FSB A front side bus (FSB) is an electrical pathway on a computer s motherboard, which connects the various hardware components

to the main microprocessor, or central processing unit (CPU). To realize the full performance benefits of a fast CPU, a fast front side bus is also required. Broadcast domain vs collision domain Collision domain is a logical area where the packets/frames get collied each other in a CSMA/CD(carrier sense multiple access collision detection) ether network. All the hosts in that area trying to grab the access of the network/carrier to send out its data. In the case of Hub all the ports/host are in the same collision domain, means that only on host can able to send the data. But in the case of switch each port in the switch has seperate collision domain as it has the intelligence upto MAC layer. Bridges Vs Routers Bridge : A bridge is a device that connects and passes packets between two network segments that use the same communications protocol. Bridges operate at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI reference model. A bridge will filter, forward or flood an incoming frame based on the MAC address of that frame. Bridging is a forwarding technique used in packet-switched computer networks. Unlike routing, bridging makes no assumptions about where in a network a particular address is located. Instead, it depends on flooding and examination of source addresses in received packet headers to locate unknown devices. Once a device has been located, its location is recorded in a table where the MAC address is stored so as to preclude the need for further broadcasting. The utility of bridging is limited by its dependence on flooding, and is thus only used in local area networks. Router : A router is an intelligent connecting device that can send packets to the correct LAN segment to take them to their destination. Routers link LAN segments at the network layer of the OSI Reference Model for computer to computer communications. The networks connected by routers can use similar or different networking protocols. The most popular interior routing protocol is OSPF and the most popular exterior routing protocol is BGP. Hub Vs Switches It is a best practice to use switches whenever possible because of the increase in performance over a standard hub. The bandwidth with a standard hub is shared by all users connected to the hub; however, with a switch, all users get the full network bandwidth. For example, a 100 Mbps network with a 24-port hub and 24 PCs allows each user to have 100/24 Mbps bandwidth; with a switch, however, each user would have a full 100 Mbps bandwidth. Bridges and switches Layer 2 Devices(work with mac address) Router Layer 3 Device VLAN Virtually defining a lan. 1. Layer 1 switch: Various physical ports on switch is been designed to form VLAN1,VLAN2,VLAN3. 2. Layer 2 switch: Group of Mac address formed together to form this type of LAN. So in this concept no need to remember the port where node is plugged in. This is a great feature forlaptop users who typically roam around on the network they will always be a member of the same VLAN unless the switch is reconfigured.

With layer-3 switches. Public address translation (PAT) . because they have the source address information which contains the network ID in them. it will take no time at all for the system to be hacked. Network Address Translation (NAT) is a network service that is responsible for translating internal IP addresses from machines inside the network to a public address used by the NAT service essentially hiding your internal network addresses.3. the workstations do not actually belong to the VLAN. if you have your server connected directly to the Internet. For example. These are popular devices today rather than buying both a switch and a router. Brouters A brouter is the combination of a bridge and a router. such as a layer-2 and layer-3 switch. but the packets that are being sent do belong. Layer -3 switch: A layer-3 switch bases membership to a VLAN on the subnet ID of the layer-3 address of a packet. and it makes the decision whether it needs to bridge the data or route the data according to the protocol being used. Multi layer Switch Know that a multilayer switch. is a switch that provides the functionality of a switch (layer-2) and a router (layer-3). and having an Internet connection presents a number of security concerns. NAT (Network Address Translation) Most networks today are connected to the Internet.

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