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Condition Based Assessment/

Incipient Fault Detection


Aradhana Ray, Charles Sweetser
OMICRON, India OMICRON, USA

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 1


Agenda
g
• Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA)

• Advanced Diagnostic Measurements on Power


Transformers by Electrical Methods

• Dielectric Freq
Frequency
enc Response

• Partial
P ti l Discharge
Di h Measurements
M t

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 2


Advanced Diagnostics
g
• Field use and recognition is becoming
standard accepted
standard, accepted, and/or popular

• Fueled by technology and the proliferation of


modern instrumentation

• Extension of Standard Tests that add value

• PF/TD, Tip-Up, Variable Frequencies

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 3


Transformer Test Categories
g

• Dielectric

• Thermal

• Mechanical

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 4


Transformer Tests
Dielectric Thermal Mechanical

DGA DGA SFRA


Oil Screen Oil Screen Leakage Reactance
PF/TD CAP IR PF/TD CAP
Exciting Ima DC Winding RES Exciting Ima
TTR DC Winding RES
DFR
Partial Discharge

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 5


SFRA Diagnostics
Measurements and Analysis
Aradhana Ray, Charles Sweetser
OMICRON, India OMICRON, USA

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 6


What is SFRA?

¨Powerful and sensitive tool to assess the


mechanical
ec a ca aanddeelectrical
ect ca integrity
teg ty oof po
power
e
transformers active part

¨Measurement of the transfer function over a


wide frequency range

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 7


Transformer Test Categories
g

• Dielectric

• Thermal

• “Mechanical”
Mechanical

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 8


Transformer Tests
Dielectric Thermal Mechanical

DGA DGA SFRA


Oil Screen Oil Screen Leakage Reactance
PF/TD CAP IR PF/TD CAP
Exciting Ima DC Winding RES Exciting Ima
TTR DC Winding RES
DFR
Partial Discharge

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 9


Diagnostic
g Note

• Tests should be p
part of a
protocol

• More than 1 test should provide


supporting evidence.

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 10


Transformer Tests
Dielectric Thermal Mechanical

DGA DGA SFRA


Oil Screen Oil Screen Leakage Reactance
PF/TD CAP IR PF/TD CAP
Exciting Ima DC Winding RES Exciting Ima
TTR DC Winding RES
DFR
Partial Discharge

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 11


When to use SFRA?
¨ quality check during manufacturing
¨ proof the transformer after short circuit testing
¨ check the integrity of transformers after transport
¨ routine diagnostic
g measurement
¨ condition assessment after the occurrence of high transient
fault currents
¨ diagnosis after transformer alarm or protection tripping
¨ testing after significant changes of monitored values (e.g.
combustible gases)
¨ further inspection
p after the observation of unusual routine test
results

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 12


When to use FRA?
Manufacturer Workshop D li
Delivery P t
Port

Truck Transport 1 •Transport Checking


•Quality Assuring
•After Short Circuit Test
•Failure Investigation

Trafo
Ship Transport

o
Reception Port

•Routine Measurement
•After Transients/Overcurrents
Truck Transport 2
•Failure Investigation (DGA) •Transport Checking

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 13


Which problems can be detected?

¨ Winding deformation axial&radial


(b kli tilti
(buckling,tilting…),
) partial
ti l winding
i di collapse
ll
¨ Displacement between high and low voltage
windings
¨ Shorted or open
p turns
¨ Faulty grounding of core or screens
¨ Core movement and / or shorted laminates
¨ Broken or open
p internal connections

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 14


Videos

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 15


Radial Failure

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 16


Axial Failure

5. 000e+001 1 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 2 1.000e+003 5.000e+


+0003 1 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 4 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 5 1 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 6 5. 000e+006
f/H z
-1 0

-1 5

-2 0

-2 5

-3 0

-3 5

-4 0

-4 5

-5 0

dB

150

100

5. 000e+001 1 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 2 5 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 2 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 4 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 5 1 . 0 0 0 e +0 0 6 5. 000e+006


f/H z
-5 0

-1 0 0

1V 1U 1W 1V

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 17


Conductor Tilting

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 18


Core Faults

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 19


???????

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 20


SFRA Measuring Method

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 21


The SFRA Measurement Principle
3 3

ung U1/U1 in V/V


2 Transformator 2

ung U2/U1 in V/V


1 1

0 0
0 50 100 0 50 100
Spannu

Spannu
-1 -1

-2 -2

-3 -3
Zeit t in µs Zeit t in µs

Input signal
Erregungssignal
OutputAntwortsignal
signal
(variable Frequenz)
(sine wave of 3

variable frequency) 2
1-|TF(f1)|

Spannung U/U1 in V/V


1 ^
U1
^
U2
0
0 50 100
-1 ϕ(f1)/2πf
^
U2
-2 |TF(f1)| =
^
U1

-3
arc(TF(f1)) = ϕ(f1)
Zeit t in µs

Betragsfunktion Phasenfunktion
|TFU2/U1(f)|Magnitude Phase
arc(TFU2/U1(f))
dB
1.0
1.000e+002 1.000e+003 1.000e+004 1.000e+005
° 200.0
f/Hz
-10
150 150 0
150.0

-20
0.8
100 100.0

arc(TFU2/U1(f)) in deg
-30
|TFU2/U1(f)| in V/V|

0.6
50 50.0 f/Hz
1.000e+002 1.000e+003 1.000e+004 1.000e+005
-40
0 0.0

-50 0.4
-50 -50.0

-60
-100.0
0.2 -100
-70
-150.0
-150
-80
0.0 -200.0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
NV
-90
f in MHz f in MHz
NV

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 22


Theoretical Background
transformer
900 0.80

800 0.60

700
0.40
600
0.20
500
U (V)
400
1 1 1 1 I (A) 0.00

-0.20
300
-0.40
200

100 -0.60

0 -0.80
0.0 20.0 40.0

Zeit (µs)
60.0 80.0 100.0
complex RLCM-Network 0.0 20.0 40.0

Zeit (µs)
60.0 80.0 100.0

input signal response signal


FRA with impulses (IFRA)

filtering, sampling, windowing, FFT, quotient

transfer function (magnitude) transfer function (phase)


2.5 3.0
20
2.0 20
2.0
1.0
1.5
|TF(f)| 0.0
arc(TF(f))
1.0
-1.0
0.5 -2.0
00
0.0 -3.0
30
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
MHz 1.4 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
MHz
frequency
Frequenz f Frequenz ff
frequency

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 23


Theoretical Background
Cables Grounding
x (t ) = X sin ω t

Measurement Measurement
cable
bl cable
bl y (t ) = Y sin( ω t + φ )

RMC12 RMC34
U 2 (s) Rm
TF = =
CMC CMC
U1 ( s ) Rm + Z specimen
CMC CMC

Complex RLC Network k = 20 log10 (U 2 / U1 )

ϕ = tan −1 (∠U 2 / ∠U1 )

50Ω dB °

U1 U2
10

Magnitude (k) 150 Phase


50Ω
50 50Ω
50 0

-10
1.000e+002 1.000e+003 1.000e+004 1.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/H
f/Hz
100
-20

-30 50
-40

-50
0

-60 1.000e+002 1.000e+003 1.000e+004 1.000e+005 1.000e+006


-50 f/Hz
-70

-80
-100
-90

-100 -150
-110
-200
-120
H1 H2 H2 H3 H3 H1 H1
1H
H2 H2
2H
H3 H3
3H
H1

Swept Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA)

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 24


SFRA Principle
p

C = ε * A/d

The transformer as a RLC network

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 25


SFRA RLC Basics

U o ( s) Rm
TF = = U o (s) Rm sC
U i ( s ) Rm + sL TF = =
U i ( s ) Rm sC + 1

0 0
Amplitude [dB]

-50

Amplitude [dB]
-50
L=200 mH -100
-100 L=2 mH C=1uF
L=20 H -150 C=20nF
C=1pF
-150 -200
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

0 100
L=200 mH
L=2 mH
Phase [°]

Phase [°]

-50 L=20 H 50 C=1uF


C=20nF
C=1pF

-100 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Frequency (Hz) Frequency (Hz)

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 26


RLS Basics

• Parallel RLC - VALLEY

• Series RLC – PEAK

• 0 dB = 0 Ohms = Short
• -100 dB = ∞ = Open

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 27


Typical
yp Results
5.000e+001 1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz

-20

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70

dB

150

100

5.000e+001 1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz
-50

-100

N W sec N V sec NU

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 28


Measurement Types
yp
• Open Circuit - Exciting Ima

• Short
Sh t Circuit
Ci it - Leakage
L k Reac
R

• Interwinding - CAP

• Transfer Voltage - TTR


© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 29
Measurement Setup

Open Circuit

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 30


HV vs. LV Winding Responses

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 31


Open
p Circuit Tests

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 32


Measurement Setup

Short Circuit Test

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 33


Open
p vs. shorted tests

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 34


Short Circuit Tests

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 35


Measurement Setup

I t
Inter-winding
i di measurements:
t C Capacitive
iti (l(left)
ft) IInductive
d ti (right)
( i ht)

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 36


Capacitive Inter
Inter--Winding Test

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 37


Inductive Inter-
Inter-Winding
g Test

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 38


Usable Frequency
q y Ranges
g

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 39


The General Curve Structure

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 40


Analysis
y Strategies
g
• Baseline

• Similar
Si il Unit
U it

• Phase Comparison

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 41


7. SFRA Interpretation
p
U V W U V W
parison

parison
ased comp

ased comp
Date X Date Y
Trafo A Trafo A
1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz
1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz
1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz -10

-10
Time ba

-10

Phase ba
-20

20
-20
-20

-30

-30
-30

-40

-40
-40

-50

-50
-50

-60

-60
-60

-70
1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz

-70
-70 -10

-80

-80
-20
dB
-80

dB dB -30

Fingerprint Failure investigation


-40

-50

-60
Failure investigation
U vs. V
-70

Integrity verification
-80

Integrity verification
dB

Construction based comparison


U V W U V W

Trafo B
-10
1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz
Trafo A -10
1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006
f/Hz

-20

-20

-30

-30

-40

-40

-50

-50

-60

-60

-70

-70

-80
-80
dB
dB

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 42


SFRA & Transformer Transportation
p

An Example of a typical SFRA use case:

The evaluation of a transformer after it's


transportation.

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 43


Transportation is not allways easy

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 44


First indication of transport damage

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 45


SFRA - Results

Suspect unit Sister transformer


W-U (blue) is not OK! Everything is OK!

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 46


After opening the transformer

Bent clamping rod,


Ruptured clamping
Limb W was displaced f
frame
to the right
© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 47
Possible Testing Issues

• Oil
• Residual Magnetization
• Poor Connections and Grounding

© OMICRON
Influence of the insulating
g oil

Bl
Blue: With Oil - Green:
G Without
With t Oil

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 49


Comparison:
p with / without Tank
5.000e+001 1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006 1.000e+006 2.000e+006 3.000e+006 4.000e+006 5.000e+006 6.000e+006 7.000e+006 8.000e+006 9.000e+006
f/Hz f/Hz

-10
10 10
-10

-20 -20

-30 -30

-40 -40

-50 -50

-60 -60

-70 -70

dB dB

150 150

100 100

5.000e+001 1.000e+002 5.000e+002 1.000e+003 5.000e+003 1.000e+004 5.000e+004 1.000e+005 5.000e+005 1.000e+006 1.000e+006 2.000e+006 3.000e+006 4.000e+006 5.000e+006 6.000e+006 7.000e+006 8.000e+006 9.000e+006
-50
f/Hz f/Hz
-50

-100 -100

° °

UV U V (1) UV U V (1)

Logarithmic Representation Linear Representation

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 50


Standardisation in the World
WG A2.26
PC57.149/D5 DL 911/2004

CHINA

© OMICRON 24/11/2009 Page: 51


IEC Standard 60076-
60076-18

© OMICRON 24. November 2009 Page: 52


Test Connections

© OMICRON
Test Recommendations (IEEE)

• LTC Extreme Raise


• DETC as Found
• Open Circuit Test
• Short Circuit Test

© OMICRON
Radial Deformation (IEEE)

© OMICRON
Axial Deformation

© OMICRON
Core Defects

© OMICRON
Turn--to
Turn to--Turn Short

© OMICRON
Open Winding

© OMICRON