Electrical engineering: Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity

, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical power supply. It now covers a range of subtopics including power, electronics, control systems, signal processing and telecommunications. Electrical engineering may include electronic engineering. Where a distinction is made, usually outside of the United States, electrical engineering is considered to deal with the problems associated with large-scale electrical systems such as power transmission and motor control, whereas electronic engineering deals with the study of small-scale electronic systems including computers and circuits. Alternatively, electrical engineers are usually concerned with using electricity to transmit energy, while electronic engineers are concerned with using electricity to transmit information. More recently, the distinction has become blurred by the growth of power electronics. Transformer: A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer's coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or "voltage" in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction. If a load is connected to the secondary, an electric current will flow in the secondary winding and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp), and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be "stepped up" by making Ns greater than Np, or "stepped down" by making Ns less than Np. In the vast majority of transformers, the windings are coils wound around a ferromagnetic core, air-core transformers being a notable exception. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used to interconnect portions of power grids. All operate with the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. While new technologies have eliminated the need for transformers in some electronic circuits, transformers are still found in nearly all electronic devices designed for household ("mains") voltage. Transformers are essential for high voltage power transmission, which makes long distance transmission economically practical.

For example a starter/generator for a gas turbine.Basic principles The transformer is based on two principles: first. so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. An ideal transformer is shown in the adjacent figure. blowers and pumps. such as iron. The reverse process. an internal combustion engine. or by the type of motion they give. A generator forces electrons in the windings to flow through the external electrical circuit. which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. Electric motors are found in applications as diverse as industrial fans. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. generator or dynamo. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. Electrical generator: In electricity generation. Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. a hand crank. a wind turbine. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. by their internal construction. Many types of electric motors can be run as generators. compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. household appliances. with ratings in the millions of watts. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships. and. It is somewhat analogous to a water pump. an electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. or traction motors used on vehicles.g. by their application. is accomplished by an alternator. motors and generators have many similarities. Electric motor: An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. power tools. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. They may be powered by direct current (e. producing electrical energy from mechanical energy. Electric motors operate through interacting magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors to generate force. often perform both tasks. water falling through a turbine or waterwheel. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821.. although a few use electrostatic forces. and for such purposes as pipeline compressors. machine tools. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. and vice versa. second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle). that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism). but commercial exploitation of . and disk drives.

a flow of electric charge (a phenomenon) or the rate of flow of electric charge (a quantity). If Q and t are measured in coulombs and seconds respectively. provided the temperature remains constant and the material remains in the same shape and state. More generally. Insulators are non-conducting materials with fewer mobile charges. and. The SI unit for measuring the rate of flow of electric charge is the ampere. In metallic conductors. electric current can be represented as the rate at which charge flows through a given surface as: Conductor: In physics and electrical engineering. which resist the flow of electric current. such as in the electrolyte of a battery. the current I in amperes can be calculated with the following equation: where Q is the electric charge transferred through the surface over some time t. I is in amperes. respectively. the movable charged particles are electrons (see electrical conduction). by both. such as copper or aluminum. depending on the context. the direct current is proportional to the voltage (as determined by Ohm's law). which is charge flowing through some surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Some devices. . a conductor is a material which contains movable electric charges. and are usually termed actuators and transducers. it is instead carried by ions. or in the form of ions. are not generally referred to as electric motors.electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks. In most materials. For a steady flow of charge through a surface. This flow of charge (measured in amperes) is what is meant by electric current. such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers. although they generate some mechanical power. in an electrolyte. Electric current is measured using an ammeter. in a conductor such as wire.[1] This flowing electric charge is typically carried by moving electrons. Positive charges may also be mobile in the form of atoms in a lattice that are missing electrons (known as holes). in a plasma. All conductors contain electric charges which will move when an electric potential difference (measured in volts) is applied across separate points on the material. Electric current: Current means.

solenoids. Silver is the best conductor. In a DC motor and a slip-ring AC motor. synchronous motors. and all plasmas. and inside an enclosure: the heat produced. Copper is the most common material used for electrical wiring. especially polyphase induction motors. See electrical conduction for more information on the physical mechanism for charge flow in materials. as well as the quantity of electric current. However. Because it does not corrode. but is expensive. The current in the primary side creates an electromagnetic field which interacts with the electromagnetic field of the secondary side to produce a resultant torque. For instance. In an induction motor. There are even conductive polymers. if not properly removed. absence of brushes (which are required in most DC motors) and—thanks to modern power electronics—the ability to control the speed of the motor. induction motors. Induction motors are widely used. It underlies the operation of generators. by contrast. induction motors use rotating magnetic fields to transform the voltage. Induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors due to their rugged construction. and most other electrical machines An induction motor or asynchronous motor is a type of alternating current motor where power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic induction. A conductor of a given material and volume (length × cross-sectional area) has no real limit to the current it can carry without being destroyed as long as the heat generated by the resistive loss is removed and the conductor can withstand the radial forces. including graphite.[1] An electric motor turns because of magnetic force exerted between a stationary electromagnet called the stator and a rotating electromagnet called the rotor. solutions of salts. most metals are both electrical and thermal conductors. thereby transforming the electrical energy into mechanical energy. there are also many nonmetallic conductors. where conductors are relatively small and close together. through electromagnetic induction. the current is induced in the rotor without contacts by the magnetic field of the stator. . All non-superconducting materials offer some resistance and warm up when a current flows. Electromagnetic induction: It is the production of voltage across a conductor moving through a magnetic field. An induction motor is sometimes called a rotating transformer because the stator (stationary part) is essentially the primary side of the transformer and the rotor (rotating part) is the secondary side.Most familiar conductors are metallic. some materials are practical electrical conductors without being good thermal conductors. proper design of an electrical conductor takes into account the temperature that the conductor needs to be able to endure without damage. all electric motors. transformers. current is provided to the rotor directly through sliding electrical contacts called commutators and slip rings. However. can cause fusing (melting) of the tracks. gold is used for high-quality surface-to-surface contacts. This effect is especially critical in printed circuits. Different types of electric motors are distinguished by how electric current is supplied to the moving rotor. Thermal and electrical conductivity often go together. which are frequently used in industrial drives. Thus. The motion of charges also creates an electromagnetic field around the conductor that exerts a mechanical radial squeezing force on the conductor. Unlike the normal transformer which changes the current by using time varying flux.

Ohm's law: The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified in Ohm's law: Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I) through it where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). Contrast this with an induction motor. First. Other characteristics include temperature coefficient. the value below which power dissipation limits the maximum permitted current. Critical resistance is determined by the design. resistors must be physically large enough not to overheat when dissipating their power.A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same rate as the alternating current and resulting rotating magnetic field which drives it. speed is determined by the number of pairs of poles and the line frequency. In the fractional horsepower range. Synchronous motors are available in sub-fractional self-excited sizes to high-horsepower direct-current excited industrial sizes. Ohm's law can be stated: . The primary characteristics of a resistor are the resistance. it can operate at leading or unity power factor and thereby provide power-factor correction. the tolerance. Equivalently. Less well-known is critical resistance. Size. noise. Second. such as nickel-chrome). are relevant to equipment designers. They operate synchronously with line frequency. as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy. In high-horsepower industrial sizes. as well as integrated circuits. and above which the limit is applied voltage. As with squirrel-cage induction motors. Resistors can be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. it is a highly efficient means of converting ac energy to work. which must slip in order to produce torque. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films. materials and dimensions of the resistor. and position of leads (or terminals). Electronic Engineering: Resistor: A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that produces a voltage across its terminals that is proportional to the electric current through it in accordance with Ohm's law: V = IR Resistors are elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in most electronic equipment. the synchronous motor provides two important functions. Another way of saying this is that it has zero slip under usual operating conditions. and inductance. the maximum working voltage and the power rating. most synchronous motors are used where precise constant speed is required.

causing its capacitance to vary. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated. if V is 12 volts and R is 400 ohms. a current (I) will flow through the resistance.[10] The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region[8] called the dielectric medium though it may be a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them: Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically. capacitance. a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device.03 amperes will flow through the resistance R. For example. a current of 12 / 400 = 0. In SI units. Capacitor: A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies and for many other purposes. resulting in a breakdown voltage. for smoothing the output of power supplies. The effect is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value. measured in farads.This formulation of Ohm's law states that. with no net electric charge and no influence from any external electric field. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces. while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance. referring to an early means of construction. in filter networks. hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates".[9] and the dielectric develops an electric field. In practice the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit. This formulation is often used in practice. when a voltage (V) is maintained across a resistance (R). An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C. When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. In this case. capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes: Inductor: . a static electric field develops in the dielectric that stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors.

but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. to electronically tune radio and TV receivers (varactor diodes). which can be tailored by varying the construction of their P-N junction. due to the ability of inductors to delay and reshape alternating currents. the most common type today. Diode: In electronics. and to produce light (light emitting diodes). with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. developed around 1906. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. some transistors are packaged individually. Inductors are one of the basic electronic components used in electronics where current and voltage change with time. Tunnel diodes exhibit negative resistance. An inductor's ability to store magnetic energy is measured by its inductance. This is due to their complex non-linear electrical characteristics. Today. Thus. which makes them useful in some types of circuits. specialized diodes are used to regulate voltage (Zener diodes). These are exploited in special purpose diodes that perform many different functions. This is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material connected to two electrical terminals. in units of henries. to generate radio frequency oscillations (tunnel diodes). which by Lenz's Law opposes the change in current that created it. a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. Today most diodes are made of silicon. were made of mineral crystals such as galena. Transistor: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. However.[1] A vacuum tube diode (now little used except in some high-power technologies) is a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a plate and a cathode. This unidirectional behavior is called rectification. according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. . Due to the time-varying magnetic field inside the coil. the transistor provides amplification of a signal. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power. The discovery of crystals' rectifying abilities was made by German physicist Ferdinand Braun in 1874. Inductors called chokes are used as parts of filters in power supplies or to block AC signals from passing through a circuit. The first semiconductor diodes. but other semiconductors such as germanium are sometimes used. called cat's whisker diodes. Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic devices. and to extract modulation from radio signals in radio receivers. For example. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the diode's forward direction) while blocking current in the opposite direction (the reverse direction). Typically an inductor is a conducting wire shaped as a coil. and is used to convert alternating current to direct current.An inductor or a reactor is a passive electrical component that can store energy in a magnetic field created by the electric current passing through it. the loops helping to create a strong magnetic field inside the coil due to Ampere's Law. The term usually refers to a semiconductor diode. a voltage is induced. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve. diodes can have more complicated behavior than this simple on-off action.

An instrument is a device that measures and/or regulates process variables such as flow. The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event.[1] and the Earth's rotation on its axis has a frequency of 1 rotation per day. Output instrumentation includes devices such as solenoids. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second. the unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz). or waves. often in the form of a 4–20 mA electrical current signal. It is also referred to as temporal frequency. and vehicles. a smoke detector is a common instrument found in most western homes. although many other options using voltage. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute. Following its release in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionised the field of electronics. Instrumentation: it is defined as the art and science of measurement and control. Diverse handheld instrumentation is common in laboratories. circuit breakers. or ethernet are possible. Instruments include many varied contrivances which can be as simple as valves and transmitters. abbreviated RPM. The control of processes is one of the main branches of applied instrumentation. frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by a Greek letter ν (nu). DCS. 60 RPM equals one hertz. Control Instrumentation plays a significant role in both gathering information from the field and changing the field parameters. factories. where it can be interpreted into readable values and used to control other devices and processes in the system. or other type of computerized controller. and radio. These devices control a desired output variable. and as complex as analyzers.The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. valves. or pressure. calculators. This signal can be used for informational purposes. such as optics. level. and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. In SI units. For example. and computers. so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. acoustics. frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. Instruments often comprise control systems of varied processes such as refineries. frequency. such as rotation. or it can be sent to a PLC. SCADA system. Loosely speaking. These are often referred to as final control elements when controlled remotely or by a control system. 1 year is the period of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. amongst other things. named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz: 1 Hz means that an event repeats once per second. and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios. Instrumentation can also refer to handheld devices that measure some desired variable. pressure. and provide either remote or automated control capabilities.[2] For cyclical processes. and as such are a key part of control loops. but can be found in the household as well. Transmitters are devices which produce an output signal. regulators. Frequency: It is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. oscillations.[3] . and relays. In physics and engineering disciplines. temperature.

The period. A common form of energy storage device is a parallel-plate capacitor. where ρ is the static resistivity (measured in ohm-metres. 1 farad is 1 coulomb per volt. Instrumentation is used to measure many parameters (physical values). and is the reciprocal of the frequency f: The SI unit for period is the second. and V gives the voltage between the plates. is the length of time taken by one cycle. Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure. Capacitance is also a measure of the amount of electrical energy stored (or separated) for a given electric potential. capacitance is directly proportional to the surface area of the conductor plates and inversely proportional to the separation distance between the plates. Ω-m) . The SI unit of electrical resistivity is the ohm metre [Ω m]. Electrical resistivity: It (also known as specific electrical resistance or volume resistivity) is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. These parameters include: Pressure: It is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. equal to one newton per square meter (N/m2 or kg·m−1·s−2) Capacitance It is the ability of a body to hold an electrical charge. The SI unit for pressure is the pascal (Pa). If the charges on the plates are +Q and −Q. usually denoted by T. In a parallel plate capacitor. then the capacitance is given by The SI unit of capacitance is the farad. A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of electrical charge. Electrical resistivity ρ (Greek: rho) is defined by.

because it cannot flow far before it cools. having a lower viscosity. Thus. steep stratovolcano.E is the magnitude of the electric field (measured in volts per metre. high-viscosity felsic magma will create a tall. Put simply. viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". the greater its ease of movement (fluidity). shallow-sloped shield volcano. while low-viscosity mafic lava will create a wide. All real fluids (except superfluids) have some resistance to stress and therefore are viscous. but a fluid which has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal fluid or inviscid fluid. while honey is "thick". J is the magnitude of the current density (measured in amperes per square metre. . Viscosity: It is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. For example.[1] Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be thought of as a measure of fluid friction. V/m). water is "thin". having a higher viscosity. A/m²). In everyday terms (and for fluids only). the less viscous the fluid is.

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