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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion, more specific as a study of human motion, using the eye and the brain of observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics, and the activity of the muscles. Gait analysis is used to assess, plan, and treat individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk. It is also commonly used in sports to help athletes run more efficiently and to identify posture-related or movement-related problems in people with injuries. The study encompasses quantification, i.e. introduction and analysis of measurable parameters of gaits, as well as interpretation, i.e. drawing various conclusions about the animal (health, age, size, weight, speed, etc.) from its gait.
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1 History 2 Equipment and techniques 3 Applications o 3.1 Medical diagnostics o 3.2 Biometric identification and forensics 4 Popular media 5 See also 6 References 7 External links
The pioneers of scientific gait analysis were Aristotle in De Motu Animalium (On the Gait of Animals) and much later in 1680, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli also called De Motu Animalium (I et II). In the 1890s, the German anatomist Christian Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fischer published a series of papers on the biomechanics of human gait under loaded and unloaded conditions. With the development of photography, it became possible to capture image sequences which reveal details of human and animal locomotion that are not noticeable by watching the movement with the naked eye. Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey were pioneers of this in the early 1900s. It was photography which first revealed the detailed sequence of the
Based on the angle and time delay between the original and reflected signal. The development of treatment regimes. which is usually mis-represented in paintings made prior to this discovery. Active marker systems are similar to the passive marker system but use "active" markers. began in the 1970s with the availability of video camerasystems which could produce detailed studies of individual patients within realistic cost and time constraints.  Equipment and techniques Gait analysis commonly involves the measurement of the movement of the body in space (kinematics) and the forces involved in producing these movements (kinetics). and neuromuscular disorders. Software is used to create three dimensional trajectories from these markers which are subsequently given identification labels. 2. Parkinson's disease. for example. The advantage of this system over the passive one is that individual markers . simultaneously. advanced significantly in the 1980s. using reflective markers (typically reflective balls). These are also used for motion capture in the motion picture industry.horse "gallop" gait. Kinematics can be recorded using a variety of systems and methodologies: 1. Strobe lighting at known frequency has been used in the past to aid in the analysis of gait on single photographic images. Although much early research was done using film cameras. Many leading orthopaedic hospitals worldwide now have gait labs which are routinely used in large numbers of cases. allows for very accurate measurement of movements using multiple cameras (typically five to twelve cameras). both to design treatment plans. Cine film or video recordings using footage from single or multiple cameras can be used to measure joint angles and velocities. The cameras utilize high powered strobes (typically red. near infra-red or infra-red) with matching filters to record the reflection from the markers placed on the body. often involving orthopaedic surgery. Passive marker systems. Commercial development soon followed with the emergence of Vicon Motion Systems and BTS. the widespread application of gait analysis to humans with pathological conditions such as cerebral palsy. Development of modern computer based systems occurred independently during the late 1970's and early 1980's in several hospital based research labs. Chronophotography is the most basic method for the recording of movement. This method has been aided by the development of analysis software that greatly simplifies the analysis process and allows for analysis in three dimensions rather than two dimensions only. some through collaborations with the aerospace industry . marketing gait analysis hardware systems in the mid 1980's. This signal is then used to triangulate the location of the marker. based on gait analysis results. and for follow-up monitoring. 4. triangulation of the marker in space is possible. Markers are located at palpable anatomical landmarks. A computer model is then used to compute joint angles from the relative marker positions of the labeled trajectories . 3. These markers are triggered by the incoming infra red signal and respond by sending out a corresponding signal of their own.
biomechanical models and sensor fusion algorithms. Gait laboratory with passive infra-red cameras and embedded force platforms A typical modern gait lab has several to many cameras (video and/or infra-red) placed around a walkway or treadmill. This gives a full breakdown of the motion at each joint. also known as force platforms. enables the solution of equations based on Newton's laws of motion and enables the computer to calculate the net forces and the net moments of force about each joint at every stage of the gait cycle..g. and the condyles of the knee). for example. This use of kinetics. and location (called centre of pressure).  Applications . or EMG patterns are used to diagnose specific conditions. In addition. 5. including magnitude. a muscles of the leg. however. or clusters of markers applied to the middle of body segments. direction. to calculate movement kinetics. predict the outcome of treatments.work at predefined frequencies and therefore. Deviations from normal kinematic. To detect the activity and contribution of individual muscles to movement. the malleoli of the ankle. Inertial (camera-less) systems based on MEMS inertial sensors. The patient walks down the walkway or the treadmill and the computer calculates the trajectory of each marker in three dimensions. such as the extensor or flexors of the limb. such as palpable bony landmarks (e. or determine the effectiveness of training programs. In this way it is possible to investigate the activation times of muscles and. which measure the ground reaction forces. the magnitude of their activation —thereby assessing their contribution to gait. The computational method for this is known as inverse dynamics. which are linked to a computer. the systems tend to be less forgiving for out-of-view markers than the passive systems. kinetic. Many labs also use surface electrodes attached to the skin to detect the electrical activity or electromyogram (EMG) of. The patient has single markers applied to anatomical landmarks. does not result in information for individual muscles but muscle groups. A model is applied to compute the underlying motion of the bones. These full-body or partly systems can be used indoors and outdoors regardless of lighting conditions. This means that no post-processing of marker locations is required. however. to some degree. it is necessary to investigate the electrical activity of muscles. Adding this to the known dynamics of each body segment. have their own "identity". most laboratories have floor-mounted load transducers. the iliac spines of the pelvis.
 For slip and fall investigations.  See also . The English XL slip meter. "The Queer Feet". gait analysis is widely used in professional sports training to optimise and improve athletic performance. There is a high correlation between step length and height of a person. K. the incident walking surface slip resistance can be measured. Chesterton premised one of his Father Brown mysteries. The parameters are grouped to spatial-temporal (step length. on gait recognition. knee and ankle. cycle time) and kinematic (joint rotation of the hip. Minor variations in gait style can be used as a biometric identifier to identify individual people. Options for treatment of cerebral palsy include the paralysis of spastic muscles using Botox or the lengthening. Corrections of distorted bony anatomy are also undertaken. Medical diagnostics Pathological gait may reflect compensations for underlying pathologies.  Popular media • • G. which is designed to test the coefficient of friction or "slip index" on various walking surfaces. The objective measurements that can be analyzed and compared with "normal" walking forces and industry standards regarding flooring slip resistance. Aside from clinical applications. walking speed. Gait analysis was proposed as authentication for portable electronic devices. Cory Doctorow makes much of gait recognition as a security technique used in a high school in his book Little Brother. also known as a VIT (Variable Incidence Tribometer) is a leading edge portable "slip tester". step width. and thigh/trunk/foot angles) classes. The surface can be tested to identify if it is above or below accepted levels or slip thresholds. as well as permitting future developments in rehabilitation engineering. It is heavily used in the assessment of sports and investigations into the movement of a large variety of other animals. level or incline (even steps).  Biometric identification and forensics Gait analysis techniques allow for the assessment of gait disorders and the effects of corrective Orthopedic surgery. re-attachment or detachment of particular tendons. under dry and wet (or otherwise contaminated) conditions by mimicking certain pedestrian biomechanical parameters. The study of gait allows these diagnoses to be made. mean joint angles of the hip/knee/ankle. or be responsible for causation of symptoms in itself.
8. Rezaul. Champaign IL:Human Kinetics Pubs. 2. ^ Eadweard Muybridge 7. 11–18. ^ DH Sutherland: "The evolution of clinical gait analysis: Part II Kinematics" Gait & Posture.• Terrestrial locomotion in animals  References 1. ^ Aristotle (2004). Research Methods in Biomechanics. ^ journalsip. Band 1..org/wiki/Gait_analysis" Categories: Locomotion | Orthopedic surgery | Rehabilitation medicine | Neurology | Biometrics | Forensic disciplines | Forensic techniques Personal tools • New features .cfm 16. Introduction of Gait Analysis and Biomedical signals Video Gait Analysis CatWalk by Noldus Information Technology Retrieved from "http://en. ^ RB Davis. 2004. 2007. ^ Ambulatory inertial gait analysis 11. ^ www. Begg.htm 12. Kessinger Publishing. An Introduction. Michael. On the Gait of Animals.cfm 15.astm. ^ www. Gait Analysis. pp.com/personal.google. 16: 159-179. Idea Group.com/xl. 9. ^ www. ^ Fischer.vtt. ISBN 978-1-59140-836-9. Hirzel Verlag. Rezaul (2006). Braune. 4. ^ geradts. preference page. Butterworth Heinnemann. Der Gang des Menschen: Versuche am unbelasteten und belasteten Menschen.kodsiengineering. ^ Whittle E.htm 14. Palaniswami. ^ Robertson DGE. 2006-03-30. S Õunpuu. http://books. Computational Intelligence for Movement Sciences: Neural Networks and Other Emerging Techniques. D Tyburski. ^ Étienne-Jules Marey 6. ^ englishxl.. 3.kodsiengineering.com/html/Documents/gait.google.org/JOURNALS/FORENSIC/PAGES/4706.10:575-587..fi/vtt/new/2005/new11.htm 13.wikipedia.com/books? id=0yis6idPgy8C&pg=PA11. http://books. in Begg.com/personal. Wilhelm (1895) (in German). 2002. ISBN 1419138677. Russell. JR Gage "A gait analysis data collection and reduction technique". Otto.com/books?id=lZGxiHM2ldIC.html  External links • • • • • Clinical Gait Analysis Database to support Clinical Gait Analysis Interpretation Human Motion Analysis. Human Movement Science 1991. "Overview of Movement Analysis and Gait Features". et al. 10. ^ Best. 5. Marimuthu.
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