƒActivated using the no shutdown command ƒIn order for static and dynamic routes to exist in routing In table you must have directly connected networks Routing Table Structure © 2010 Cisco Systems. weather. All rights reserved. This path is similar to a dynamic route because you can choose a new path at many different points on your way to the destination. route This path is similar to a static route because the path to the destination is always the same.

Inc. •Using dynamic routing would be unnecessary because each branch has only one path to a given destination-through the central location location. -Network is connected to internet only through one ISP • There is no need to use a dynamic routing protocol across this link because the ISP represents the only exit point to the Internet. All rights reserved. routing p ƒ Static routes in the routing table -Includes: network address and subnet mask and IP address of next hop router or exit interface -Denoted with the code S in the routing table -Routing tables must contain directly connected networks used to connect remote networks before static or dynamic routing can be used © 2010 Cisco Systems. with each spoke having only one connection to the hub hub. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 63 Routing Table Structure ƒ When to use static routes -When network only consists of a few routers •Using a dynamic routing protocol in such a case does not present any substantial benefit. © 2010 Cisco Systems.Routing Table Structure ƒ Remote networks are added to the routing table either by configuring static routes or enabling a dynamic g protocol. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 64 . -Hub & spoke topology is used on a large network •A hub-and-spoke topology consists of a central location (the hub) and multiple branch locations (spokes). All rights reserved.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 66 . ƒ Maintaining routing tables -Dynamic routing protocols are used to share routing information with other router & to Dynamic maintain and up date their own routing table.are added to the router's p routing table and denoted as a network learned by a specific dynamic routing protocol. (Routing g routing p Information Protocol).and the best path to each network . –These networks . fi ti for this t k © 2010 Cisco Systems. –Dynamic routing protocols not only make a best path determination to various networks. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 65 Routing Table Structure •R1 has learned about two remote networks: •A route that dynamically used RIP •In the figure. R1 has automatically figure learned about the 192. Inc.4.168. a dynamic routing protocol allows the routers to automatically learn about these networks from other routers. •A static route that was configured manually. –Instead of configuring static routes to remote networks on every router. RIP ( . they will also determine a new best path if the initial path becomes unusable (or if the topology changes) © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.Routing Table Structure ƒ Dynamic routing protocols -Are used to add remote networks to a routing table -Are used to discover networks -Are used to update and maintain routing tables ƒ Automatic network discovery –-Network discovery is the ability of a routing protocol to share information about the networks that it knows about with other routers that are also using the same routing protocol. •This is an example of how routing tables can contain routes learned dynamically and configured statically and is not necessarily representative of the best configuration f thi network.0/24 network from R2 through the dynamic g protocol. All rights reserved.

EIGRP. based on the information it has in its routing table table. Both IGRP and EIGRP are Cisco proprietary routing protocols.CCNP –BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) ... Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 67 Routing Table Structure ƒ Routing Table Principles -3 principles regarding routing tables: ƒEvery router makes its decisions alone. non proprietary © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.CCNA & NP –OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) . and OSPF are discussed in this course. ƒDifferent routing table may contain different information g get ƒ A routing table can tell how to g to a destination but not how to get back (Asymmetric Routing) ƒRouting information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing information about the reverse or reverse....Routing Table Structure ƒ IP routing p g protocols. EIGRP and OSPF are also explained i more d t il i CCNP along with IS IS and BGP d l l i d in detail in CCNP. © 2010 Cisco Systems. IGRP is a legacy routing protocol and has been replaced by EIGRP. Example of routing p p g protocols include: –RIP (Routing Information Protocol) . whereas all other routing protocols listed are standard. non-proprietary protocols.. return. All rights reserved.CCNP RIP (versions 1 and 2).CCNA & CCNP –IS-IS (Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System) . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 68 . path.CCNA –IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) . l ith IS-IS d BGP. All rights reserved.ignore it –EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) . Inc.

the Layer 3 source and destination IP t t t th L d d ti ti addresses will not change. zeros used to pad any data packet less than 46 bytes -Frame check sequence © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Router Paths and Packet Switching ƒ MAC Layer Frame Format As A a packet is forwarded f k ti f d d from router to router. however. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 69 ƒ The Layer 2 data link frame usually contains header information with a data link source and destination address. used to synchronize signals Layer 2 -Start of frame delimiter •1 b t signaling the beginning of the frame 1 byte i li th b i i f th f -Destination MAC address •6 byte -Source MAC address •6 byte -Type/length •2 byte -Data and pad Data •46 to 1500 bytes of data. Inc.Router Paths and Packet Switching ƒ Internet Protocol ( ) pac e format co a s fields that e e o oco (IP) packet o a contains e ds a provide information about the packet and the sending and receiving hosts ƒ Fields that are importance for CCNA students: -Version -IP header length -TTL -Precedence & type of service -Packet length -Source IP address S -Destination IP address Layer 3 L © 2010 Cisco Systems. d t –The data link source address is the Layer 2 address of the interface that sent the data link frame. ƒ MAC Frames are also divided into fields. •4 byte Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 70 . trailer information. All rights reserved. They include: y -Preamble •Seven bytes of alternating 1s and 0s. the Layer 2 source and destination data link addresses will change. and the actual transmitted data. Inc.

10101011 ƒ The IEEE 802.Ethernet frame fields (cont. These numbers include all bytes from the Destination MAC Address field through the g Frame Check Sequence field. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 71 • • • Peer to Peer Communication is really communication between the headers at each layer. z A Start Frame Delimiter 10101011. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara © 2010 Cisco Systems.techfest. Layer 4 Transport is connection oriented. f t http://www. Layers 2 and 3 are best effort or connectionless connectionless.3ac standard released in 1998 extended the maximum allowable frame size to 1522-bytes to allow a "VLAN tag" to be inserted i t th Eth i t d into the Ethernet f t frame format. The ‘connection’ is in the header.com/networking/lan/ethernet2. The Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter fields are not included when quoting the size of a frame.) ƒ The original Ethernet standards defined the minimum f i i frame size as 64 b t and th i 64-bytes d the maximum as 1518-bytes. All rights reserved.htm © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 72 .

• For example. –Other routing protocols. determine the shortest path by examining the bandwidth of the links. •Metrics can be based on either a single characteristic or several characteristics of a path. each path uses a different exit interface on the router to reach that network. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 73 ƒ Whenever multiple paths to reach the same network exist. – The best path is selected by a routing protocol based on the value or metric it uses to determine the distance to reach a network network. which the number of routers between a router and the destination network. such as OSPF. use simple hopcount. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. •Some routing p g protocols can base route selection on multiple metrics. a router will prefer a path that is 5 hops away over a path that is 10 hops away. such as RIP. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. •The smaller the value of the metric. the better the path. path –Routing protocols. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Router Paths: Best Path 74 . combining them into a single metric. and using the links with the fastest bandwidth from a router to the destination network.© 2010 Cisco Systems.

Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems.) is the same. and th router will perform equal cost l d b l ti d the t ill f l t load balancing. such as RIP. • If multiple paths are available to a destination. picks the path with the least number of hops. etc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 75 Router Paths: Equal Cost Load Balancing ƒ You may be wondering what happens if a routing table has two or more paths with the same metric to the same destination network. -Bandwidth . All rights reserved. the routing protocol.this is the number of routers a packet must travel through to Hop get to its destination • Hop count of four indicates that a packet must pass through four routers to reach its destination.this is the “speed” of a link also known as the data capacity of a link •OSPF routing protocol uses bandwidth as its metric. this is known as an equal cost metric. bandwidth. All rights reserved. The best path to a network is determined by the path with an accumulation of links that have the highest bandwidth values. i ƒ Equal cost metric is a condition where a router has multiple paths to the same destination that all have the same metric –The router will forward packets using the multiple exit interfaces listed in the routing table.Router Paths and Packet Switching ƒ A Metric is a numerical value used by routing protocols help determine the best path to a destination –The smaller the metric value the better the path ƒ 2 types of metrics used by routing protocols are: -Hop count . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 76 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. or the fastest links. –When a router has multiple paths to a destination network and the value of that metric (hop count.

2 (FastEthernet0/0).13. forward *Mar 1 19:10:31. d=192.2 (Serial0/1).2 (FastEthernet0/0). routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:33. forward *Mar 1 19:10:33.168.15.2 (Serial0/1).654: IP: tableid=0. s=192.15. d=192. len 60.2 (Serial0/0). routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:29. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:35.168. d=192.Router Paths: Equal C Cost Load Balancing ƒ To solve this dilemma.168.2 (Serial0/0).14.14.16.654: IP: s=192.14. forward *Mar 1 19:10:32.2 (Serial0/0).654: IP: s=192.168.1 (local).2 (FastEthernet0/0).com/en/US/products/ps5763/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00802a1fae.14.255.16.255.2 (Serial0/1). RIB: © 2010 Cisco Systems.2 (FastEthernet0/0).255.2 ping 10.16.14. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:30.255. –per-packet load balancing •( Process Switching) –per-destination load balancing.2 (FastEthernet0/0).14.168. Inc.14. g=192. d=192. sending broad/multicast *Mar 1 19:10:36. d=192.255 (Serial0/1).14. s=192.14. •(Fast Switching) Router(config-if)# ip route-cache Router(config-if)#no ip route-cache ping 10. Balancing This means the router sends packets over the multiple exit interfaces listed in the routing table.654: IP: s=192.16. d=192.2 (FastEthernet0/0).0. s=192.654: IP: tableid=0. len 60. len 60.654: IP: tableid=0.16. forward *Mar 1 19:10:35.2 (FastEthernet0/0).2.2. Router(config-if)#no ip route-cache Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara http://www. len 60. s=192.168.0 (FastEthernet0/0).1 ping 10.13.168.2.0. d=255.cisco.16.654: IP: tableid=0. g=192.13.168.168.16.14.2 (FastEthernet0/0).html#wp1045020 78 .16. g=192.14. Inc.13.2 (FastEthernet0/0).168.654: IP: tableid=0.2 (FastEthernet0/0).16.168. s=192.168.168.168.16. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:36.2 (FastEthernet0/0).2 (Serial0/1).168.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 77 Load balancing with RIP per-packet load balancing debug ip packet IP packet debugging i on k td b i is GAD# *Mar 1 19:10:29. forward ( ).2.168. forward *Mar 1 19:10:35.0.974: IP: s=192.168.168. rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:10:32. d=192. All rights reserved.168.654: IP: s=192.168.168.654: IP: tableid=0.2 (Serial0/1). d=192. len 72. len 60.168.2.168.646: IP: tableid=0. d=255.168.168.2 (Serial0/1).654: IP: s=192. d=192.15.16.14. d=192.168. len 60.0.2 (FastEthernet0/0).654: IP: s=192.168. g .16.2. g=192. d=192.168.218: IP: s=0.646: IP: s=192. s=192.0.0.2 (Serial0/0).0.168.168.16. d=192. s=192. g=192.168.2 (Serial0/1).1 © 2010 Cisco Systems. a router will use Equal Cost Load Balancing. d=192. len 60.2. forward *Mar 1 19:10:30.654: IP: s=192.0.14.2 (Serial0/0). routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:31.2 (Serial0/0). g=192.168.14. d=192.15.654: IP: tableid=0.2 (FastEthernet0/0).2 (Serial0/0).13.168.168.0.2 ping 10. ( ). .16.168.2 (Serial0/1). routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:32. d=192. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:34.2 (FastEthernet0/0).0.168. len 604.168. forward *Mar 1 19:10:34.168.14.14. All rights reserved. s=192.255.2 (Serial0/0). g=192.168.2 (FastEthernet0/0).16.2 (FastEthernet0/0). d=192.16. len 60.168. g=192.2.

14.255.0.255. rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:46. Inc.2 (Serial0/0). len 72. g=192.168.255.15. d=255.255. EIGRP ( well as IGRP) are the only routing protocols that can be configured for unequal cost load balancing.255. d=255.255.168. sending broad/multicast *Mar 1 19:14:47.255.14.255. len 72.122: IP: s=0. d=255.026: IP: s=192. forward *Mar 1 19:14:36.168. len 604.168.978: IP: s=0.168. ƒ Unequal cost load balancing in EIGRP is not discussed in this course but is covered in CCNP.0.278: IP: s=192.266: IP: s=0.0.255 (FastEthernet0/0). d=192.16.1 (local).168.255. This is known as q g (as ) y unequal cost load balancing.2 (Serial0/0).168.026: IP: tableid=0.15. a router can send p y g packets over multiple networks even when the metric is not the same if it is using a routing protocol that has this capability. len 60.168. g=192.2 (Serial0/1).2. len 60.962: IP: s=192.255.255. forward *Mar 1 19:14:37. d=192.255. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 80 . rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:44.2 (FastEthernet0/0). rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:51.255. len 604. d=255.006: IP: tableid=0.html#wp1045020 © 2010 Cisco Systems.255.958: IP: s=192.14.16.168. sending broad/multicast *Mar 1 19:14:50.0.255.255.255 Router(config-if)# ip route-cache RIB: http://www.15. © 2010 Cisco Systems. s=192. rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:51.14.006: IP: s=192.13.2. d=192.0.com/en/US/products/ps5763/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00802a1fae. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:14:36.2 (FastEthernet0/0). s=192. All rights reserved. d=255. d=192.0 (FastEthernet0/0).562: IP: s=192.14.2 (FastEthernet0/0). d=255.Load balancing with RIP per-destination load balancing debug ip packet IP packet debugging i on k d b i is GAD# *Mar 1 19:14:36.255 (Serial0/0).255.1 (local).2 (FastEthernet0/0).16.0 (FastEthernet0/0).168.168. len 604.cisco. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:14:36.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 79 Router Paths: Un-Equal Cost Load Balancing ƒ Just in case you are wondering.14.2 (Serial0/1). len 92. d=255.2 (Serial0/1).168. Inc.16.0 (FastEthernet0/0).0.255.2 (Serial0/0).168.

x.x. Use the variance command to instruct the router to include routes with a metric less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. –No route determined •the packet is discarded © 2010 Cisco Systems.shtml © 2010 Cisco Systems. then the packet is forwarded to another router.cisco.ƒ Unequal Cost Load Balancing with EIGRP What is unequal cost load balancing? ƒ EIGRP Load Balancing Every routing protocol supports equal cost E ti t l t l t path load balancing. where n is the number specified by the variance command. Inc. E-C-A and E-B-A will be used for load balancing. All rights reserved. In addition to that. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 82 .com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a008009437d. All rights reserved. Example: E-C-A: 20 * 2 = 40. IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Router Paths and Packet Switching ƒ Packet forwarding involves two functions: g –Path determination function –Switching function ƒ Path determination is a process used by a router to pick the best path to a destination ƒ One of 3 path determinations results from searching for h best path f the b h –Directly connected network •The destination IP address of the packet is a host address on the same network as thi router's dd th t k this t ' interface –Remote network • If the destination IP address of the packet belongs th d ti ti dd f th k tb l to a remote network. Therefore.x variance 2 81 http://www. router eigrp 1 network x.

ƒ What does a router do with a packet received from one network and destined for another network? -A packet received by a router will do the following: ƒStrips off layer 2 headers headers. it will be the Layer 2 address of that device.Router Paths d P k t Switching R t P th and Packet S it hi ƒ Switching Function of Router is the process used by a router to switch a packet from an incoming interface to an outgoing interface on the same router. For example. -TTL field decrement by one until a value of zero is reached at which point router y p discards packet (prevents packets from endlessly traversing the network) •Demo © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. encapsulated in an Ethernet frame. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 84 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 83 Router Paths and Packet Switching ƒ As a packet travels from one networking device to another -The Source and Destination IP addresses NEVER change -The Source & Destination MAC addresses CHANGE as packet is forwarded from one router to the next. If the next hop is the final destination device. Inc. and forwarded out a serial interface encapsulated in a PPP frame. ƒForwards frame out exit interface. The Layer 2 destination address represents the Layer 2 address of the next-hop router. ƒRe-encapsulates layer 3 packet into layer 2 frame. •The Layer 2 data link source address represents the Layer 2 address of the outbound interface. the packet might be received by the router on a FastEthernet interface. ƒExamines destination IP address located in Layer 3 header to find best route to destination. All rights reserved. It •It is very likely that the packet will be encapsulated in a different type of Layer 2 frame than the one in which it was received.

cavebear.3 packet (after the IEEE802 3 preamble) consist of the "Ethernet Type" or "IEEE802. ƒR1 sees that destination MAC address matches its own MAC. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 85 Router Paths and Packet Switching R1 Step 2 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. ). p http://www. Frame contains R1’s destination MAC address Ethertypes The 13th and 14th octets of an Ethernet or IEEE802. ƒAfter finding destination IP in routing table. ƒR1 forwards Ethernet packet out Fa0/1 interface. Some assignments are public ( (see + below). ƒR1 Examines destination IP. ƒR1 consults routing table looking for destination IP. ƒR1 re-encapsulates IP packet with a new Ethernet frame. The "Ethernet Type" values are managed by XEROX. All rights reserved.com/archive/cav ebear/Ethernet/type. ƒf the entry is not in the ARP cache. All rights reserved. ƒR1 then strips off Ethernet frame. C Wants to send something to PC 2 here is part of what happens Step 1 .R1 receives Ethernet frame.3 Length" field. R1 now looks up next hop IP address. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 86 .Router Paths and Packet Switching ƒ Path de e a determination a d s c g function de a s PC1 a o and switching u c o details. R1 sends an ARP request out its FastEthernet 0/1 interface.PC1 encapsulates packet into a frame.html © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. others private. R2 sends back an ARP reply.

PPP. Remember. ƒR3 re-encapsulates IP packet with a new Ethernet frame p ƒR3 forwards Ethernet packet out Fa0/0 interface Step 5 . Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. R2 now looks up next hop IP After address ƒR2 re-encapsulates IP packet with a new data link frame ƒR2 forwards Ethernet packet out S0/0 interface Router Paths and Packet Switching R2 ƒWhen the interface is a point-to-point serial connection. Inc.Packet arrives at R3 ƒR3 receives PPP f frame ƒR3 then strips off PPP frame ƒR3 Examines destination IP ƒR3 consults routing table looking for destination IP ƒAfter finding destination IP in routing table. R3 is directly connected to destination via its fast Ethernet interface ƒIf the entry is not in the ARP cache R3 sends an ARP request out its cache. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 88 . there are no MAC addresses on serial interfaces. Frame is decapsulated & processed by upper layer protocols. In this case.ƒ Path determination and switching function details. © 2010 Cisco Systems. PC1 Wants to send something to PC 2 here is part of what happens Step 3 . etc. All rights reserved.Packet arrives at R2 ƒR2 receives Ethernet frame ƒR2 sees that destination MAC address matches its own MAC ƒR2 then strips off Ethernet frame R2 ƒR2 Examines destination IP ƒR2 consults routing table looking for destination IP ƒAfter finding destination IP in routing table. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 87 Router Paths and Packet Switching ƒ PC1 Wants to send something to PC 2 here is part of what happens Step 4 .IP packet arrives at PC2. therefore. the Layer 2 encapsulation is PPP.). FastEthernet 0/0 interface. PC2 sends back an ARP reply with its MAC address. All rights reserved. R2 encapsulates the IP packet into the proper data link frame format used by the exit interface (HDLC. the data link destination address is set to a broadcast.

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Summary
ƒ Routers are computers that specialize in sending data over a network. ƒ Routers are composed of: -Hardware i.e. CPU, Memory, System bus, Interfaces -Software used to direct the routing process Software ƒIOS ƒConfiguration file ƒ Routers need to be configured. Basic configuration consists of: -Router name -Router banner Router -Password(s) -Interface configurations i.e. IP address and subnet mask ƒ Routing tables contain the following information -Directly connected networks -Remotely connected networks Remotely -Network addresses and subnet masks -IP address of next hop address
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ƒIf destination IP address is in routing table or there is a static route then Router determines next hop IP address. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 99 Static Routing Chapter 2: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒProcess continues until packet reaches destination.only the MAC addresses will change the source and destination IP addresses do not change. ƒIf the MAC address matches then Frame is de-encapsulated so that router can examine the destination IP address. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 . All rights reserved. ƒNote . Inc.Summary ƒ Routers determine a packets path to its destination by doing the following ƒReceiving an encapsulated frame & examining destination MAC address address. Router will re encapsulate re-encapsulate packet with appropriate layer 2 frame and send it out to next destination.

g g – The routers primary forwarding decision is based on Layer 3 information. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . – The router's routing table is used to find the best match between the destination IP of a packet and a network address in the routing table.Objectives ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Define the ge e a role a router p ays in networks. All rights reserved. – The routing table will ultimately determine the exit interface to forward the packet and the router will encapsulate that packet in the appropriated data link frame for that outgoing interface interface. 2 General Role of the Router ƒ Functions o a Router u c o s of ou e Best Path Selections Forwarding packets to destination ƒ Routers perform packet forwarding by learning about remote networks and maintaining routing information. Inc. Inc. e e e general o e ou e plays e o s Describe the directly connected networks. different router interfaces Examine directly connected networks in the routing table and use the CDP protocol Describe static routes with exit interfaces Describe summary and default route Examine how packets get forwarded when using static routes Identify how to manage and troubleshoot static routes Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara © 2010 Cisco Systems. 3 © 2010 Cisco Systems. the destination IP address. All rights reserved.

. Inc. Switch-to-PC. ƒ Connections of a Router for Ethernet -2 types of connectors can be used: Straight through and Cross-over ƒStraight through used to connect: Straight -Switch-to-Router. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 . – 3 1800 series routers connected via WAN links – Each router connected to a LAN represented by a switch and a PC © 2010 Cisco Systems. Router-to-Router. . Hub-to-Hub. All rights reserved. Hub-toPC. PCRouter © 2010 Cisco Systems.General Role of the Router ƒ Introducing the Topology oduc g e opo ogy – The figure shows the topology used in this chapter. PC-to-PC. Switch-to. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 General Role of the Router ƒ Connections of a Router for WAN -A router has a DB-60 port that can support 5 different cabling standards –Newer routers support the smart serial pp interface that allows for more data to be forwarded across fewer cable pins. Inc. Hub. and pin 2 connected to pin 6): -Switch-to-Switch. Hub-to-Server Cross-over ƒCross-over used to connect (pin 1 connected to pin 3.

Inc..com/csdonline/customer/home. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 6 Serial Connectors DTE DCE DCE DTE DCE DTE ƒ In our labs we will use serial DTE/DCE cables (no CSU/DSU) with a DTE cable connected to one router and a DCE cable connected t th other router.csdata. DCE and DTE Adapter ƒ Ethernet cables: ƒ Cross-over cable: RED cable ƒ Roll-over cable: flat cables ƒ Straight cable: all other cables http://www. All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved. bl t d to the th t © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 .General Role of the Router in COD ƒ Smart Se a cab es DCE a d DTE S a Serial cables: C and -Use straight cable to connect between the DTE and DCE.php © 2010 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. the routing table is empty if no interfaces have been configured. b fi d •Static routes and dynamic routes will not be added to the th routing t bl until th ti table til the appropriate local interfaces have been configured on the router router.Interfaces ƒ Examining Router Interfaces a g oute te aces -Show IP router command – used to view routing table -Show Interfaces command – used to show status of an interface -Show IP Interface brief command – used to show a portion of the interface information on a condensed format -Show running-config command – used t show configuration Sh i fi d d to h fi ti file in RAM © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. •Initially. Inc. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 Interfaces ƒ Configuring a Ethernet interface Co gu g an t e et te ace -By default all serial and Ethernet interfaces are down -To enable an interface use the No Shutdown command •The show ip route command is used to display the routing table.

•Line protocol is down means in this case. This condition may also be due to the fact that the interface is in shutdown mode • You will notice that the show interfaces command does not show any IP addresses on R1's interfaces. All rights reserved.command shows the status and gives a detailed p description for all interfaces on the router – Show interfaces fastEthernet 0/0 – command used to show status of fast Ethernet port •R1#show interfaces fastethernet 0/0 R1#show •FastEthernet0/0 is administratively down. -Show ip interface brief – -can be used to see a portion of the interface information in a condensed format. case a switch or the hub. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. that the interface is not receiving a carrier signal from means. line protocol is down • Administratively down means that the interface is currently in the shutdown mode. or turned off. interfaces The reason for this is because we have not yet configured IP addresses on any of the interfaces.Verifying Ethernet interface . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 Interfaces ƒ Verifying Ethernet interface – Show run – • command displays the current configuration file that the router is using. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 . Inc. using show running-config is not necessarily the best way to verify interface configurations. •However. Configuration commands are temporarily stored in the running configuration file and implemented immediately by the router router.Show interfaces .

such as configuring a description for the interface.255. clocking on one side of the link. –The second changed state to up message indicates that the Data Link layer is operational. enter line configuration mode for the consoled port and add the logging synchronous command. changed state to up *Mar 1 01:16:09.16. To enable this interface. If you do not get this first message.255. physically. ƒ In order to keep the unsolicited output separate from your input. p p y a carrier signal from switch or a hub. all router interfaces are shutdown. the connection is good. All rights reserved.1 255. sometimes these messages will occur when you are in the middle of typing a command.214: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line p protocol on Interface FastEthernet0/0. All rights reserved. g p –The first changed state to up message indicates that. Inc. use the no shutdown command. but it can cause you to lose your place when typing. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 . If you do correctly set the clock rate. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 Configuring an Ethernet interface ƒ Unsolicited Messages from IOS g ƒ The IOS often sends unsolicited messages. Inc. –The IOS message does not affect the command. be sure that the interface is properly connected to g . © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems.212: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface FastEthernet0/0. ƒ As you can see in the figure. which changes the interface from administratively down to up. up R1(config)#interface fastethernet 0/0 R1(config-if)#ip address 172. changed state to up . You will see that messages returned by IOS no longer interfere with your typing. then line protocol will not change to up. as shown.0 R1(config-if)#no shutdown The following message is returned from the IOS: *Mar 1 01:16:08.Configuring an Ethernet interface By default. • However WAN interfaces in a lab environment require However.3.

Inc.16.0/24 network.3.0.16. © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ 172. 1 subnets –Having a single route represent an entire network of host IP addresses makes the routing table smaller.0/24 network.16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 15 . –The interface was configured with the 172.Interfaces ƒ Verifying Ethernet interface -Show interfaces fastEthernet 0/0 ƒ Reading the Routing Table –Now look at routing table shown in the figure. network –The /24 subnet mask for this route is displayed in the line above the actual route. Inc. Notice R1 now has a "directly connected" FastEthernet 0/0 interface a new network. R1 has an interface that belongs to this network. FastEthernet0/0 –The C at the beginning of the route indicates that this is a directly connected network. 1 subnets ƒ C 172. All rights reserved. –The routing table could contain all 254 individual host i di id l h t IP addresses f th dd for the 172. All rights reserved. but that is an inefficient way of storing addresses. © 2010 Cisco Systems.16.3. with fewer routes.16.0 is directly connected.0/24 is subnetted. which results in faster routing table lookups.16.0.3.0/24 is subnetted. In other words.3. •It means that this route matches all packets with a destination address belonging to this network.1/24 IP address which makes it a member of the 172. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 Interfaces ƒ Reading the Routing Table ƒ 172.

y network. © 2010 Cisco Systems.16. PC1 would be configured with a IP address belonging to the 172. and the line protocol is up. The no shutdown command changed the interface from administratively down to up.1.Interfaces ƒ Verifying Ethernet interface show interfaces fastethernet 0/0 show ip interface brief ƒ The show interfaces fastethernet 0/0 command in the figure now shows –The interface is up. ƒ The command show ip interface brief in the figure shows that the interface is up. network –This means that these interfaces have a Layer 2 MAC address.3. Inc. the router's Ethernet or FastEthernet interface will be the default gateway IP address for any devices on that LAN LAN.0/24 network. –For example. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 Ethernet Interfaces Participate in ARP ƒ A router's Ethernet interface participates in a LAN network just like any other device on that network.3. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –Notice that the IP address is now displayed. (i a condensed f t l is (in d d format) t) ƒ Typically. The show interfaces command displays the MAC address for the Ethernet i t f dd f th Eth t interfaces.1 is router R1's FastEthernet IP address. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 . it checks the ARP table for an entry with that destination IP address in order to map it to the MAC address. –If a router has a packet destined for a device on a directly connected Ethernet . as shown in the figure. Inc.16. All rights reserved. and the line li protocol i up. –172. with the default gateway IP address g y 172.16.3.

– There is still one more command that we need to enter.0 -R1(config-if)#no shutdown © 2010 Cisco Systems.255. Serial 0/0/0. All rights reserved. p ƒ Serial0/0/0 is up. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 18 Interfaces ƒ R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 ƒ R1(config if)#ip address 172 16 2 1 255 255 255 0 R1(config-if)#ip 172. because both interfaces are members of the same network.0 ƒ R1(config-if)#no shutdown ƒ R2(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 ƒ R2(config-if)#ip address 172. 0/1/0.2 255. –If we now issue the show interfaces serial 0/0/0 command on either router we still see that If router.1 255. line protocol is down – The physical link between R1 and R2 is up because both ends of the serial link have been configured correctly with an IP address/mask and enabled with the no shutdown command. (0/0/0. Inc.0 ƒ R2(config-if)#no shutdown –There is no requirement that both ends of the serial link use the same interface.2. the clock rate command. – However.16.255.255. the link is up/down. All rights reserved. they both must have IP addresses that belong to the 172. ƒ R2#show interfaces serial 0/0/0 p. © 2010 Cisco Systems. …. on the router with the DCE cable.2.Interfaces ƒ Configuring a Serial interface -Enter interface configuration mode Enter -Enter in the ip address and subnet mask -Enter in the no shutdown command ƒ Example: -R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 ( g ) p -R1(config-if)#ip address 172.16. 0/0/1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 . This is because the interface is not receiving a clock signal. 0/1/1.) –in this case. the line protocol is still down. The clock rate command will set the clock signal for the link.16.2.255.1 255. Inc. However.0/24 network.2.255.255.16.

ƒ The CSU/DSU (DCE device) is used to convert the data from the router (DTE device) into a form acceptable to the WAN service provider.Interfaces1 Step Nothing is configured Step 3 Setup “no shut” Step 2 Setup IP but not “no shut” Step 4 Configured the clock rate © 2010 Cisco Systems. CSU/DSU is a DCE device. All rights reserved. Up-to-date technology Cisco 1 Port T1/Fractional T1 1-Port DSU/CSU WAN Interface Card (WIC-1DSU-T1-V2=) © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 ƒ Examining Router Interfaces -Physically connecting a WAN Interface. Inc. Inc. ƒData Terminal Equipment (DTE) – Typically the router is the DTE device. All rights reserved. ƒa DCE device such as a CSU/DSU will provide the clock. -A WAN Physical Layer connection has sides: A ƒData Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) – This is the service provider. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 .

800000. 56000. –The available clock rates. All rights reserved. The DTE cable has a male connector. 64000.What is the significant of the information 1? Interfaces ƒ For serial links that are directly interconnected. whereas the DCE connector cable has a female connector.35. ƒ R1(config)#interface serial 0/0 ƒ R1(config-if)#clock rate 64000 ƒ 01 10 28 %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Li protocol on 01:10:28: %LINEPROTO 5 UPDOWN Line t l Interface Serial0/0. you can use the show controllers command to determine which end of the cable is attached to that interface. no clock <output omitted> © 2010 Cisco Systems. –Use the “show controllers serial 0/0/0” to find out whether it is a DTE or DCE cable cable. 38400. 125000. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 Interfaces ƒ Once the cable is attached. R1#show controllers serial 0/0/0 Interface Serial0/0/0 Hardware is PowerQUICC MPC860 DCE V.. changed state to up ƒ Note: If a router's interface with a DTE cable is configured router s with the clock rate command. as in a lab environment. 72000. 2400. 1300000. the IOS will disregard the command and there will be no ill effects. –Some bit rates might not be available on certain serial interfaces. ƒ You can also distinguish DTE from DCE –1) by looking at the connector between the two cables. Inc. 500000. 1000000. 2000000. 19200. one side of a connection must be considered a DCE and provide a clocking signal. are 1200. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 . Inc. the clock can now be set with the clock rate command command. All rights reserved. 1000000 1300000 2000000 and 4000000 4000000. © 2010 Cisco Systems. 9600. –2) If a cable is connected between the two routers. 148000. in bits per second.

Testing Verifying the Serial Interface Configuration R1#show interfaces R1#show ip interface brief R1#ping 172. ƒ POP Quiz: – Can R1 ping R2? – Can PC1 ping PC2? p g © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. di tl t d –configured statically.2 R1#show ip route © 2010 Cisco Systems. –learned dynamically. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 Routing Table C R ti T bl Concepts t ƒ The show ip route command reveals the content of the routing table. Inc.2.16. ƒ The routing table consists of a list of "known" network addresses –directly connected. –The main purpose of a routing t bl i t provide th router with paths t Th i f ti table is to id the t ith th to different destination networks. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 . All rights reserved.

Inc. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 . Disable debug ip ip routing” command or the “undebug all” command. 1 enable debugging with the debug ip routing command g g Configuring the IP address and Subnet Mask 4 Check the routing table 2 Check the routing table by using 5 routingthe “undebug either Never use the debug all command on the production router. All rights reserved. POP Quiz: Why pings failed? © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 Routing Table and CDP Protocol ƒ When a router only has its interfaces configured & no other routing protocols are configured then: -The routing table contains only the directly connected networks -Only devices on the directly connected networks are reachable The output in this figure verifies that all p g configured interfaces are "up" and "up". © 2010 Cisco Systems.Routing Table Concepts ƒ Purpose of the debug ip routing command ƒAllows you to view changes that the router performs when adding or Allows removing routes in real time 3 disable interfaces with the shutdown command.

0/24 and 172. matches the first 24 bits of the destination IP address © 2010 Cisco Systems.168.0/24.0/24. and the routing t bl contains th di tl connected networks b t ti table t i the directly t d t k but no other routes.1. All rights reserved. Inc.16.16.3.0/24 networks. 172.0/24 networks.0/24.168.168.168. –R2 can communicate with any device on the 172. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 29 . only devices on those directly connected networks are reachable.2. Inc. and 192.1. © 2010 Cisco Systems.16. –R1 can communicate with any device on the 172 16 3 0/24 R1 172. –R3 can communicate with any device on the 192.16.2. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 Routing Table and CDP Protocol ƒ Checking each route in turn –The ping command is used to check end to end connectivity –Ping 172. All rights reserved.0/24 / and 192.1 failed •Route does not match any route in the routing table –Ping 192.1.1.3.168.1.16.0/24 networks.Routing Table and CDP Protocol ƒ When a router only has its interfaces configured.1 succeed •192.2.

•enables you to access a summary of protocol and address information about Cisco devices that are directly connected. All rights reserved. –the types of devices that are connected. •CDP runs at the Data Link layer connecting the physical media t th upper-layer protocols (ULP ) di to the l t l (ULPs). Both are members of the 172.0/24 network. »R1 and R2 are CDP neighbors. All rights reserved. »R2 and S2 are CDP neighbors.16. Inc. IP and Novell IPX). can y p (for p . –A layer 2 cisco proprietary tool used to gather information about other directly connected Cisco devices. »R2 and R3 are CDP neighbors. The switches are not neighbors to the routers at Layer 3. –the i t f th interfaces they are connected to. Therefore. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –the model numbers of the devices.1. R2 d i hb »R3 and S3 are CDP neighbors. learn about each other. •Because CDP operates at the Data Link layer. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 Routing Table and CDP Protocol ƒ Concept of neighbors -2 types of neighbors ƒLayer 3 neighbors ƒ At Layer 3.Routing Table and CDP Protocol ƒ Purpose of CDP –Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a powerful network monitoring and troubleshooting tool. ƒ But R1 and R3 are not neighbors because they do not share any network address space. the switches are Layer 2 neighbors to their directly connected routers.168.1. © 2010 Cisco Systems. CDP neighbors are Cisco devices that are directly connected physically and share the same data link. because the switches are operating at Layer 2 only only.. such as routers that support different Network layer protocols ( example. th t dt –the interfaces used to make the connections. ). »R1 and S1 are CDP neighbors. 31 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . –……. Inc.0/24 network. routing protocols consider neighbors to be devices th t share th same network address space. ƒLayer 2 neighbors ƒCDP operates at Layer 2 only. However. d i that h the t k dd ƒ R1 and R2 are neighbors. ƒ R2 and R3 are also neighbors because they both share the 192. two or more Cisco network devices. Notice the difference between Layer 2 and Layer 3 neighbors.

All rights reserved. for the entire device. use this command: • Router(config-if)#no cdp enable © 2010 Cisco Systems. in seconds ƒNeighbor device capability code ƒNeighbor hardware platform ƒNeighbor remote port ID ƒShow cdp neighbors detail command -It can also reveals the IP address of a neighboring device –knowing the IP address of the CDP neighbor is often allows you to telnet into that device. it is important to know how to disable CDP. –If you need to disable CDP globally.ƒ CDP is on by default. • and a lot more – IOS version – Platform – ………… © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. use this command: • Router(config)#no cdp run –If you want to use CDP but need to stop CDP advertisements on a particular interface. All rights reserved. Inc. ƒ CDP show commands ƒShow cdp neighbors command -Displays the following information: ƒNeighbor device ID ƒLocal interface ƒHoldtime value. Routing Table and CDP Protocol –CDP exchanges hardware and software device information with its directly connected CDP neighbors. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 32 Routing Table and CDP Protocol ƒ Disabling C sab g CDP – CDP be a security risk • Because some IOS versions send out CDP advertisements by default. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 .

network 172. •Running a routing protocol between R1 Running and R2 is a waste of resources © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. •For an example.3. from configured static routes –Automatically.0 is a stub network and R1 is a stub router. All rights reserved. Inc.Static Routes ƒ A router can learn about remote networks in one of two ways: y –Manually. here we see that any network attached to R1 would only have one way to reach other destinations. •Therefore. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 . whether to networks attached to R2 or to destinations beyond R2. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 Static Routes ƒ IP route command oute co a d ƒTo configure a static route use the following command: ip route ƒExample: -Router(config)# ip route network-address subnet-mask {ipaddress | exit-interface } © 2010 Cisco Systems.16. from a dynamic routing protocol •Dynamic routing protocols are introduced in the next chapter. Inc. D i ti t l i t d d i th t h t ƒ Purpose of a static route –A manually configured route used when routing from a network to a stub A network •A stub network is a network accessed by a single route.

1.16.The serial network between R2 and R3 –192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 37 .0/124 .2.0/24 .168.0/24 .The LAN on R3 © 2010 Cisco Systems.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara O’Hare 36 Static Routes ƒ Remember R1 knows about its directly y connected networks. All rights reserved.The LAN on R2 –192. Inc.1. ƒ The remote networks that R1 does not know about are: –172. Inc. –These are the routes currently in its routing table. All rights reserved.Static route operation Example: Fly from Chicago to LA Chicago O’Hare Los Angeles Chicago Æ O’H Ai Chi O’Hare Airport Æ L Angeles Los A l ( g) p p f { f } RTR(config)# ip route prefix mask {address | interface} Los Angeles © 2010 Cisco Systems.

255.2 ƒ Dissecting static route syntax ƒip route . this is displayed in the line above.0 .16.Subnet mask for this route. the IP address of R2's Serial 0/0/0 interface © 2010 Cisco Systems. known as the parent route.IP address of the next-hop router.16.255.0 255.255.16.Routing table code for static route –172.2.16.Static Routes ƒR1(config)#ip route 172.1.2.1.16. Inc.N t 172 16 1 0 Network address f th route k dd for the t –/24 .0 172 16 2 2 172 16 1 0 255 255 255 0 172.2 .1.255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 Static Routes ƒR1(config)#ip route 172.0 .0 255.255.Subnet mask of destination network ƒ172. and discussed in Chapter 8 –[1/0] .2.2.Static route command ƒ172. known as the parent route. All rights reserved. this is displayed in the line above. Inc.16.2.0 . All rights reserved.2 .16.0 172 16 2 2 172 16 1 0 255 255 255 0 172.Serial 0/0/0 interface IP address on R2.N t 172 16 1 0 Network address f th route k dd for the t –/24 . the IP address of R2's Serial 0/0/0 interface © 2010 Cisco Systems. which is the "next-hop" to this network ƒ show ip route output –S .1.16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 39 .1. and discussed in Chapter 8 –[1/0] .16.255.2 .2 ƒ show ip route output –S .Subnet mask for this route.Routing table code for static route –172.16.IP address of the next-hop router.Administrative distance and metric for the static route (explained in a later chapter) –via 172.Administrative distance and metric for the static route (explained in a later chapter) –via 172.0 – D ti ti network address 172 16 1 0 Destination t k dd ƒ255.

168.“ ƒM Most of the communication over networks i bidi f h i i k is bidirectional. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 40 Static Routes ƒ Zinin’s 3 routing principles ƒPrinciple 1: "Every router makes its decision alone.“ ƒ R1 has three static routes in its routing table and makes forwarding decisions based solely upon the information in the routing table.2.16.2 -R1(config)#ip route 192.0 172. ƒ Using Principle 3 as guidance.0 172.2. ƒ Making each router aware of remote networks is the responsibility of the network administrator.0 255.3.“ ƒ The network administrator would be responsible for ensuring that the next-hop router also has a route to this network ƒ Using Principle 2 we still need to configure the proper routing on the other 2.168. ƒPrinciple 2: "The fact that one router has certain information in its routing table does The not mean that other routers have the same information.16.16. Thi means that i l This h packets must travel in both directions between the end devices involved.2. Inc. All rights reserved.Static Routes ƒ Configuring routes to 2 or more remote networks Co gu g outes o o e e ote et o s Use the following commands for R1 -R1(config)#ip route 192. All rights reserved. routers (R2 and R3) to make sure that they have routes to these three networks. ƒPrinciple 3: "Routing information about a path from one network to another does not provide routing information about the reverse.0/24 network. we will configure proper static routes on the other routers to make sure they have routes back to the 172. or return path. ƒ R1 does not consult the routing tables in any other routers. based on the information it has f in its own routing table. Inc.0 255.255.255. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 41 .255.2 © 2010 Cisco Systems.1.255.

2.16.0/24 with the exit interface of Serial 0/0/0. © 2010 Cisco Systems.2.16.2. A static route that forwards all packets to the next-hop IP address goes through the following process (reclusive route lookup) ƒ (Step 1) The router first must match static route’s destination IP address with the Next hop address p ƒ The packet's destination IP address is matched to the static route 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 43 .0/24 with the next-hop IP address 172. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 42 Static Routes with next-hop IP address ƒ Resolving to an Exit Interface -Recursive route lookup . is matched to the directly connected network 172. All rights reserved.2.Static Routes © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ (Step 2) The next hop address is then matched to an exit interface ƒThe next-hop IP address of the static route. Inc.2. Inc.16. 172.168.Occurs when the router has to perform multiple lookups in the routing table before forwarding a packet.2. All rights reserved.

0 serial 0/0/0 © 2010 Cisco Systems.2 ƒA new static route must be rewritten in the configuration R1(config)# no ip route 192. –However.ƒ Configuring a Static route with an Exit Interface Static Routes with Exit Interfaces -Static routes configured with an exit i S i fi d ih i interface f are more efficient because the routing –The routing table can resolve the exit interface in a single search instead of 2 searches ƒ If the static route cannot be resolved to an exit interface. Inc.168. the static route is removed from the th routing t bl ti table –Notice from the debug output that all three static routes were deleted when the Serial 0/0/0 interface was shut down down.0 172.16.255.16. t ti t b k into the ti t bl © 2010 Cisco Systems.0 255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 44 Static Routes with Exit Interfaces ƒ Modifying Static routes ƒExisting static routes cannot be modified.255.255.0 255. the static routes are still in the R1's However R1 s running configuration. The old static route must be deleted by placing no in front of the ip route ƒExample: Example: -no ip route 192.0 172.2.2.255. Inc.255.168. the IOS routing table process will reinstall these static routes back i t th routing table. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 45 .0 255.2.2. All rights reserved.255.2. All rights reserved.2 R1(config)#ip route 192. If the interface comes back up (is enabled again with no shutdown). –They were deleted because all three static routes were resolved to Serial 0/0/0.168.

Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 47 .Static Routes with Exit Interfaces ƒ Verifying the Static Route Configuration -Use the following commands ƒStep 1 show running-config Step ƒStep 2 verify static route has been entered correctly ƒStep 3 show ip route ƒStep 4 verify route was configured in routing table ƒStep 5 issue ping command t verify packets can St i i d to if k t reach destination and that Return path is working © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 46 Static route operation Both types of the routes all have distance of 1 and metric of 0.

0 255 255 255 0 fa 0/1 192 168 2 0 255. Inc.2. ƒ Use both the next-hop interface and the exit interface for Ethernet exit interfaces. ƒ Router will not have sufficient information to determine which device is the next-hop device next hop device.0/24 [1/0] via 172. Inc. ƒ O l a single route lookup now needed.168.2 The routing table entry for this route would be: S 192. many different devices can be sharing the networks same multiaccess network.255.0 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Only i l t l k d d R1(config)#ip route 192.2. – If Static Routes with Exit Interfaces a static route is configured on an Ethernet link –the destination MAC address will be the address of the next hop’s Ethernet interface –This is found by the router consulting the ARP table.2 FastEthernet0/1 © 2010 Cisco Systems.255. ƒ With Ethernet networks. ƒ Router will have difficulty determining the destination MAC address.2. including hosts and even multiple routers. »If an entry isn’t found then an ARP request will be sent out •If the packet is sent to the next-hop router then… R1(config)#ip route 192.0 255. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 48 Static Routes with Exit Interfaces R1(config)#ip route 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 49 .0 fastethernet 0/1 172.ƒ Ethernet interfaces and ARP.255.16.168.168.255.255. All rights reserved.2.2.255.168.2.0 255.16.0 fastethernet 0/1 ƒ B t not t use only an exit interface with Eth Best t to l it i t f ith Ethernet i t f t interfaces.

f –For example. a the way 0 0 0/ 6.0/22. 10.0 255.0.0. 10. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 50 Calculating a summary route ƒ Here's the process of creating the summary route 172.0. bit 3.0 Serial0/0/1 © 2010 Cisco Systems.252. we can discover that the 3 static routes on R3 can be summarized into a single static route. all e ay through 10. ƒ By following these steps.Summary and Default Route ƒ Summarizing routes reduces the size of the routing g g table. Work your way to the right. You are at the summary boundary. Write out the networks that you want to summarize in binary. ƒ Route summarization is the process of combining a number of static routes into a single static route. count the number of left-most matching bits.0/8.0/16 can be represented by a single network address: 10.0 255.252.0. When you find a column of bits that do not match.0. and –The multiple static routes all use the same exit-interface or e t op add ess next-hop IP address © 2010 Cisco Systems.1. To find the subnet mask for summarization. Inc.0. All rights reserved.255. 2.255. which in our example is 22. 0 0 0/ 6. 172 16 1 0/22 as shown in the fig re sho n figure: 1.16.0.0.5. 6 To find the network address for summarization.2.1.0. ƒ Multiple static routes can be summarized into a single static route if: –The destination networks can be summarized into a single g network address. copy summarization the matching 22 bits and add all 0 bits to the end to make 32 bits.0 6. Inc. finding all the bits that match consecutively. 10. 5. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 51 .0.0. All rights reserved. 10.3.16.0/16. the networks 10. Now.0/16. 0 5 0 0/ 6. p y y stop. 0 3 0 0/ 6.0: ip route 172. start with the left-most bit. 10.0/16. using the summary network address of 172.0/16. 4.16. This number becomes your subnet mask for the summarized route.255. /22 or 255.255.0/16.0/16.4.0.252.

80/28 192.0/27 192.7.1.1.0 /24? ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000000 00000000 ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000001 00000000 ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000010 00000000 ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000011 00000000 ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000100 00000000 ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000101 00000000 ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000110 00000000 ƒ 10101100 10101000 00000111 00000000 ƒ Answer: © 2010 Cisco Systems.1.1.1. All rights reserved.1.1. Inc.1.1.0.168.0 /24 g through 172.1.Example: Calculating a summary route ƒ Which address can be used to summarize networks 172.1.1.64/28 192 1 1 64/28 192.96/29 192.1.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 52 Example: Calculating a summary route ƒ Which address can be used to summarize networks ƒ 11000000 • • • • • • • • 192.1. Inc.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 53 .32/27 192.104/29 192.120/29 192 1 1 120/29 00000001 00000001 00000000 ƒ 11000000 00000001 00000001 00100000 ƒ 11000000 00000001 00000001 01000000 ƒ 11000000 00000001 00000001 01010000 ƒ 11000000 00000001 00000001 01100000 ƒ 11000000 00000001 00000001 01101000 ƒ 11000000 00000001 00000001 01110000 ƒ 11000000 00000001 00000001 01111000 ƒ Answer: © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.112/29 192.168.

Summary Route ƒ Configuring a summary route –Step 1: Delete the current static route R3(config)#no ip route 172.0.10.1. what if we had the following two static routes in the For example routing table •172.0 255. the static route with the 24 bit match will be used.255.255.16.255. 3 subnets •S 172.16.1.0 serial0/0/1 –Step 2: Configure the summary static route •R3(config)#ip route 172. the 172.252. All rights reserved.0 255.2.1.16.0/16 is directly connected.0.16.0 is di tl connected.0 serial0/0/1 R3(config)#ip 172 16 0 0 255 255 252 0 –Step 3: Verify the new static route •show ip route ping © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.255. S i l0/0/0 and S 172 16 1 0 i directly t d Serial0/0/0 d •S 172. Inc.1.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 55 .16. © 2010 Cisco Systems. •This is the longest match match.0 serial0/0/1 R3(config)#no ip route 172.16.255.255.16.3. •The routing table lookup process will use the most-specific match.0 255.255.0/24 route.0 serial0/0/1 R3(config)#no ip route 172.0/16 route match.0/24 is subnetted.16.0.16.16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 54 Summary Route ƒ Static routes and subnet masks –The routing table lookup process will use the most specific match when comparing destination IP address and subnet mask –For example. This IP address matches both routes.0 255. •Because 24 bits match the 172 16 1 0/24 route and only 16 bits of Because 172. All rights reserved. Serial0/0/1 –Consider a packet with the destination IP address 172.

which are used to reach all of the remote networks in our topology.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 57 . It i l t d to R2 –Currently R1 has three static routes. ƒ Configuring a default static route ƒSimilar to configuring a static route.0.0. –First.0 [exit-interface | ip-address ] [ it i t f i dd © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. Summary and Default Route –It is only connected t R2. Inc.0.0. –When a router has only one other router to which it is connected. forwarding p . delete the three static routes . g packets to the next-hop router R2.0 0.0 0. All rights reserved. configure the single default static route using the same Serial 0/0/0 exit interface R1(config)#ip route 0.0. –Next. All rights reserved. This condition is known as a stub router. A common use is when connecting a company's edge router to the ISP company s network. ƒ R1 is an ideal candidate to have all of its static routes replaced by a f it t ti t l db single default route. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 56 ƒ R1 is a stub router.Default Route ƒ Default Static Route ƒThis is a route that will match all packets.0. –All three static routes have the exit interface Serial 0/0/0. Except that destination IP address and subnet mask are all zeros ƒExample: -Router(config)#ip route 0. Inc.0 serial 0/0/0 © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒLike route summarization this will help reduce the size of the routing table ƒ Default static routes are used: –When no other routes in the routing table match the packet's destination IP address.

0.0 0.0.0.0 0 0 0 0 s0/1 Alt t ( fi )# ip t 0 0 0 0 0.0.0.0 0/1 © 2010 Cisco Systems. S •As you can see from the Codes table in the figure.0. –The key to this configuration is the /0 mask.0.255.1 Altamonte(config)# ip route 10.0 255.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 58 Self test: Static d t ti d f lt S lf t t St ti and static default route t ƒ Can you use bo s a c a d Ca both static and static default route to configure the communication between b th LANS and th b t both d the communication to the Internet. Serial0/0/0 –Note the * or asterisk next to the S. the asterisk indicates that this static route is a candidate default route.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding ƒ Verify the change to the routing table y g g with the show ip route command ƒ S* 0.146.2 Altamonte(config)# i route 0.168.0/0 is directly connected.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 59 .255. Inc. -1 static route 1 t ti t -2 default static route WinterPark(config)# ip route 0. -Only 3 statement of static route needed to setup the network.0 192.234.0 192.146.0. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.0.168. •A /0 mask indicates that zero or no bits are needed to match. •We previously said that it is the subnet mask in the routing table that determines how many bits must match between the destination IP address of the packet and the th route in the routing t bl t i th ti table. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.used to show status of router interfaces Show detail -Show cdp neighbors detail– used to gather configuration information about directly connected neighbors © 2010 Cisco Systems.Than trace route ƒ Issue: show ip route to examine routing table. Inc.Static Routes and Packet Forwarding ƒ Troubleshooting a Missing Route oub es oo g ss g ou e ƒ Tools that can be used to isolate routing problems include: Layer 3 -Ping– tests end to end connectivity p (routers) along the ) g -Traceroute– used to discover all of the hops ( path between 2 points -Show IP route– used to display routing table & ascertain forwarding process Layer 2 -Show ip interface brief. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 61 . If ping fails then use traceroute to determine where packets are failing to arrive . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 60 Static Routes and Packet Forwarding ƒ Solving a Missing Route So g ss g ou e ƒ Finding a missing or mis-configured route requires methodically using the correct tools -Start with PING. -If there is a problem with a mis-configured static route remove the static route then reconfigure the new static route © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.

All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 62 Summary ƒ Static Routes This -This is a manually configured path that specifies how the router will get to a certain point using a certain path. ƒ Forwarding of packets when static route is used -Zinin’s 3 routing principles d Zi i ’ ti i i l describe h ib how packets are f k t forwarded d d ƒ Troubleshooting static routes may require some of the following commands: -Ping -Traceroute -Show IP route -Show ip interface brief -Show cdp neighbors detail © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.Summary ƒ Routers -Operate at layer 3 p y -Functions include best path selection & forwarding packets ƒ Connecting Networks WANs Serial cables are connected to router serial ports. In the lab environment c oc rates must be co gu ed for DCE t e ab e o e t clock ates ust configured o C LANs Straight through cables or cross over cables are used to connect to fastethernet port (The type of cable used depends port. ƒ Summary static routes -This is several static routes that have been condensed into a single static route. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 63 . on what devices are being connected) ƒ Cisco Discovery Protocol A layer 2 proprietary protocol Used to discover information about directly connected Cisco devices © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ Default route -It is the route packets use if there is no other possible match for It their destination in the routing table.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Identify the different elements of the routing table. Describe how metrics are used by routing protocols and identify the metric types used by dynamic routing protocols. Determine the administrative distance of a route and describe its importance in the routing process. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 Objectives ƒ Describe the role o dy a c routing p o oco s a d esc be e o e of dynamic ou g protocols and place these protocols in the context of modern network design. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2 . Identify several ways to classify routing protocols. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.Introduction to Dynamic Routing Protocol g Chapter 3: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems.

newer versions of the IP routing protocols have been developed (see the IPv6 row in the table). © 2010 Cisco Systems.Dynamic Routing Protocols ƒ Dynamic routing p o oco s a e usua y y a c ou g protocols are usually used in larger networks to ease the administrative and operational overhead of using only static routes. Thus IPv6 has emerged. © 2010 Cisco Systems. two advanced routing protocols were developed: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System-toIntermediate System (IS-IS). Border Gateway Routing (BGP) protocol is now used between ISPs as well as between ISPs and their larger private clients to exchange routing information. To support the communication based on IPv6. All rights reserved. RIP h l di t i RIPv2. –RIP has evolved into a newer version RIP 2 However. routing among them. f i l t ti t ƒ Typically. the IPv4 addressing space IP is nearly exhausted. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 . H –The newer version of RIP still does not scale to larger network implementations. a network uses a combination of both a d f b th dynamic routing protocol and i ti t l d static routes. Inc. ƒ With the advent of numerous consumer devices using IP. All rights reserved. which also scales well in larger network implementations. Inc. ƒ Additionally there was the need to interconnect different internetworks and provide Additionally. ƒ To address the needs of larger networks. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 3 The Evolution of Dynamic Routing Protocols ƒ One of the earliest routing protocols was Routing Information Protocol (RIP). I t di t S t (IS IS) ƒ Cisco developed Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP).

© 2010 Cisco Systems. •However. Inc. not ƒ More often than not. you will find a combination of both types of routing in any network that has a moderate level of complexity. ƒ There are times when static routing is more appropriate and other times when dynamic routing is the better choice. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 Dynamic Routing Protocols ƒ Despite the be e s o dy a c routing. router s resources for protocol operation including CPU time and network link bandwidth. © 2010 Cisco Systems. – One of the primary benefits to using a dynamic routing protocol is that routers exchange routing information whenever there is a topology change. All rights reserved. the expense of using dynamic routing protocols is dedicating part of a router's However. -Automatically update routing table when topology changes.Dynamic Routing Protocols ƒ Function(s) of Dynamic Routing Protocols: -Dynamically share information between routers. Inc. This exchange allows routers t automatically l ll t to t ti ll learn about new networks and also t fi d alternate b t t k d l to find lt t paths when there is a link failure to a current network. dynamic routing protocols require less administrative overhead. static ou g still has its place. Determine destination. -Determine best path to a destination –Compared to static routing. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 6 . All rights reserved. s a c routing s esp e e benefits of dynamic ou g.

© 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. and other tasks to learn and maintain accurate information about the network. Inc. This information is kept in RAM –Algorithm Al ith •Algorithm is a finite list of steps used in accomplishing a task •Algorithms are used for facilitating routing information and best path Algorithms determination –Routing protocol messages •These are messages f di Th for discovering neighbors and exchange of i i hb d h f routing information . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 Dynamic Routing Protocols ƒ Components of a routing protocol –Data structures Data •Some routing protocols use tables and/or databases for its operations. All rights reserved. and messages that are used to exchange routing information and populate the routing table with the routing p g protocol's choice of best p paths ƒ The purpose of a dynamic routing protocol is to: -Discover remote networks -Maintaining up-to-date routing information -Choosing the best path to destination networks -Ability t fi d a new b t path if th current path is no l Abilit to find best th the t th i longer available il bl © 2010 Cisco Systems. algorithms. All rights reserved.Dynamic Routing Protocols ƒ A routing p g protocol –is a set of processes.

topologies verification. time consuming time-consuming -More administrator knowledge is -Does not scale well in large required for configuration. –The router shares routing messages and routing information with other routers that are using the same routing protocol. –Routers exchange routing information to learn about remote networks. especially in large networks Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. memory and link bandwidth). ƒ The method that a routing protocol uses to accomplish this depends upon the algorithm it uses and the operational characteristics of that protocol. growing the network usually does not present a problem ƒ Disadvantages of static routing -Network changes require manual ƒ Disadvantages of dynamic routing reconfiguration -Router resources are used (CPU -Configuration and maintenance is cycles. -Configuration is error-prone. g p .Dynamic Routing Protocol Operation ƒ All routing protocols have the same purpose . -Protocols automatically react to the topology changes.to learn about remote networks and to quickly adapt whenever there is a change in the topology. ƒ In general. -Configuration is less error-prone. g -More scalable. All rights reserved. the operations of a dynamic routing protocol can be described as general follows: –The router sends and receives routing messages on its interfaces. –When a router detects a topology change the routing protocol can advertise this change to other routers. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 Dynamic Routing Protocols ƒ Advantages of static routing -It can backup multiple It b k lti l interfaces/networks on a router -Minimal CPU processing -Easier for administrator to Easier understand -Easy to configure -No extra resources are needed No -More secure ƒ Advantages of dynamic routing -Administrator has less work maintaining the configuration when adding or deleting networks. 10 . and troubleshooting. Inc.

All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.Dynamic Routing Protocols © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 Classifying Routing Protocols ƒ Dynamic routing protocols are grouped according to y gp g p g characteristics. Inc. Examples include: -RIP -IGRP IGRP -EIGRP -OSPF OSPF -IS-IS BGP -BGP ƒ Autonomous System is a group of routers under the control of a single authority. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 .

-Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) Interior •are used for intra-autonomous system routing . All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 Classifying Routing Protocols ƒ An autonomous system (AS) . All rights reserved. IGRP. schools. and other institutions. g g –An autonomous system is commonly comprised of many individual networks belonging to companies.Classifying Routing Protocols ƒ Dynamic routing protocols: –RIP •A distance vector interior routing protocol –IGRP •The distance vector interior routing developed by Cisco (deprecated from 12. Inc. two types of routing protocols are required: interior and exterior routing protocols.routing between autonomous systems that are under the control of different administrations At •At the ISP level. •BGP is typically used between ISPs and sometimes between a company and an ISP © 2010 Cisco Systems.2 IOS and later) –EIGRP •The advanced distance vector interior routing protocol developed by Cisco –OSPF OSPF •A link-state interior routing protocol –IS-IS •A link-state interior routing protocol –BGP •A path vector exterior routing p p g protocol © 2010 Cisco Systems. and IS-IS -Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP) Exterior •are used for inter-autonomous system routing . Inc.routing inside an autonomous system •IGPs are used for routing within a routing domain. those networks within the control of a single organization. there are often more important issues than just choosing the fastest path. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 . OSPF.is a collection of routers under a common administration. ƒ Because the Internet is based on the ASs concept.otherwise known as a routing domain . • IGPs for IP include RIP. EIGRP.

arin. Routing protocols. require assignment of a unique. autonomous system number. Inc.html IS-IS © 2010 Cisco Systems. such as Cisco’s IGRP. ƒ The American Registry of Internet Numbers (ARIN). All rights reserved.Autonomous systems A t t ƒ An autonomous system (AS) is a collection of networks under a common administration sharing a common routing strategy. To the outside world.net/cgi-bin/whois.net/services/asn_guide. The AS may be run by one or more operators while presenting a consistent view of routing to the external world. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 . or an administrator assigns an identifying number to each AS.html Autonomous S t A t System number (ASN) resource guide b id http://www. All rights reserved.pl © 2010 Cisco Systems.apnic. American Registry for Internet Numbers http://www. an AS is viewed as a single entity.arin.net/registration/asn/index. a service provider. This g y g autonomous system number is a 16 bit number. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 15 Autonomous systems ƒ Cisco system AS number: ƒ http://ws.

Inc. •Distance vector protocols use routers as sign posts along the path to the final destination.Autonomous systems ƒ http://arin. All rights reserved. it needs to apply from ARIN or the appropriate region and be unique on the internet. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 Classifying Routing Protocols ƒ IGP: Comparison of Distance Vector & Link State Routing Protocols Distance vector – routes are advertised as vectors of distance & direction.net/education/asn_process/index. i t t ƒ The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has reserved the following block of AS numbers for private use (not to be advertised on the global Internet): 64512 through 65535 © 2010 Cisco Systems. g protocols do not have an •Distance vector routing p actual map of the network topology – Generally. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . All rights reserved. •Some distance vector protocols periodically send complete routing tables to all connected neighbors. Inc. •Distance is defined in terms of a metric such as hop count (RIP) •Direction is simply the next-hop router or exit interface •Distance vector protocols typically use the BellmanFord algorithm for the best path route determination – incomplete view of network topology topology.html RFC 1930 ƒ AS just like IP. 18 © 2010 Cisco Systems. periodic updates.

usually occurring in large networks. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ Link-state protocols work best in situations where: –The network design is hierarchical. All rights reserved. a link-state update only sent when there is a change in the topology. –The administrators have a good knowledge of the implemented linklink state routing protocol. –Fast convergence of the network is crucial. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 . –The administrators do not have enough knowledge to configure and troubleshoot link-state protocols. g . because all linkstate routers are using an identical "map" of the map network. •After the network has converged. Inc. –Worst-case convergence times in a network are not a concern. crucial © 2010 Cisco Systems. p p gy •The sign posts along the way from source to destination are not necessary. are being implemented. such as hub-and-spoke networks. –Specific types of networks. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 Classifying Routing Protocols ƒ Comparison of Distance Vector & Link State Routing Protocols ƒ Di t Distance vector protocols work t t l k best in situations where: –The network is simple and flat p and does not require a special hierarchical design. – updates are not periodic. All rights reserved.Classifying Routing Protocols ƒ IGP: Comparison of Distance Vector & Link State Routing Protocols Link state – complete view of network topology is created.

EIGRP © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. ƒ R ti protocols can b rated b Routing t l be t d based on d the speed to convergence. BGP. –Do NOT support VLSM. They don’t need to have the same mask. t l –RIP and IGRP are slow to converge –EIGRP and OSPF are faster to converge. and update th i routing i f ti l l t best th d d t their ti tables. calculate b t paths. •Tony: It means you can create the network with all different sizes of subnets. IS-IS. ƒ Classless routing protocols gp –Do send subnet mask in routing updates. –Classful routing protocols cannot be used when a network is subnetted using more than one g subnet mask. EIGRP.ƒ Classful routing protocols Classifying Routing Protocols –Do NOT send subnet mask in routing updates Do updates. OSPF. the better the routing protocol. the faster the convergence. You can still subnet it but can only do it once and all it. • Tony: This does not mean you can not subnet the clasasfull network. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 . Inc. –support variable length subnet masks (VLSM). •Classless routing protocols are RIPv2. using both /30 and /27 masks in the same topology. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 Classifying Routing Protocols ƒ Convergence is defined as when a routers’ routing Co e ge ce s de ed e all ou e s ou g tables are at a state of consistency – The network has converged when all routers have complete and accurate information about the network f ƒ Convergence time is the time it takes routers to share information. – Routing protocols such as RIPv1 and IGRP. network needs to have the identical mask. All rights reserved. •In the figure. © 2010 Cisco Systems. the classless version of the network is g .

16. –Delay •Considers the time a packet takes to traverse a path –Hop count Hop •A simple metric that counts the number of routers a packet must traverse –Load •Considers the traffic utilization of a certain link –Reliability •Assesses the probability of a link failure. Inc.0 is two hops. ƒ Each routing protocol uses its own metric. the routing protocol must be able to evaluate and l b bl l d differentiate between the available paths. All rights reserved. ƒ Metric –A value used by a routing protocol to determine which routes are better than others. Inc. –RIP uses hop count. The •The hop count refers to the number of routers a packet must cross to reach the destination network.Routing Protocols Metrics ƒ To select the best path. •For R3 in the figure. All rights reserved. hops or two routers away away. OSPF © 2010 Cisco Systems. calculated from the interface error count or previous link failures © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara OSPF RIP 24 . Cost can represent a metric.3. For this purpose a metric is used. a combination p y of metrics or a policy. –EIGRP uses a combination of bandwidth and delay. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 Routing Protocols Metrics ƒ Metrics used in IP routing protocols –Bandwidth •Influences path selection by preferring the path with the highest bandwidth –Cost Cost •A value determined either by the IOS or by the network administrator to indicate preference for a route. network 172. –OSPF uses bandwidth (cost).

–In the figure. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 . Serial0/0/1 © 2010 Cisco Systems.1. Load.168. ?????? R2 load balances traffic to PC5 over two equal cost paths. •R 192 168 8 0/24 [120/2] via R 192. 00:00:26. R2 has a route to the 192. All rights reserved. –The metric value is the second value in the brackets for a routing table entry.168.8. All rights reserved.Routing Protocols Metrics ƒ The Metric Field in the Routing Table ƒ Metric used for each routing protocol -RIP . Bandwidth (Cisco’s implementation) ƒ Refer to the example in the figure The routers are using the RIP routing protocol.0/24 network that is 2 hops away.4.168.Bandwidth (used by default). © 2010 Cisco Systems. –The metric associated with a certain route can be b t viewed using th t b best i d i the show ip route command.8. Delay (used by default). Reliability -IS-IS & OSPF – Cost. Inc.hop count -IGRP & EIGRP .0/24 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 Routing Protocols Metrics ƒ Load balancing oad ba a c g –when two or more routes to the same destination have identical metric values –This is the ability of a router to distribute packets among multiple same p cost paths Load balancing does not automatically means the interfaces will get use equally. Inc.

© 2010 Cisco Systems.2 ping 10. Inc.0.1 ping 10.1 © 2010 Cisco Systems.Routing Protocols Metrics ƒ Load ba a c g ca be do e e e oad balancing can done either per packet or per destination.0.0. –How a router actually load balances packets between the equal-cost paths is governed by the switching process. All rights reserved.0. Example R2 load balances traffic to PC5 over two equal cost paths. Balancing This means the router sends packets over the multiple exit interfaces listed in the routing table. All rights reserved. Inc.0.0. –per-packet load balancing •( Process Switching) –per-destination load balancing.2 ping 10.0.0. a router will use Equal Cost Load Balancing. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 . •(Fast Switching) Router(config-if)# ip route-cache Router(config-if)#no ip route-cache ping 10. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 Router Paths: Equal C Cost Load Balancing ƒ To solve this dilemma.

255. s=192. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:30.15.16. len 60.168. d=192.168. d=192. d=192.168.255. forward *Mar 1 19:10:34.0.255. len 60.14.15.168. s=192.168.15.006: IP: s=192.16.14.14.14. d=192.168. forward *Mar 1 19:14:36.2 (Serial0/0).168.168. len 60.2. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:35. forward *Mar 1 19:10:31.255. len 60. All rights reserved. d=255.2 (FastEthernet0/0).168.2.646: IP: s=192.2 (Serial0/0).255. d=192.2 (Serial0/1).168.168.654: IP: tableid=0. s=192.0.654: IP: tableid=0. d=255. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:31.168.16.16.14.cisco.2 (FastEthernet0/0).654: IP: tableid=0.255.16.168.168. g=192. g=192. len 60. d=192.255.14. len 604. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:14:36.16.255.255 Router(config-if)# ip route-cache RIB: http://www. d=192.2 (FastEthernet0/0).2.14. g=192.218: IP: s=0.2 (Serial0/1). rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:51. len 72.1 (local).654: IP: s=192.168.2 (Serial0/1). g=192.14.2 (FastEthernet0/0).2 (FastEthernet0/0). d=255. len 60.16. rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:46. d=255.2 (Serial0/0).255. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:32.266: IP: s=0.15.168.2. s=192. d=192.2 (Serial0/1). len 604. len 604.2 (Serial0/1).13.562: IP: s=192. d=192. forward *Mar 1 19:10:35. g=192. sending broad/multicast *Mar 1 19:14:47.14.168.255 (Serial0/0).978: IP: s=0.168.168.1 (local).646: IP: tableid=0.2 (Serial0/1).168.0. len 72. g=192.0.14.168.Load balancing with RIP per-packet load balancing debug ip packet IP packet debugging i on k td b i is GAD# *Mar 1 19:10:29.2 (FastEthernet0/0).14. forward *Mar 1 19:10:33.168. d=192. forward *Mar 1 19:10:30. d=255.168.654: IP: tableid=0.2 (Serial0/1).14.14.2 (FastEthernet0/0).2 (FastEthernet0/0). d=255.168.168.16.0 (FastEthernet0/0). g=192.0 (FastEthernet0/0).168. d=192.2 (Serial0/0).654: IP: s=192.168. g=192. d=192.168.15.0 (FastEthernet0/0).2 (FastEthernet0/0).13.13.2.255.255.15.16.255. s=192.168.168. d=192.15.2 (FastEthernet0/0).168.13.026: IP: s=192.14.2 (Serial0/0).14.654: IP: tableid=0.14.654: IP: s=192.168.168.168.255.2 (FastEthernet0/0).0.14. sending broad/multicast *Mar 1 19:10:36.14.255.974: IP: s=192.006: IP: tableid=0.16.255.255.255. .com/en/US/products/ps5763/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00802a1fae.14. s=192.2 (FastEthernet0/0).html#wp1045020 © 2010 Cisco Systems. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:29.2. Router(config-if)#no ip route-cache Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara http://www.0.168.16.16. g .255.13.168. len 92.14.2 (FastEthernet0/0). d=192.1 (local).2 (Serial0/0). len 60.168.2 (Serial0/1).0.2 (Serial0/0). g=192.168.2 (Serial0/0).16. forward ( ). routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:36. d=255. forward *Mar 1 19:14:37.255. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:33. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:14:36. rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:51. forward *Mar 1 19:10:32.654: IP: s=192. d=192.168. rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:10:32. ( ).2 (Serial0/1). sending broad/multicast *Mar 1 19:14:50.168.255. len 72. d=192.0. s=192.2 (Serial0/1).2 (FastEthernet0/0). d=192.2 (Serial0/0). RIB: © 2010 Cisco Systems.962: IP: s=192.2 (FastEthernet0/0).168. routed via RIB *Mar 1 19:10:34.168.16.16.html#wp1045020 29 Load balancing with RIP per-destination load balancing debug ip packet IP packet debugging i on k d b i is GAD# *Mar 1 19:14:36.2 (Serial0/0). len 60.13.2.16. All rights reserved.654: IP: s=192.2. forward *Mar 1 19:10:35.16.168. d=192.168. Inc.168.2 (FastEthernet0/0). len 60.168.cisco. s=192.026: IP: tableid=0.16.255.2 (FastEthernet0/0). len 604.255 (FastEthernet0/0). d=192.com/en/US/products/ps5763/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00802a1fae.168.0 (FastEthernet0/0).2 (FastEthernet0/0).168.654: IP: s=192.255. s=192.2 (Serial0/1). d=192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 .654: IP: tableid=0. Inc.255 (Serial0/1).122: IP: s=0.14.2.654: IP: tableid=0. rcvd 2 *Mar 1 19:14:44.168.2.16.168.255. d=255.14.168. d=255.168.2 (FastEthernet0/0).168.278: IP: s=192.168. g=192. s=192.2 (Serial0/0).654: IP: s=192.2 (FastEthernet0/0).958: IP: s=192.168.16. len 60.

x variance 2 31 http://www. g route to the same network from more than one source. IGRP and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. Inc. Use the variance command to instruct the router to include routes with a metric less than n times the minimum metric route for that destination. 32 . In addition to that. Therefore. where n is the number specified by the variance command. All rights reserved. router eigrp 1 network x. – For example. Inc. The router must choose which route to install. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara For equal cost routes to be installed they both must be static routes or they both must be RIP routes. Example: E-C-A: 20 * 2 = 40.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a008009437d.x. such as RIP. © 2010 Cisco Systems. a router might learn of a .cisco.shtml © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Administrative Distance of a Route ƒ In fact. E-C-A and E-B-A will be used for load balancing. ƒP Purpose of a metric f ti –It’s a calculated value used to determine the best path to a destination ƒ Purpose of Administrative Distance –It’s a numeric value that specifies the preference of a particular route source.x.ƒ Unequal Cost Load Balancing with EIGRP What is unequal cost load balancing? ƒ EIGRP Load Balancing Every routing protocol supports equal cost E ti t l t l t path load balancing. a static route might have example been configured for the same network/subnet mask that was learned dynamically by a dynamic routing protocol. All rights reserved.

168. •RIP has an administrative distance of 120. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/24 route from R1 through EIGRP updates and from R3 through RIP updates.6. but EIGRP has a lower administrative distance of 90. R2 adds th route l S dd the t learned using EIGRP t d i to the routing table and forwards all packets for the 192. © 2010 Cisco Systems. •So.0/24 network to router R1. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 Administrative Distance of a Route ƒ Identifying the Administrative Distance (AD) in a routing table It is the first number in the brackets in the routing table •R2 is running both RIP and EIGRP routing protocols. which cannot be changed –An administrative distance of 255 means the router will not believe An the source of that route and it will not be installed in the routing table.Administrative Distance of a Route ƒ Administrative distance is an integer value from 0 to 255. –Only a directly connected network has an administrative distance of 0. Inc. 34 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . This show ip rip database command shows all RIP routes learned by R2. h th t th t i i t ll d in whether or not the RIP route is installed i the routing table. All rights reserved.168. •R2 has learned of the 192. –An administrative distance of 0 is the most preferred.6. Inc. g ƒ The lower the value the more preferred the route source.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 36 .Administrative Distance of a Route ƒ The AD value can also be verified with the show ip protocols command. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 Administrative Distance of a Route ƒ Directly co ected routes ect y connected outes -Immediately appear in the routing table as soon as the interface is configured © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 . All rights reserved. When a static route i configured with an exit interface. Inc. –However. the AD value is not listed in show ip route when you configure a static route with the exit interface specified. All rights reserved.Administrative Distance of a Route ƒ Directly connected routes y Have a default AD of 0 ƒ Static Routes Administrative distance of a static route has a default value of 1 ƒ A static route using either a next-hop IP address or an exit interface has a default AD value of 1 1. the output shows the network t is fi d ith it i t f th t t h th t k as directly connected via that interface. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 37 Administrative Distance of a Route © 2010 Cisco Systems.

Inc.th Cl l ti t l these protocols i l d subnet mask t l include b t k in routing updates -Classful routing protocols . All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. ƒ Administrative distance is an integer value that is used to indicate a router’s “trustworthiness” router s trustworthiness ƒ Components of a routing table include: -Route source Route -Administrative distance (The smaller the better) -Metric (The smaller the better) ( ) © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 39 Summary ƒ Metrics are used by dynamic routing protocols to calculate the best path to a destination destination.these protocols do not include subnet mask i routing update k in ti d t © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 40 .Summary ƒ Dynamic routing protocols fulfill the following functions -Dynamically share information between routers -Automatically update routing table when topology changes -Determine best path to a destination ƒ Routing protocols are grouped as either -Interior gateway protocols (IGP)Or -Exterior gateway protocols(EGP) ƒ Types of IGPs include -Classless routing protocols .

Recognize that distance vector routing protocols are in use today © 2010 Cisco Systems.Distance Vector Routing Protocols Chapter 4: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Describe the processes to maintain accurate routing tables used by distance vector routing protocols. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2 . Identify the Id tif th conditions leading to a routing loop and explain the diti l di t ti l d l i th implications for router performance. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 Objectives ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Identify the characteristics of distance vector routing p y g protocols. Describe the network discovery process of distance vector routing protocols using Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Inc. All rights reserved.

R ti d t b d t lti t d b d f lt ƒInterior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) –proprietary protocol developed by Cisco.0/24 is 1 hop and that the direction is out the interface S0/0/0 t i t f toward R2 d R2. by default. delay. © 2010 Cisco Systems. by default. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 3 Distance Vector Routing Protocols ƒ The Meaning of Distance Vector: –A router using distance vector routing protocols knows 2 things: ƒDistance to final destination ƒThe distance or how far it is to the destination network ƒVector. ƒ Examples of Distance Vector routing protocols: ƒRouting Information Protocol (RIP) –RFC 1058. ƒEnhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) y g ( ) –Cisco proprietary distance vector routing protocol. –Routing updates are broadcast or multicast every 30 seconds. –There are no periodic updates as with RIP and IGRP. ƒVector or direction traffic should be directed ƒThe direction or interface in which packets should be forwarded For example. RIP cannot supply a route to that network.16. –Bandwidth. –If the hop count for a network is greater than 15. RFC 1058 –Hop count is used as the metric for path selection. –IGRP is the predecessor of EIGRP and is now obsolete. Inc. –Routing updates are broadcast every 90 seconds. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Bandwidth. in the figure. R1 knows that the distance to reach network 172. direction. –It uses Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to calculate the shortest path. Inc.Distance Vector Routing Protocols ƒ Dynamic routing protocols help the network administrator overcome the timeconsuming and exacting process of configuring and maintaining static routes routes. –It can perform unequal cost load balancing. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 .3. All rights reserved. Routing updates are sent only IGRP when there is a change in the topology. load and reliability are used to create a composite metric. All rights reserved.

periodically to all neighbors. send updates to neighbors.255. –Different routing p g protocols use different algorithms to install routes g in the routing table.255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 Distance Vector Routing Protocols ƒ Routing Protocol Algorithm: –The algorithm is used to calculate the best paths and th send Th l ith i dt l l t th b t th d then d that information to the neighbors.255. ƒ Neighbors ƒThe router is only aware of the network addresses of its own interfaces and the remote network addresses it can reach through its neighbors. with some exceptions to be discussed later. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 6 .Distance Vector Routing Protocols ƒ Characteristics of Distance Vector routing protocols: ƒ Periodic updates p •Periodic Updates sent at regular intervals (30 seconds for RIP). Even if the topology has not changed in several days. and make path determination decisions. ƒSome distance vector routing protocols use multicast addresses instead of broadcast addresses addresses. Inc. ƒNeighbors receiving these updates must process the entire update to find pertinent information and discard the rest. ƒ Entire routing table is included with routing update ƒEntire Routing Table Updates are sent. © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒIt has no broader knowledge of the network topology ƒ Broadcast updates ƒBroadcast Updates are sent to 255. Inc. ƒSome distance vector routing protocols like EIGRP do not send periodic routing table updates.

7 Distance Vector Routing Protocols © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara ƒClassless (Use of VLSM) or Classful ( ) ƒImplementation & maintenance © 2010 Cisco Systems.Distance Vector Routing Protocols Routing Protocol Characteristics –Criteria used to compare routing protocols includes Criteria ƒTime to convergence ƒTime to convergence defines how quickly the routers in the network topology share routing information and reach a state of consistent knowledge. the more preferable the protocol. deployed ƒThe larger the network is. Inc. CPU utilization. y p . ƒScalability ƒScalability defines how large a network can become based on the routing protocol that is deployed. ƒImplementation and maintenance describes the level of knowledge that is required for a network administrator to implement and maintain the network based on the routing protocol deployed. ƒResource usage ƒResource usage includes the requirements of a routing p g q g protocol such as memory space. ƒThe faster the convergence. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 . the more scalable the routing protocol needs to be. and link bandwidth utilization. ƒHigher resource requirements necessitate more powerful hardware to support the routing protocol operation ƒClassless routing protocols include the subnet mask in the updates. ƒThis feature supports the use of Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) and better route summarization. Inc.

0. it knows nothing about the network topology. It does not even know that there are devices on the other end of its links.0? –Full knowledge and a converged network will not take place until there is another exchange of routing information. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 Network Discovery I iti l E h Initial Exchange ƒ Initial Exchange of Routing Information –If a routing protocol is configured then If •Routers will exchange routing information •Initially. -Initial network discovery Initial ƒDirectly connected networks are initially placed in routing table © 2010 Cisco Systems. The only information that a router has is from its own saved configuration file stored in NVRAM. Inc.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 . did you notice that R1 does not yet know about 10 4 0 0 and that R3 does not yet know about 10.Network Discovery Cold Starts ƒ Router initial start up (Cold Starts) When a router cold starts or powers up. Inc. ƒ Routing updates received from other routers –Router checks update for new information •If there is new information: –Metric is updated –New information is stored in routing table ƒ After this first round of update exchanges. each router knows about the connected networks of their t k b t th t d t k f th i directly connected neighbors. All rights reserved.0 10. All rights reserved. ƒ However. these updates only include information about their directly connected networks.4. information © 2010 Cisco Systems.0.

Inc.0 g because R2 learned about that network through Serial 0/0/0. Inc. R2 would not send For example an update out Serial 0/0/0 containing the network 10.0.Network Discovery ƒ Next Update of Routing Information Next Update –At this point th routers h At thi i t the t have k knowledge about l d b t their own directly connected networks and about the connected networks of their immediate neighbors neighbors. ƒ Routing updates received from other routers –Router checks update for new information •If there is new information: –Metric is updated –New information is stored in routing table © 2010 Cisco Systems. Split horizon © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. –Continuing the journey toward convergence. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 . –Split horizon prevents information from being sent out the same interface from which it was received. the routers exchange the next round of periodic updates. updates Each router again checks the updates for new information. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 Network Discovery ƒ Distance vector routing protocols typically implement a technique known as split horizon. All rights reserved.1. –For example.

2. learn about the new routes advertised by B2-R4. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 Network Discovery and convergence ƒ The amount of time it takes for a network to converge is directly proportional to the size of that network. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.Network Discovery ƒ Exchange of Routing Information –Router convergence is reached when Next Update •All routing tables in the network contain the same network information. the routing tables contains the same network information. ƒ Convergence must be reached before a network is considered completely operable ƒ Speed of achieving convergence consists of 2 interdependent categories –How quickly the routers propagate a change in the topology in a routing update to its neighbors –The speed of calculating best path routes using the new routing information collected 4 5 For example: It takes five rounds of periodic update intervals before most of the branch routers in Regions 1 2 and 3 1. BUT. 3 2 1 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 . information •[Tony]: The above statement is trying to tell you. i i f h i bl –Routers continue to exchange routing information -If no new information is found then Convergence is reached © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. each router has it’s own variation of the routing table.

0. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.255) whether or not there has been a topology change •RIPv2: updates are sent every 30 seconds as a multicast (224. •RIPv1: updates are sent every 30 seconds as a broadcast (255. Inc. –Failure of a link Failure –Introduction of a new link –Failure of a router –Change of link parameters © 2010 Cisco Systems.255.255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 . Inc.Routing Table Maintenance ƒ Periodic Updates: RIPv1 & RIPv2 –These are time intervals in which a router sends out its entire routing table. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 15 Routing Table Maintenance ƒ Periodic Updates: distance vector protocols employ periodic updates to exchange routing information with their neighbors and to maintain upto-date routing information in the routing table.0.9) whether or not there has been a topology change © 2010 Cisco Systems.

ƒ EIGRP routing updates are –Partial updates •Updates sent only when there is a change in topology that influences routing information –Triggered b t Ti d by topology changes l h –Bounded •Propagation of partial updates are automatically bounded so that only those routers that need the information are updated –Non periodic Updates •Updates are not sent out on a regular basis. Inc. seconds which is 60 seconds longer than the invalid timer. EIGRP sends bounded updates about a . the flush timer is set for 240 seconds. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 Routing Table Maintenance ƒ EIGRP –Unlike other distance vector routing protocols. the route is marked as default) invalid by setting the metric to 16. © 2010 Cisco Systems. EIGRP does not send periodic updates. the route is removed from the routing table. p route when a path changes or the metric for that route changes. More details on how EIGRP operates will be presented in Chapter 9. th h ldd B d f lt the holddown ti timer i set f 180 is t for seconds. All rights reserved. Inc. –Instead. •The route is retained in the routing table until the flush timer expires. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 18 .Routing Table M i t R ti T bl Maintenance ƒ RIP uses 4 timers –Update timer p • interval is a route sends an update –Invalid timer •If an update has not been received after 180 seconds (the default). •By default. •When the flush timer expires. –Holddown timer •This timer stabilizes routing information and helps prevent routing loops during periods when the topology is converging on new information. –Flush timer •By default. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. that notify their neighbors of the change. causing the bad route to be reinserted in a neighbor that had already received the triggered update update. Inc. All rights reserved. turn. ƒ However. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 Routing Table Maintenance problems ƒ RIP Triggered Updates (problems) –Using only triggered updates would be sufficient if there were a guarantee that the wave of updates would reach every appropriate router immediately. ƒ Conditions in which triggered updates are sent –Interface changes state –Route becomes unreachable –Route is placed in routing table © 2010 Cisco Systems. It is possible that a router that has not yet received the triggered update will y gg p issue a regular update at just the wrong time. there are two problems with triggered updates: –Packets containing the update message can be dropped or corrupted by some link in the network.Routing Table Maintenance ƒ RIP Triggered Updates –Routing table update that is sent immediately to adjacent routers in response to a routing change – The receiving routers in turn generate triggered updates routers. network –The triggered updates do not happen instantaneously. Inc.

com/en/US/docs/ios/12_0t/12_0t1/feature/guide/trigrip.Used of random variable called RIP_JITTER •A good reference is : Routing TCP/IP (Jeff Doyle) page 193-196.RIP_JITTER (random to prevent colision .15% of the update timers) © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. serial interfaces. ƒProblems with synchronized updates P bl ith h i d d t -Bandwidth consumption -Packet collisions (with hubs and not with switches) Packet ƒSolution to problems with synchronized updates . Inc.html © 2010 Cisco Systems. –This feature runs on a point-to-point. •interface serial 0 • ip rip triggered http://cisco. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 . Update •Update timers : timer for periodic update (default 30s) . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 ƒ Random Jitter Routing Table Maintenance Synchronized updates A condition where multiple routers on multi access LAN segments transmit routing updates at the same time. serial interface only –Triggered extensions to IP RIP increase efficiency of RIP on point-top point. . Inc.Triggered Extensions to RIP Problems and Prerequisites ƒP Prerequisites i it –RIP must be enabled for this feature to function.

De velopment/source/1578700418/ch05lev1sec1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 Routing Loops R ti L ƒ Routing loops are A condition in which a packet is continuously transmitted within a series of routers i f t without ever reaching its destination. Volume I (CCIE Professional Development) http://www.Volume.5 to 30 seconds.ubookcase. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 .Professional. h i th d lt ti f th d t Routing TCP/IP. as shown in the delta times of these updates.1. All rights reserved. RIP adds a small random variable to the update timer 51 at each reset to help avoid routing table synchronization.com/book/Cisco/Routing. All rights reserved.IP. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.TCP. The RIP updates from Cisco routers vary from 25. Inc.CCIE.I.ƒ Random Jitter Routing Table Maintenance •Figure 5.html#ch05fig1 © 2010 Cisco Systems.

IP has a Time-to-Live ( (TTL) f ) field and its value is decremented by 1 at each router. All rights reserved. Inc.Routing Loops ƒ Routing loops may be caused by: -Incorrectly configured static routes -Incorrectly configured route redistribution -Slow convergence -Incorrectly config red discard ro tes Incorrectl configured routes ƒ Routing loops can create the following issues -Excess use of bandwidth Excess -CPU resources may be strained Network -Network convergence is degraded -Routing updates may be lost or not processed in a timely manner © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 Routing Loops ƒ Routing loops can eliminate –Defining a maximum metric to p g prevent count to infinity y –Holddown timers –Split horizon –Route poisoning or poison reverse –Triggered updates ƒ Note: The IP protocol has its own mechanism to prevent the possibility of a packet traversing the network endlessly. All rights reserved. packet. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 . –If the TTL is zero the router drops the packet If zero.

All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 Preventing loops by Setting a maximum ƒ Setting a maximum g ƒ Distance Vector routing protocols set a specified y metric value to indicate infinity Once a router “counts to infinity” it marks the route as unreachable ƒ RIP defines infinity as 16 hops .an "unreachable" metric. Inc. All rights reserved.Preventing loops with Count ƒC Count t I fi it t to Infinity to Infinity –It is a condition that exists when inaccurate routing updates increase the metric value to "infinity" for a d t i th ti l t "i fi it " f network that is no longer reachable. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 . –This is a routing loop whereby packets bounce This infinitely around a network. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.

If an update with a better metric for that network is received from any neighboring router during the holddown period. that update is ignored. Routers still forward packets to destination networks that are marked as possibly down.Preventing l P ti loops with h ldd ith holddown timers ti ƒ Holddown timers are used to prevent regular update messages from inappropriately reinstating a route that may have gone bad. All rights reserved. Inc. 2. ibl i l ibl The router marks the network as possibly down and starts the holddown timer. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 . © 2010 Cisco Systems.Do not appept the update when the route is flapping -Point of using holddown timers ƒAllows routing updates to propagate through network with the most current information information. black hole routing is created and lasts until the holddown timer expires. This allows the router to overcome any issues associated with intermittent connectivity. more time is allowed for the information about the change to be propagated. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 29 Holddown timers work in the f following way 1. © 2010 Cisco Systems. -Holddown ti H ldd timers allow a router t not accept any changes to a ll t to t t h t route for a specified period of time. If an update from any other neighbor is received during the holddown period with the same or worse metric for that network. Inc. 4. Thus. A router receives an update from a neighbor indicating that a network that previously was accessible is now no longer accessible. 5. All rights reserved. 3. the network is reinstated and the holddown timer period is removed. . If the destination network truly is unavailable and the packets are forwarded.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 32 . All rights reserved.Preventing l P ti loops with h ldd ith holddown timers ti © 2010 Cisco Systems.0 10 4 0 0 back to R2 © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 31 Preventing l P ti loops with Split Horizon ith ƒ The Split Horizon Rule is used to prevent routing loops ƒ Split Horizon rule: A router should not advertise a network through the interface from which the update came. Inc. Because of split horizon. All rights reserved.4. R1 also does not advertise the information about network 10. Inc.

–Unreachable is interpreted as a metric that is set to the t i th t i t t th maximum. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 . All rights reserved. interface advertise it as unreachable back through the same interface –Poison reverse i a specific P i is ifi circumstance that overrides split horizon. 16 16 © 2010 Cisco Systems. 10 4 0 0 © 2010 Cisco Systems.0.4. a poisoned route . All rights reserved. Inc. p has a metric of 16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 Preventing loops with poison reverse ƒ Split horizon with poison reverse –The rule states that once a The router learns of an unreachable route through an interface.0. It occurs to ensure th t R3 i not that is t susceptible to incorrect updates about network 10. Inc. –For RIP.Preventing loops with Route Poisoning ƒ Split horizon with Route poisoning –Route poisoning is used to Route mark the route as unreachable in a routing update that is sent to other routers.

All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 36 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 Preventing loops with TTL © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. If numeric value reaches 0 then Packet is discarded.Preventing loops with TTL ƒ IP & TTL –Purpose of the TTL field P f th fi ld The TTL field is found in an IP header and is i used t prevent packets from endlessly d to t k t f dl l traveling on a network ƒH How th TTL field works the fi ld k -TTL field contains a numeric value The numeric value is decreased by one by every router on the route to the destination.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 . Inc.Routing Protocols Today ƒ Factors used to determine whether to use RIP or EIGRP include -Network size Co pat b ty bet ee ode s of oute s -Compatibility between models o routers -Administrative knowledge © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 37 Routing Protocols Today ƒ RIP ƒFeatures of RIP: -Supports split horizon & split horizon with poison reverse -Capable of load balancing -Easy to configure -Works in a multi vendor router environment Works © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Routing Protocols Today ƒ RIP V2 ƒFeatures of RIP: F t f RIP •Includes the subnet mask in the routing updates. Inc. •Supports variable length subnet mask (VLSM). making it a classless routing protocol. Inc. 39 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . •Uses multicast addresses instead of broadcast. All rights reserved. •Has authentication mechanism to secure routing table d t t bl updates. •Supports manual route summarization. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Routing Protocols Today ƒ EIGRP Features ƒFeatures of EIGRP: -Triggered updates -EIGRP h ll protocol used t establish EIGRP hello t l d to t bli h neighbor adjacencies -Supports VLSM & route summarization Supports -Use of topology table to maintain all routes -Classless distance vector routing protocol -Cisco proprietary protocol 40 © 2010 Cisco Systems.

V.Summary ƒ Characteristics of Distance Vector routing protocols –Periodic updates p –RIP routing updates include the entire routing table –Neighbors are defined as routers that share a link and are configured to use the same protocol ƒ The network discovery process for D. routing protocol –Directly connected routes are placed in routing table 1st –If a routing protocol is configured then •Routers will exchange routing information –Convergence is reached when all network routers have the same network information t ki f ti © 2010 Cisco Systems. holddown timers. routing protocols maintains routing tables by gp g y –RIP sending out periodic updates –RIP using 4 different timers to ensure information is accurate and convergence is achieved in a timely manner –EIGRP sending out triggered updates ƒ D. All rights reserved. routing protocols may be prone to routing loops – routing loops are a condition in which packets continuously traverse a network –Mechanisms used to minimize routing loops include defining maximum hop count.V. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 41 Summary ƒ D.V. route poisoning and triggered updates © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. split horizon. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 42 .

All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 43 Summary ƒ Routing Information Protocol (RIP) A distance vector protocol that has 2 versions RIPv1 – a classful routing protocol RIPv2 .Summary ƒ Conditions that can lead to routing loops include g –Incorrectly configured static routes –Incorrectly configured route redistribution –Slow convergence –Incorrectly configured discard routes ƒ How routing loops can impact network performance includes: –Excess use of bandwidth –CPU resources may be strained –Network convergence is d N t k i degraded d d –Routing updates may be lost or not processed © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 44 .a classless routing protocol ƒ Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) –A distance vector routing protocols that has some features of link state routing protocols –A Cisco proprietary routing protocol A © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2 . Describe how RIPv1 performs automatic f summarization. and operation of the RIPv1 protocol. Inc. Configure a device for using RIPv1. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 Objectives ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Describe the functions.RIP version 1 Chapter 5: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Configure. a d ope a o esc be e u c o s. c a ac e s cs. Verify proper RIPv1 operation. characteristics. Use recommended techniques to solve problems related to RIPv1 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. and troubleshoot default routes propagated in a routed network implementing RIPv1. verify.

RIP has been improved with RIPv2 in 1994 and with RIPng in 1997. Inc. ƒ It later gained popularity because it was p y implemented in the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) as a daemon named routed (pronounced "route-dee". © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Charles Hedrick wrote RFC 1058 in 1988. ƒ Since then. Distance Vector (DV) routing protocol –Metric = hop count –Routes with a hop count > 15 p are unreachable –Updates are broadcast every 30 seconds –The data portion of a RIP message is encapsulated into a UDP segment. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara RIPv1 ƒ RIP Characteristics –A classful. IPv6 form of RIP called RIPng (next generation) is now available 3 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. ƒ Recognizing the need for standardization of the protocol. with both segment source and destination port numbers set to 520. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 . GWINFO evolved into (XNS) RIP. in which he documented the existing protocol and specified some improvements improvements. not "rout-ed"). called Gateway Information Protocol (GWINFO).RIP Historical Impact ƒ RIP evolved from an earlier protocol p developed at Xerox. ƒ With the development of Xerox Network System (XNS).

divided into 3 fields –Command field •REQUEST (1). Inc. All rights reserved. –Version field •1 or 2 –Must be zero •Must be zero" fields provide room p for future expansion of the protocol. Inc.Request either a partial or full table update from another RIP router. All rights reserved. •RESPONSE (2) . IPX. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 6 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 RIPv1 ƒ RIP Operation –RIP uses 2 message types: ƒRequest message -This is sent out on startup by each RIP enabled interface -Requests all RIP enabled neighbors to send Requests routing table Response ƒResponse message -Message sent to requesting router containing routing table © 2010 Cisco Systems. –IP address –Metric © 2010 Cisco Systems.RIPv1 ƒ RIP Message Format ƒ RIP header . ƒ Route Entry . IP etc.A response to a request.composed of 3 fields –Address family identifier •CLNS.

RIPv1 RIP 1 ƒ IP addresses initially divided y into classes -Class A Class -Class B -Class C C ƒ RIP is a classful routing protocol -Does not send subnet masks in routing updates © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 Common RIP configuration issues g RIP and IGRP: ƒ Classful network statements only ƒ IOS will take subnetted networks but will translate it into the classful network for the running-config. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 . © 2010 Cisco Systems.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 Basic RIPv1 Configuration ƒ A typical topology suitable for use by RIPv1 includes: Three -Three router set up -No PCs attached to LANs -Use of 5 diff U f different IP t subnets © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.RIPv1 ƒ Administrative Distance –RIP’s default administrative distance is 120 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 .

Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 Basic RIPv1 Configuration ƒ Specifying Networks p y g –Use the network command to: RIP on all interfaces that belong to this network -Advertise this network in RIP updates sent to other routers every 30 seconds © 2010 Cisco Systems.Basic RIP 1 C fi B i RIPv1 Configuration ti ƒ Router RIP Command –To enable RIP enter: -Router rip at the global configuration prompt -Prompt will look like R1(config-router)# © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara -Enable 12 . All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Inc. Inc.Verification and Troubleshooting ƒ Show ip Route ƒ To verify and troubleshoot routing -Use the following commands: -show ip route -show ip protocols show -debug ip rip 13 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 . All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Verification d T V ifi ti and Troubleshooting bl h ti ƒ show ip protocols command -Displays routing protocol t l configured on router t POP QUIZ: What is the different between the output of the command “show ip route” p and “show ip protocol”? © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 15 Verification and Troubleshooting ƒ Passive interface command Used -Used to prevent a router from sending updates through an interface -Example: Router(config-router)#passive-interface interface-type interface-number © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 . Inc. All rights reserved.ƒ Debug ip rip command Verification and Troubleshooting -Used to display RIP routing updates as they are Used happening © 2010 Cisco Systems.

a route filter influences which routes the router advertises to its neighbors. Lab: L b ƒ On the other hand. (Tony) Route filtering could have negative effect on the link-state routing protocol.Verification and Troubleshooting ƒ Passive interfaces © 2010 Cisco Systems. routers running link hand state protocols determine routes based on information in the link-state database. Inc. Route filters have no effect on link-state advertisements or the link state database link-state database. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 Preventing routing updates through an interface g g p g ƒ Route filtering works by regulating the routes that are entered into or advertised out of a route table. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 18 . As a result. but the router continues to listen and use routing updates from that neighbor neighbor. All rights reserved. Inc. ƒ Using the passive interface command can prevent routers from sending routing updates through a router interface. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Keeping routing update messages from being sent through a router interface prevents other systems on that network from learning about routes dynamically dynamically.

0/24 192.0 172. you .168.0/16 classful network address: All interfaces on R1 S0/0/0 and Fa0/0 on R2 © 2010 Cisco Systems.30. When you use “passive interface” on a distance vector routing p g protocol.30.0/16 192.30. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 Automatic Summarization Modified Topology ƒ The original scenario has been modified such that: Three classful networks are used: 172.168.0.0/16 network is subnetted into three subnets: 172.3. Inc. story.0.0.30.4.0/24 The following devices are part of the 172.30. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 172.30.0 172.Preventing routing updates through an interface 1 It will break the rip update ƒ Again this is only half the Again.5.30.1. Inc. 2 You can use the “ip route” command to send route update back b k to establish the 2 way bli h h communication © 2010 Cisco Systems.y need to complement it with “ip route” command.0/24 172.0/24 172.30.1.30.2.0 20 . All rights reserved.3.2.0/24 192 168 5 0/24 The 172.

Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 ƒ Boundary Routers Automatic Summarization –RIP automatically summarizes classful networks RIP –Boundary routers summarize RIP subnets from one major network to another another. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Automatic Summarization ƒ C fi Configuration Details ti D t il -To remove the RIP routing process use th f ll i the following command No N router rip t i -To check the configuration use the following command Show run © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc.Automatic Summarization Processing RIP Updates ƒ 2 rules govern RIPv1 updates: -If a routing update and the interface it’s g p received on belong to the same network then The subnet mask of the interface is applied to the network in the routing update -If a routing update and the interface it’s If it s received on belong to a different network then The l Th classful subnet mask of the f l b k f h network is applied to the network in the routing update. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 Automatic Summarization ƒ Sending RIP Updates –RIP uses automatic summarization to reduce the size of a routing table table.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 Automatic Summarization ƒ Disadvantage of Automatic Summarization: -Does not support discontiguous networks © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 . All rights reserved. Inc.Automatic Summarization A i S i i ƒ Advantages of automatic summarization: -The size of routing updates is reduced -Single routes are used to represent multiple routes which results in faster lookup in the routing table. © 2010 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 Automatic Summarization © 2010 Cisco Systems.Automatic Summarization ƒ Discontiguous Topologies do not converge with RIP 1 i h RIPv1 ƒ A router will only advertise major network addresses out interfaces that do not belong to the advertised route. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 .

All rights reserved. Inc.0 0.0.0. Command used to configure a default route is ip route 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 s0/0/1 0. Inc.0.Default Route and RIPv1 ƒ Modified Topology: Scenario C p gy ƒ Default routes Packets that are not d fi d specifically i a routing P k h defined ifi ll in i table will go to the specified interface for the default route Example: Customer routers use default routes to connect to an ISP router. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 29 Default Route and RIPv1 © 2010 Cisco Systems.0 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 . All rights reserved.0.

168. I .1. 00:00:22. 00:00:11.16.0/24 [ 00/85 6] via 192.0.0/24 i 192.0.0/24 [120/1] via 192.168. 00:00:09. R . Serial0 Mobile#sho ip route Codes: C .1.connected.candidate default Gateway of last resort is 0.1.0 C R R 172.2.1.168.2. S .168.168.5. Se a 0 192.1.1. Serial0 192. Serial0 192.0/24 [120/1] via 192.0/24 [120/2] via 192.0/24 [120/1] via 192. Serial0 S* 0.RIP. Setup up a default route on the Centre router Centre(config)#ip route 0.168.IGRP.168. Serial0 © 2010 Cisco Systems.2. 00:00:09.168.connected.168.168. Serial0 192. S .2. Gateway of last resort is 192.0/24 [120/1] via 192. Serial0 192.1.0 to network 0.0.1.0.1.RIP.0.static. Inc. Loopback0 9 68 0/ [100/8576] a 9 68 .0.168.168. . Ethernet0 192.4.0 loopback0 Centre(config)#router rip Centre(config-router)#default-information originate Centre#sh ip route .1. Loopback0 R* 0.0.4. Inc.168. Ethernet0 192.0.5.0 0.1.2.168. Serial0 192 168 3 0/24 [120/2] via 192 168 1 1 00:00:04 Serial0 192.1 is directly connected. R . Gateway of last resort is not set Mobile#sho ip M bil # h i route t Codes: C .1.0.168.RIP.0/24 is directly connected.168. S .168.IGRP.Default R t D f lt Route and RIP 1 d RIPv1 ƒ Propagating the Default Route in RIPv1 ƒ Default-information originate command -This command is used to specify that the router is to originate This default information.static. S .1.1. Serial0 192.1.0/0 [120/2] via 192.4. Serial0 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 32 .0.168.0/24 [120/1] via 192. 00:00:11.0/24 is directly connected.168.0/0 is directly connected.static. 00:00:04.1. Ethernet0 R C C R R 192 168 4 0/24 [120/1] via 192 168 1 1 00 00 04 S i l0 192. 00:00:04. * .5.1.connected.168.0. Codes: C .0/24 is directly connected.0 R C C R R 192. I .0/24 [120/2] via 192.mobile. 00:00:09.1.0.0/24 is directly connected. 00:00:04.3.168.4.candidate default . All rights reserved. 00:00:22. Serial0 192. All rights reserved.0. Serial0 192.0/24 192.1. Serial0 192.0/24 is directly connected.3.168.168.168. 00 00 .2. by propagating the static default route in RIP update.static.3.168. Gateway of last resort is not set R R C C 192.mobile.1.168.168.2. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 31 Default route with RIP Centre#show ip route Codes: C . M .168. © 2010 Cisco Systems.1.1.1. 00:00:04.connected.0/24 is directly connected.1 to network 0.0. * . M .

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 . All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 Summary: Commands used by RIP Command Rtr(config)#router rip Rtr(config-router)#network Command’s purpose Enables RIP routing process Associates a network with a RIP routing process Rtr#debug ip rip used to view real time RIP routing updates Rtr(config-router)#passive-interface fa0/0 Prevent RIP updates from going out an interface Rtr(config-router)#default-information originate Used by RIP to propagate default routes pp Rtr#show ip protocols Used to display timers used by RIP p y y © 2010 Cisco Systems.Summary ƒ RIP characteristics include: Classful. di t Cl f l distance vector routing protocol t ti t l Metric is Hop Count Does not support VLSM or discontiguous subnets Updates every 30 seconds ƒ Rip messages are encapsulated in a UDP segment with source and destination ports of 520 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.

it became possible to summarize a large collection of classful networks into an aggregate route. Review VLSM and explain the benefits of classless IP addressing. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2 . or supernet. ƒ © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.VLSM and CIDR Chapter 6: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 Objectives ƒ ƒ ƒ Co pa e and contrast classful and classless Compare a d co as c ass u a d c ass ess IP addressing. Describe the role of the Classless Inter-Domain Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) standard in making efficient use of scarce IPv4 addresses In addition to subnetting. All rights reserved.

–Classless routing protocols do include the subnet mask in routing updates and are not required to perform summarization. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 3 Introduction ƒ With the introduction of CIDR and VLSM. •Class B used 16 bits. Inc. All rights reserved.Introduction ƒ Prior to 1981. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –This format became known as classful IP addressing. ƒ IP address space was depleting rapidly the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) introduced Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) –CIDR uses Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) to help conserve address space. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 . i ti –The classless routing protocols discussed in this course are RIPv2 EIGRP and OSPF RIPv2. -VLSM is simply subnetting a subnet © 2010 Cisco Systems. customer ƒ This discontiguous address assignment by ISPs was paralleled by the development of classless routing protocols. OSPF. RFC 791 modified the IPv4 32-bit address to allow for three different classes •Class A addresses used 8 bits for the network portion of the address. •Class C used 24 bits bits. IP addresses used only the first 8 bits to specify the network portion of the address p ƒ In 1981. ISPs could now co ld no assign one part of a classf l net ork to classful network one customer and different part to another customer.

0.255.0 127. Inc. –1989. RFC 1631) -Private Addressing (1996 RFC 1918) Private (1996. Classful and Classless IP Addressing © 2010 Cisco Systems.0 to 223. All rights reserved.0. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 ƒ Classes of IP addresses are identified by the decimal number of the 1st octet Class A address begin with a 0 bit Range of class A addresses = 0 0 0 0 to 127 255 255 255 0. there are over 433 million hosts on internet As 2007 ƒ Initiatives to conserve IPv4 address space include: -VLSM & CIDR notation (1993 RFC 1519) VLSM (1993.0 191.255. © 2010 Cisco Systems.255 Class B address begin with a 1 bit and a 0 bit Range of class B addresses = 128 0 0 0 to 191 255 255 255 128. –As of January 2007.0.255. -Network Address Translation (1994.0. anticipated that the Internet would explode.255.0. All rights reserved.255 Class C addresses begin with two 1 bits & a 0 bit Range of class C addresses = 192 0 0 0 t 223 255 255 255 R f l dd 192.0. ARPANET transformed into what we now call the Internet.255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 6 .255.255.Classful and Classless IP Addressing ƒ Classful IP addressing –When the ARPANET was commissioned in 1969 no one When 1969.

Inc. g Multicast addresses are used to identify a group of hosts that are part of a multicast group. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.Classful and Classless IP Addressing ƒ Multicast addresses begin with three 1s and a 0 bit. ƒ IP addresses that begin with four 1 bits were reserved for future use. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 Classful Classf l and Classless IP Addressing ƒ The IPv4 Classful Addressing Structure (RFC 790) An A IP address h 2 parts: dd has -The network portion Found on the left side of an IP address -The host portion Found on the right side of an IP address © 2010 Cisco Systems.

–With 24 bits in the host portion. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 Classful Classf l and Classless IP Addressing ƒ With 24 bits in the host portion.0 classful subnet mask. –Because only 7 bits were left in the first octet (remember.0.0/8. each class A address had the potential f over 16 million i di id l h t addresses. l dd –General Electric owns 3. ƒ What was one organization going to do with 16 million addresses? ƒ Now you can understand the tremendous waste of address space that occurred in the beginning days of the Internet. Postal Service owns 56.S. 255. p g g y when companies received class A addresses. each class A address had the potential for over 16 million individual host addresses addresses. All rights reserved.0/8.0. Inc.Classful Classf l and Classless IP Addressing ƒ As shown in the figure. class A networks used the first octet for network assignment which translated to a 255 0 0 0 assignment. the first bit Because (remember is always 0). this made 2 to the 7th power or 128 networks. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. –Apple Computer owns 17 0 0 0/8 Apple 17. ƒ Some companies and governmental organizations still have class A addresses. –U.0. Inc. t ti l for illi individual host dd © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. All rights reserved.0.0/8.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 .0.

384 addresses. –Because each class B network address contained 16 bits in the host portion. each class C network only had 8 bits in the host y portion. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 . 14 bits remained in the first two octets for assigning networks.534 addresses. (Remember. it controlled 65. All rights reserved. 21 bits remained for assigning networks for over 2 million class C networks. Inc. or 254 possible host addresses. All rights reserved. network –With the first three bits established as 1 and 1 and 0. 2 addresses were reserved for the network and broadcast addresses. Inc. network –With the first two bits already established as 1 and 0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 Classful Classf l and Classless IP Addressing ƒ class C: RFC 790 specified the first three octets as network. which resulted in 16 384 class B network addresses 16. © 2010 Cisco Systems.Classful Classf l and Classless IP Addressing ƒ Class B: RFC 790 specified the first two octets as network.) © 2010 Cisco Systems. –But.

0.16.16. Inc.0/24 into the 172 16 2 0/24 and 172 16 3 0/24 i t th major classful network 172 16 0 0 j l f l t k 172.3.Classful Classf l and Classless IP Addressing ƒ Classful Routing Updates –Recall that classful routing protocols (i.2. •When R2 recei es the update. or by applying its ingress interface mask for subnetted routes The subnet mask was routes.16.16. Therefore.1. d 172. it will apply the classful mask for a class B network.e.0.16. /16 /24 /16 © 2010 Cisco Systems.0 network as the outgoing interface.1. •Because R3 does not have any subnets that belong to 172.0.16.0. it applies the recei ing interface s bnet When receives pdate receiving subnet mask (/24) to the update and adds 172. directly related to the network address.0 to the routing table –When sending updates to R3.16. /24 /16 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.0/24. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 Classful Classf l and Classless IP Addressing ƒ In the example.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 . R2 summarizes subnets 172.0.16.1. it sends a RIP update to R2 containing subnet 172. –R1 knows that subnet 172 16 1 0 belongs to the same major classful R1 172. RIPv1) do not send subnet masks in their routing updates –This is because the router receiving the routing update could determine the subnet mask simply by examining the value of the first octet in the network address.0/24. 172. Inc. All rights reserved.

Classful and Classless IP Addressing
ƒ Classless Inter-domain Routing ( g (CIDR – RFC 1517) ) ƒAdvantage of CIDR :
ƒMore efficient use of IPv4 address space ƒRoute summarization ƒ(Æ reduce routing table size) ƒ(Æ reduce routing update traffic)

ƒRequires subnet mask to be included in routing update because address class is meaningless
ƒ The network portion of the address is determined by the network subnet mask, also known as the network prefix, or prefix length (/8, /19, etc.). ƒThe network address is no longer determined by the class of the address Blocks ƒBlocks of IP addresses could be assigned to a network based on the requirements of the customer, ranging from a few hosts to hundreds or thousands of hosts.
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15

Classful and Classless IP Addressing
ƒ Classless IP Addressing ƒ CIDR & Route Summarization
–Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) –Allows a subnet to be further sub-netted •according to individual needs –Prefix Aggregation a.k.a. Route Summarization –CIDR allows for routes to be summarized as a single route

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Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara

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Classful and Classless IP Addressing
ƒ Route Summarization
– In the figure, notice that ISP1 has four customers, each with a variable amount of IP address space. –However, all of the customer address space can be summarized However into one advertisement to ISP2. –The 192.168.0.0/20 summarized or aggregated route includes all the networks belonging to Customers A, B, C, and D. •This type of route is known as a supernet route. •A supernet summarizes multiple network addresses with a mask A t i lti l t k dd ith k less than the classful mask.

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Classful and Classless IP Addressing
ƒ Route Summarization
– Propagating VLSM and supernet routes requires a classless routing protocol, because the subnet mask can no longer be determined by the value of the first octet. •Classless routing protocols include the subnet mask with th network address i th routing update. ith the t k dd in the ti d t •RIPv2, EIGRP, IS-IS, OSPF and BGP. •Interior: I i •RIPv2 •EIGRP EIGRP •IS-IS •OSPF •Exterior: Exterior: •BGP
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Classful and Classless IP Addressing

ƒIs there any difference between the terms CIDR and VLSM??

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Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara

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Classful and Classless IP Addressing
ƒ For example, the networks 172.16.0.0/16, 172.17.0.0/16, 172.18.0.0/16 p and 172.19.0.0/16 can be summarized as 172.16.0.0/14.
–If R2 sends the 172.16.0.0 summary route without the /14 mask, R3 only knows to apply the default classful mask of /16. –In a classful routing protocol scenario, R3 is unaware of the 172.17.0.0/16, 172.18.0.0/16 and 172.19.0.0/16 networks –With a classless routing protocol, R2 will advertise the 172.16.0.0 gp network along with the /14 mask to R3. R3 will then be able to install the supernet route 172.16.0.0/14 in its routing table giving it reachability to the 172.16.0.0/16, 172.17.0.0/16, 172.18.0.0/16 and 172.19.0.0/16 networks.

172.16.0.0 /14
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Classful and Classless IP Addressing
ƒ Classless Routing Protocol

Routing Protocol

Classful (RIPv1) Classless

Routing updates Include c ude subnet Mask No Yes

Supports VLSM

Ability to send Supe e Supernet routes No Yes
21

No Yes

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VLSM
ƒ Classful routing -only allows for one only subnet mask for all networks ƒ VLSM & classless routing This -This is the process of subnetting a subnet -More than one subnet mask can be used

-More efficient use of IP
addresses as compared to classful IP addressing
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22

VLSM
ƒ VLSM – the process of sub-netting sub netting a subnet to fit your needs Example: -Example: Subnet 10.1.0.0/16, 8 o e bits are borrowed more b ts a e bo o ed again, to create 256 subnets with a /24 mask.
-Mask allows f 254 h t M k ll for host addresses per subnet -Subnets range from: 10.1.0.0 10 1 0 0 / 24 t to 10.1.255.0 / 24

* Same process for Subnet 10.2.0.0/16
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23

VLSM
ƒ Subnet 10.3.0.0/16, 12 more bits are borrowed again, to create 4,096 subnets with a /28 mask.
–Mask allows for 14 host addresses per subnet –Subnets range from: 10.3.0.0 Subnets / 28 to 10.3.255.240 / 28

ƒ Subnet 10.4.0.0/16, 4 more bits bit are b borrowed again, t d i to create 16 subnets with a /20 mask.
–Mask allows for 2,046 host addresses per subnet –Subnets range from: 10 4 0 0 Subnets 10.4.0.0 / 20 to 10.4.240.0 / 20
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24

0. than with the 13 bits of the 172.0 / 16 to 172.0/16 using L t th t t h ifi t f 172 22 0 0/16 i Serial 0/0/1 and a summary route of 172.255.22.0/16 and 172. All rights reserved.n.22.Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) Inter-Domain ƒ Route summarization done by CIDR -Routes are summarized with masks that are less than that of the default classful mask (supernetting) -Example: 172. –It is possible that a router could have both a specific route entry and a summary route entry covering the same network.22.0 / 13 is the summarized route for the 172.0/13 summary route.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 .0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) Inter-Domain ƒ Note: You may recall that a supernet is always a route summary.16. ip route 172. Inc.23.0 would be sent out the Serial0/0/1 interface because there is a more specific match of 16 bits. –These packets destined for 172.0.0.23.0 / 16 classful networks Although 172.0. –Packets with the IP address of 172.0.16.0/16 are not shown in the graphic. –Let us assume that router X has a specific route for 172.16.22. All rights reserved.0 255.0.0. these are also included in the summary route route.0 s 0/0/1 Router X s 0/0/1 © 2010 Cisco Systems.n match both route entries.0.0/13 using Serial0/0/0.16. but a route summary is not always a supernet.22. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.0.

7.4.168.6.16/29 192. All rights reserved.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 .0. Copy the matching bits and add zero bits to determine the summarized network address © 2010 Cisco Systems.Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) ƒ Steps to calculate a route summary 1.168.168. Inc.0/30 192.0.0/30 192.168.168.4/30 192.0/29 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000000 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000000 00000100 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000000 00001000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000000 00010000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000100 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000101 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000110 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00000111 00000000 ƒ Answer: © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/30 192.5. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 Example: Calculating a summary route ƒ Which address can be used to summarize networks ƒ A: • • • • • B • • • • 192. 2 Count number of left most matching bits to determine summary route’s mask t ’ k 3.168. Inc.168.0. All rights reserved.0/30 192 168 6 0/30 192.168. List t 1 Li t networks i bi k in binary format 2.8/30 192 168 0 8/30 192.

32.168. © 2010 Cisco Systems.168..Example: Calculating a summary route ƒ Reverse process of summary route: ƒ Can you figure what networks are included in 192.1. ƒ 11000000 10101000 00101101 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00101110 00000000 ƒ Answer: © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 . you will use the network address 192. All rights reserved..0 /20 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00100000 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00100000 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00100001 00000000 ƒ 11000000 10101000 00100010 00000000 ƒ ….1 ƒ In this activity.4. ƒ 11000000 10101000 00101111 00000000 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 29 Designing VLSM Addressing 6. ƒ …. Inc.0/24 192 168 1 0/24 to subnet and provide g the IP addressing for a given topology.

–The SE-ST2 (Southeast Satellite2) LAN2 will require 125 host IP addresses.2 ƒ In this activity. –The SE-BR1 (Southeast Branch1) LAN1 will require 1000 host IP addresses. you will use the network address 172. © 2010 Cisco Systems.4. –The S-WEST (Southwest) LAN2 will require 4000 host IP addresses.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 31 Designing VLSM Addressing 6. –The NW-BR2 (Northwest Branch2) LAN2 will require 1000 host IP addresses. All rights reserved. –The SE-ST1 (Southeast Satellite1) LAN2 will require 250 host IP addresses. –The NW-BR1 (Northwest Branch1) LAN1 will require 2000 host IP addresses.0/16 172 16 0 0/16 to subnet and provide g the IP addressing for a given topology. –The SE-BR1 (Southeast Branch1) LAN2 will require 1000 host IP addresses. ƒ Central Network Section –The Central LAN1 will require 8000 host IP addresses The addresses. –The SE-BR2 (Southeast Branch2) LAN2 will require 500 host IP addresses.Designing VLSM Addressing 6.16.2 ƒ Th network has the following addressing requirements: The t k h th f ll i dd i i t ƒ East Network Section –The N-EAST (Northeast) LAN1 will require 4000 host IP addresses. –The N-EAST (Northeast) LAN2 will require 4000 host IP addresses. –The SE-BR2 (Southeast Branch2) LAN1 will require 500 host IP addresses.4. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 32 . –The SE ST1 (Southeast Satellite1) LAN1 will require 250 host IP addresses The SE-ST1 addresses. –The SE-ST2 (Southeast Satellite2) LAN1 will require 125 host IP addresses. –The NW-BR2 (Northwest Branch2) LAN1 will require 1000 host IP addresses. ƒ West Network Section –The S-WEST (Southwest) LAN1 will require 4000 host IP addresses. Inc. –The NW-BR1 (Northwest Branch1) LAN2 will require 2000 host IP addresses The NW BR1 addresses. Inc. –The Central LAN2 will require 4000 host IP addresses. ƒ The WAN links between each of the routers will require an IP address for each end of the link. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems.

Troubleshooting VLSM Addressing 6. Inc. you are given a network with subnetting and address assignments already completed.16. All rights reserved. VLSM has been used to subnet the address space p incorrectly.4. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 Basic Route Summarization 6. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 . ƒ You will need to troubleshoot the addressing that was assigned to each subnet to determine where errors are present and determine the correct addressing assignments where needed. © 2010 Cisco Systems.4 ƒ In this activity.0/17 was used to provide the IP addressing for a network.128. Inc.4. the network address 172. All rights reserved.3 ƒ In this activity. ƒ Your task is to determine summarized routes that can be used to reduce the number of entries in routing tables © 2010 Cisco Systems.

5.0/27 192.168.168. Inc.64/26 192.6.7.168.7.168.4.128/27 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 Challenge Route Summarization 6.168. ƒ Your task is to determine summarized routes that can be used to reduce the number of entries in routing tables © 2010 Cisco Systems.7.192/29 192.168.4.168.236/30 192 168 4 236/30 © 2010 Cisco Systems.7. Inc.0/25 192.7.128/27 192.4.168.200/29 192.168.168.128/26 192.72/30 192.4.168.32/27 192. All rights reserved.0/26 192 168 4 0/26 192.216/29 192.192/30 192 168 6 192/30 Addressing Table ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Subnet Network Address N-EAST LAN1 192.5.168.168.228/30 192.168.4.208/29 192.7.160/27 192.7.7.6.4.168.64/30 192.192/28 192.208/28 192.4. you are given a network with subnetting and address assignments already completed.168.168.4.168.168.168.228/30 192. All rights reserved.7.224/30 192.5 ƒ In this activity.5.168.4.224/30 192.192/30 Link from EAST to S-EAST 192.4.168.6.68/30 192.168.4.32/27 192 168 5 32/27 Link from EAST to N-EAST 192.5 Addressing T bl Add i Table ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Subnet S-WEST LAN1 S-WEST LAN2 Link from WEST to N-WEST Link from WEST to S-WEST Link from HQ to WEST NW-BR1 LAN1 NW-BR1 LAN2 NW-BR2 LAN1 NW-BR2 LAN2 Link from N-WEST to NW-BR1 N WEST NW BR1 Link from N-WEST to NW-BR2 CENTRAL LAN1 CENTRAL LAN2 Link from HQ to CENTRAL Network Address 192.168.0/27 N EAST N-EAST LAN2 192.168.4.7.4.168.168.232/30 192.4. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 36 .168.200/30 192.196/30 Link from HQ to EAST SE-BR1 SE BR1 LAN1 SE-BR1 LAN2 SE-BR2 LAN1 SE-BR2 LAN2 SE-ST1 LAN1 SE-ST1 LAN2 SE-ST2 LAN1 SE-ST2 LAN2 Link from SE-BR2 to SE-ST1 Link from SE-BR2 to SE-ST2 Link from S-EAST to SE-BR2 Link from S-EAST to SE BR1 S EAST SE-BR1 192.168.7.Challenge Route Summarization 6.168.168.160/27 192.5.5.

52.56.48.16. Inc.32. VLSM was used to subnet the address space.0/20 172. WEST. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 .0/23 172.16.Troubleshooting Route Summarization 6.30.6 ƒ In this activity. The summary routes are y incorrect.16.4. ƒ You will need to troubleshoot the summary routes that have been assigned to determine where errors are present and determine the correct summary routes.58.0/19 172 16 32 0/19 172. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Summary ƒ Classful IP addressing ƒIPv4 addresses have 2 parts: -Network portion found on left side of an IP address -Host portion found on right side of an IP address ƒClass A.16. Addressing Table Router HQ HQ WEST WEST EAST EAST ISP Summary Route WEST LANs EAST LANs HQ LAN LANs EAST LANs HQ LANs WEST LANs HQ. All rights reserved. Inc.16. the LAN IP addressing is already completed for the network.32. and EAST LANs Network Address 172.0/21 172.0/21 172 16 48 0/21 172.0/23 172.16.16. B. & C addresses were designed to provide IP addresses for different sized organizations ƒThe class of an IP address is determined by the decimal value found in the 1st octet ƒIP addresses are running out so the use of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) and Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM) are used to try and conserve address space © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/18 37 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Summary ƒ Classful Routing Updates –Subnet masks are not sent in routing updates ƒ Classless IP addressing –Benefit of classless IP addressing ƒCan create additional network addresses using a subnet mask that fits your needs y –Uses Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 40 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 39 Summary ƒ CIDR ƒ Uses IP addresses more efficiently through use of VLSM -VLSM is the process of subnetting a subnet ƒ Allows for route summarization -Route summarization is Route representing multiple contiguous g routes with a single route © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Summary ƒ Classless Routing Updates Subnet masks are included in updates © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 41 RIPv2 Chapter 7: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 . Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

cisco. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara http://www. Analyze router output to see RIPv2 support for VLSM and CIDR Identify RIPv2 verification commands and common RIPv2 issues. Apply the basic Routing Information Protocol Version 2 (RIPv2) configuration commands and evaluate RIPv2 classless routing updates. RIPv1 s features •Next hop address is included in updates •The use of authentication is an option © 2010 Cisco Systems. 2 Introduction ƒ Difference between RIPv1 & RIPv2 ƒRIPv1 •A classful distance vector routing protocol Does •Does not support discontiguous subnets •Does not support VLSM •Does not send subnet mask in routing update •Routing updates are broadcast ƒRIPv2 •A classless distance vector routing protocol that is an enhancement of RIPv1’s features.255.com/univercd/cc/t d/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/rip. All rights reserved.9 vs. Inc.Objectives ƒ ƒ Encounter a d desc be the limitations o RIPv1’s cou e and describe e a o s of s limitations. 255.255. All rights reserved. and troubleshoot RIPv2 in “handson” labs Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara ƒ ƒ ƒ © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.0.255) 3 . Configure.0.htm •Routing updates are multicast (224. verify.

Inc.0/16 major classful 172 30 0 0/16 network (class B).200.0.0/16 is divided by the 209.30.0/24.0/24 major classful network (class C). Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 RIPv1 Limitations RIP 1 Li it ti ƒ Lab Topology ƒ3 router set up 3 t t ƒTopology is discontiguous ƒThere exists a static summary route ƒStatic route information can be injected into routing table updates using redistribution. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.Introduction ƒ Similarities between RIPv1 & RIPv2 – Use of timers to prevent routing loops – Use of split horizon or split horizon with poison reverse to also help prevent routing loops. © 2010 Cisco Systems. – Maximum hop count of 15.0.165. ƒThis topology is discontiguous and will not converge because 172. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 . – Use of triggered updates when there is a change in the topology for faster convergence.165. ƒAlso remember that R1 and R3 are connected to R2 using subnets of the g 209. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. with the hop count of 16 signifying 15 an unreachable network.200. ƒRouters 1 & 3 contain VLSM Routers networks ƒRemember that both the R1 and R3 routers have subnets that are part of the 172.30.

30. in the top chart.0/24 and 172.255.1.30. g using the first four bits for subnets and the last four bits for hosts. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/16 network subnetted into /24 subnets. The configuration of this y summary route will be displayed later in this section.255.200.2.0/24 subnet and subnetted it again.240 mask or /28. Subnet 1 and Subnet 2 are assigned to R3. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.30. ƒ I the bottom chart. both R1 and R3 have had the 172.168.0/24) –two to R3 (172.110.30. The result is a 255.0.30. we have In th b tt h t h taken the 172. Inc.0/24). Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 . © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/16 network. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 6 RIPv1 Limitations RIP 1 Li it ti ƒ Review the VLSM addressing scheme in the figure As shown figure.0.0/24 and ( 172.30. subnets –Four of these /24 subnets are assigned: –two to R1 (172. Inc.100.RIPv1 Limitations RIP 1 Li it ti ƒ The topology shows that R2 has a static summary route to the 192.

or when inside users need t access outside sites. ƒLoopback interfaces are also used by other routing p protocols. d to t id it a public IP address must be used. All rights reserved. ƒIn a lab environment.) ƒ Loopback interfaces -These are virtual interfaces that can be pinged and added to routing table Cisco has set these addresses aside for educational purposes. R3 does not need four LAN interfaces to demonstrate multiple subnets and VLSM.RIPv1 RIP 1 Limitations ƒ Scenario Continued ƒ VLSM S -Recall this is sub netting the subnet ƒ Private IP addresses are on LAN links ƒ Public IP addresses are used on WAN links (through an ISP. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Lo1. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 RIPv1 Limitations ƒ Loopback interfaces ƒNotice that R3 is using loopback interfaces (Lo0. © 2010 Cisco Systems. . p p ƒThese uses will be discussed in Chapter 11 OSPF. ƒLike other interfaces. ƒA loopback interface can be pinged and the subnet can be advertised in routing updates. Instead. such as OSPF. ƒA loopback interface is a software-only interface that is used to emulate a physical interface interface. ƒIn our example. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 . for different purposes. loopback interfaces are useful in creating additional networks without having to add more physical interfaces on the router router. Therefore. loopback interfaces are ideal for simulating multiple networks attached to the same router. it can be assigned an IP address. we use loopback interfaces. Inc. . and Lo2). Inc. ƒTherefore.

-R2(config-router)#redistribute static R2( fi t )# di t ib t t ti © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. – You do not need to enter any commands to create or configure the null interface.255.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 RIPv1 Limitations ƒ R2(config)#ip route 192. © 2010 Cisco Systems.168.0 255. All rights reserved. interface –It is always up but does not forward or receive traffic. Inc. Inc. we want the RIP process on R2 to redistribute our static route (192. we use a null interface as the exit interface.0/16) by importing the route into RIP and then sending it to R1 and R3 using the RIP process.0.168.168.0 Null0 –The address space represented by the static summary route The 192. –In order to simulate this static route.0/16 does not actually exist. Traffic sent to the null interface is discarded.RIPv1 Limitations ƒ Route redistribution – Redistribution involves taking the routes from one routing source and sending those routes to another routing source. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 .0.0. • In our example topology.

Static routes and null interfaces
ƒ Static routes a d null interfaces Stat c outes and u te aces
R2(config)#ip route 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 Null0

ƒa static route must have an active exit interface a before it will be installed in the routing table. g ƒUsing the null interface will allow R2 to advertise the static route in RIP even though networks belonging to the summary 192.168.0.0/16 do not actually exist.

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Verifying d T ti C V if i and Testing Connectivity ti it
ƒ show ip interfaces brief
–To test whether or not the topology has full T t t h th t th t l h f ll connectivity, we first verify that both serial links on R2 are up using the show ip interface brief ƒ Ping
ƒWhenever R2 pings any of the 172.30.0.0 subnets on R1 or R3, only about 50% of the ICMP are successful. ƒR1 is able to ping 10.1.0.1 but is unsuccessful when attempting to ping the 172.30.100.1 on R3 ƒR3 is able to ping 10 1 0 1 but is unsuccessful 10.1.0.1 when attempting to ping the 172.30.1.1 on R1.

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ƒ RIPv1 – a classful routing protocol
–Subnet mask are not sent in updates Subnet –Summarizes networks at major network boundaries –RIPv1 cannot support discontiguous networks, VLSM, or CIDR. –if network i di if t k is discontiguous and RIP 1 configured convergence will not b ti d RIPv1 fi d ill t be reached –RIPv1 on both the R1 and R3 routers will summarize their 172.30.0.0 subnets to the classful major network address of 172 30 0 0 when sending 172.30.0.0 routing updates to R2. –From the perspective of R2, both updates have an equal cost of 1 hop to reach network 172 30 0 0/16 As you will see R2 installs both paths in the 172.30.0.0/16. see, routing table.

RIPv1 Limitations RIP 1 Li it ti

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RIPv1 Limitations RIP 1 Li it ti
ƒExamining the routing tables -To examine the contents of routing updates use the debug ip rip command
R2 is receiving two 172.30.0.0 equal cost i i i t 172 30 0 0 l t routes with a metric of 1 hop. R2 is receiving one route on Serial 0/0/0 from R1 and the other route on Serial 0/0/1 from R3.

R2 has two equal cost routes to the 172.30.0.0/16 network.

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RIPv1 Limitations RIP 1 Li it ti
•R1 has its own 172 30 0 0 routes: 172.30.0.0 172.30.2.0/24 and 172.30.1.0/24. •But R1 does not send R2 those subnets. •R3 has a similar routing table. •Both R1 and R3 are b B th d boundary routers and d t d are only sending the summarized 172.30.0.0 network to R2 in their RIPv1 routing updates. •As a result, R2 only k A lt l knows about th b t the 172.30.0.0/16 classful network and is unaware of any 172.30.0.0 subnets.

•R2 that it is not including the 172.30.0.0 network in its updates to either R1 or R3. •Because the split horizon rule is in effect. •R2 learned about 172 30 0 0/16 on both the 172.30.0.0/16 Serial 0/0/0 and Serial 0/0/1 interfaces, it does not include that network in updates it sends out these same interfaces.

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RIPv1 Limitations
ƒ Because RIPv1 does not send the subnet mask in routing updates, it g p cannot support VLSM. ƒ R3 router is configured with VLSM subnets, subnets all of which are members of the class B network 172.30.0.0/16:
–172.30.100.0/24 (FastEthernet 0/0) 172.30.100.0/24 –172.30.110.0/24 (Loopback 0) –172.30.200.16/28 (Loopback 1) –172.30.200.32/28 (L 172 30 200 32/28 (Loopback 2) b k

R4 is added to the topology connected to R3

ƒ As we saw with the 172.30.0.0/16 updates to R2 by R3, p y
–RIPv1 either summarizes the subnets to the classful boundary –or uses the subnet mask of the o t e sub et as o t e outgoing interface to determine which subnets to advertise.
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RIPv1 Limitations
ƒ Why is RIPv1 on R3 not including the other subnets, 172.30.200.16/28 172 30 200 16/28 and 172.30.200.32/28, in updates to R4?
– Those subnets do not have the same subnet mask as FastEthernet 0/0. – R3 will only include those 172.30.0.0 172 30 0 0 routes in its routing table with the same mask as the exit interface. – Since the interface is 172.30.100.1 with a /24 mask, it will only include ith k ill l i l d 172.30.0.0 subnets with a /24 mask. The only one that meets this condition is 172.30.110.0. – The other 172.30.0.0 subnets, 172.30.200.16/28 and 172.30.200.32/28, are not included because the /28 masks do not match the /24 mask of the outgoing interface.
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R4 is added to the topology connected to R3

18

RIPv1 Limitations RIP 1 Li it ti
ƒ No CIDR Support
R2(config)#ip route 192 168 0 0 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0 Null0

–the static route is included in R2's routing table, but R2 will not include the static route in its update –R1 is not receiving this 192.168.0.0/16 route in its RIP updates from R2,

ƒ Reason: Classful routing p protocols do not support pp CIDR routes that are summarized with a smaller mask than the classful subnet mask b t k
–If the 192.168.0.0 static route were configured with a /24 mask or greater, this route would be g , included in the RIP updates.
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ƒ Comparing RIPv1 & RIPv2 Message Formats
–RIPv2 Message format is similar to RIPv1 but has 2 extensions g

Configuring RIP 2 Config ring RIPv2

1st extension is the subnet mask field
ƒallows a 32 bit mask to be included in the RIP route entry. the ƒthe receiving router no longer depends upon the subnet mask of the inbound interface or the classful mask when determining the subnet mask for a route

2nd extension is the addition of next hop address
ƒThe Next Hop address is used to identify a better next-hop address - if one exists - than the address of the sending router. ƒIf the field is set to all zeros (0.0.0.0), the address of the sending router is the best next-hop address. address

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Configuring RIPv2
ƒ Enabling and Verifying RIPv2 ƒ Configuring RIP on a Cisco router
–By default it is running RIPv1 –Even though the router only sends RIPv1 messages, it can interpret both RIPv1 and RIPv2 messages messages. –A RIPv1 router will just ignore the RIPv2 fields in the route entry.

RIPv1

RIPv2

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Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 ƒ RIP v2 Æ send and receive v2 Comparing RIP v1 and v2 ƒ RIP v1 Æ send v1 but can receive both v1 and v2 RIP network is broken I can only send l d version 1 Version 1 No. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 .Configuring RIPv2 ƒ Configuring RIPv2 on a Cisco router -Requires using the version 2 command -RIPv2 ignores RIPv1 RIPv2 updates ƒ To verify RIPv2 is configured use the show ip protocols command © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. No I can not take version 1 Version 2 Yes. All rights reserved. Inc. I can take version 1 or 2 I can only send version 2 © 2010 Cisco Systems.

ƒ How do you make the RIPv2 back to the default “send 1” and receive 1 or 2”? . Inc.Hint: Gad(config-router)#version 1 is not the answer. POP Quiz Version 1 Version 2 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 Configuring RIPv2 C fi i RIP 2 ƒ Auto-Summary & RIPv2 Auto Summary ƒ RIPv2 will automatically summarize routes at major network boundaries and can also summarize routes with a subnet mask that is smaller than the classful subnet mask © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Configuring RIPv2
ƒ Disabling AutoSummary in RIPv2 ƒ To disable automatic summarization issue the th no auto-summary t command

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Configuring RIPv2
ƒ Verifying RIPv2 Updates ƒ When using RIPv2 with automatic summarization turned off Each subnet and mask has its own specific entry, along with the exit interface and next-hop address to reach that subnet. y g y ƒ To verify information being sent by RIPv2 use the debug ip rip command

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VLSM & CIDR
ƒ RIPv2 and VLSM ƒ Networks using a VLSM IP addressing scheme Use classless routing protocols (i.e. RIPv2) to disseminate network addresses and their subnet masks

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VLSM & CIDR

ƒ CIDR uses Supernetting Supernetting is a b S tti i bunch of contiguous classful h f ti l f l networks that is addressed as a single network.

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VLSM & CIDR
ƒ To verify that supernets are being sent and received use the following commands -Show ip route -Debug ip rip Debug

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Verifying & Troubleshooting RIPv2
ƒ Basic Troubleshooting steps -Check the status of all links -Check cabling Check -Check IP address & subnet mask configuration -Remove any unneeded configuration commands ƒ Commands used to verify proper operation of RIPv2 –Show ip interfaces brief –Show ip p p protocols –Debug ip rip –Show ip route
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Verifying & Troubleshooting RIPv2
ƒC Common RIP 2 I RIPv2 Issues ƒ When trouble shooting RIPv2 examine the following issues: ƒVersion Check to make sure you are using version 2 ƒNetwork statements Network statements may be incorrectly typed y y yp or missing ƒAutomatic summarization If summarized routes are not needed then disable automatic summarization

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Verifying Troubleshooting RIPv2 V if i & T bl h ti RIP 2
ƒ Reasons why it’s good to authenticate routing information y g g -Prevent the possibility of accepting invalid routing updates -Contents of routing updates are encrypted g p yp ƒ Types of routing protocols that can use authentication -RIPv2 RIPv2 -EIGRP -OSPF OSPF -IS-IS -BGP

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Summary

Routing Protocol

Distance Vector

Classless Routing Protocol

Uses HoldDown Timers

Use of Split Horizon or Split Horizon w/ Poison Reverse

Max Hop count = 15

Auto Summary

Support CIDR

Supports VLSM

Uses Authentication

RIPv1

Yes

No

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

RIPv2

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

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The Routing Table: A Closer Look

Chapter 8: Routing Protocols and Concepts
Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin

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– Lookup process of the routing table – Classless and classful routing behaviors Cisco IP Routing by Alex Zinin (ISBN 0-201-60473-6) Routing.Objectives ƒ ƒ ƒ Describe the various route types found in the routing esc be e a ous ou e ypes ou d e ou g table structure Describe the routing table lookup process. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 3 . All rights reserved. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2 Introduction ƒ Chapter Focus – Structure of the routing table •Will examine the format of the routing table and learn about level 1 and level 2 routes. Inc. Describe routing behavior in routed networks. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. 0 201 60473 6).

16.0 network that R1 and R2 share. R3 172 16 4 0/24 subnet.0/24 subnet which is disconnected or discontiguous.2. -R3 also has a 172.16.4.16.16.1. Inc.0/24 subnets.0/24 network. In a later section. from the 172. 172 16 2 0/24 subnets -R2 and R3 are connected by the 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 .0/16 network with 172. Inc.168.0. disconnected.Routing Table Structure ƒ Lab Topology ƒ 3 router setup -R1 and R2 share a common 172. All rights reserved.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 Routing Table Structure ƒ The figure shows routing table entries come from the following sources -Directly connected networks -Static routes -Dynamic routing protocols Dynamic © 2010 Cisco Systems. we will configure the interfaces for R2 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. – R1 and R3 already have their interfaces configured with the appropriate IP addresses and subnet masks. •level 1 level •level 2 © 2010 Cisco Systems.168. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 . ƒ As soon as the “no shutdown” command is issued the route is added to routing table g debug ip routing © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. –We will now configure the interfaces for R2 and use debug ip routing to view the routing table process that is used to add these entries.Routing Table Structure ƒ The figure shows what happens as the Serial 0/0/1 interface for R2 is configured with the 192. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 6 Routing Table Structure ƒ Ci Cisco IP routing t bl ti table is a hierarchical structure –The reason for this is to speed up lookup process –The hierarchy The includes several levels.1/24 address.1.

© 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ The source of the level 1 route can be a directly connected network. –192. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. Inc. –Network route Network •A network route is a route that has a subnet mask equal to that of the classful mask.0 t k ƒ Level 1 route can function as –Default route •A default route is a static route with the address 0.0/24 is a level 1 network route.168.168.Routing Table Structure ƒ Level 1 Routes –Have a subnet mask equal to or less than the classful q mask of the network address. –This same route is also an ultimate route because it contains the exit interface Serial 0/0/1 0/0/1. All rights reserved. such as th 192 168 1 0 network. All rights reserved.1. because the subnet mask is equal to the network's classful mask. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 .0/24 –It is a l It i level 1 network route b l t k t because it has a subnet mask th t is th same as h b t k that i the its classful mask. or a dynamic routing protocol.1.0. Inc.168. static route. ƒultimate route includes either: -A next-hop ip address (another path) OR -An exit interface ƒ The directly connected network 192.0/24 can be further defined as an ultimate route.168. t k h the 192.0/0. –Supernet route S p •A supernet route is a network address with a mask less than the classful mask. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 Routing Table Structure ƒ The level 1 route 192.1.1. /24 for l f class C networks.

All rights reserved. . does not contain any next-hop IP address or exit interface information.0 subnet was added to the routing table.16.0. FastEthernet0/0 © 2010 Cisco Systems.16. 172. –A parent route is actually a h di A t t i t ll heading that indicates the presence of level 2 routes. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0 is directly connected.16. Inc. –The first entry.16.Parent and Child Routes ƒ A parent route is a level 1 route –A parent route does not contain any next-hop IP address or exit interface information ƒ When the 172. 172. a parent route is created whenever a route with a mask greater than the classful mask is entered into the routing table. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 . –172.0/24. – Child routes are level 2 routes – Child routes are a subnet of a classful network address l f l t k dd –C 172. All rights reserved. –In other words.0. . 1 subnets 172 16 0 0/24 is b tt d b t ƒ A level 2 route is a route that is a subnet of a classful network address.3. another route. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 Routing Table Structure ƒ A level 1 parent route is automatically created any time a subnet is added to the routing table. –This route is known as a level 1 parent route. was also added.0.0/24 i subnetted. Inc.16. also known as child routes.3.0.

route •Both 172.0.16.The classful network address for our subnet.3. 2 child route. route source & the network address of the route –Notice that the subnet mask is not included with the subnet the level subnet.16.16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 ƒ The figure shows the configuration of the Serial 0/0/0 interface on R2. 172.16. Inc.16.0.0.0 are members of the same parent route.0/16 classful network © 2010 Cisco Systems.2.0. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 . Routing Table Structure –The routing table shows The two child routes for the same 172.0/24 parent route. ƒ Level 2 child routes contain 172.Routing Table Structure ƒ The parent route contains the 172.0 ƒ Level 2 child routes are also considered ultimate routes –Reason: they contain the next hop address &/or exit interface © 2010 Cisco Systems.16. •because they are both members of the b f th 172. All rights reserved.0 . The subnet mask for this child route (subnet) is the /24 mask included in its parent route.0 and 172.16.3.0. Inc.

The role of the parent route will be examined when we discuss the route lookup process. Inc. the level 1 parent route will be automatically deleted. © 2010 Cisco Systems. A level 1 parent route exists only when there is at least one level 2 child route route. © 2010 Cisco Systems. child routes do not have to share the same subnet mask –Whenever there are two or more child routes with different subnet masks belonging to the same classful network.Routing Table Structure ƒ Both child routes have the same subnet mask -This means the parent route maintains the /24 mask Note: If there is only a single level 2 child route and that route is removed. Inc. the network routing table presents a slightly different view. which states that this parent network is variably subnetted. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 Routing Table Structure ƒ In classless networks. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 15 . All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 .Routing T bl St R ti Table Structure t ƒ Parent & Child Routes: Classless Networks © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 Routing Table Structure ƒ Parent & Child Routes: classful and classless Networks classful Network Type Parent route’s Classful mask is Displayed Term variably subnetted is seen in parent route in routing table Includes the # of different masks of child routes Subnet mask included with each child route entry Classful No No No No classless Classless l Yes Yes Yes Yes © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

proceed to Step 2 Router examines level 2 (child) routes • If there is a match with level 2 child route then that subnet is used to forward packet • If no match then proceed to Step 3 Router determines classful or R t d t i l f l classless routing behavior • If classful then packet is dropped • If classless then router searches level one supernet and default routes If there exists a level 1 supernet or default route match then Packet is forwarded f d d If not packet is dropped Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2. Routing T bl L k P R ti Table Lookup Process © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0.0/12. Inc.Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ The Route Lookup Process 1. 3.16.10. 18 ƒ Longest Match: Level 1 Network Routes –Best match is also known as the longest match Best –The best match is the one that has the most number of left most bits matching between the destination IP address and the route in the routing table.0/26. All rights reserved. 172. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 .0. in the figure we have a packet destined for 172.0. Inc.16.0/18. 172 16 0 10 Many possible routes could match this packet Three packet.0.16. possible routes are shown that do match this packet: 172.0/26 172 16 0 0/26 has the longest match match. 5.0. Of the three routes.16. ƒ For example. Examine level 1 routes • If best match a level 1 ultimate route and is not a parent route this route is used to forward packet • If the best match is a level 1 parent route.16. 172. All rights reserved. and 172. 3 4.

All rights reserved.1. Inc.168.168.1. All rights reserved.168.168.2 & 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ The process of matching –1st there must be a match made between the parent route & destination IP •If a match is made then an attempt at finding a match between the destination IP and the child route is made.2 –Router examines level 1 route for best match t f b t t h –There exist a match between192. © 2010 Cisco Systems.1.Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ Finding the subnet mask used to determine the longest match Scenario: –PC1 pings 192.0 / 24 –Router forwards packets out s0/0/0 © 2010 Cisco Systems. no.1.2? –The answer. Inc. •Do at least 16 of the left-most bits of the parent route match the p first 16 bits of the packet's destination IP address of 192.

168.0 and the level one IP of 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 .Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ Fi di a match between packet’s destination IP address Finding t hb t k t’ d ti ti dd and the next route in the routing table –The figure shows a match between the destination IP of 192 168 1 0 The 192. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. as shown in the figure. ping at 172. PC1 sends a p g to PC2 p g . All rights reserved.16.1. but a total of 30 bits match.1.3.10. What happens when there is a match with a level 1 parent route? ƒB f Before level 2 child routes are examined l l hild t i d -There must be a match between classful level one parent route and destination IP address address. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ In the example in the figure. © 2010 Cisco Systems.168. Inc. Inc.0 / 24 then packet forwarded out s0/0/0 –Not only does the minimum of 24 bits match.

to forward the packet with the destination IP address of 172.2.3.3.3. Inc. 172. The first 24 bits do match. the router examines the parent route for a match. ƒ R 172.16.16. ƒ The router checks the last child route for 172.2.16.0/24 and finds a match.0/24.0 [120/1] via 172. The routing table process will use this route. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ How a router finds a match with one of the level 2 child routes –First router examines parent routes for a match –If a match exists then: •Child routes are examined Child •Child route chosen is the one with the longest match ƒ First. All rights reserved.16.10 out the exit interface of Serial 0/0/0. 00:00:25. Serial0/0/0 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.3.Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ After the match with parent route has been made Level 2 child routes will be examined for a match -Route lookup process searches for child routes with a match with destination IP © 2010 Cisco Systems.16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 .

All rights reserved.Routing Table Lookup Process ƒ Example: Route Lookup Process with VLSM -The use of VLSM does not The change the lookup process -If there is a match between If destination IP address and the level 1 parent route then -Level 2 child routes will be searched © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 . Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 Routing Behavior ƒ Classful & classless routing protocols Influence how routing table is populated ƒ Classful & classless routing behaviors Determines how routing table is searched after it is filled © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

drop the packet i l l d th k t If ip classless.htm What is IP Classless? ƒ The "ip classless" command prevents the existence of a single "subnet" route from blocking access via the p p g g default route to other subnets of the same old-style network.0.0.0.0 If you break 10.0.4.0. Default only works with single-homed ISPs.0. or I will drop your packet. RIP is telling you: I am classful.Routing Behavior ƒ Classful Routing Behavior: no ip classless pp ƒ What happens if there is not a match with any level 2 child routes of the parent? -Router must determine if g the routing behavior is classless or classful -If router is utilizing classful routing behavior then -Lookup process is terminated and packet is dropped © 2010 Cisco Systems.0 and 10.1 10. Or. if you break my class.x.0.0 such as 172.0 255. you are breaking its class. Inc.1. you must understand a very simple logic.x. First. ip classless and no ip classless Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 Using the ip classless command (cont.0. then you have to show me every damn route.0.0. you will understand what it is all about.0.4. we know that.0.0.0.0.0). What is classful? Classful means that a class A subnet should be shown as x 0 0 0 such as 10 0 0 0 255. for example to 10. All rights reserved. RIP will not care about your default route or last resort gateway.255.255.29. it will drop your packet.0.0 255. If you break my leg.x. then you must carry me all the way! If you understand this logic.3.0. and then give RIP a packet with a destination of 10. please.0 10. if you break my class.44. send the packet to the default. All rights reserved.networkking.2. Here is the logic: Me and you are on a journey.) g ( ) http://www.255.0.0 255. But I bet. ip classless! If no ip classless. you are breaking its class.0 If you show it as 172. you will understand "IP classless".26.0 x.0. even if there is a default route. a class B subnet should be shown as x. after you read the following lines. I will drop it even though there is a default route (0.255.1. © 2010 Cisco Systems.x universe. Here you broke RIP s class so you must show him the way to 10 4 0 1 and every other 10 x x x route in the universe RIP's 10. Here.0 and 10. Why? Why doesn’t RIP send the packet to the default route? Because RIP told you. How do you ask RIP not to drop your packet and send the unknown destinations to the default route.0.0.net/out/IPClassless.0. Otherwise RIP will drop the packet.0. otherwise I will drop it. Let’s assume RIP knows about 10.0. RIP will drop it.0. ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ RFC 1879 IP classless command is not easy to understand.0. then you have to show me every route there is. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara ƒ ƒ 29 . although you have been so mean to him and have broken its class? You tell him: please.29.0 255.0 255 0 0 0 If you show it as 10. Inc.255.0 into three.

then the router drops the packet. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 Routing Behavior ƒ Classful Routing Behavior – Search Process “no ip classless” no classless –when classful routing behavior is in effect ( ip g (no p classless) the process will not continue searching level 1 routes in the routing table. This Thi means packet i d k t is dropped d © 2010 Cisco Systems. –The destination’s subnet mask is a /24 and none of the child routes left most bits match the first 24 bits.10. Inc. ƒ Classless routing behavior works for -Discontiguous networks Di ti t k And -CIDR supernets CIDR t © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 31 .16. –Even with the default route configured. Inc. “ip classless” was configured by default –The command “no ip classless” means that the route lookup process uses classful routing table lookups by default default. If a packet doesn't match a child route for the parent network route. packet ƒ R2 receives a packet destined for PC3 at 172.3.Routing Behavior ƒ ip Classless ƒ Beginning with IOS 11. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.4.

ƒA common error is to assume that a default route will always be used if the router does not have a better route. 0. match ƒ This is often a very surprising result when a network administrator does not understand th diff d t d the difference b t between classful and classless routing behavior. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara “no ip classless” 32 Routing B h i R ti Behavior ƒ The routing table p g process will not use the default route.0.0. 0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 . the subnet did not exist and packet was dropped ƒ The routing table process will not use the default route. All rights reserved. ƒIn our example. All rights reserved.0. “no ip classless” © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. R2's default route is not examined nor used. route © 2010 Cisco Systems.Routing B h i R ti Behavior ƒ Classful Routing Behavior – Search Process P ƒ The reason why the router will not search beyond the child routes y ƒAt the beginning of the Internet's growth. or any other route. Inc. if the subnet was not in the routing table.0/0.0. or any other route.0/0. although it is a match. networks were all classful ƒThis meant an organization could subnet a major network address and “enlighten” all the organization’s routers about the subnetting ƒTherefore.

All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 . All rights reserved. one. then there is a search of the child route ƒ There is no match with the level 2 child routes routes. Inc. Inc. match including the default route if there is route. continue searching level 1 supernet routes in the routing table for a match. ƒ Step 4: Match with supernet or default ƒSupernet routes Checked first –If a match exists then forward packet ƒDefault routes Checked second ƒ Step 5: If there is no match or no default route then the Packet is dropped t th th © 2010 Cisco Systems.Routing Beha ior Ro ting Behavior ƒ Classless Routing Behaviorg “ip classless” ip lassless ƒ Step 3: If classless routing behavior in effect then. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 Routing Behavior R ti B h i “ip classless” ƒ Classless Routing Behavior – Search Process g ƒ Router begins search process by finding a match between destination IP and parent route After finding the above mentioned match.

Serial0/0/1 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.0/24 is directly connected. because it is the best match.168.1.0.0. Serial0/0/1 “ip classless” ƒ The mask is /0.0/24 route does not have 24 left-most bits that match the destination IP address. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 36 Routing Behavior S* 0. Inc. will match. In classless routing behavior. The packet will be forwarded out the Serial 0/0/1 interface. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara .1.Routing Behavior ƒ If no match is found in child routes of previous slide then –Router continues to search the routing table for a match that may have f h fewer than 16 bit i th match th bits in the t h “ip classless” ƒ The 192. –In this case the router will use the In default route. C 192. 37 © 2010 Cisco Systems.168.0/0 is directly connected. ƒ A default route will be the lowest-bit match. if no other route matches the default route matches. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. which means that zero or no bits need to match.

16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 39 .16.Routing Behavior ƒ What does R3 do with return traffic back to PC2 at 172. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Classless Routing Behavior -It is recommended to use classless routing behavior ƒReason: so supernet and default routes can be used whenever needed © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 Routing Behavior R ti B h i ƒ Classful vs. Inc.10? 172 16 2 10? ƒ In this case.0/16 child route and forwards the t ffi out Serial f d th traffic t S i l 0/0/1 back to R2. R3 uses the 172.2.

2.100 doesn't f within fall 192..3 .0 to 192.63.32..168.32.168.168.1.32.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 41 .63).0/26 (192.168.1 is directed toward 10.32.0/26 [90/25789217] via 10.32.0/26 [90/25789217] via 10.32.1.63) ( ) ----Æ (192.168.32.2 O 192. All rights reserved.0 through 192.0/24 destination (192. which route would the router choose? Answers are on the next page © 2010 Cisco Systems.1.0/24 has a longer prefix l fi length th © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/24 [120/4] via 10. they look on the router. which route would the router choose? ƒ If a packet arrives on a router interface destined for 192.32.168.com/warp/public/105/21.32.168. and see how they look on the router.168.32.168.32.168.32.168. Inc. and see how j g .168.32.0 to 192.0/19.168.32..1.168.168.1. 192 168 32 63) It also falls within the other two routes available but the available.168.168.32. [ ] D 192.32.0 to 192.32.63) ----Æ (192.0 to 192.168.32.32.32.32.168.32.0/19 [110/229840] via 10.63)..32.cisco.1.168.32.1. because 192.0/19 [110/229840] via 10.32.html p pp ƒ Let's look at the three routes we just installed in the routing table.1 falls within the 192.255)..32. but 192.1. ƒ router# show ip route . ƒ if a packet destined for 192.168.100. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 40 Longest Match http://www.32.0 through 192.0/26 has the longest prefix within the routing table (26 bits verses 24 or 19 bits).1. because 192.1. ----Æ (192.168.168. it also falls into the range covered by 192.32.1.0/26 network (192. 192.168.255) ----Æ (192.32.1 R 192. but it does fall within the 192.168.0/24 [120/4] via 10.1.2 O 192.1. ----Æ (192.1.168.32.168.100 arrives on one of the router's interfaces.1.255) ƒ If a packet destined to 192.168.168.. Inc.0 to 192.63.32.3 ... All rights reserved.32. p it's f forwarded to 10.html ƒ Let's look at the three routes we just installed in the routing table.255) ----Æ (192.32.32..1.1 R 192.1.0 to 192.168..168.168.168.. ƒ router# show ip route .cisco.168. Again..255) POP QUIZ O Q ƒ If a packet arrives on a router interface destined for 192.com/warp/public/105/21.Longest Match http://www.168.0 to 192. D 192.168.

Summary Content/structure Content/str ct re of a ro ting table routing ƒ Routing table entries -Directly connected networks Directly -Static route Dynamic -Dynamic routing protocols ƒ Routing tables are hierarchical -Level 1 route Have a subnet mask that is less than or equal to classful subnet mask for the network address -Level 2 route L l t These are subnets of a network address © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 42 Summary Routing table lookup process ƒ Begins with examining level 1 routes for best match with packet’s destination IP packet s ƒ If the best match = an ultimate route then -Packet is forwarded -Else-Parent route is examined If parent route & destination IP match then Level 2 (child) routes are examined Level 2 route examination ƒ If a match between destination IP and child route found then Packet forwarded -Else ƒ If Router is using classful routing behavior then g g Packet is dropped -Else ƒ If router is using classless routing behavior then Router searches Level 1 supernet & default routes for a match ƒ If a match is found then Packet if forwarded -Else ƒ Packet is dropped © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 43 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 44 EIGRP Chapter 9: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 . Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc.Summary ƒ Routing behaviors -This refers to how a routing table is searched ƒ Classful routing behavior -Indicated by the use of the no ip classless command y p -Router will not look beyond child routes for a lesser match ƒ Classless routing behavior -Indicated by the use of the ip classless command Indicated -Router will look beyond child routes for a lesser match © 2010 Cisco Systems.

2(R1s4)S © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 3 . Inc.Introduction © 2010 Cisco Systems.2(13)T & 12. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2 EIGRP ƒ Roots of EIGRP: IGRP -Developed in 1985 to overcome RIPv1’s limited hop count -Distance vector routing protocol -Metrics used b IGRP M ti d by ƒbandwidth (used by default) ƒDelay (used by default) ƒReliability (not used by default) Load ƒLoad (not used by default) -Discontinued support starting with IOS 12. Inc.

ƒ Both are Cisco proprietary protocols and only operate on Cisco routers. this term is misleading because EIGRP is not a hybrid between distance vector and link-state routing protocols . All rights reserved. –Note: The term hybrid routing protocol is sometimes used to define EIGRP. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 . –EIGRP routing updates are still g p vectors of distances transmitted to directly connected neighbors.EIGRP ƒ EIGRP is a distance vector. classless routing protocol that was released in 1992 with IOS 9 21 9. All rights reserved. EIGRP includes several features that are not commonly found in other distance vector routing protocols like RIP (RIPv1 and RIPv2) and IGRP. © 2010 Cisco Systems. it is h t like link-state ti t l i still a distance vector routing protocol. Inc. –EIGRP does not send periodic updates and route entries do not age out. ƒ As its name suggests.it is link state solely a distance vector routing protocol. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 EIGRP ƒ The Algorithm –EIGRP uses the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL). Cisco is no longer using this term to refer to EIGRP.21. out –Only changes in the routing information. ƒ The main purpose in Cisco's development of EIGRP was to create a classless version of IGRP. Inc. EIGRP is an enhancement of Cisco IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol). However. such as a new link or a link becoming unavailable cause a li k b i il bl routing update to occur. Therefore. These features include: –Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) –Bounded Updates p –Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) –Establishing Adjacencies –Neighbor and Topology Tables ƒ Alth Although EIGRP may act lik a li k t t routing protocol.

loop free paths are Instead loop-free achieved through a system of route calculations (diffusing computations) that are performed in a coordinated fashion among the routers. •If one exists.ƒ Path Determination –EIGRP's DUAL maintains a topology G table separate from the routing table. –Instead. –If a route becomes unavailable. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 . DUAL If unavailable will search its topology table for a valid backup path. DUAL performs If d t i t f a network discovery process to see if there happens to be a backup path that did not meet the requirement of the feasibility condition. © 2010 Cisco Systems. which includes both the best path to a destination network and any backup paths that DUAL has determined to be loop-free. but the result is faster convergence than traditional distance vector routing protocols. Inc. •If one does not exist. –The detail of how this is done is beyond the scope of this course. EIGRP © 2010 Cisco Systems. that route is If i t th t t i immediately entered into the routing table. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara EIGRP 6 ƒ Convergence –EIGRP does not use holddown timers.

–Hold time •The amount of time the EIGRP neighbor receiving this message should wait before considering the advertising router to be down. © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ EIGRP Parameters contains –Weights Weights •EIGRP uses for its composite metric.0.data portion of EIGRP message ƒIn the IP packet header. •By default.10. ƒIf the EIGRP packet is encapsulated in an Ethernet frame. only bandwidth and delay are weighted. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 .contains AS number ƒType/Length/Field .contains source & destination IP address ƒEIGRP packet header . ƒthe destination MAC address is also a multicast address: 01-005E-00-00-0A.EIGRP EIGRP Message Format ƒ EIGRP Header ƒData link frame header . ƒthe protocol field is set to 88 to indicate EIGRP ƒthe destination address is set to the th multicast 224 0 0 10 lti t 224. However.contains source and destination MAC address ƒIP packet header . © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ EIGRP packet header contains –Opcode field •Update Query •Query •Reply •Hello –Autonomous System number • The AS number is used to track multiple S instances of EIGRP. All rights reserved. Both are set to 1. •The other K values are set to zero. All rights reserved. only the fields relevant to the CCNA candidate are discussed. Inc. p . Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 ƒ EIGRP All fields are shown to provide an accurate picture of the EIGRP message format.0.

g •Bandwidth is the lowest configured bandwidth of any interface along the route. routers •Apple-Talk EIGRP is for Apple-talk © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara How do people route IPX or Appletalk today if they still get either IPX or Appletalk? A l t lk? 11 . IP. IPX & AppleTalk ƒ PDMs are responsible for the specific routing task for each network layer protocol –As you can see in the figure. © 2010 Cisco Systems. EIGRP uses different EIGRP packets and maintains separate neighbor. g •The IPX EIGRP module is responsible for exchanging routing information about IPX networks with other IPX EIGRP routers. i t i t i hb t l and routing tables for each Network layer protocol. b t k •255. All rights reserved.ƒ TLV: IP internal contains (EIGRP routes within an autonomous system) –Metric field (Delay and Bandwidth) •Delay is calculated as the sum of delays from source to destination in units of 10 microseconds. •If a network address is longer than 24 bits. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 EIGRP Protocol Dependent Modules (PDM) ƒ EIGRP uses PDM to route several t t l different protocols i. Inc. All rights reserved.255.255. then the Destination field is extended for another 32 bits ƒ TLV: IP external contains –Fields used when external routes are imported into EIGRP routing process – import or redistribute a route into EIGRP. topology. t e add ess o t e dest at o et o •Although only 24 bits are shown in this figure. EIGRP –Subnet mask field •The subnet mask is specified as the prefix length or the number of network bits in the subnet mask.0 is 24 –Destination field •the address of the destination network. •The IP-EIGRP module is responsible The IP EIGRP for sending and receiving EIGRP packets that are encapsulated in IP and for using DUAL to build and maintain the IP routing table.e.

therefore.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 EIGRP •Hello •Update EIGRP’s 5 Packet Types •ACK ACK •Query ƒ Hello packets •Reply –Used to discover & form adjacencies with neighbors Used –EIGRP hello packets are multicasts and use unreliable delivery. ƒ Characteristics of RTP –Involves both reliable & unreliable delivery of EIGRP packet ƒReliable delivery requires acknowledgment from destination ƒUnreliable delivery does not require an acknowledgement from destination –Packets can be sent P k t b t ƒUnicast ƒMulticast –Using address 224 0 0 10 224. All rights reserved.0. © 2010 Cisco Systems.10 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.EIGRP Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) ƒ P rpose of RTP Purpose –Used by EIGRP to transmit and receive EIGRP packets – EIGRP was designed as a Network layer g y independent routing protocol. All rights reserved. it cannot use the services of UDP or TCP because IPX and Appletalk do not use protocols from the TCP/IP protocol suite. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 .

14 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara EIGRP ƒQ Query & Reply packets R l k t ƒUsed by DUAL for searching for networks ƒQueries and replies use reliable delivery. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. unicast update p p packets are sent so that the neighbor can build up its topology table. Inc. –EIGRP updates are sent only to those G routers that require it. –When a new neighbor is discovered. –In other cases. ƒQuery packets can use ƒMulticast ƒReply packet use only R l k t l ƒunicast •R2 has lost connectivity to the LAN and it sends out queries to all EIGRP neighbors. •R1 and R3 respond with an unicast acknowledgement. Inc.ƒ Update packets –Update packets are used to propagate Update routing information –Update packets are sent only when necessary. •All neighbors must send a reply regardless of whether or not they have a route to the downed network. All rights reserved. –EIGRP acknowledgement packets are EIGRP always sent as an unreliable unicast © 2010 Cisco Systems. •R2 immediately sends an unicast Update g to R1 and R3 noting the downed route. –Updates always are t U d t l transmitted reliably itt d li bl EIGRP •Hello •Update •ACK ACK •Query •Reply ƒ Acknowledgement packets –Used to acknowledge receipt of update. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara •Hello •Update •ACK ACK •Query •Reply 15 . •R2 has lost connectivity to the LAN attached to its FastEthernet interface. such as a link-cost change. query & reply packets –An acknowledgment packet is a hello packet that has no data. updates are multicast.

multipoint circuits T1 bandwidth or slower -Holdtime ƒThis is the maximum time router should wait before declaring a neighbor down ƒDefault holdtime –3 times hello interval »15 seconds »180 seconds © 2010 Cisco Systems.EIGRP Query Update Reply Hello Acknowledge Reliable Reliable Reliable Unreliable (not require acknowledgment ) Unreliable (a hello packet that has no data ) multicast Multicast & unicast unicast multicast unicast © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 EIGRP ƒ Purpose of Hello Protocol –To discover neighbors & establish adjacencies with neighbor routers To ƒ Characteristics of hello protocol –Time interval for sending hello packet Time ƒ5 seconds . All rights reserved. Inc.high bandwidth (greater than T1) p ƒ60 seconds . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.EIGRP EIGRP Bounded Updates ƒ EIGRP only sends update when there is a change in route status ƒ Partial update –A partial update includes only the route information that has changed – the whole routing table is NOT sent ƒ Bounded update –When a route changes. too. –Advantage of using DUAL •Provides f f t convergence time by k P id for fast ti b keeping a li t of l i list f loopfree backup routes –DUAL maintains a list of backup routes it has already determined to be loop-free. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 18 EIGRP Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) –Purpose •EIGRP’s primary method for preventing routing loops •And also hold-down timers and split horizon. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 . If the primary route in the routing table fails. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. the best backup route is immediately added to the routing table. only those devices that are impacted will be notified of the change ƒ EIGRP’s use of partial bounded updates minimizes use of bandwidth © 2010 Cisco Systems.

ciscopress. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 EIGRP Authentication A th ti ti ƒ EIGRP can – – Encrypt routing information Authenticate routing information ƒ It is good practice to authenticate transmitted routing information. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 .asp?p=1171169&seqNum=3 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.com/articles/article. – This practice ensures that routers will only accept routing information from other routers that have been configured with the same password or authentication information. http://www. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved.EIGRP ƒ Administrative Distance (AD) –Defined as the trustworthiness of the source route ƒ EIGRP default administrative distances –Summary routes = 5 Summary –Internal routes = 90 –Imported routes = 170 © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ Note: Authentication does not encrypt the router's routing table.

16-bit and 32-bit AS Numbers Commencing 1 January 2007.967.295 "32-bit AS Numbers" refers to AS Numbers in the range 0 . similar to RIP. Inc.65535 16 bit Numbers "32-bit only AS Numbers" refers to AS Numbers in the range 65.EIGRP Network Topology ƒ Topology used is the same as previous chapters with the addition of an ISP router –ISP router does not physically exist ƒ EIGRP will automatically summarizes at classful boundaries.4. Inc.4.295 © 2010 Cisco Systems.967.294. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 Basic EIGRP Configuration ƒ Autonomous System (AS) & Process IDs –This is a collection of networks under the control of a single authority (reference RFC 1930) –AS Numbers are assigned by IANA ÆÆ ARIN not IANA –Entities needing AS numbers ƒISP Internet ƒInternet Backbone prodiers ƒInstitutions connecting to other institutions using AS numbers ƒThese ISPs and large institutions use the exterior gateway routing protocol or BGP. All rights reserved.536 .294. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 . All rights reserved. "16-bit only AS Numbers" refers to AS numbers in the range 0 . to propagate routing information.

All rights reserved. Inc. ƒ Process ID represents an instance of the routing protocol running on a router ƒ Example Router(config)#router eigrp autonomous-system © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 Basic EIGRP Configuration The router eigrp command ƒ The global command that enables eigrp is router eigrp autonomous-system t i t t -All routers in the EIGRP routing domain must use the th same process ID number (autonomous-system b number) © 2010 Cisco Systems.Basic EIGRP Configuration ƒ EIGRP autonomous system number actually functions as a process ID –The vast majority of companies and institutions with IP networks do not need an AS number –The ISP is responsible for the routing of packets within its ti f k t ithi it autonomous system and between other autonomous systems.

DUAL sends a notification message to the console stating that a neighbor relationship with another EIGRP router has been established.Basic B i EIGRP C fi Configuration ti The Network Command ƒ Functions of the network command –Enables interfaces to transmit & receive EIGRP updates –Includes network or subnet in EIGRP updates ƒ Example p –Router(config-router)#network network-address The network-address is the classful network address for this interface. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 .0/30 subnets: When EIGRP is configured on R2.10.16.3.168.1. All rights reserved.0/24 and 172. © 2010 Cisco Systems.16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 Basic EIGRP Configuration ƒ The network Command with a Wildcard Mask -This option is used when you want to configure EIGRP to advertise specific subnets -Example Router(config-router)#network network-address [wildcard-mask] 192.11 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.10.8 – 192. a single classful network statement is used on R1 to include both 172. Inc.168. All rights reserved.

SRTT (Smooth Round T i Ti (S th R d Trip Timer) ) Queue Count .255.3.255.255. and reply packets.255 .Should always be zero.252 is 0. queries. 0.0.Lists the neighbors in the order they were learned. Inc.255. © 2010 Cisco Systems.255. ƒ The inverse of subnet mask 255. 3 Wildcard mask © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Used to track updates. Sequence Number .255.255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 Basic B i EIGRP C fi Configuration ti Verifying EIGRP ƒ EIGRP routers must establish adjacencies with their neighbors before any updates can be sent or received g y p ƒ Command used to view neighbor table and verify that EIGRP has established adjacencies with neighbors is j g show ip eigrp neighbors H column . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 29 . All rights reserved. RTO (Retransmit Interval) .255.252 --------------0.255.Used by RTP to manage reliable EIGRP packets. ƒ To calculate the inverse of the subnet mask.Basic EIGRP Configuration ƒ Router(config-router)#network network-address [wildcard-mask] ƒ Think of a wildcard mask as the inverse of a subnet mask. Inc.0.255: 255. subtract the subnet mask from 255. 0.

EIGRP automatically summarizes routes at major network boundary –We can disable the automatic summarization with the no autosummary command. ƒ By default . Inc. All rights reserved. the process ID must be . Inc. ƒ EIGRP's internal and external administrative distances are also displayed: –Distance: internal 90 external 170 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. it supports VLSM and CIDR. p the same on all routers for EIGRP to establish neighbor adjacencies and share routing information. We will examine this in more detail in a later later. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 Basic EIGRP Configuration Examining the Routing g g Table ƒ The show ip route command is also used to verify EIGRP –EIGRP routes are denoted in a routing table by the letter “D” –EIGRP is a classless routing protocol (includes th ti t l (i l d the subnet mask in the routing update). © 2010 Cisco Systems. We will configure the bandwidth later.EIGRP ƒ The show ip protocols command is also used to verify that EIGRP is enabled ƒ Remember. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 31 .

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 32 Basic EIGRP Configuration ƒ R3’s routing table shows that the 172.0. All rights reserved.EIGRP Null0 Summary Route ƒ EIGRP has automatically included a summary route to Null0 (192. © 2010 Cisco Systems.168. you will not see the equal-cost route on R3. ƒ [Tony] We will configure the ba d dt ate Once the bandwidth later. 33 © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara .16. All rights reserved.the classful network address .16.0/16 network is automatically summarized by y y R1 & R3 –R1 and R2 are not propagating the individual subnets because of automatic summarization. O ce t e bandwidth is reconfigured.0/16) –Null0 is not a physical interface –In the routing table summary routes are sourced from Null0 ƒReason: routes are used for advertisement purposes –EIGRP will automatically include a null0 summary route as child route when 2 conditions are met ƒAt least one subnet is learned via EIGRP ƒAutomatic summarization is enabled ƒIf the packet matches the level 1 parent .10.but none of the subnets. the packet is discarded.0/24 (192 168 10 0/24 and 172 16 0 0/16) 172. Inc. Inc.

Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 EIGRP Metric Calculation ƒ U th sh ip protocols command t verify th K Use the h i t l d to if the values Again.EIGRP Metric Calculation EIGRP Composite Metric & the K Values ƒ EIGRP uses the following values i it composite metric th f ll i l in its it ti -Bandwidth. changing these values to other than the default is not recommended unless the network administrator has a very good reason to do so. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 . K4. reliability. © 2010 Cisco Systems. delay. K5 =0 © 2010 Cisco Systems. and load (reliability and load are not used) ƒ The composite metric used by EIGRP – formula used has values K1 ÆK5 K1 & K3 =1 K2. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. then you should modify the bandwidth value. –If actual SPEED of the link differs from the default bandwidth value. © 2010 Cisco Systems.EIGRP Metric Calculation EIGRP Metrics ƒ U th show interfaces Use the h i t f command to view metrics ƒ EIGRP Metrics –Bandwidth – EIGRP uses a static bandwidth to calculate metric –Most serial interfaces use Most a default bandwidth value of 1. is a default value that can be changed by the network administrator manually. The default bandwidth for fastethernet is 100. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.000 Kbits. The default bandwidth for ethernet is 10. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 36 EIGRP Metric Calculation EIGRP Metrics ƒ Delay is the defined as the measure of time it takes for a packet to traverse a route –it is a static value based on it link type to which interface is connected –The delay value.544Mbos (T1) –The value of the bandwidth b d idth may or may not reflect the actual SPEED of the interface. much like the bandwidth value.000 Kbits. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 37 .

–Measure dynamically & expressed as a fraction of 255 •the higher the fraction the better the reliability –Reliability is calculated on a 5-minute weighted average to avoid the sudden impact of high (or low) error rates. Inc. ƒ Load (not a default EIGRP metric) ( ) – A number that reflects how much traffic is using a link – Number is determined dynamically and is expressed as a fraction of 255 ƒThe lower the fraction the less the load on the link ƒThis value is calculated on a 5-minute weighted average to avoid the sudden impact of high (or low) channel usage. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 39 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 EIGRP Metric Calculation Using the Bandwidth Command g ƒ Modifying the interface bandwidth -Router(config-if)#bandwidth kilobits ƒ Verifying bandwidth –Use th show interface command U the h i t f d ƒ Note – bandwidth command does not change the link’s physical link s bandwidth –The bandwidth command only modifies the bandwidth metric used by y routing protocols such as EIGRP and OSPF. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems.EIGRP M t i C l l ti Metric Calculation ƒ Reliability (not a default EIGRP metric) –A measure of the likelihood that a link will fail or how often the link has experienced errors. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

EIGRP Metric Calculation ƒ The EIGRP metric can be determined by examining the y g bandwidth delay The value before change the bandwidth is 2172416 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 40 EIGRP Metric Calculation ƒ EIGRP uses the lowest bandwidth (BW)in its metric calculation Calculated BW = reference BW / lowest BW(kbps) ƒ Delay – EIGRP uses the cumulative sum of all outgoing interfaces Calculated Delay = the sum of outgoing interface delays ƒ EIGRP Metric = calculated BW + calculated delay © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 41 . All rights reserved. Inc.

then the value is rounded down.499. 10. Inc.EIGRP Metric Calculation 10.625 is dropped before multiplying by 256. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 42 DUAL Concepts ƒ The Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) is used to p prevent looping p g –Successor –Feasible Distance (FD) –Feasible Successor (FS) –Reported Distance (RD) or Advertised Distance (AD) –Feasible Condition or Feasibility Condition (FC) © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. The bandwidth portion of the composite metric is 2 499 840 2. In this case. Inc.000. All rights reserved.000 divided by 1024 equals 9765.000 is divided by 1024. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 43 . © 2010 Cisco Systems.625.000.840. The . If the result is not a whole number.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 44 DUAL Concepts ƒ EIGRP Topology Table dissected © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 45 . Inc.DUAL Concepts ƒ Successor The best least cost route to a destination found in the routing table ƒ Feasible distance The lowest calculated metric along a path to a destination network ƒ 2 commands can be used to find the successor feasible “successor” and “feasible distance”: –show ip route –show ip eigrp topology © 2010 Cisco Systems.

30.) Feasible Successor.0 230 220 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 46 EIGRP technologies (cont ) (cont.0 40 30 172.1.0 © 2010 Cisco Systems. FC: RD220 not< FD31 Neighbor X In Topology Table Y In Routing Table Z Not in Topology Table 47 Advertised or Ad i d Destination Feasible Dist.30.0 172 30 1 0 FD to 172.30. FC: RD30 < FD31 172. Feasibility Condition & Reported Distance ƒ Feasible Successor –This is a loop free backup route to the same destination as successor route –If the link between R2 and R3 failed.1.DUAL Concepts Feasible Successors. All rights reserved.30. 172.1. Reported.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . the R1 will become the successor for sending traffic to 192 168 1 0 192.0 31 21 172. All rights reserved.1. Inc.0 is 31 via Router Y Current Successor = 31 RD of RTY= 21 RTZ is NOT Feasible Successor. Dist.1.30.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 48 Verifying basic EIGRP © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.Verifying basic EIGRP © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 49 . Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Inc. feasible successor becomes the current successor. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 51 . ƒ B f Before this route can be installed. i. Inc. –The reported distance is the metric that a router reports to a neighbor about its own cost to that network. the current route. © 2010 Cisco Systems.e. it must b placed i th active state and thi t b i t ll d t be l d in the ti t t d recomputed. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 50 DUAL Concepts ƒ Feasibility Condition (FC) –Met when a neighbor’s reported distance (RD) is less than the local router’s router s FD to the same destination network –The reported distance i Th t d di t is simply an EIGRP neighbor's feasible distance to the same destination network network. g packets continue with little delay.What if the successor fails? 1) If feasible successor exists: ƒ If current successor route fails. All rights reserved. ƒ Routing of packets continue but with more of a delay. y ƒ Routing of p 2) If no feasible successor exists: ƒ This may be because the Reported Distance is greater than the Feasible Distance.

Inc.1.168.1.168.1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 53 . its feasible distance (FD). R1 meets the feasibility condition. All rights reserved. Inc.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 52 DUAL Concepts ƒ EIGRP Topology table –Viewed using the show ip eigrp topology command ƒContents of table include: – all successor routes – all feasible successor routes © 2010 Cisco Systems.DUAL Concepts ƒ Reported distance (RD) –The metric that a router The reports to a neighbor about its own cost to that network –R2 examines the reported R2 distance (RD) of 2172416 from R1.0/24 through R1 than it is through R3. to reach 192 168 1 0/24 is greater 192.0/24? –Because the total cost for R2. R1 is now a feasible successor for R2 to the 192. ƒ Why isn't R1 the successor if its reported distance (RD) is less than R2's feasible distance (FD) to 192 168 1 0/24? t 192. Because the reported distance (RD) of R1 is less than R2's own feasible distance (FD) ( ) of 3014400. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/24 network.

the route will be in an active state. known as the passive state state. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems.This route is in the passive state. if there is not a second entry. the route will be in a stable mode. ti t t All routes in the topology table should be in the passive state for a stable routing domain. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 55 . then there are no feasible successors Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 54 DUAL Concepts ƒ To view detailed information about the metrics of a specific entry in the topology table. All rights reserved. Inc. A . When DUAL is not performing its diffusing computations to determine a path f a d t i th for network. Inc.If DUAL is recalculating or searching for a new path. add the optional parameter [network] to the show ip eigrp topology command ƒ Remember that EIGRP is a distance vector routing protocol.DUAL Concepts ƒ EIGRP Topology Table dissected P .

6.168. © 2010 Cisco Systems.168.0/24 must be less the R1's current feasible distance (FD) As we can (FD). successor it must meet the feasibility condition. R2's feasible distance is 3014400. feasible successors and even those successors. Inc. ƒ Why isn't R2 listed as a feasible successor? –R2 is not a feasible successor because it does not meet the feasibility condition.1.10. R2's feasible distance to reach 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 57 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. it is obvious that there is a backup route to 192. –By looking at the actual physical By topology or network diagram.0 only s o s t e et o 9 68 0 o y shows the successor 192. routes that are not feasible successors.168. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 56 DUAL Concepts No Feasible Successor show ip eigrp topology all-links ƒ Looking at the topology it is obvious that R2 is a backup route route. see in the figure. There are no feasible successors.DUAL Concepts Topology Table: No Feasible Successor ƒ The topology table for R1 to the network 192.0/24 through R2.1. All rights reserved. Inc. –The command shows all possible paths to a network including successors.168.1. –For R2 to be considered a feasible successor. which is higher than R1's feasible distance of 2172416.

DUAL will need to do some further processing. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 59 . computer program. ƒ Finite Sate Machine (FSM) –An abstract machine that defines a set of possible states something can go through. or routing algorithm will react to a set of input events –Selects a best loop-free path to a destination –Selects alternate routes by using Selects information in EIGRP tables © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. –Before this can happen.DUAL Concepts ƒ Does this mean R2 cannot be used if the successor fails? –No. Inc. what event causes those states and what events result form those states –FSMs are used to describe how a device. R3 can be used. Inc. All rights reserved. The actual name of this technology is DUAL Finite State Machine (FSM). Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 58 DUAL Concepts ƒ The centerpiece of EIGRP is DUAL and it EIGRP route-calculation d its t l l ti engine. but there will be a longer delay before adding it to the routing table.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 60 More EIGRP Configurations The Null0 Summary Route ƒ By default. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 61 . All rights reserved. Inc. EIGRP uses the Null0 interface to discard any packets that match the parent route but do not match any of the child routes ƒ EIGRP automatically includes a null0 summary route as a child route whenever both of the following conditions exist –One or subnets exists that was learned via EIGRP One –Automatic summarization is enabled © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.DUAL Concepts Finite State Machines (FSM) ƒ To examine output from EIGRP’s finite state machine us the debug eigrp fsm command © 2010 Cisco Systems.

More EIGRP Configurations ƒ Regardless of whether classful or classless routing behavior is being used the null0 used. summary will potentially be used and denying the use of any supernet or default route. All rights reserved. route ƒ Disabling Automatic Summarization –The no auto-summary command is used The to disable automatic summarization •This causes all EIGRP neighbors to send updates that will not be automatically summarized g ƒthis will cause changes in both -routing tables -topology tables © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 63 . Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 62 More EIGRP Configurations ƒ The no auto-summary command © 2010 Cisco Systems.

even though the path through R1 would actually be the "faster" path.0/24 network. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –Because both paths have the same number and types of outgoing interfaces. 172.0/24. the delay values end up being the same.0/24. the same. R3's Without a tomatic s mmari ation routing table now includes the three subnets. All rights reserved. and 172.3.3. 172. Inc. In this example. Why does R3's routing table y g now have two equal cost paths to 172. –The slowest link is the 64 Kbps link that contains the 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 65 .2. whether or not automatic summarization (auto-summary) is enabled. All rights reserved.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 64 Manual Summarization M lS i i ƒ EIGRP can be configured to summarize routes. the 1544 Mbps link and the 1024 Kbps link are irrelevant in the calculation as far as the bandwidth metric is concerned.1.16.16.16.0/24? Shouldn't the best path only be through R1 with the 1544 Mbps link? –Remember that EIGRP only uses the link with Remember the slowest bandwidth when calculating the composite metric.16.3.More EIGRP Configurations ƒ The no auto-summary command ƒ Witho t automatic summarization.0/24. –As a result the EIGRP metric for both paths is As result. Inc. –EIGRP is a classless routing protocol & include subnet p mask in update ƒ Command used to configure manual summarization –Router(config-if)#ip summary-address eigrp asnumber network-address subnet-mask b t k © 2010 Cisco Systems.

in this case a route static route outside of the EIGRP routing domain. © 2010 Cisco Systems. The entry for the static default route on R1 is the following: [ ] ƒ D*EX 0. notice the routing source and administrative distance for the new static default route.6.0. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 67 . 00:01:08.10.0. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 66 More EIGRP Configurations ƒ In the routing tables for R1 and R3. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –EX: The route is an external EIGRP route.0/0 [170/3651840] via 192. Inc. –170: This is the administrative distance of an external EIGRP route route. –*: The route is a candidate for a default route. Serial0/1 –D: This static route was learned from an EIGRP routing update update.168. ) ƒ EIGRP & the “Quad zero” static default route Quad zero –Requires the use of the redistribute static command to include the static default route in EIGRP routing updates to other routers.More EIGRP Configurations EIGRP Default Routes ƒ “quad zero” static default route -Can be used with any currently Can supported routing protocol -Is usually configured on a router that is connected a network outside the EIGRP domain (for example. to an ISP.

we are limiting EIGRP to no more than 50 percent of the link's b d idth t f th li k' bandwidth. NBMA networks: 180 seconds For all other networks: 15 seconds 69 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . EIGRP uses only up to 50% of interface bandwidth for EIGRP information •This prevents th EIGRP process f Thi t the from over-utilizing a link and not tili i li k d t allowing enough bandwidth for the routing of normal traffic. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Fine-Tuning Fi T i EIGRP ƒ EIGRP bandwidth utilization –By default. Therefore. All rights reserved. EIGRP will never use more the 32kbps of the link's bandwidth for EIGRP packet traffic. Inc. –The command to change the percentage of bandwidth used by EIGRP is Router(config-if)#ip bandwidth-percent eigrp asnumber percent In our example. NBMA networks: 60 seconds For ll th F all other networks: 5 seconds t k d Defaults For low-speed. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 68 More EIGRP Configurations ƒ Configuring Hello Intervals and Hold Times -Hello inter als and hold times are config rable on a per interface Hello intervals configurable per-interface basis -The command to configure hello interval is Router(config-if)#ip hello-interval eigrp as-number seconds ƒ Changing the hello interval also requires changing the hold time to a value greater than or equal to the hello interval -The command to configure hold time value is Router(config-if)#ip hold-time eigrp as-number seconds Defaults For low-speed. Inc.

Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 71 .Summary ƒ Background & History –EIGRP is a derivative of IGRP EIGRP ƒEIGRP is a Cisco proprietary distance vector routing protocol released in 1994 ƒ EIGRP terms and characteristics –EIGPR uses RTP to transmit & receive EIGRP packets p –EIGRP has 5 packet type: ƒHello packets ƒUpdate packets ƒAcknowledgement packets ƒQuery packets ƒReply packets –Supports VLSM & CIDR © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 70 Summary ƒ EIGRP terms and characteristics –EIGRP uses a hello protocol EIGRP ƒPurpose of hello protocol is to discover & establish j adjacencies –EIGRP routing updates Aperiodic ƒAperiodic ƒPartial and bounded Fast ƒFast convergence © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 73 .Summary ƒ EIGRP commands –The following commands are used for EIGRP The configuration ƒRtrA(config)#router eigrp [autonomous-system #] ƒRtrA(config-router)#network network-number –The following commands can be used to verify EIGRP ƒShow i protocols Sh ip l ƒShow ip eigrp neighbors ƒShow ip ro te Sho route © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 72 Summary ƒ EIGRP metrics include –Bandwidth (default) Bandwidth –Delay (default) –Reliability R li bili –Load © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. it can calculate its DUAL ƒ1st metric is calculated for each route 1 ƒ2nd route with lowest metric is designated successor & is placed in routing table ƒ3rd feasible successor is found –Criteria f f C i i for feasible successor: i must h ibl it have lower reported distance to the destination than the installed route’s feasible distance route s –Feasible routes are maintained in topology table © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 75 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 74 Summary ƒ Choosing the best route –After router has received all updates f Aft t h i d ll d t from di tl directly connected neighbors. Inc. All rights reserved.Summary ƒ DUAL –Purpose of DUAL P f ƒTo prevent routing loops –Successor ƒPrimary route to a destination –Feasible successor ƒBackup route to a destination –Feasible distance ƒLowest calculated metric to a destination –Reported distance ƒThe distance towards a destination as advertised by b an upstream neighbor t i hb © 2010 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 76 Link-State Routing Protocols Chapter 10: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.Summary ƒ Automatic summarization –On by default On –Summarizes routes on classful boundary –Summarization can b di bl d using the f ll i S i i be disabled i h following command ƒRtrA(config-if)#no auto-summary Rt A( fi if)# t © 2010 Cisco Systems.

– Distance vector routing protocols are like road signs because routers must make preferred path decisions based on a distance or metric to a network. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 3 . With this link-state information. – The ultimate objective is that every router receives all of the link-state information about all other routers in the routing area. ƒ List the benefits and requirements of link-state routing protocols. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara © 2010 Cisco Systems. 2 Link-State Routing ƒ Link state routing protocols -Also known as shortest path first algorithms -These protocols built around Dijkstra’s SPF OSPF will be discussed i Ch t 11 and IS IS will be discussed i CCNP ill b di d in Chapter 11. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. each router can create its own topological map of the network and independently calculate the shortest path to every network.Objectives ƒ Describe the basic features & concepts of link-state p routing protocols. d IS-IS ill b di d in CCNP. – Link-state routing protocols are more like a road map because they create a topological map of the network and each router uses this map to determine the shortest path to each network.

© 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Link-State Routing ƒ Dikjstra’s algorithm also known as the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm –This algorithm accumulates costs along each path. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 Link-State Routing ƒ The shortest path to a destination is not necessarily the path with the least number of hops © 2010 Cisco Systems. from Thi l ith l t t l h th f source to destination. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 .

and bandwidth. Each router builds a Link-State Packet (LSP) containing the state of ( ) g each directly connected link – recording all the pertinent information about each neighbor. who then store all LSPs received in a database. Each router is responsible for meeting its neighbors on directly connected networks t d t k – exchange hello packet to other directly connected link state routers. Each router uses the database to construct a complete map of the topology and computes the best path to each destination network. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 . 1 Each routers learns about its own directly connected networks – interface is in the up state 2. 4. – The Th SPF algorithm i used t construct th map of th t l ith is d to t t the f the topology and l d to determine the best path to each network. 5. 3.Link-State Routing Process ƒ How routers using Link State Routing Protocols reach convergence 1. All rights reserved. – Each router stores a copy of each LSP received from its neighbors in a local database database. link type. Inc. including neighbor ID. Each router floods the LSP to all neighbors. Inc. 6 Link-State Routing: Step 1 – Learn about directly connected Networks ƒ Link This is an interface o a s sa te ace on router ƒ Link state This is the information about the state of the links © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors ƒ Connected interfaces that are using the same link state routing protocols will exchange hello packets. ƒ Once routers learn it has neighbors they form an adjace cy adjacency – 2 adjacent neighbors will exchange hello packets – These packets will serve as a keep alive function © 2010 Cisco Systems.Link-State Routing: step 2 . Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 8 Link-State Routing: step 2 .Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors ƒ Link state routing protocols use a hello protocol Purpose of a hello protocol: -To discover neighbors (th t use th same T di i hb (that the link state routing protocol) on its link © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 . All rights reserved.

R1 -> R3. Cost 20 3. –Whenever a router receives an LSP Whenever from a neighboring router. R1 -> R4. Cost 5 4.0. R1 -> R2. ƒ A simplified version of the LSPs from R1 is: 1.3.2.Flooding LSPs to Neighbors ƒ Once LSP are created they are forwarded out to neighbors.0. & bandwidth. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 . © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/16. Serial point-to-point network.0.Building the Link State Packet (LSP) ƒ Contents of LSP: – State of each directly connected link – Includes information about neighbors such as neighbor ID link ID.Link-State Routing: step 3 . –This process creates a flooding effect p g of LSPs from all routers throughout the routing area. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 Link-State Routing: step 4 .0/16. type. Ethernet network 10. Cost 2 2. Inc.1. Inc.0/16. –Each router floods its link-state ac ou e oods s sae information to all other link-state routers in the routing area. it immediately sends that LSP out all other interfaces except the interface that received the LSP. All rights reserved.0. Serial point-to-point network. Serial point-to-point network.4.0/16. 10. Cost 20 / C © 2010 Cisco Systems. 10. R1. 10. All rights reserved.

Flooding LSPs to Neighbors ƒ LSP are sent out under the following conditions LSPs t t d th f ll i diti – Initial router start up or routing process – Wh th When there is a change i t i h in topology l • including a link going down or coming up. All rights reserved. –These LSPs are stored in the linkstate database.Link-State Routing: step 4 . Inc. Inc. then have an LSP from every linkstate router in the routing area. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 Link-State Routing: step 5 . earlier © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 . All rights reserved. –Each router in the routing area can Each now use the SPF algorithm to construct the SPF trees that you saw earlier. or a neighbor j y g adjacency being established or broken © 2010 Cisco Systems.Constructing a link state data base ƒ Routers use a database to construct a topology map of the network –After each router has propagated its own LSPs using the link-state flooding process each router will process.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 15 .5. All rights reserved. This link is added to R1's SPF tree. R1 p can now use the database and the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm to calculate the preferred path or shortest p path to each network. with the network 10.0/16 and a cost of 10.Constructing a link state data base router R1 has learned the link-state information for each router in its routing area. Inc. –R1 can use the second LSP and create a li k f R1 th d d t link from R2 t another to th router. With a complete link-state database. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 Link-State Routing: Example . © 2010 Cisco Systems.0/16 with a cost of 2 and with no neighbors. This information is added to the SPF tree.9. R5.0. Inc.0.0. ƒ Process begins by examining R2’s LSP information R2 s –R1 can ignore the first LSP. 10.2.How R1 constructs its SPF tree. –Using the third LSP R1 has learned that R2 has a network Using LSP.Link-State Routing: step 5 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. because R1 already knows that it is connected to R2 on network 10.0/16 with a cost of 20. All rights reserved.

0.3.Link-State Routing: Example .0/16 with a cost of 10 from R3.0.0. because R1 already knows that it is connected to R3 on network 10. –Using the fourth LSP.0/16 and a cost of 10.6. –R1 can use the second LSP and create a li k f R1 th d d t link from R3 t th to the router R4.0. 10.0/16 and a cost of 10. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 .0/16 with a cost of 2 and with no neighbors. with the network 10.0.0. This information is added to the SPF tree. ƒ Process begins by examining R4’s LSP information R4 s –R1 can ignore the first LSP because R1 already knows that it is connected to R4 on network 10.6.0/16 with a cost of 5. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems.7.10.How R1 constructs its SPF tree. –However. –R1 can also ignore the second LSP because SPF has already learned R1 about the network 10. This link is added to R1's SPF tree. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 16 Link-State Routing: Example . ƒ Process begins by examining R3’s LSP information R3 s –R1 can ignore the first LSP. R1 can use the third LSP to create a link from R4 to the router R5.0. Inc. R1 learns that R4 has a network 10.0/16 with a cost of 20. This link is added to R1's SPF tree. © 2010 Cisco Systems. with the network 10.How R1 constructs its SPF tree. This information is added t th SPF t dd d to the tree. All rights reserved.8.4.0/16 with a cost of 2 and with no neighbors. –Using the third LSP R1 has learned that R3 has a network Using LSP.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 .10.7.0.8.11.0/16 with a cost of 2 and with no neighbors. All rights reserved.0/16 via R3 serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 17 •Network 10.0.6.0/16 via R3 serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 15 •Network 10. but SPF can also be at a cost of 27 used to determine the shortest path to each WAN link network. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 18 Link-State Routing ƒ Determining the shortest path –The shortest path to a destination determined by adding the costs & finding the lowest cost •Network 10.0.11.0.0/16).0.0. © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.0.9. –R1 can process the third LSP learning that R5 has a network 10.0.0.How R1 constructs its SPF tree.5.0/16 via R3 serial 0/0/1 the table.10. This link is added to the SPF tree for R1. ƒ Process begins by examining R5’s LSP information R5 s –R1 can ignore the first two LSPs (for the networks 10.0/16 via R3 serial 0/0/1 at a cost of 7 •Network 10.9. Inc.0. All rights reserved. because SPF has already learned about these links and added them to the SPF tree.0/16 i i l at a cost of 25 Only the LANs are shown in •Network 10.Link-State Routing: Example .0/16 via R2 serial 0/0/0 at a cost of 30 •Network 10 10 0 0/16 via R3 serial 0/0/1 N t k 10.0/16 via R2 serial 0/0/0 at a cost of 22 •Network 10.0/16 and 10.

All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. ƒ The routing table will also include all directly connected networks and routes from any other sources. these routes are placed in the routing table. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 . No Event driven routing updates Use of LSP Convergence Distance vector No Slow Generally No No Link State Yes Yes Fast Generally Yes Yes © 2010 Cisco Systems. Packets will now be forwarded according to these entries in the routing table. such as static routes.Link-State Routing ƒO Once the SPF algorithm h th l ith has determined the shortest path routes. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 Link-State Routing Protocols Advantages of a Link State Routing Protocol Link-State Routing protocol Builds Topological map Router can independently determine the shortest path to every network.

• Unlike some distance vector routing protocols. ƒ Hierarchical Design • Link-state routing protocols such as OSPF and IS-IS use the concept of areas. All rights reserved. d d t ƒ Event-driven Updates • After the initial flooding of LSPs. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 Link-State Routing Protocols Requirements f using a li k state routing protocol R i t for i link t t ti t l ƒ Memory requirements – T i ll li k state routing protocols use more memory Typically link t t ti t l ƒ Processing Requirements –M More CPU processing i required of li k state routing i is i d f link t t ti protocols ƒ Bandwidth Requirements q – Initial startup of link state routing protocols can consume lots of bandwidth – This should only occur during initial startup of routers but can routers. link-state routing protocols only send out an LSP when there is a change in the topology. Inc. Inc. or SPF tree of the network topology. •Using the SPF tree. link-state routing protocols immediately flood the LSP out all interfaces except for the interface from which the LSP was received. link-state routing protocols do not send periodic updates. t l ƒ Builds a Topological Map • Link-state routing protocols create a topological map. © 2010 Cisco Systems. • A router using a distance vector routing protocol needs to process each routing update and update its routing t bl b f ti table before fl di th flooding them out other i t f t th interfaces. • Distance vector routing protocols do not have a topological map of the network. each router can independently determine the shortest path to every network Using tree network. also be an issue on unstable networks. The LSP contains only the information regarding the affected link.Link-State Routing Protocols ƒ There are several advantages of link-state routing protocols compared to distance vector routing protocols. All rights reserved. Multiple areas create a hierarchical design to networks allowing for better route aggregation (summarization) and the isolation of networks. ƒ Fast Convergence • When receiving a Link-state Packet (LSP). which includes the cost (distance) and next-hop routers (direction) to those networks. even with t i ith triggered updates. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. routing issues within an area. •Routers implementing a distance vector routing protocol only have a list of networks.

Link-State Routing Protocols ƒ Modern link-state routing protocols are designed to minimize the effects on memory. when there is a change in the topology example topology. CPU and i i i h ff CPU. If a network in Area 51 goes down. All rights reserved. Note: Multiple areas with OSPF and IS-IS are discussed in CCNP 24 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. • The use and configuration of multiple areas can reduce the size of the link-state databases. but this will be done with a type of link-state packet that does not cause them to rerun their SPF algorithm. • Routers in other areas will learn that this route is down. • This can help isolate an unstable link to a specific area in the routing domain domain. Multiple areas can link state also limit the amount of link-state information flooding in a routing domain and send LSPs only to those routers that need them. All rights reserved. ƒ In the figure. d bandwidth. • For example. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Link-State Routing Protocols ƒ 2 link state routing protocols used for routing IP -Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) -Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS) © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. the LSP with the information about this downed link is only flooded to other routers in that area. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 . only those routers in the affected area receive the LSP and run the SPF algorithm.

Inc.Summary ƒ Link State Routing protocols are also known as Shortest Path First protocols ƒ Summarizing the link state process -Routers 1ST learn of directly connected networks Routers -Routers then say “hello” to neighbors -Routers then build link state packets -Routers then flood LSPs to all neighbors -Routers use LSP database to build a network topology Routers map & calculate the best path to each destination © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 27 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 26 Summary ƒ Link An interface on the router ƒ Link State Information about an interface such as -IP address -Subnet mask Subnet -Type of network -Cost associated with li k C t i t d ith link -Neighboring routers on the link © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 OSPF (Single Area OSPF) Chapter 11: Routing Protocols and Concepts Modified by Hasimi Sallehudin © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 1 . additional LSP are sent out Aft i iti l fl di dditi l t t when a change in topology occurs ƒ Examples of link state routing protocols -Open shortest path first -IS-IS © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Summary ƒ Link State Packets After initial flooding. All rights reserved.

you will learn basic. single-area OSPF implementations and configurations configurations. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.Introduction •In this chapter. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 3 . All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 2 Introduction to OSPF Background of OSPF ƒ Began in 1987 ƒ 1989 OSPFv1 released in RFC 1131 This version was experimental & never deployed ƒ 1991 OSPFv2 released in RFC 1247 ƒ 1998 OSPFv2 updated in RFC 2328 ƒ 1999 OSPFv3 published in RFC 2740 p © 2010 Cisco Systems. •More complex OSPF configurations and concepts (multi-areas OSPF) are reserved for CCNP-level courses. Inc.

Wh an LSU is received.destination MAC address is also a multicast address: 01-00-5E-0000-05 or 01-00-5E-00-00-06. th router 5. Inc. All rights reserved.0. LSAck When i i d the t sends a Link-State Acknowledgement (LSAck) to confirm receipt of the LSU. All rights reserved. the destination address is set to one of two multicast addresses: 224.Hello packets are used to establish and maintain adjacency with other OSPF routers. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 4 Introduction t I t d ti to OSPF 5 OSPF Packet Types: ƒ 1.Introduction to OSPF OSPF Message Encapsulation ƒ OSPF packet type – There exist 5 types (next slide) ƒ OSPF packet header –Contains . DBD . –LSUs contain 7 different types of Link-State Advertisements (LSAs). ƒ 2.The Database Description (DBD) packet contains an abbre iated list of the sending ro ter's abbreviated router's link-state database and is used by receiving routers to check against the local link-state database.0.6. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0.Source IP address.5 or 224. LSR . & Protocol es a o address. Hello .Link-State Update (LSU) packets are used to reply to LSRs as well as to announce new information. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 5 . © 2010 Cisco Systems. 224 0 0 6 ƒ Data Link Frame Header –Contains . ƒ 3. LSU . –LSUs and LSAs are discussed in a later topic. o oco field set to 89.Receiving routers can then request more information about any entry in the DBD by sending a Link-State Request (LSR). ƒ 4.0. Inc. ƒ 5 LSA k .Router ID an area ID and Type code for OSPF packet type ƒ IP packet header – Contains . Destination IP add ess.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 7 . and network type. Why 10 second hello interval communications consider better than the 30 second routing update for RIP? ƒ OSPF Hello Intervals –Hello interval indicates how often an OSPF router transmits its Hello packets –Usually multicast (224. –If the Dead interval expires before the routers If receive a Hello packet. if any List of Neighbors: lists the OSPF Router ID of the neighboring router(s) 6 © 2010 Cisco Systems. the Dead interval is 120 seconds. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. –For NBMA networks. Also need to have the same Area ID. LS Request (3). LS ACK (5) Router ID: ID of the originating router Area ID: area from which the packet originated Network Mask: Subnet mask associated with the sending interface Hello Interval: number of seconds between the sending router's hellos Router Priority: Used in DR/BDR election (discussed later) l t ) Designated Router (DR): Router ID of the DR. OSPF will remove that neighbor from its link-state database. if any Backup Designated Router (BDR): Router ID of the BDR. Dead interval. this period is 40 seconds. © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara OSPF: Hello Protocol ƒ Establish adjacencies: – They must agree on three values: Hello y g interval. Inc.OSPF: Hello Protocol ƒ Purpose of Hello Packet ƒ Discover OSPF neighbors & establish adjacencies ƒ Advertise parameters on which routers must agree to become neighbors ƒ Used by multi-access networks to elect a Designated Router and a Backup Designated Router ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Type: OSPF Packet Type: Hello (1). Inc.5) for ALLSPFRouters –sent every 10 seconds on multiaccess and y point-to-point segments –Sent every 30 seconds for NBMA segments ƒ OSPF Dead Intervals –This is the time that must transpire before the neighbor is considered down –Default time is 4 times the hello interval –For multiaccess and point to point segments For point-to-point segments.0. LS Update (4). DD (2).

OSPF elects a Designated Router (DR) and Backup Designated Router ( g (BDR). © 2010 Cisco Systems. DROther later. Therefore. DR/BDR election occurs. All rights reserved. R1. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. –The DR/BDR election and processes will be discussed in a later topic and the topology will be changed to a multiaccess network. All rights reserved. ƒ In the figure. R2. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara More detail discussion on the DR. and R3 are connected through point to point links Therefore no point-to-point links. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 9 .OSPF: Hello Protocol ƒ To reduce the amount of OSPF traffic on multiaccess networks. You need to know this for CCNA exam. 8 Introduction to OSPF OSPF Link-state Updates ƒ Purpose of a Link State Update (LSU) –Used to deliver link state advertisements ƒ Purpose of a Link State Advertisement (LSA) –Contains information about neighbors & path costs –An LSU packet can contain 11 different types of LSAs. Inc. –The BDR monitors the DR and takes over as The DR if the current DR fails. ) ƒ Hello protocol packets contain information that is used in electing DR and BDR –The DR is responsible for updating all other The OSPF routers (called DROthers) when a change occurs in the multiaccess network. BDR.

SPF tree used to populate routing table © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.Introduction to OSPF OSPF Algorithm ƒ OSPF routers build & maintain link-state database containing LSA d t b t i i received from other routers 1. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 10 Introduction to OSPF Administrative Distance ƒ Default Administrative Distance for OSPF is 110 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Information found in database is utilized upon execution e ec tion of Dijkstra SPF algorithm g 2. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 11 . All rights reserved. SPF algorithm used to create SPF tree 3. Inc.

© 2010 Cisco Systems. Note: Authentication does not encrypt the router s router's routing table table. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 13 . g password migration easier and more secure. making . ? © 2010 Cisco Systems. –This is an interface specific configuration p g –This practice ensures that routers will only accept routing information from other routers that have been configured with the same password or authentication information MD5 authentication uses a k ID th t key that allows the router to reference multiple p passwords. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 12 Basic OSPF Configuration Lab Topology ƒ Topology used for this chapter –Discontiguous IP addressing scheme –Since OSPF is a classless routing protocol the subnet mask is will be configured as part of our OSPF configuration. Inc.Introduction to OSPF ƒ OSPF Authentication –It is good practice to authenticate transmitted It routing information. All rights reserved. Inc.

0.255.255.255.area-id refers to the OSPF area.255 .the inverse of the subnet mask •area-id .252 -------------------0. Inc. 0.255.255.255.Basic OSPF Configuration The router ospf command ƒ To enable OSPF on a router use the following command R1(config)#router ospf process-id ID cannot Process id ƒ A locally significant number between 1 and 65535 be 0 © 2010 Cisco Systems.255.255 .255.255. 03 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.240 -------------------0. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Subtract the subnet mask Wildcard mask Subtract the subnet mask Wildcard mask 15 . All rights reserved. OSPF area area is a group of routers that share link state information Router(config router)#network network address wildcard ask Router(config-router)#network network-address wildcard-ask area area-id area id 255. 0 15 0 0 0.255. 0. Inc. 255. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 14 Basic OSPF Configuration ƒ OSPF network command –Requires entering: q g •network address •wildcard mask .

. Not only d l does IOS d t t th t th overlap. ƒ Consider the following example: g p fw#conf t Enter configuration commands.Basic OSPF Configuration ƒ Cisco IOS now properly handles overlapping network .0.0. All rights reserved.0. one per line.0.0.3.255.7 area 2 13:07:10: %OSPF-6-AREACHG: 10.0.0 0.0.255 area 1 13:06:57: %OSPF-6-AREACHG: 10.255.de/?p=427 © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 17 .0. 16 Basic OSPF Configuration ƒ ospf network definition for adding all interfaces / default route What’s the difference? router ospf 1 network 0. Inc.255. http://blog.0 255.0.3.ioshints.255 area 1 network 0 0 0 0 255 255 255 255 area 0 0. Both statements are valid.0.0. Inc.0.0.info/2006/11/ network-statements-in-ospfprocess-are. All rights reserved.255.255 fw(config router)#network 0 0 0 0 255 255 255 255 area 0 fw(config-router)#network 10.0 0.255.0.0.. fw(config)#router ospf 100 fw(config-router)#network 0.0.255 area 0 ƒ Both add all existing interfaces into area 0 and all later added interfaces also.0.0 255.html ht l Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara © 2010 Cisco Systems. area configuration commands.0 255.0.255.0 changed from area 0 to area 1 fw(config-router)#network 10.255.0.0. it also prints nice syslog messages and reorders detect that they l l i t i l d d the commands in the running configuration.0.255 http://blog. Well done ! fw#show run | begin router ospf router ospf 100 p log-adjacency-changes network 10.0.0. vs router ospf 1 network 0.0.0 0. End with CNTL/Z.sazza.0 0.7 area 2 network 10.255.0.0 255.0. each one with a smaller address range.0 255.0.252.248 changed from area 1 to area 2 fw(config-router)#^Z ƒ I've entered overlapping network statements.0 area 0 vs.255.0.0 0.

we will configure all of the OSPF routers within a single area. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 19 . All rights reserved. Inc. If router-id command not used then router chooses highest IP address of any loopback interfaces 3. Inc. Use 1 U IP address configured with OSPF router-id command dd fi d ith t id d -Takes precedence over loopback and physical interface addresses 2. However!!!!!! © 2010 Cisco Systems.it must be in the up state state. ƒ However. 3 If no loopback interfaces are configured then the highest IP address on any active physical interface is used ƒ The interface does not need to be enabled for OSPF.Basic B i OSPF Configuration C fi ti ƒ Area area id area-id ƒAn OSPF area is a group of routers that share link-state information. meaning that it does not need to be included in one of the OSPF network commands. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 18 Basic B i OSPF Configuration C fi ti ƒ Router ID – This is an IP address used to identify a router – 3 criteria for deriving the router ID 1. All rights reserved. the interface must be active . ƒ In this chapter. ƒMulti-area OSPF is covered in CCNP. This is known as single-area OSPF. © 2010 Cisco Systems.

you are the KING for life – It means when ID is elected. unless for the t l …………. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 20 Basic OSPF Configuration OSPF Router ID ƒ Commands used to verify current router ID –Show ip protocols –Show ip ospf –Show ip ospf interface © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc.Basic B i OSPF Configuration C fi ti ƒ R t ID Router – If you are the king when the th ki h th kingdom is built.. it is the i th ID f th router. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 21 . All rights reserved.

– If the OSPF router-id command or the loopback router id address is configured after the OSPF network command. All rights reserved. the IP address from a subsequent OSPF router-id command b reloading the ro ter or by router 2. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 23 . it is more common to find loopback . by using the following command: Router#clear ip ospf process 3. Inc. All rights reserved. the router ID will be derived from the interface with the highest active IP address. –Command syntax ƒRouter(config)#router ospf process-id ƒRouter(config-router)#router-id ip-address ƒ Modifying the Router ID –Use the command Router#clear ip ospf process Use This command does not work in PT. Inc.0 –OSPF router-id command.Basic OSPF Configuration OSPF Router ID ƒ Router ID (not configured) & Loopback addresses (configured) –Highest loopback address will be used as router ID Highest –Advantage of using loopback address the loopback interface cannot fail Æ OSPF stability ƒ The OSPF router id command router-id –Introduced in IOS 12. ƒ Modifying the Router ID f The router ID can be modified with 1. Modifying a router ID with a new loopback or physical interface IP address may require reloading the router © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 22 Basic OSPF Configuration Modifying the Router ID y g ƒ The router ID is selected when OSPF is configured with its first OSPF network command. which is a fairly recent addition to IOS. p addresses used for configuring OSPF router IDs.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 25 . Inc. ƒ Router ID – Router ID – 1 IP address is elected per router. we will use the loopback address method for assigning router IDs IDs. ƒ When duplicate OSPF router IDs occur. configure all routers so that they have unique OSPF router IDs. and the backbone area. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 24 Quick Review We just went over 3 different types of ID ƒ ospf process-id.Basic OSPF Configuration Duplicate Router IDs ƒ When two routers have the same router ID in an OSPF domain. routing may not function properly. – OSPF process. the neighbor establishment may not occur. IOS will display a message similar to: – %OSPF-4-DUP_RTRID1: Detected router with d li t router ID ith duplicate t ƒ To correct this problem. it is 0 . – If the router ID is the same on two neighboring routers. • Highest physical address (or) • Highest logical address (loopback) © 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. . ¾ Because some IOS versions do not support the router-id command. process – Cannot be 0 ƒ Area ID: – OFPS area – If it is the first. All rights reserved.

© 2010 Cisco Systems.. causing the routers to be on separate networks.The interface on which this router has formed adjacency with the neighbor. •Pri . FULL state St t The t t f th i t f t t means that the router and its neighbor have identical OSPF link-state databases.The IP address of the neighbor's interface to which this router is directly connected. •Dead Time . •Interface .Basic OSPF Configuration Verifying OSPF ƒ U th show i ospf command t verify & Use the h ip f d to if trouble shoot OSPF networks: ƒ Neighbor adjacency ƒAdjacency indicated by ƒThe OSPF state of the interface is full state” “full state ƒNo adjacency indicated by ƒNeighboring router’s Router ID is not displayed ƒA state of full is not displayed -Consequence of no adjacencyConsequence adjacency ƒNo link state information exchanged ƒInaccurate SPF trees & routing tables •Neighbor ID . •Dead Time . ƒ Two routers may not form an OSPF adjacency if dj if: –The subnet masks do not match. two routers that are adjacent may have their states displayed as 2WAY 2WAY. 27 . –This will be discussed in a DR and BDR section.The OSPF priority of the interface. Inc.Th OSPF state of the interface.The OSPF priority of the interface. This value is reset when the interface receives a Hello packet packet. –OSPF Hello or Dead Timers do not match. •State . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara •Neighbor ID . •Address . –OSPF Network Types do not match. 26 © 2010 Cisco Systems.The IP address of the neighbor's interface to which this router is directly connected.The router ID of the neighboring router. •State . All rights reserved. Inc.. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara Basic OSPF Configuration Note: ƒ On multiaccess networks such as Ethernet. –There is a missing or i Th i i i incorrect OSPF t network command.The interface on which this router has formed adjacency with the neighbor. •Pri . •Address .The amount of time remaining that the router will wait to receive an OSPF Hello packet from the neighbor before declaring the neighbor down.Th OSPF state of the interface. This value is reset when the interface receives a Hello packet packet.The router ID of the neighboring router. All rights reserved. •Interface . FULL state St t The t t f th i t f t t means that the router and its neighbor have identical OSPF link-state databases.The amount of time remaining that the router will wait to receive an OSPF Hello packet from the neighbor before declaring the neighbor down.

–the default administrative distance. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 29 . 110 for OSPF. –the router ID. •R1 has participated in during the past 11 and a half hours is to send small Hello packets to its neighbors. their OSPF Hello and Dead intervals must be identical. •There is an additional Hold Time of 10000 msecs between 2 SPF calculations. ƒ Show ip ospf interface –The quickest way to verify Hello and Dead intervals • for OSPF routers to become neighbors. –SPF schedule delay •The router waits 5000 msecs after receiving an LSU before running the SPF algorithm. p . p y y © 2010 Cisco Systems. –networks the router is advertising. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 28 Configuring OSPF loopback address and router priority The command show ip ospf interface will display the interface priority value as well as other key information. –OSPF area information –the last time the SPF algorithm was calculated. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. ƒ Show ip ospf –OSPF process ID –router ID router ID. © 2010 Cisco Systems.Verifying OSPF ƒ Show ip protocols –OSPF process ID.

Inc. -Cost i b C is based on b d id h of an i d bandwidth f interface f ƒCost is calculated using the formula 108 / bandwidth -Reference bandwidth ƒThe 100Mbps (FastEthernet) and higher will have the same OSPF cost of 1. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 30 OSPF Metric M ti ƒ OSPF uses cost as the metric for determining the best route –A cost is associated with the output side of each router interface. •They function as router ID. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 31 . ƒThis reference bandwidth can be modified using ƒauto-cost reference-bandwidth command © 2010 Cisco Systems. t ID © 2010 Cisco Systems. •These loopback interfaces are not advertised in OSPF. –The lower the cost. All rights reserved.Basic OSPF Configuration Examining the routing table ƒ Use the show ip route command to display the routing table -An “O’ at the beginning of a route indicates that the router source is OSPF -OSPF does not automatically summarize at major network boundaries •Loopback interface counts as a network. the more likely th i t f Th l th t th lik l the interface i is to be used to forward data traffic ƒ The Cisco IOS uses the cumulative bandwidths f th b d idth of the outgoing interfaces from t i i t f f the router to the destination network as the cost value.

All rights reserved. the routing table on R1 shows a cost of 65 to reach the 10. All rights reserved. 64 + 1 = 65 © 2010 Cisco Systems. However. R2 assigns the value 1 as the cost for 10.0/24. some serial interfaces may default to 128 kbps.10.10.544Mbps –However. •Because 10.0/24 network on R2. •R1 then adds the additional cost value of 64 to send d d data across the h default T1 link between R1 and R2. in the figure.0/24 is attached to a FastEthernet interface. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 32 OSPF Metric ƒ Sometimes the actual speed of a link is different than the default bandwidth –This makes it imperative that th b d idth value reflects Thi k i ti th t the bandwidth l fl t link’s actual speed ƒReason: so routing table has best path information ƒ The show interface command will display interface’s interface s bandwidth –Most serial link default to 1.10. Inc.10. Inc.10. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 33 .10.OSPF Metric ƒ COST of an OSPF route is the accumulated value from one router to the destination network •For example. © 2010 Cisco Systems.

0/30 network. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 34 OSPF Metric: Bandwidth ƒ Remember. Cost is calculated using the formula 108/bandwidth. where bandwidth is expressed in bps. (Cost = 100. 2A/S 2T COD has these 2 types of serial cards in the lab © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ The figure displays the routing table g p y g for R1. –It is important that the bandwidth value reflect the actual speed of th l fl t th t l d f the link so that the routing table has accurate best path information. Inc. when Serial 0/0/1 is actually the better path. All rights reserved.000.8. 1 544 Mbps or 1544 kbps kbps. •one of the links i a 64 kb li k f th li k is kbps link •the other one is a 256 kbps link.168. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 35 . –R1 believes that both of its serial interfaces are connected to T1 links.000/Bandwidth) Modifying M dif i OSPF cost metric t ti ƒ The Cisco IOS automatically determines cost based on the bandwidth of the interface. How to modify the cost of all the links? © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. it is used by some routing protocols to compute the routing metric. –This results in R1's routing table having two equal-cost paths to the equal cost 192. ƒ It is essential for proper OSPF operation that the correct interface bandwidth is set. this bandwidth value does not actually affect the speed of the link.ƒ OSPF uses cost as the metric for determining the best route.544 Mbps. Router(config)#interface serial 0/0 Router(config-if)#bandwidth 64 The default bandwidth for Cisco serial interfaces is 1.

Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 37 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 36 Modifying th C t f th li k M dif i the Cost of the link ƒ Difference between bandwidth command & the ip ospf cost command t d –Ip ospf cost command ƒSets cost to a specific value –Bandwidth command ƒLink cost is calculated © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Basic OSPF Configuration Modifying the Cost of a link ƒ B th sides of a serial li k should b Both id f i l link h ld be configured with the same bandwidth –Commands used to modify bandwidth value Commands ƒBandwidth command –Example: Router(config-if)#bandwidthbandwidth-kbps ƒip ospf cost command – allows you to directly specify interface cost -Example:R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#ip ospf cost 1562 © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

© 2010 Cisco Systems. the network.OSPF and M lti d Multiaccess Networks N t k Challenges in Multiaccess Networks ƒ OSPF defines five network types: –Point-to-point •network there are only two devices on . –This would lead to an excessive number of LSAs passing between routers on the same network. All rights reserved. •5 routers in the figure will need 10 j . Inc.25 networks. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 38 OSPF in Multiaccess Networks ƒ 2 challenges presented by multiaccess networks –Multiple adjacencies –Extensive LSA flooding Extensive ƒ The creation of an adjacency between every pair of routers in a network would create an unnecessary number of adjacencies. All rights reserved. 20 •20 routers would require 190 adjacencies © 2010 Cisco Systems. adjacencies. –Broadcast Multiaccess •a network with more than two devices on the same shared media. Inc. ATM. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 39 . •10 routers would require 45 adjacencies. and X. •all devices on the network see all broadcast frames. –Point-to-multipoint •networks include Frame Relay.25 networks. –Nonbroadcast Multiaccess (NBMA) •networks include Frame Relay ATM Relay. ATM. d X 25 t k –Virtual links •Virtual links are a special type of link that can be used in multi-area OSPF multi area OSPF. and X. one at each end.

multi-access networks. http://www.OSPF i M lti in Multiaccess Networks N t k ƒ Extensive flooding of LSAs g For every LSA sent out there must be an acknowledgement of receipt sent back to transmitting router. and then all other routers establish i dj i d h ll h bli h adjacencies only with the designated router. For example. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 41 . This simplifies the routing table update procedure and reduces the number of link-state records in the database.6. Inc. consequence: lots of bandwidth consumed and chaotic traffic Solution: © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 40 Steps in the operation of OSPF ƒ OSPF routers send Hello packets on OSPF enabled interfaces. A designated router is elected as routers are f forming adjacencies. ƒ On multi access networks the routers elect a DR and BDR On these networks other routers become adjacent to the DR. To reduce the number of adjacencies traffics To reduce the number of adjacencies each router must form. BDR.0.0. The designated router plays other important roles as well to reduce the overhead of a OSPF link-state procedures. OSPF calls one of the routers the designated router. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.htm © 2010 Cisco Systems.ns.ca/Chebucto/Technical/M anuals/Max/max6000/isptele/maxospf. Inc.chebucto. other routers send link-state advertisements it to the designated router only by g y y using the all-designated-routers multicast address of 224.

All rights reserved.cisco. Inc. On these networks other routers become adjacent to the DR. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 43 . Inc.Steps in the operation of OSPF ƒ OSPF routers send Hello packets on OSPF enabled interfaces. All rights reserved.html © 2010 Cisco Systems. ƒ On multi-access networks. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 42 Steps in the operation of OSPF ƒ To reduce the number of adjacencies traffics http://www. the routers elect a DR and BDR.com/warp/public/104/11.

–DROther • All other routers become DROthers (this indicates a router that is neither the DR or the BDR). All rights reserved.All OSPF routers). –DR & BDR are elected to send & receive LSA © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. –DR & BDR are elected to send & DR receive LSA –DROthers only form full adjacencies with the DR and BDR in the network.0. Inc.0. OSPF elects a O lti t k l t Designated Router (DR) to be the collection and distribution point for LSAs sent and received. –A Backup Designated Router ( p g (BDR) is also ) elected in case the Designated Router fails.6 to DR & BDR (ALLDRouters . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 45 . •DROthers only f DROth l form f ll adjacencies with th full dj i ith the DR and BDR in the network.0. ƒ Sending & Receiving LSA –DRothers send LSAs via multicast 224. routers) © 2010 Cisco Systems.All DR routers) –DR forward LSA via multicast address 224.OSPF i M lti in Multiaccess Networks N t k ƒ Solution to LSA flooding issue is the use of –Designated router (DR) –Backup designated router (BDR) •this solution is analogous to electing someone i th room t go around and l in the to d d learn everyone's names and then announce these names to everyone in the room at once.0. Inc.5 to all other routers (AllSPFRouters . ƒ DR & BDR –On multiaccess networks. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 44 OSPF i M lti in Multiaccess Networks N t k ƒ DR & BDR & DROther –Routers on a multiaccess network elect a DR and BDR.

OSPF in Multiaccess Networks DR/BDR Election Process ƒ DR/BDR elections DO NOT occur in point to point-topoint networks ƒ DR/BDR elections will take place on multiaccess networks as shown below © 2010 Cisco Systems. the highest router ID is used to break the tie. All rights reserved. If OSPF interface priorities are equal. DR: Router with the highest OSPF interface priority. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. 2 BDR: Router with the second highest OSPF interface priority. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 46 OSPF in Multiaccess Networks ƒ Criteria for getting elected DR/BDR g g 1. 3. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 47 . 2.

the neighbor state is displayed as 2WAY. If there's a tie. ƒ Example: – The OSPF for all interface priority is 1 1. with the second highest router ID. it becomes the DROther. Inc. • RouterC with the highest router ID. 48 OSPF network types (cont. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 49 . but will still form a neighbor adjacency with any DROthers that join the network. the router with the highest router id is elected DR. the router with the highest priority is elected DR DR. DROthers only form FULL adjacencies with the DR and BDR. Inc. y 2. becomes the DR • RouterB. You need 4 routers topology to see this “2way” adjacency. DR: Router with the highest OSPF interface p priority. If both the existing DR and BDR fail and a new DR must be elected. the highest router ID is used to break the tie.) Real DR and BDR election process The first router up on the network is the DR DR. The DR does not change just because another router comes on line with a higher g priority or a higher router id. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara © 2010 Cisco Systems. g . becomes the BDR. – The OSPF router ID is used to elect the DR and BDR. If the DR fails then the BDR becomes DR and another router is elected the BDR. All rights reserved. If OSPF interface priorities are equal. When two DROther routers form a neighbor adjacency. © 2010 Cisco Systems. BDR: Router with the second highest OSPF interface priority. • B Because R t A i not elected as RouterA is t l t d either the DR or BDR.ƒ Criteria for getting elected DR/BDR 1. The second router up on the network is the BDR. 3.

becomes DR. RouterC fails and the former BDR. This can happen when 1. boot 2. 1 When the routers are powered on powered-on • it is possible that a router with a lower router ID will become the DR. All rights reserved. RouterB. Inc. BDR –In the figure. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. the BDR assumes the role of DR and an election is held to choose a new BDR. This could be a lower-end router that took less time to boot. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 50 Timing of DR/BDR Election (This is really of how the election works) ƒ DR Fails –If the DR fails. -The OSPF process on the DR fails. -The multiaccess interface on the DR fails. when the OSPF network command for that interface is configured. The only other router available to be BDR is RouterA. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 51 . Inc. ƒ When a DR is elected it remains as the DR until one of the following occurs -The DR fails The fails.Timing of DR/BDR Election (This is really of how the election works) ƒ Election occurs as soon as 1st router has its OSPF enabled on multiaccess network.

33. if the DR fails. •In the figure. the BDR will become the DR.168. •After the new router becomes the BDR. then the new router will b t ill become th DR the DR. •The current DR and BDR must both fail before the new router can be elected DR or BDR. •If the current DR fails. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 53 . it will not become the DR or th BDR even if it tb th the has a higher OSPF interface priority or router ID than the current DR or BDR. © 2010 Cisco Systems. and the new router can be elected the new BDR. Inc.31. All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 52 Timing of DR/BDR Election (This is really of how the election works) ƒ Old DR Returns –A previous DR does not regain DR status if it returns to the network. Inc. RouterC has finished a reboot and becomes a DROther even though its router ID. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Timing of DR/BDR Election (This is really of how the election works) ƒ New Router –If a new router enters the network after the DR and BDR have been elected. 192. is higher than the current DR and BDR.

Inc. the BDR router fails. the solution is to either: –Boot up the DR first. © 2010 Cisco Systems.Timing of DR/BDR Election (This is really of how the election works) ƒ BDR Fails –If the BDR fails. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. •RouterD wins the election with the higher router ID. ƒ So. an election is held among the DRothers to see which router will b th new BDR ill be the BDR. OR: use the priority command set not desired DR and BDR to 0 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 55 . Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 54 Timing of DR/BDR Election (This is really of how the election works) ƒ New DR Fails –In the figure. All rights reserved. it is promoted to DR RouterC becomes the BDR DR. •In the figure. Because RouterD is the current BDR. then the BDR. RouterB fails. followed by a no shutdown on the DR. followed by the BDR. BDR. how do you make sure that the y routers you want to be DR and BDR win the election? Without further configurations. •An election is held between RouterC and RouterD. or –Shut down the interface on all routers. and then boot all other routers. and then all other routers.

All rights reserved. Inc.168.22) is still the BDR with the next highest OSPF interface priority of 100.31.255} ƒPriority number range 0 to 255 –0 means the router cannot become the DR or BDR –1 is the default priority value »router ID determined the DR and BDR © 2010 Cisco Systems. because RouterA is the actual DR on this network. DR BDR © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 56 OSPF in Multiaccess Networks OSPF Interface Priority ƒ Modify Priority –Router(config-if)#ip ospf priority {0 .11) is the DR with the highest OSPF interface priority of 200 p y –RouterB (Router ID 192. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 57 .OSPF in Multiaccess Networks OSPF Interface Priority ƒ Manipulating the DR/BDR election process continued –Use the ip ospf priority interface command. –Notice f N ti from R t A' output of show ip RouterA's t t f h i ospf neighbor that it does not show a DR. Inc.31. –The show ip ospf neighbor command on RouterC now shows that RouterA (Router ID 192.255} ƒ Force Election –After d i a shutdown and a no shutdown Aft doing h td d h td on the FastEthernet 0/0 interfaces of all three routers. All rights reserved.168. we see the result of the change of OSPF interface priorities. –Example:Router(config-if)#ip ospf priority {0 .

0. the ƒCalled an autonomous system border router Loopback1 (Lo1) simulate the connection to another ƒUsed to propagate a default route Used router. All rights reserved.0.0. All rights reserved.0 loopback 1 –Requires the use of the default-information originate command –Example of default-information originate command R1(config-router)#default-information originate © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 59 . Serial0/0/1 E2 denotes that this route is an OSPF External Type 2 route.0. irrespective of the interior cost to reach that route.0. –Example of static default route R1(config)#ip route 0. Inc.0. the cost of an E2 route is always the external cost.More OSPF Configuration Redistributing Redistrib ting an OSPF Defa lt Ro te Default Route ƒ Topology includes a link to ISP –Router connected t ISP R t t d to In this topology. E2.10.0 0. the route is: O*E2 0.0/0 [110/1] via 192. 00:05:34. For R2.168. (CCNP) © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 58 Redistributing an OSPF Default Route The default route in R2 and R3 with the routing source OSPF. Inc.10. but with the additional code.

© 2010 Cisco Systems. © 2010 Cisco Systems. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 61 . To increase it to 10GigE speeds you would need speeds. •Again.10. All rights reserved.More OSPF Configuration Fine-Tuning OSPF ƒ Since link speeds are getting faster it may be necessary to change reference bandwidth f values –Do this using the auto cost Do auto-cost reference-bandwidth command –Example: ƒ R1(config-router)#auto-cost reference-bandwidth 10000 •the default value is equivalent to 100. All rights reserved. the cost to 10. R1 Before. to change the reference bandwidth to 10000. Inc. make sure you configure this command on all routers in the OSPF routing domain. the cost for the same route is now 117287. y would need to change the reference bandwidth to 10000.10. Inc. To g p . you increase it to 10GigE speeds. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 60 More OSPF Configuration Fine-Tuning OSPF ƒ R1(config-router)#autocost reference-bandwidth 10000 •the default value is equivalent to 100. After Aft configuring a new reference b d idth fi i f bandwidth.0/24 is 1172.

All rights reserved. 3.) *. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara .0.4.0. 3.0/16. Decision process: 1.0.0.4.0/16. Inc.0.5. Inc.5.0. ill b f 10 4 0 0/16 Router A will be DR for 10.4. 2.0/16. © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.More OSPF Configuration Fine-Tuning OSPF ƒ Modifying OSPF timers –Reason to modify timers ƒFaster detection of network failures –Manually modifying Hello & Dead intervals ƒRouter(config-if)#ip ospf hello-interval seconds ƒRouter(config-if)#ip ospf dead-interval seconds R t ( fi if)#i fd di t l d –Point to be made ƒHello & Dead intervals must be the same between neighbors © 2010 Cisco Systems. Remote will be DR for 10 5 0 0/16 10.5. Which segment will have election? Priority? Router ID (each router will only has 1 ID)? 1. Remote will be BDR for 10.0/16. 10 4 0 0/16 Router A will be DR for 10.0/16. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 62 The End ƒ Questions? What will be the result of the DR and BDR elections for this single area OSPF network? (Choose three. Set using “router-ID” command Highest Loopback IP address? Highest physical IP address (include serial interface)? 63 HQ will be DR for 10. 2. HQ will be BDR for 10.0/16.

All rights reserved.0 network? (Choose two.) R1 will be the DR R1 will be the BDR R2 will be the DR R2 will be the BDR R3 will be the DR R3 will be the BDR © 2010 Cisco Systems. 1 2. Which segment will have election? Priority? Router ID (each router will only has 1 ID)? 1. 1 2. Set using “router-ID” command Highest Loopback IP address? Highest physical IP address (include serial interface)? 65 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . which has an OSPF priority of 2. Decision process: 1. 3. 3. All OSPF priorities are set to the default except for Ethernet0 of router R2. Decision process: 1. What will be the result of the OSPF DR/BDR elections on the 192. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. 3.1.1. Set using “router-ID” command Highest Loopback IP address? Highest physical IP address (include serial interface)? 64 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara ƒ Questions? *.The End ƒ Questions? The routers in the diagram are configured as shown The loopback interface on shown. 2. 2. *. 3. router R1 is labeled as lo0. Which segment will have election? Priority? Router ID (each router will only has 1 ID)? 1. © 2010 Cisco Systems.

Decision process: 1.4.ƒ Questions? Answer????? *. 3.0/16.0/16. Decision process: 1.5. Inc.0/16 10 5 0 0/16 © 2010 Cisco Systems.0. 2.0/16. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 66 ƒ Questions? Answer????? ƒ HQ will be DR for 10.0/16 ƒ Router A will be DR for 10. 1 2. 3. Which segment will have election? Priority? Router ID (each router will only has 1 ID)? 1. All rights reserved. ƒ HQ will b BDR f ill be for 10. ƒ Router A will be DR for 10.0.0. 2 3. ƒ Remote will be BDR for 10. *.4. Set using “router-ID” command Highest Loopback IP address? Highest physical IP address (include serial interface)? 67 Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara . 2. Which segment will have election? Priority? i i ? Router ID (each router will only has 1 ID)? 1.0.0. 2. 3. All rights reserved. Set using “router-ID” command router ID Highest Loopback IP address? Highest physical IP address (include serial interface)? i li f )? © 2010 Cisco Systems.0.0/16 ƒ Remote will be DR for 10.4.5.5.

All rights reserved. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 68 Summary ƒ OSPF Characteristics –Metric = cost ƒLowest cost = best path ƒ Configuration –Enable OSPF on a router using the following command E bl t i th f ll i d ƒR1(config)#router ospf process-id –use the network command to define which interfaces will use participate in a given OSPF process ƒR1(config-router)#network network-address wildcard-mask area area-id © 2010 Cisco Systems.Summary ƒ RFC 2328 describes OSPF link state concepts and operations ƒ OSPF Characteristics –A commonly deployed link state routing protocol –Employs DRs & BDRs on multi-access networks ƒDRs & BDRs are elected ƒDR & BDRs are used to transmit and receive LSAs –Uses 5 packet types: Uses 1: HELLO 2: DATABASE DESCRIPTION 3: LINK STATE REQUEST 4: LINK STATE UPDATE 5: LINK STATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT © 2010 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 69 . Inc.

Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara 70 . All rights reserved. Inc.Summary ƒ Verifying OSPF configuration –Use the following commands ƒshow ip protocol ƒshow ip route ƒshow i ospf i t f h ip f interface ƒshow ip ospf neighbor © 2010 Cisco Systems.

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