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WATER SUPPLY & SANITATION
out with the help of leading consultants in the field on contract basis shortly. The results of the studies would provide further guidance to the State Governments/UTs on the approach/strategies to be followed.
Low Cost Sanitation for Liberation of Scavengers
3. This Centrally sponsored scheme is being implemented by the Ministry since 1989-90 through the Housing & Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO). Subsidy from the Central Government and loans from HUDCO are released in a syncrhonised manner to the State Implementing Agencies for conversion of dry latrines into pour flush water seal latrines and construction of new sanitary units on a ‘whole town’ basis for the liberation of scavengers. During 1992-93, the Ministry had released Rs. 21.62 crores to HUDCO to meet the subsidy component. In the current financial year, there is a provision of Rs. 25.80 crores which will be released to HUDCO by March, 1994 after assessing the progress and utilisa tion of funds. 3.1 During 1993-94 (upto December 1993), new schemes covering 53 towns have been sanctioned by HUDCO at a cost of Rs. 135.05 crores, which includes a subsidy of Rs. 39.09 crores and loan of Rs. 51.57 crores. The balance amount is to be met either by the State Governments/Municipalities or the beneficiaries. These schemes cover conversion of 2,34,066 dry latrines and construction of 2,08,425 new sanitary units, which would liberate 16,341 scavengers. The number of units completed during the current year are given below:Conversion Construction of new latries Community latrines ,19,738 19,459 464
Water supply and sanitation are basic necessities affecting the qwality of life in urban areas. The growth of cities/towns, depletion and pollution of water sources, competing demands for fresh water, lack of adequate finance, low cost recovery, engineering and management problems are omnipresent in varying degrees throughout the country.
Urban Water Supply & Sanitation Policy
2. Realising the difficulties faced by the Public Health Engineering Departments/Water Supply & Sanitation Boards in the State Governments and Union Territories, the Ministry of Urban Development organised the National Conference on Urban Water Supply & Sanitation Policy in New Delhi from 11 th to 13th March, 1993. The organisational expenses was financed by the World Health Organisation. The basic objective of the Conference was to give a new direction and identify a set of reforms needed to energise, the Improvement of the sector. The Conference was attended by the concerned Secretaries, Chief Engineers from the State Governments/Union Territories, Central Government officials, sector professionals from public/private enterprises and international organisations. The various issues were deliberated through separate Working Groups and their recommendations were considered and adopted by the Ministers/representatives from the State Governments present in the meeting and presided over by the Minister for Urban Development. 2.1 The recommendations of the Conference: a copy of which is available at Annexure 1, have been circulated by the Ministry to all Chief Ministers/ Governors for appropriate action, The Ministry has also constituted a Core Group to generally devote time and attention to the follow-up measures needed as well as to oversee the task of conducting detailed studies on (i) Financing of urban water supply and sanitation, (ii) Tariff fixation, (iii) Institutional framework, (iv) Water resources management and (v) Operation and maintenance. The terms of reference have been finalised. The studies will be carried
In addition, 21,627 units for conversion, 5605 new construction and 94 community latrines are in different stages of progress. Schemes worth Rs. 25crores more are likely to be sanctioned during the remaining period of three months of this financial year. 3.2 During 1992-93, 51 schemes were sanctioned costing Rs. 34.92 crores which included subsidy of Rs. 14.67 crores and loan of Rs. 13.5 crores, for conversion and construction of 1,53,347 units. The total number of units completed upto the end of 1992-93 are as follows:Conversion Construction Community latrines 4,978 30,103 2,720 25
26. So far four States.1 The Central assistance programme in its present form is awaiting approval of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs and is expected to be launched with the resources available with the Centre and the States in the current financial year. the Ministry had convened a meeting with the Secto retaries concerned in the State Government/UTs ascertain their views in supplementing resources from external agencies. 4 officials were also sponsored for Seminars/Conferences abroad under WHO assistance.000 crores approximately. short term and refresher courses in Public Health Engineering during 1993-94. AssistBank-RWSG-SA has been ance of the UNDP/World sought for reviewing and restructuring the existing training programmes in the sector.. the Ministry with the assistance of WHO have taken up a study through a NGO regarding gender sensitisation. Research & Development 7. 4. 20 lakhs is likely to be released during January to March 1994. the Ministry deputed 34 Public Health Engineers and officials from the etc. Keraia and Tripura have declared themselves as scavenger free. 12 crores respectively. More than 1400 in-service engineers and technical personnel have benefitted from this programme. 3. 30 lakhs approximately was sanctioned and released. An additional Rs. viz. (b) develop a suitable SWM model with least cost hardware investment which is largely repiicable elsewhere in India with local variations. a demonstrative taken up in Panaji town by the Government of Goa and the local authority with technical and financial Bank and this assistance from the UNDP/World Ministry. The need for proper solid waste management (SWM) strategies has been engaging the attention of the Government of India. The cost of implementation is to be shared between tne Centre and the States in the ratio of 50 : 50. Their report is under preparation. 6.1 Central assistance was provided by the Ministry to recognised engineering colleges and institutions for conducting post graduate. 4 have been completed till December 1993. Human Resource Development continues to be one of the important activities of the Ministry.000 (1991 census). 10 to 12 lakhs approximately. etc. There are approximately 2. Soitd Waste Management (SWM) 5. such as the World Bank. Nagpur. in pursuance of 26 project on SWM has been this. Financial contribution from this Ministry would be around Ms. a sum of Rs. after their proposals have been accepted and approved by the Research Committee in this Ministry. These are (i) Study of solid waste management in . The Act was passed in May 1993 and assented to by the President on 6th June.3 An important milestone achieved is the enactment of the “Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act 1993” making employment of manual scavengers a punishable offence. 6. As against this. 1993. and (c) disseminate the project experiences at the State and National Levels. Gujarat.3. Karnataka. Most of the participants were not in favour of loan assistance from the World Bank in view of their rigid conditionalities. Accelerated Urban Water Supply Programme 4.251 towns in this category and the provision of funds required on pro-rata basis is estimated at Rs. The first step taken in this direction is to conduct a baseline survey in two towns of Uttar Pradesh viz. Builandshahar and Garhmukteshwar. United Kingdom and South East Asia under the WHO fellowship programme. programmes in the United Kingdom under the Colombo Plan and 12 candidates for study tours abroad in the United States of America.87 iakhs has already been released for this purpose.2 Besides Central assistance. the provision of Central assistance earmarked for this scheme during the 8th Five Year Plan and 1993-94 is Rs. The meeting drew mixed reaction from the participants. 2. About 500 towns thraughout the country have been made scavenger free. PHE Trainlng Programme 6. This has also been reflected in the 8th Plan document. A sum of Rs. The Ministry provides Central assistance for research activities to organisations such as the National Environmental Engineering Research institute. for advanced training State Governments/UTs. in view of the huge deficit of resources. The main objectives of this project are to (a) demostrate the benefits of community participation in SWM.4 As the involvement of women is crucial for the of the programme relating successful impiementation to Low Cost Sanitation. During 1992-93. Out of the 18 on-going research projects. 50 crores and Rs. The project has been taken up for implementation by the State Government and is likely to be completed by December 1994. This is a new Centrally sponsored scheme introduced during the 8th Five Year Plan for improving the drinking water supply in towns having population of less than 20.
During 1932-93.00 (ii) III Madras Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation project (iii) Second Rajasthan Sewerage project (iv) (v) Water Supply & II Andhra Pradesh Water Supply and Sewerage project Bombay Sewage Disposal project (Vi) II Maharashtra Water Supply & Sewerage project 27 . 1994. Further action is in progress. 5 lakhs is likely to be released during January to March 1994. The Seminar was attended by officials from the Central and State Governments. access to international bidders/ consultants.55 1105.Pilgrim towns (ii) Performance evaiuation of Water Distribution Systems in seven selected cities of India (iii) Developing a method to extract fresh water from sea coast aquifers & (iv) Field application of Rapid Faecal coliform Test kit for Water Analysis.1 A Seminar on Micro-Tunnelling vis-a-vis Trenchless Technology was organised by the Ministry in collaboration with the National Building Construction Corporation Ltd.04 640. Workshops/ meetings on MIS have been conducted by the CPHEEO for senior level engineers. The computer software has been developed with the assistance of NEERI.00 863. (v) Personnel. in cfofes) (i) Veeranam/ll Madras Supply project 410.00 414-480. Seminars/Conferences 8. Three new projects are under consideration during 1993-94. 1993. Nagpur under the R&D project. 10. sewers and other underground utility lines without having to resort to open trench construction method which is marked by various disturbing effects and environmental problem in the congested urban areas. 7. 4 other research projects are expected to be completed by March. Water Supply/Sanitation and Transportation sector to interact. cost recovery and institutional development. Kerala on the 24th and 25th September. the amount of Central assistance released was Rs. monitoring. the World Bank and other international organisations. The objective of the Conference was to discuss and finalise the revised draft on the Manual on Sewerage and Sewage treatment. Rs. and scope for introduction in India. A Technica! Conference of Chief Engineers and Managing Directors of Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Agencies in the country was held at Thiruvananthapuram. Public and Private Construction Companies/Consultants. In order to have better and timely information flow from the States/UTs pertaining to Urban Water Supply and Sanitation.1 The concerned State Governments and the Ministry have been pursuing the following project proposals for possible external assistance from the World Bank. New Delhi on the 16th and 17th December 1993. emphasis on quality construction. New Delhi on the 11 th and 12th March. Although the conditionalities/convenants under the World Bank procedures are quite rigid and cumbersome. The Seminar provided a useful forum to disseminate information on the development of this technology. Besides this. It was recommended in the Seminar that a Technical Committee may be constituted to examine the feasibility and financial viability of transferring this technology to India and to draw up an action plan. The Conference was organised by the CPHEEO in collaboration with the Kerala Water Authority. 8. 1994. etc. The organisatiorial expenses was financed by the World Health Organisation. efficient management. These softwares have been supplied to the concerned State agencies for collection and compilation of data at the field level. Management Information System 9. 13 lakhs approximately. (iv) Inventory control. (ii) Finance. The recommendations of the National Conference on Urban Water Supply and Sanitation Policy held in March 1993 were also highlighted in this Conference. External Assistance 10. yet it has brought home the advantages of substantial inflow of foreign exchange.:(Rs. the Ministry has developed Management Information System softwares on (i) Planning. highlight innovative experiences and disseminate information on the World Bank aided projects. A list of on-going World Bank aided projects is enclosed at Annexure II. a workshop to demonstrate the computer software on the subsystem of Solid Waste Management will be organised by the CPHEEO for field engineers. The technology is applicable for laying water supply pipes. It would provide an opportunity to the officials and professionals from the Urban Development.2 The Urban and Water Annual Seminar will be orgainsed by the Ministry in collaboration with the World Bank at Vigyan Bhavan. and (vi) Operation and maintenance. its wide application in Singapore. and the World Bank at the Scope Complex. 8.60 lakhs has been released by the Ministry for the on-going research projects and another Rs.193 442. (iii) Project monitoring.
A list of schemes cleared by the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) in the Ministry from technical angle during 1993-94 is appended at Annexure II I.67 265. . updated and published for the benefit of in-service engineers in the preparation. execution.(vii) Bombay IV Middle Vaitama Water Supply Project (viii) lnsitu Lining of Water trunk Mains in Madras City 566. The Manual on Water Supply and Treatment has been revised. It has been further edited and will be printed shortly. Technical Clearance of Urban Water Supply & Sanitation Schemes. The Manual on Sewerage & Sewage Treatment has been updated and discussed with the Chief Engineers and Managing Directors in the Technical Conference held at Thiruvananthapuram.36 Manuals on Water Supply & Treatment and Sewerage & Sewage Treatment 12. 11. It would also be of great help to other Public Health Engineers. operation and maintenance of water supply schemes. students and teachers.
Substantial cost reduction can also be achieved in overhead and supervision charges of the implementing agencies. 2. from the stage of planning of water supply and sanitation schemes. operation and maintenance. (5) Tariff fixation should be based on average incre - mental cost including O&M cost. need Government assistance for extending this benefit to the borrowing agencies. lending agencies may prescribe repayment. if possible. (13) The Ministry of Urban Development may appropriately take up with Ministry of Finance for 29 . however. (12) State level institutions should associate the local bodies and the community at large. on annuity basis. (1) As the availability of plan funds are far too short of the requirement of the sector. 3. It was strongly recommended that the allocation for this scheme should be substantially stepped up and should not be merged with any other Centrally assisted/sponsored scheme by the Ministry of Urban Development. etc.000 from the year 199394 was appreciated. to instill in the latter a sense of participation right from the beginning and secure commitments for future sustainable operation of the system. including the local bodii. The Conference was attended by Secretaries of the State Governments. This would. (6) There should be a separation of accounts for urban water supply agencies where such separation does not exist and switch to commercial accounting system. depreciation charges. (10) The State level sector agencies should continue to plan and implement capital works with the responsibility for distribution resting with the local bodies within policy guidelines to be laid down by the State Government.Annexure I Recommendations The National Conference on Urban Water Supply and Sanitation was convened from 11 th to 13th March. however. Environment and water resources. be provided in a transparent manner and with better targetting to meet the basii minimum requirement of the poor and in locations where capital costs are high. The objective of the Conference was to give a new direction in the sphere of urban water supply and sanitation and to identify a set of reforms to enable the sector to attract funds from institutions taking into account the needs of the sector and the upsurge in the urban population as has been reflected in the census reports. The water supply and sanitation sector is to be recognised as utility services to enable the sector to become seff-sustaining. Financial issues and cost recovery. The discussions were divided into four Working groups which are as follows: 1. Departments. improvement in billing and collection. Corporations to deliberate on the Conference issues related to the sector. etc. 2. debt dues. reduction in unaccounted for water. energy consumption. not preclude large metro cities which have their own agencies for execution. however. the following are recommended for adoption in the Urban Water supply and Sanitation Policy. 4. (3) Efforts must also be simultaneously made for cost reduction by effecting savings on manpower. Technical issues. over longer repayment period and with initial moratorium. it is recommended that the principle of full cost recovery should be adopted. The financial institutions may. (2) Adequate subsidy should. Institutional autonomy and human resources development. (11) The State Government should confer greater autonomy to the sector agencies with relation to financial management and operational issues within the overall framework of the annual action plan and guidelines for this may be formulated by the Ministry of Urban Development. (9) There should be an institutional arrangement at the State level under the chairmanship of Chief Minister for facilitating integrated planning and utilisation of water resources in association with all concerned Departments. (4) Water Supply and Sanitation Agencies. concerned Cheif Engineers and Managing Directors of Water Supply and Sewerage Boards. 1993. (8) The efforts of Government of India for launching Centrally sponsored accelerated urban water supply programme for smaller towns having a population of less than 20. should be given full autonomy for determination of tariffs with the provision for automatic annual increase to cover the cost. (7) To ensure debt servicing at affordable limits. Based on the presentations of the Working Groups.
(25) Base maps for all urban sectors should be created through Aerial Mapping. performance review. All contract documents should provide for settlement of disputes/arbitration. Various agencies should then mark the service lines and update it periodically. Wetlands and Karnal systems should be encouraged as they ensure less energy inputs. (31) A centralised Project Management Cell should be instituted for all major projects. (22) The issue of incentive structure to the trainees and staff needs to be examined to encourage effective participation and better utilisation of training facilities. all utilities should furnish to Ministry of Urban Dev’elopment. Special emphasis should be given to the need for skill upgradation for the personnel responsible for O&M. Institute (TlTI) / community polytechnic network to undertake to develop a national network for trainers training at graduate. Data on Management Information System as per format already instituted. (17) There is a need for developing a National Data Bank on Man power Requirement. (14) The State Government should explore the possibility of using the plan funds as an incentive for better performance on the part of local bodies. Individual projects would. (29) Standardisation of bidding documents by each State is desirable to simplify bidding procedures. Wa recognise that preparation and updating of this utility feature is essential. be designed with relevance to factors of source potential and affordability. ITIs. polytechnics. (15) While recognising that the chances of success of privatisation are greater in O&M. (33) Regular unaccounted for water (UFW) prog- . (30) Quality control of materials should be ensured by inspection through third party by recognised agencies apart from DGS & D. LEMNA. Release of Central grants will be subject to receipt of MIS. (19) Each organisation at the State/ local body level should be encouraged to have its own training plan and adequate infrastructural facilities commensurate with the work plan. (23) The Ministry of Urban Development may in consultation with the State/ Local Government develop appropriate training for the elected representatives at various levels.discontinuing the system of getting technical clearance for projects financed by the LIC. Conventional sewage treatment plants should have infrastructure additions for cost realisation through gas utilisation. Quality Control of construction is recommended by an independent agency either in house or third party. availability and training needs for water supply and sanitation sector. (24) To ensure strong data base. (32) Internative technologies for low/medium installations like USAB. (18) The Ministry of Urban Development may identify national / regional institutes with adequate background in water supply and sanitation sector needs which would collaborate with regional Technical Teachers Training. (20) The Human Resource Development programme must endeavour to enhance user sensitivity on the part of O&M staff and increase public awareness which will promote NGO & consumer participation with respect to protection of assets and improve service delivery. (26) CPHEEO Manual will be treated as design guidelines. etc. (21) The HRD should not be treated in isoiation but should be integrated with personnel management. however. A coordinated approach at the national level amongst the concerned Ministries is necessary for developing a suitable curriculum and training of faculty in the engineering colleges. diploma and certificate levels. career planning and management succession. pisciculture or forestry. (16) There is a need for uniform policy and guidelines at the national level regarding Human Resource Development for water supply and sanitation sector. (28) Utilities should furnish feed back on specifications for materials used in varidus systems based on field experience. State Governments should ensure the full 30 utilisation of training facilities provided by the identified institutes. This will facilitate Bureau of Indian Stanaards to redefine the specifications. privatisation could be introduced for new installations initially and extended gradually to the others. (27) Specifications of Bureau of Indian Standards will be treated as guidelines and project proposals could provide for improved specifications and testing procedures to suit site requirements.
There IS an urgent need for revision of specifications by Bureau of Indian Standards. (47) Re-use of sewage after the desired degree of treatment for horticulture. similar programmes may be taken up in a phased manner or cleaning other rivers in the country so as to maintain them free from contamination. (37) The National Water Policy accorded top priority to drinking water supply in the allocation/apportioning of available water sources for various beneficial uses. Government of India. (42) Concerted effort should be made to enforce/ implement the Environmental Protection Act effectively so as to protect the traditional sources from contamination. (45) City-level consumer formus and voluntary agencies may be encouraged to keep a vigil on the water sources to prevent possible contamination and rnake periodical reporting to the concerned water supply agency for appropriate action well in advance. may preferably be reserved/allocated for drinking/domestic use. (40) Over exploitation of ground water must be avoided to control deterioration of its quality and reduce cost of pumping. inter sectoral committees comprising of members from various water using sectors may be constituted to decide allocation of water for different purposes. however. (49) Industries and commercial establishments must be persuaded to adopt re-use of treated sewage and recycle tbeir treated trade effluents to the maximum extent possible to cut down their fresh water demand. co mprehensive metering policy but. distribution and at consumers’ end by adopting well established methods. . Conventional sewerage treatment systems may be unavoidable in bigger cities and congested localities. Group recommends that special attention must be paid to provide such facilities and preserve the environment. (34) New proposals for augmentation should also have detailed review and recommendations on proposals for rehabilitation of existing systems. it is necessary for water utilities to own and maintain the service connections at their cost. (35) The system should be m intained on a continuous basis. is recognised as a necessar y the performance of meters is not satisfactory even though they bear the ISI mark. However. city level water management systems need to be prepared keeping in view the various developmental activities for the next 20 years or so.ramme is encouraged. As such. therefore. (50) Incentives in the form of rebate on water cess and other taxes could be considered from the quantum of fresh water conserved by adopting re-use and recycling processes. (44) Ganga Action Plan has yielded good results in protecting the river Ganges from pollution. be made judiciously. As such. (41) Proper legislation followed by effective implementation is urgently needed to control and regulate ground water extraction particularly in all such urban areas which are facing acute shortage of drinking water throughout the year. (52) Realising the special problems being faced in hilly and desert areas of the country with regard to provision of safe drinking water supply and sanitation facilities. For this purpose. (46) Low cost on-site sanitation should be encouraged in unsewered part of the cities. water sources which are available close to urban areas. programme for reduction in UFW should be a constituent for all new proposals for augmentation. (51) Toxic. effective measures must be taken including rain water harvesting to conserve water at different stages such as at source. the State Governments and UT administrations may soon prepare long-term river basin Master Plans. Policy selection should. following the guidelines issued by the Ministry of Water Resources. in small and medium towns and other areas where locations permit. (38) In order to operationalise and implement the National Water Policy in an effective manner at the State level. cooling and several other industrial uses must be introduced extensively to conserve fresh water and to reduce pollution load in the receiving water body. At the same time. flushing of sewers and toilets. (36) To reduce leakage. airconditioning. (48) As fresh water sources are fast depleting. hazardous and recyclable waste collection and disposal system to be given emphasis for segregated treatment. (39) To the extent possible. (43) Adequate infrastructure may be created at city level and zonal level for monitoring the quality of drinking water and its control. in treatment process.
1090 31 .94 31.86 5 73.93 31 .033 32. 2 Tamil Nadu WS&S Kerala MIS&S III Bombay WS&S Madras WS&S Hyderabad WS&S 3 149.85 12.62 20.3.88 800.85 8 30.95 31. AIDED WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS Date of Credit closing date commenceOriginal Revised ment CumulaCumulative Extive dispenditure burseupto ment upto 31 .3.66 396.87 31.) 9 31 .94 10 273.00 - 69.803 257.9 - 1.94 474.0 6 90.12.0 89.6.0 30.3.90 2.6.o 185. in Crores) Original Revised Amount of assistance (US $ Million) Original Revised 1 1.2.91 30.12. Name of Project Project cost (Rs.12. 5.94 - 96.293 .42 4 321. 93.460 4.12.0 127.12.5.314 67.4. in (US $ Million) Crs.93 (Rs.02 24.60 7 22.32 104. 150.00 41 . 3.06 205.52 11 67.86 1.11 - 9.98 - 120.Annexure II WORLD/BANK SI.123 No.
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