NeuroPhysiology Claire R. Berbano.

MD Human Central Nervous System contains 100 billion neurons Includes the neurons, the building blocks of the CNS Main function of the neuron is to integrate and transmit nerve impulses Glial Cells comes from the Greek word glia for glue 2 major types: Microglia – scavenger cells like macrophages that removes debris from infection or injury Macroglia – consists of oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells and astrocytes Astrocytes 2 subtypes: Fibrous astrocytes – intermediate filaments found primarily in white matter Protoplasmic astrocytes – contains granular cytoplasm found in gray matter Send processes to capillaries inducing them to form the blood-brain barrier Axonal Transport nerve cells have low threshold for excitation wherein the stimulus could either be electrical, chemical or mechanical Axosplasmic flow provides transport of proteins and polypeptides to axonal ending Orthograde transport = cell body to axon terminals (kinesin and dynein) Retrograde transport = axon terminals to cell body

Wallerian Degeneration

) b. development and survival the first neurotropin to be recognized is the nerve growth factor (NGF) others include brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). neurotropin 3 or 4 NeuroPhysiology Claire R. Berbano M. Nervous System senses and interprets the environment in an attempt to produce behavior appropriate to that environment Components central nervous system (CNS) – brain and SC peripheral nervous system (PNS) a.) Nervous System Brain is divided into 5 parts: myelencephalon – medulla metencephalon – pons/cerebellum mesencephalon – midbrain diencephalon – thalamus/hypothalamus telencephalon – cerebrum Cerebrospinal Fluid supports the brain in the cranium approximately 600-700 ml is formed each day somatic NS autonomic NS .D.Neurotropins produced by astrocytes transported to cell body via retrograde transport where they foster the production of proteins necessary for neuronal growth.

pineal gland. glucose and Ca than plasma production inhibited by diuretic and corticosteroid Flow of Cerebrospinal Fluid choroid plexus foramina of Magendie/Luschka 3rd ventricle cerebral aqueduct 4th ventricle Medial and lateral aperture subarachnoid space arachnoid granulations/villi Blood-Brain Barrier composed of capillary endothelium and basement membrane of the vasculature supplying the brain brain capillaries have tight junctions. while lower concentration of K. choroid plexus and some parts of hypothalamus Blood-Brain Barrier Functions: protects the brain from endogenous or exogenous toxins prevents escape of neurotransmitter from their functional sites in the CNS inflammation. irradiation and tumors may destroy the blood-brain barrier thus permitting entry of noxious substances Cerebral Blood Flow . oxygen) cross more easily not present in pituitary gland. no gap junctions lipid-soluble substances (carbon dioxide. Cl and Mg than plasma.150ml are circulating in the subarachnoid space not an ultrafiltrate of plasma higher concentration of Na.

volatile anesthetic dilates Intracranial Pressure contents of the cranium are noncompresible an increase on one area can be compensated for by a decrease in another if intracranial volume increases. ICP remains low until the compensatory mechanisms are overcome. CBF also increases If CBF decreases. the frequency of AP declines with time (adaptation or desenstitization) Classification of receptors: . Classification of Sensory Receptors Sensory Transduction Sensory Receptors when a maintained stimulus of constant strength is applied. at which time ICP increases fairly rapidly ICP acutely increase during coughing and Valsalva maneuver Nerve Fiber Types Sensory Receptors Transducers that convert energy in the environment into action potentials in neurons Receptors respond by increasing permeability to Na and K producing a receptor potential Weber-Fechner law states that the magnitude of the sensation felt is proprotional to the log of intensity of the stimulus the generator or receptor potential is the nonpropagated depolarizing potential in a sense organ after adequate stimulus.about 80ml/100g/min (gray matter) and 20ml/100g/min (white matter) is autoregulated (BP of 50 to 150 mmHg) Chronic HPN (>150mm Hg) may disrup the BBB regional metabolic activity helps determine regional CBF If PCO2 increases. EEG activity decreases barbiturates constrict.

olfactory senses) Photoreceptors – respond to light a.adapt slowly and incompletely .Mechanoceptors – touch and pressure Nociceptors – pain.) phasic receptors . Pacinian and Meissners corpuscles b. extreme heat or cold Chemoreceptor – change in the chemical composition of the environment (eg. muscle spindles and nociceptors Pacinian Corpuscle unmyelinated tip of a sensory nerve surrounded by concentric lamellations resembling an onion detects deep pressure and fast vibration Ruffini’s Corpuscle deep skin receptors with a collagen filled capsule detects sustained pressure Meissner’s Corpuscle dermal receptors and encode velocity of stimulus application (touch/flutter) present in non-hairy skin discriminatory touch and slow vibration Merkel’s Disk disk-like nerve endings that form synaptic connections with small receptive fields used for localizations of stimulus Pain Receptors . Merkel’s disks.ex.rapid and react strongly . Ruffini’s.ex. taste buds.) tonic receptors .

chronic pain (burning) . headache) Pain Receptors Fast pain . discretely localized pain (pinprick) . free nerve endings (III.elicits the withdrawal reflex Slow pain .IV) adapt extremely slowly bradykinin and histamine released from damaged cells and activate nociceptors intensity of pain is related to the extent of tissue damage report skin pain.small myelinated A-delta fibers (III) .sweating. nausea.acute.nociceptors.small unmyelinated C fibers . visceral pain (poorly localized) and deep somatic pain (ex.diffuse. changes in blood pressure and muscle tone Pain Receptors pain impulses = lightly myelinated Aδ and unmyelinated C fibers cold receptors = dendritic endings of Aδ and C fibers heat receptors = C fibers hyperalgesia = exagerrated response to a noxious stimuli allodynia = sensation of pain in response to an innocous stimuli Pain Sensations substance P is the neurotransmitter at the synapses in the dorsal horn from primary pain afferents pain perception may be a function of subcortical centers but the cortex is needed in interpreting the quality of pain .

autonomic preganglionic neurons. located in synaptic cleft and weakly associated with postsynaptic membrane.many presynaptic to one postsynaptic cell to depolarize it to threshold. postganglionic . terminates Ach via hydrolysis to acetate and choline Choline undergoes active reuptake Small amount of Ach that diffuses away is degraded by serum and erythrocyte cholinesterases Acetylcholine used by all motor axons. Neuromuscular Junction The synapse between axons of a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle fiber Acetylcholine (Ach) An acetyl ester of choline Synthesized in the cytoplasm.AP in presynaptic (motor nerve) produces an AP in postsynaptic (muscle) many to one synapses (spinal motoneurons) .opiate receptors are seen in substantia gelatinosa and may inhibit substance P Pain Sensations Stress-induced analgesia – pain disappears during a period of stress or concentration on the matter at hand Referred pain – pain referred from a viscus to a somatic structure that shares the same embryologic dermatome Projected pain – results from actual stimulation of a pain pathway anywhere along the path causing it to manifest at the periphery of the pain pathway NeuroPhysiology Synaptic Transmission Arrangements: one to one synapses (NMJ) . catalyze by choline acetyltransferase Taken up into synaptic vesicles by an active vesicular transport mechanism Acetylcholinesterase.

glutamate and serotonin Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential (IPSP) transient hyperpolarizations . Epinephrine. liver and kidney tissues. Dopamine. IPSP) axon/axon-hillock = voltage-gated (low threshold) if the sum of all the inputs reaches threshold. NE. not found in adrenergic nerve endings Formation of Norephineprine Synapses Between Neurons synapses are located on the cell body and dendrites cell body/dendrites = ligand-gated (EPSP. AP will be generated Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP) transient depolarization moves membrane potential closer to threshold increase conductance to Na and K Na influx causes depolarization similar to EPP in NMJ excitatory neurotransmitters include ACH. and some cells of motor cortex and basal ganglia major termination – enzymatic degradation Adrenergic Transmission similar with cholinergic transmission the conversion of tyrosine to dopa via tyrosine hydroxylase is the ratelimiting step and occurs in the cytoplasm dopamine is converted into NE after vesicular uptake reuptake is a major mechanism to terminate transmitter activity. second is via diffusion COMT is found in smooth muscle.parasympathetic.

synthesized as needed not packaged in vesicles nor released via exocytosis .reuptake Amino Acid glycine.reuptake Nitric Oxide lipid-soluble.moves membrane potential away from threshold increase Cl conductance Cl influx causes hyperpolarization can also be produced by increased K conductance and K efflux inhibitory neurotransmitters include GABA and glycine Electrical Synapses AP is transmitted from one cell to the other by the direct flow of current can occur in both directions (bidirectional). serotonin and histamine NE – primary NT for postganglionic sympathetic neurons Epi – released by chromaffin cells in adrenal medulla Serotonin – high amounts in brains stem Histamine – hypothalamus major termination . glutamate and aspartate glycine – inhibitory transmitter in spinal interneurons and brainstem GABA – inhibitory NT in CNS GABA and glycine both generate IPSP via ligand gated Cl channels Glutamate and aspartate generates EPSP major termination . faster than chemical synapses (unidirectional) joined together by gap junctions Biogenic Amines NE. GABA. epi. dopamine.

readily diffuses across cell membranes an inhibitory transmitter in CNS and ENS also functions as a cellular signal transduction molecule in neural tissue and vascular smooth muscle (endothelial-derived relaxing factor) Agents Affecting Neuromuscular Transmission Botulinum Toxin – – – – – – blocks release of Ach from presynaptic terminals causes total blockade Curare competes with Ach for receptors on motor end plate decreases EPP maximal dose can produce paralysis of respiratory muscles and death Agents Affecting Neuromuscular Transmission Neostigmine – – blocks anticholinesterase action prolongs and enhance action of Ach at muscle end plate Hemicholinium – – blocks reuptake of choline into presynaptic terminals depletes Ach stores from presynaptic terminal .

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