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Business process orientation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is an orphan, as few or no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles; suggestions may be available. (October 2008) The concept of business process orientation (BPO) is based upon the work of Deming (Walton, 1996), Porter (1985), Davenport and Short (1990), Hammer (1993, 1996 and 1999), Grover et al. (1995), and Coombs and Hull (1996). This body of work suggests that firms could enhance their overall performance by adopting a ³process view´ of the organization. Although many firms have adopted the BPO concept, little to no empirical data existed substantiating its effectiveness in facilitating improved business performance. McCormack (2000) conducted an empirical study to explore the relationship between BPO and enhanced business performance. The research results showed that BPO is critical in reducing conflict and encouraging greater connectedness within an organization, while improving business performance. Moreover, companies with strong measures of BPO showed better overall business performance. The research also showed that high BPO levels within organizations led to a more positive corporate climate, illustrated through better organizational connectedness and less internal conflict. Another empirical study by Kohlbacher (2009) reveals that BPO is positively associated with customer satisfaction, product quality, delivery speed and time-to-market speed . For a central concept, one that has become something of a Holy Grail for 1990s managers, BPO has remained remarkably hard to pin down. Its champions argue that it is a new approach to management that replaces the rigid hierarchies of the past ("I report to my boss") with structures that are much flatter, more cooperative, more process-oriented ("I report to my customer."). Many of us have had experience with both types of organization and we know intuitively what BPO feels like. Yet, if you're like me, you want a more solid foundation on which to make decisions and recommendations. Most of the literature on business process orientation has been in the popular press and lacks a research or empirical focus. Although empirical evidence is lacking, several models have emerged during the last few years that have been presented as the high performance, process oriented organization needed in today and tomorrow¶s world. Deming, Porter, Davenport, Short, Hammer, Byrne, Imai, Drucker, Rummler-Brache and Melan have all defined what they view as the new model of the organization. According to each model¶s proponent, the ³building´ of this model requires a new approach and a new way of thinking about the organization which will result in dramatic business performance improvements. This ³new way of thinking´ or ³viewing´ your organization has been generally described as business process orientation. Process centering or building an organization with a business process orientation has led to many reported successes. Texas Instruments, Progressive Insurance and American Standard have all been reported, albeit anecdotally, as receiving improved business performance from building a process orientation within an organization (Hammer 1996).
2. These are: 1. This can be expanded by Davenport¶s definition of process orientation as consisting of elements of structure. Our approach to building this foundation began with an extensive literature review. is getting at that broad range of experience and boiling it down in scientifically acceptable ways to a point where practitioners can use it easily in the field. Business Processes Jobs and Structures Management and Measurement Systems Values and Beliefs  The Definition of BPO To establish a more solid foundation.´ Michael Hammer also presented the business process orientation concept as an essential ingredient of a successful ³reengineering´ effort. of course. was introduced almost fifteen years ago by Michael Porter. Edwards Deming also contributed with the ³Deming Flow Diagram´ depicting the connections across the firm from the customer to the supplier as a process that could be measured and improved like any other process (Walton 1986).S.2 Process orientation. and its relationship to improved cross-functional interaction. measurement. Hammer coined this term to describe the development of a customer focused. W. customer oriented along with process and system thinking. focus. strategic business process based organization enabled by rethinking the assumptions in a process oriented way and utilizing information technology as a key enabler (Hammer. Hammer offers reengineering as a strategy to overcome the problematic cross-functional activities that are presenting major performance issues to firms and cites many examples of successes and failures in his series of books and articles. interviews with experts both in the U. Culture is a major theme in the examples cited. He also used four categories to describe the components of an organization. 1993). He introduced the concept of interoperability across the value chain as a major issue within firms (Porter 1985). 4. The trick. The BPO concept has sufficient practitioners and researchers and has been implemented in enough companies that we now have the information we need to develop a testable statistical model. I would like to propose a definition and an approach to measuring BPO. Hammer (Hammer 1993. and Europe and testing with experienced practitioners and experts to determine the key definition and variables within BPO. 3. 1996. ownership and customers (Davenport 1993). Hallmark and Wal-Mart are often put forward as success stories and IBM and GM as the failures. Thomas Davenport and James Short (1990) described a process orientation within an organization as a key component in the ³New Industrial Engineering: Information Technology and Business Process Redesign. Using various statistical techniques . 1999) described ³process thinking´ as crossfunctional and outcome oriented. A ³business process culture´ is a culture that is cross-functional. Davenport also stressed commitment to process improvement that directly benefits the customer and business process information oriented systems as a major component of this culture Finally. 1995.
A call centre is often operated through an extensive open workspace for call centre agents. with work stations that include a computer for each agent. Outgoing calls for telemarketing. live chat. product services. and debt collection are also made. o Process View ± thorough documentation from top to bottom and beginning to end of a process. and factor analysis).3 (domain sampling. a telephone set/headset connected to a . outcomes and customers. collective handling of letters." We also found that BPO also breaks into three elements: y o Process Management and Measurement ± measures that include aspects of the process like output quality. coefficient alpha testing. Call centre From Wikipedia. Or research found that the practitioners and experts said a Business Process Oriented Organization comes down to this: "An organization that emphasizes process as opposed to hierarchies. clientele. process cost and variability compared to the traditional accounting measures. we both determined the validity of various BPO variables and condensed those variables into a simpler composite list (survey instrument) that offered easy use in measuring BPO within an organization (McCormack 1999). A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. and e-mails at one location is known as a contact centre. the free encyclopedia A very large collections call centre in Lakeland. a process oriented way of thinking. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. o Process Jobs ± "product development process owner" rather than "research manager". Florida. In addition to a call centre. faxes. cycle time.
Examples include utility companies. Through contact centres. contacts to be tracked and data to be gathered. It can be independently operated or networked with additional centres. Florida. the voice and data pathways into the centre are linked through a set of new technologies called computer telephony integration (CTI). Call centre worker at a very small workstation/booth. and one or more supervisor stations. Increasingly. United States. microcomputers and LANs. participating in a survey campaign.4 telecom switch. visiting websites. A contact centre. often linked to a corporate computer network. and sales support. valuable information about company are routed to appropriate people. It is generally a part of company¶s customer relationship management (CRM). including mainframes. faxing. Contents [hide] y y 1 Technology 2 Patents . Some businesses even service internal functions through call centres. Examples of this include help desks. and customer support for computer hardware and software. emailing. Most major businesses use call centres to interact with their customers. mail order catalogue retailers. also known as customer interaction centre is a central point of any organization from which all customer contacts are managed. customers contact companies by calling. A typical call center worker's desk environment in Lakeland. chatting online. retail financial support. Today. and even instant messaging.
 Automatic lead selection or lead steering is also intended to improve efficiencies. phone is for headset use only. The concept of the Universal Queue standardizes the processing of communications across multiple technologies such as fax. both for inbound and outbound campaigns.5 y y y y y y y y y y 3 Dynamics 4 Varieties 5 Criticism and performance 6 Outsourced bureau contact centres 7 Unionisation 8 Standardisation 9 Mathematical theory 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading  Technology Call centre technology is subject to improvements and innovations. text mining and natural language processing to allow better customer handling. Some of these technologies include speech recognition software to allow computers to handle first level of customer support. as well as for outbound calls. call centres have been built on PBX equipment that is owned and hosted by the call centre operator. and email whilst the concept of a Virtual queue provides callers with an alternative to waiting on hold when no agents are available to handle inbound call demand. Note: no handset. socioeconomic factors and past performance and percentage likelihood of closing a sale per lead. Premise-based Call Centre Technology Historically. where lead selection allows management to designate what type of leads go to which agent based on factors including skill. agent training by automatic mining of best practices from past interactions. A typical call centre telephone. support automation and many other technologies to improve agent productivity and customer satisfaction. phone. and skills-based . Interactive Voice Response. whereby inbound calls are intended to quickly land with the appropriate agent to handle the task. The PBX might provide functions such as Automatic Call Distribution. whilst minimizing wait times and long lists of irrelevant options for people calling in.
The vendor's telephony equipment then connects the calls to the call centre operator's agents. they subscribe to a service for a monthly or annual fee with a service provider that hosts the call centre telephony equipment in their own data centre. Instead. which increasingly allows people with physical or other disabilities that prevent them from leaving the house. centralized. the virtual call centre has emerged. the call centres operator does not own.6 routing. Virtual Call Centre Technology With the advent of the Software as a service technology delivery model. to work. on-demand call centres by providing application programming interfaces (APIs) on the call centre cloud computing platform that allow call centre functionality to be integrated with cloud-based Customer relationship management. or over Voice over IP. Virtual Call Centre Technology allows people to work from home. Such a vendor may host many call centres on their equipment. Agents connect to the vendor's equipment through traditional PSTN telephone lines. call centre location.com and leads management and other applications. or hosted. Configuration APIs provide programmatic control of administrative functions of the call centre platform which are typically accessed by a human administrator through a Graphical User Interface (GUI). In a virtual call centre model. Cloud Computing for Call Centres Cloud computing for call centres extends cloud computing to Software as a service. such as Salesforce. A predictive dialing system running out of numbers to dial. rather than at the call centre operator's premise.  Patents . The APIs typically provide programmatic access to two key groups of features in the call centre platform: Computer Telephony Integration (CTI) APIs provide developers with access to basic telephony controls and sophisticated call handling on the call centre platform from a separate application. Calls to and from prospects or contacts originate from or terminate at the vendor's data centre. The call centre operator would be responsible for the maintenance of the equipment and necessary software upgrades as released by the vendor. instead of in a traditional. operate or host the equipment that the call centre runs on.
the call is forwarded to the second tier. or ask for help.  Dynamics Types of calls are often divided into outbound and inbound. where agents place calls to potential customers mostly with intentions of selling or service to the individual. It is possible to combine inbound and outbound campaigns. There is a large number of patents covering various aspects of call centre operation. Call centre staff are often organised into a multi-tier support system for a more efficient handling of calls. The first tier in such a model consists of operators. If a caller requires more assistance. who direct inquiries to the appropriate department and provide general directory information. automated call distribution. voice response unit. One of the early inventors in this field. report a malfunction. Ronald A. If a caller requires more assistance. where most issues can be resolved. automation. personally holds over 40 patents covering inventions related to charge-free numbers. In some cases. Katz. Inbound calls are calls that are made by the consumer to obtain information. and technology. computer telephone integration and speech recognition. there may be three or more tiers of support staff. (See telemarketing). These calls are substantially different from outbound calls. typically the third tier of support is formed by product engineers/developers or highly skilled technical support staff of the product.7 Call centre floor during shift. the caller is forwarded to the third tier of support. A report on the performance of an outbound call centre agent. automated attendant. .
a virtual call center does mean that customers can call at their convenience and not be limited to the business hours of a certain time zone. When you have 25 employees engaged in customer contact by phone. the size of that staff will be one major factor in deciding whether you need to support them with call center technology. 2. 4. some of which argue that the work atmosphere in such an environment is de-humanising. If a CSR has an escalated call in which a caller is requesting a manager. Others point to the low rates of pay and restrictive working practices of some employers. the close monitoring of staff activities is easy and widespread. or are building. 3. he can get answers to problems via instant messaging. except that they would be at home. whether you outsource the whole operation or build up your in-house service staff. Through the system. The customer will call the regular 800 number and that call will be routed to a customer service representative at the virtual call center. How heavily your company should invest in customer service. logging into their employer's system. call centres have been the subject of complaints by callers who find the staff often do not have enough skill or authority to resolve problems. Some people have argued that such close monitoring breaches human rights to privacy. as reps are scattered across the country and are able to work the hours that suit both theirs and the business' needs. a manager can monitor who is logged in and how many calls they've taken. and evaluations can be given over the phone or through instant messaging. CSRs at their homes would start their day at their scheduled start time by simply turning their home computer on. Furthermore. your own staff to handle sales and customer support. . meaning that CSRs can be more flexible in taking their breaks. CSRs would have scheduled breaks that they would take during their day. CSRs are also given performance evaluation just like a regular call center. There has been much controversy over such things as restricting the amount of time that an employee can spend in the toilet. If you have. 5. to enable the company to better plan the workload and time of its employees. Just like at a regular call canter. This can be argued to be beneficial. some companies pay only for the minutes that the CSR is taking a call. while the dehumanised workers very often exhibit an attitude of apathy to even the most abusive customer. Training CSRs is done online using tools such as web-inars. However. Calls are routed by the web-hosted call center to an available CSR with the right skills set to assist the caller. The calls are directed through a web-hosted or on-demand call center provider. Rather than having managers in a call center.8 Call centres have their critics. calls are routed to available CSRs according to their skills. depends on the nature of your business. you¶ve probably reached the minimum size for a call center. Owing to the highly technological nature of the operations in such offices. A virtual call center will be able to monitor calls for quality control. then the call can be re-routed to a manager. plugging in their phones and making themselves available to take calls. 1. And if a CSR has questions. However. A CSR will even have access to managers and coaches if they need to transfer a call that they are unable to resolve. From a customer perspective. there is no way of telling whether or not you are calling virtual call center or a regular call center. companies can manage their CSRs using monitoring software through the web hosted call center. Just like in a brick-and-mortar call center.
A lot of small companies do business over the phone. call centers can make either incoming or outgoing calls. and you have to understand those before deploying a call center. as a competitive advantage. you may have to pay an integrator to bring in certain capabilities. Depending on the size of the call center. or about $2. so a large percentage of their work is essentially done through a call center. even if it means asking almost every employee to staff it. that prizes security. another trend in the call center space that benefits small business is the rise of the ecosystem: groups of companies integrating capabilities from a group of existing vendors that frequently offer their software on a hosted basis. a single office could have anywhere from a few dozen to hundreds of telephone staff. 9. This means that even though you have a small business.9 6. In other words. In a hosted scenario. Having lived through the dot-com boom. your employees use equipment you own. 8. and that can get expensive. your employees would use their own desktop computers to access a call center system hosted by a third party. 7. where many companies have centralized customer service and support functions. Call centers are often large offices staffed with representatives who either make or receive phone calls. Depending on the needs of the company. If you don¶t require your own call center. you may be concerned about the reliability of anything that¶s not within your four walls. depending on the number of services and options you need (usually relating to metrics and analysis). You may also be in a business.in/Reliance_Jobs . In that case. Ads by Google Coca Cola Jobs Apply for Coca Cola Jobs! Submit Resume Now & Get Hired TimesJobs. In fact. and support functions. and thus dealing with associated security and privacy issues yourself. such as smallscale investment banking. That includes everything from equipment to integration services. or other professional services. 10. the advantage of a hosted call center system is simple: Someone else maintains the software. which means they can also upgrade it with new features and amortize that cost over a number of clients. if your business objective is to increase customer retention through customer service. 11. That eliminates one integration step. The cost is about $100 to $250 per month per user. Call centers employ many staff in customer service. 12. The size of the company is not related to the size of the call center. you may see owning your own call center. deploying call center technology makes sense. Call centers are increasingly popular in today's society. Ultimately call centers are there to support one or more business objectives. A call center is an office where a company's inbound calls are received or outbound calls are made. With an in-house call center. You¶ll pay several hundred thousand dollars to deploy a typical call center system.com/Coca+Cola+Jobs Reliance Job Openings Get the Best Jobs in Reliance Register & Post your CV Today! HTCareers. 13. When you¶re doing it yourself. you can still use the latest features available to the industry as a whole. sales.500 per user just for software (sources suggest you can amortize this over three to five years). the defense industry.
but they are also capable to generate new clients for company. Virtual Call Center 20. Call Center Technologies 23. Inbound call centers often use automatic call distribution. As it can be expensive to maintain call center equipment and staff. technical support. emergency response. customer support. inbound response and outbound telemarketing services for a company and in mean time its a much needed part. is a phone center which provides help desk. a company contracts out some jobs to be handled by other companies. in whole world. Since . By centralizing telephone-based service and support in one location. They also centralize the technology needs of companies.10 14. in which customer calls are randomly monitored by quality assurance staff to ensure that phone representatives meet customer needs. Other call centers focus on outbound calls. Call Centers help the company to get maximum target. Voip Call Center 21. Call centers have been increasingly popular as outsourcing increases. * The major benefit is that clients can speak to a person directly at first time without any hold. These services help to tune quality programs to promote higher and steady levels of customer satisfaction Benefits of Call Center Services :* CallCenters not only can keep existing clients satisifed. making upgrades and training easier. backend. Call Center Solution 24. external call center staff can be trained to answer phone calls from a number of different companies. lead generation. Other call centers utilize call monitoring. such as a survey company. As a result of the same competition is also increased. where representatives make outbound calls to ask people to answer survey questions over the phone. allowing companies to take advantage of time zones and cheaper labor rates in different states and countries. Call center technology evolves constantly. Call Center Crm 19. such as a bank that gives out a tollfree number for customers needing assistance. 16. and telephone answering service. By providing customer services. Call Center 18. 17. companies can easily adjust staffing to match call volume. some companies choose to outsource their telephone functions to an external call center. 15. The market of Call centers as increased rapidly in recent years. tele calling. allowing major telecommunications setups to be installed in a small handful of call centers instead of a number of smaller offices. In this example. helping call center staff assist customers more efficiently and effectively. Call centers can be located almost anywhere. in which incoming calls are assigned to representatives in the order in which they are received. call center representatives can give account balances and take loan applications over the phone. Many call centers use a number of different technologies to help improve performance and customer experience. In this case. Call centers can provide a number of advantages to companies. Some call centers focus on answering inbound calls. With outsourcing. transactional process etc. Call Center System 22.
* Call Centers can provide the status and all data of calls such as percentage of hang-ups on answering machines is significantly greater than a live answering service. These above-mentioned benefits can show up summary about the importance of Call Centers. Call Center services will hopefully free up more for you to focus on the work you like and take more time for marketing and advertising. we are going to set our focus on these services. the company shifts or moves the location the call center to another location abroad. It may seem complex but the most essential aspect of the business is to get ready for a real expansion. It does not necessarily mean you get services abroad. It is also possible to have a 24-hour Call Center service to support clients that are from different regions of the world and in different time zones. This can also include call center outsourcing. So another benefit of having a Call Center Service for business is that they could increase the number and type of clients. there is a big difference between the two. And they also record all the calls as well.11 everyone hates having to be placed on hold or told to call back. * Make the most out of your investment and get a nice return by investing in your time wisely. it can also be from one point to another point in the same territory. They may be able to help new foreign clients. If the company opts for offshore call centers. Satisfaction of clients greatly increase because of call centers services. Call Center services are more beneficial and profitable for all type of business. IP-based customer interaction networks are enabling companies to measurably improve response time and increase customer satisfaction while at the same time reducing agent costs and improving network efficiency. CISCO provide great features to call centers and they can trace more and more data by using CISCO. This could either mean that a call center can be owned or run by the same company or it has been outsourced. * There are many copanies all who do the business with clients all around the world. * Call centers representative are capable to answer the calls professionaly by their intelligence and they can provide required information to callers easily. to improve sales and projects. Many Call Center representatives are multilingual. it is buying the call center services from a third party provider and in turn it provides the services for the company. * Some companies managed Call Center services based on the Cisco solution. Many use the words off shoring and outsourcing interchangeably but in reality. Since inbound call centers are the focus usually for these terms. When a certain company outsources. . * Call centers have range of relevant equipment so they are able to provide the required equipment to their call center operater thus cost will reduce by this way.
It is essential to be on the cutting edge at all times. Because call center outsourcing costs less. The company will also have less stress in directly addressing the customer requirements and what they will get is a rigorous analysis of the demands and needs of the customers for a better business experience. It is a trend that is required by many businesses right now. there are dedicated call center solutions that can handle all the needs of the company. . the business can grow towards the needs and requirements of the customers. Whatever your needs are and whatever things you do for your business. The company needs a call center service that is dedicated and is customer centric. Another aspect why people opt for call center outsourcing is that the technology is usually dedicated already for the needs of the company. With the high demands on service availability. This is a platform the businesses take to ensure that their presence in the customer service industry is strong and that their overall presence can lead to profits. By addressing these aspects and needs.12 call center outsourcing Call center outsourcing is a very popular option now for a lot of businesses. With the research done for the company. they are much ready to accept expansion. the company can be on its way to becoming a reliable and top notch entity in the international scene. It is important to find a dedicated 24/7 call center that can give the best services at the most competitive prices. Part of the reason why a company opts for outsourced call centers is that those that are from developing countries have lesser labor costs. That is the reason why 24/7 call centers are present right now. the company can save more and dedicate the remainder of their budget to expansion projects. When the call center is chosen by the company. they provide a customized plan for the needs of the company. When companies outsource call centers. it is essential that the business take advantage of the various benefits of having 24/7 call centers for their business.