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. Many people used to refer it before by its traditional titles, such as Personnel Administration or Personnel Management. But now, the trend is changing. It is now termed as Human Resource Management (HRM). Human Resource Management is a management function that helps an organization select, recruit, train and develops HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Human Resource Management is defined as the people who staff and manage organization. It comprises of the functions and principles that are applied to retaining, training, developing, and compensating the employees in organization. It is also applicable to non-business organizations, such as education, healthcare, etc Human Resource Management is defined as the set of activities, programs, and functions that are designed to maximize both organizational as well as employee effectiveness…………… …………………… Scope of HRM without a doubt is vast. All the activities of employee, from the time of his entry into an organization until he leaves, come under the horizon of HRM. The divisions included in HRM are Recruitment, Payroll, Performance Management, Training and Development, Retention, Industrial Relation, etc. Out of all these divisions, one such important division is training and development. TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT is a subsystem of an organization. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. TRADITIONAL AND MODERN APPROACH OF TRAINING AND DEVLOPMENT Traditional Approach – Most of the organizations before never used to believe in training. They were holding the traditional view that managers are born and not made. There were also some views that training is a very costly affair and not worth. Organizations used to believe more in executive pinching. But now the scenario seems to be changing. The modern approach of training and development is that Indian Organizations have realized the importance of corporate training. Training is now considered as more of retention tool than a cost. The training system in Indian Industry has been changed to create a smarter workforce and yield the best results TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE The principal objective of training and development division is to make sure the availability of a skilled and willing workforce to an organization. In addition to that, there are four other objectives: Individual, Organizational, Functional, and Societal. Individual Objectives – help employees in achieving their personal goals, which in turn, enhances the individual contribution to an organization. Organizational Objectives – assist the organization with its primary objective by bringing individual effectiveness. Functional Objectives – maintain the department’s contribution at a level suitable to the organization’s needs. Societal Objectives – ensure that an organization is ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society
Introduction Of Training TRAINING DEFINED It is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviours to enhance the performance of employees. Training is activity leading to skilled behavior. • It’s not what you want in life, but it’s knowing how to reach it • It’s not where you want to go, but it’s knowing how to get there • It’s not how high you want to rise, but it’s knowing how to take off It may not be quite the outcome you were aiming for, but it will be an outcome • It’s not what you dream of doing, but it’s having the knowledge to do it • It's not a set of goals, but it’s more like a vision • It’s not the goal you set, but it’s what you need to achieve it Training is about knowing where you stand (no matter how good or bad the current situation looks) at present, and where you will be after some point of time. Training is about the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) through professional development.
ROLE OF TRAINING
Importance Of Training and Development Optimum Utilization of Human Resources – Training and Development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that further helps the employee to achieve the organizational goals as well as their individual goals. • Development of Human Resources – Training and Development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the development of human resources’ technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also helps the employees in attaining personal growth. • Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.
• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image. • Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. • Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees that helps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal. • Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees. • Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization. • Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feeling about the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers. • Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life. • Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy working environment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns with organizational goal. • Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of the organization thus preventing obsolescence. • Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force. • Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.
• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. • Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets more effective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying out organisational policies • Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display Importance Of Training Objectives Training objective is one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. It helps in adhering to a plan. Training objectives tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives, 1. Trainer 2. Trainee 3. Designer 4. Evaluator Trainer – The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. Also, trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.
Trainee – The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. Therefore, it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings, rather than keeping it surprise. Secondly, it helps in increase in concentration, which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee’s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Thirdly, if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating, then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. Therefore, training objectives helps in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training. Designer – The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he’ll buy the training package according to that only. The training designer would then look for the training methods, training equipments, and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Furthermore, planning always helps in dealing effectively in an unexpected situation. Consider an example; the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. Since the objective is known, the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills, such as verbal and non verbal language, dealing in unexpected situation i.e. when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. Therefore, without any guidance, the training may not be designed appropriately. Evaluator – It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants
while only 42 percent of the market is in employee education.Training As Consultancy Training consultancy provides industry professional to work with an organization in achieving its training and development objectives. Estimation of Training Outsourcing It has been estimated that 58% of the emerging market in training outsourcing is in customer education. The training consultancies offer various benefits such as Training Courses that Consultancies Offer The various courses that consultancies offer are: • Business Training Courses o Management Development ♣ Conflict Management ♣ Managing Diversity ♣ Project Management ♣ Stress Management ♣ Time Management ♣ Senior Management Workshops o Sales ♣ Negotiation Skills ♣ Sales Technique o Customer Care ♣ Customer Care Training ♣ Managing Customers o Human Resource ♣ HR Administration ♣ Induction Training ♣ Recruitment & Selection ♣ Successful Appraising o Personal Development Courses o Workshops on: ♣ Assertive Skills ♣ Building Confidence ♣ Coping with Change ♣ Interview Techniques ♣ Maximize Potential o One to One Coaching ♣ Focused entirely on personal objectives ♣ Move forward at individual pace ♣ Material used in tailor made to specific development Need ♣ A strict code of confidentiality .
waste of time. If training is not considered as a priority or not seen as a vital part in the organization. Rewards to be associated with self esteem and self worth 4. anywhere training Models of Training Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as. HR. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge. etc. As a result training is given on a variety of skill development and covers a multitude of courses. Training is now the important tool of Human Resource Management to control the attrition rate because it helps in motivating employees. The training and development activities are now equally important with that of other HR functions. Rewards for improvement in performance 3. HR. finance. and reducing work load improving the work relations developing focused and inspired staff greater chances of success Consultants can provide help on following areas: • • • • • Management Development Team Building Leadership Health & Safety Training Interpersonal Skills Sales Training EXAMPLE: T. production. Active involvement in employee education 2. then it is difficult to accept that such a company has effectively carried out HRM. resources. Rao Learning Systems is a popular training consultancy in India Training and Human Resource Management The HR functioning is changing with time and with this change. THE TRAINING SYSTEM . senior management team is now increasing the role of training. training is an investment because the departments such as. the relationship between the training function and other management activity is also changing.V. Flexible access i. the role of HR professionals in training has been widened. skills. Gone are the days. Now-a-days. when training was considered to be futile. anytime. etc depends on training for its survival. and money. HR role now is: 1. production. and attitudes (KSAs). Providing pre-employment market oriented skill development education and post employment support for advanced education and training 5.Importance of Training Consultancies • • • • • • It It It It It It helps helps helps helps helps leads in in in in in to enhancing company’s image strengthening the team spirit applying knowledge. Role of HRD Professionals in Training This is the era of cut-throat competition and with this changing scenario of business. marketing & sales.e. increasing the level of job satisfaction. Such concepts of HRM require careful planning as well as greater emphasis on employee development and long term education. developing core competencies. marketing & sales. etc depends on training for its survival. Training actually provides the opportunity to raise the profile development activities in the organization To increase the commitment level of employees and growth in quality movement (concepts of HRM). achieving their professional and personal goals. finance.
The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. to analyze the department. Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. A system approach to training is planned creation of training program. The outer loop describes the vision. 4. and conduct of the training efforts. technology. Out of this planned effort. Under systematic approach. selecting delivery method. There are 4 necessary inputs i. functions. one such basic model of five steps is system model that is explained below. System Approach can be used to examine broad issues like objectives. 5. . This approach uses step-by-step procedures to solve the problems.e. The three model of training are: 1. Design and provide training to meet identified needs. delivering. identifying the learning steps. And every system must have some output from these inputs in order to survive. Transitional model System Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. estimating training cost.e. need to be up to date with the latest technologies. employees requirement. 2. The internal forces are the various demands of the organization for a better learning environment. mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i. System Model 2. This step requires developing objectives of training. Analyze and identify the training needs i. what do they need to learn. that poses threats and opportunities. validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals & objectives. Develop. inner loop is executed. etc The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. formulating. Transitional Model Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. sequencing and structuring the contents. therefore. who needs training. The output can be tangible or intangible depending upon the organization’s requirement. The System Approach views training as a sub system of an organization. and aim.This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn. An organization is a system and training is a sub system of the organization. job. time required in every system to produce products or services. trainers need to be aware of these forces which may impact on the content. man. and evaluating. training is undertaken on planned basis. . It establishes a logical relationship between the sequential stages in the process of training need analysis (TNA). The steps involved in System Model of training are as follows: 1.A System is a combination of things or parts that must work together to perform a particular function.e. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. examining the training material. Instructional System Development Model 3. Organization are working in open environment i. Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. there are some internal and external forces. form.e. material.
lighting. and inform the employees regarding the organization. workbooks. values may include social responsibility. This model considers the organization as a whole. podium. The objective is formulated keeping these three things in mind and then the training model is further implemented Instructional System Development Model(ISD)Model Instructional System Development model was made to answer the training problems. parking. A vision may include setting a role mode. cooling. Mission – explain the reason of organizational existence. instructional objectives that measures behavior of a participant after the training. and target audience analysis 2. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate. food facilities. media selection. selection of content. DEVELOPMENT – This phase translates design decisions into training material. visual aids. or bringing some internal transformation. The Instructional System Development model comprises of five stages: 1. demonstration props. sequencing the content. etc 3. PLANNING – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome. and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. methods of evaluating the trainee. types of training material.e. For example. etc. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years down the line. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. or may be promising to meet some other deadlines. benches. and all other stakeholders. and other training accessories. excellent customer service. sequencing of content. ANALYSIS – This phase consist of training need assessment. strategies to impart knowledge i. 4. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts.Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. inspire. . such as arranging speakers. EXECUTION – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements. equipments.The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers. Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It identifies the position in the community. job analysis. vision. and values precede the objective in the inner loop. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. trainer and the training program. The mission. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies. course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. employees. etc.
This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. In this model. written or verbal information. Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training to the trainees. the output of one phase is an input to the next phase Methods of Training There are various methods of training. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. EVALUATION – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. The various methods that come under Behavioral approach are: ♣ GAMES AND SIMULATIONS o BEHAVIOR-MODELING o BUSINESS GAMES o CASE STUDIES o EQUIPMENT STIMULATORS o IN-BASKET TECHNIQUE o ROLE PLAYS Both the methods can be used effectively to change attitudes. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. The various methods under Cognitive approach provide the rules for how to do something. Trainers need to understand the pros and cons of each method. These methods are best used for skill development. etc. also its impact on trainees keeping their background and skills in mind before giving training. but through different means. The various methods under Behavioral approach allow the trainee to behavior in a real fashion.5. Another Method is MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT METHOD – MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT – The more future oriented method and more concerned with education of the employees. . These methods are associated with changes in knowledge and attitude by stimulating learning The various methods that come under Cognitive approach are: ♣ LECTURES ♣ DEMONSTRATIONS ♣ DISCUSSIONS ♣ COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT) o INTELLEGENT TUTORIAL SYSTEM(ITS) o PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION (PI) o VIRTUAL REALITY Behavioral methods are more of giving practical training to the trainees. To become a better performer by education implies that management development activities attempt to instill sound reasoning processes. demonstrate relationships among concepts. which can be divided in to cognitive and behavioral methods.
feelings. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included. knowledge.Management development method is further divided into two parts: ON THE JOB TRAINING – The development of a manager’s abilities can take place on the job. Sequence the contents – Contents are then sequenced in a following manner: . topics. Training topics – After formulating a strategy. The few popular methods are: ♣ SENSITIVITY TRAINING ♣ TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS ♣ STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES ♣ SIMULATION EXERCISES CASE STUDY Training-Design The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear training objective has been produced. experience.e. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. These topics and modules are then classified into information. Trainers break the content into headings. Age. educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program. The training objective clears what goal has to be achieved by the end of training program i. needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design Training climate – A good training climate comprises of ambience. age. ad modules. interpersonal. tone. Therefore. the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate is unfavorable. The trainer – Before starting a training program. experience. skills. positive perception for training program. etc. Training strategies – Once the training objective has been identified. a trainer analyzes his technical. judgmental skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers. what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the end of their training. and attitudes. The four techniques for on-the job development are: • COACHING • MENTORING • JOB ROTATION • JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT) OFF THE JOB TRAINING – There are many management development techniques that an employee can take in off the job. Trainees’ learning style – the learning style. The trainees – A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profiles. trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. what could be included. almost everything goes wrong.
Physical set-up – Good physical set up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression on participants. facilities and their availability • Furnishings and equipments • Budget • Design of the training. Training implementation can be segregated into: • Practical administrative arrangements • Carrying out of the training Implementing Training Once the staff. The various requirements in a training program are white boards. the training is implemented. and refining. Constraints – The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are: • Time • Accommodation. Even the best training program will fail due to one wrong action. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done because implementation phase requires continual adjusting.• • • • • From simple to complex Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance From known to unknown From specific to general Dependent relationship Training tactics – Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear. trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. etc Support facilities – It can be segregated into printed and audio visual. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Preparation is the most important factor to taste the success. following are the factors that are kept in mind while implementing training program: The trainer – The trainer need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of content. course. etc. topics are ready. Therefore. equipments. etc Training Implementation To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure is called training implementation. markers. . The method selection depends on the following factors: • Trainees’ background • Time allocated • Style preference of trainer • Level of competence of trainer • Availability of facilities and resources. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. Also. Training implementation is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program. content. flip charts. right amount of space should be allocated to every participant. redesigning. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach.
. then it can be dealt with accordingly.Establishing rapport with participants – There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by: • • • • • • • • • • • Greeting participants – simple way to ease those initial tense moments Encouraging informal conversation Remembering their first name Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another Listening carefully to trainees’ comments and opinions Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed Getting to class before the arrival of learners Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time Using familiar examples Varying his instructional techniques Using the alternate approach if one seems to bog down Reviewing the agenda – At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. or to the regular work routines. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces. Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. The following information needs to be included: • • • • • • Kinds of training activities Schedule Setting group norms Housekeeping arrangements Flow of the program Handling problematic situations Training Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Power games: At times. what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the program. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. and how the program will run. and training. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. transfer of knowledge at the work place.
There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. And it may result in loss of trainer’s respect and failure in transfer of training Age.30 or 6 P. Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are: • Observation • Questionnaire • Interview • Self diaries • Self recording of specific incidents Culture . In US. bad.. that means come at 5. attitude are the building blocks of culture.Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. and abilities. Norms means the social rules and guidelines that prescribe appropriate behavior. Values.M.Factor in Global Training Program Communicating the information to different people from different cultures and different nationalities can give rise to many problems. people tend to come late for any appointment. if the trainer gets late for a scheduled training session it is treated as a breach of etiquette. coming on exact time is far too early. Older people are regarded as having greater knowledge.M. or wrong. skills. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. Instances: A good case that concerns attitude towards time in different cities: People are very punctual in United States. During the start of training. or when invited for dinner. party to someone’s home because in their culture it is considered to be polite to arrive on time. Giving training in one’s own culture is quite different from giving training in different culture. A trainer giving training in different culture has to keep these things in mind before delivering content. Process of Training Evaluation Before Training: The learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. Being a good trainer is not the only requirement but understanding socio-economic and cultural backgrounds has now become an important part. gender. Values means what a group of people believes to be good. in Japan. . people give high regard to older people. Once aware. Many simple things that seem simple and straightforward to communicate become difficult when it comes to communicating in different environment. Respect in the sense that people are more willing to listen to and seriously consider the information. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals After Training: It is the phase when learner’s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. For example. a young trainer might have to work harder to gain attention and face problems in executing the program and transfer of training. In Great Britain. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. right. If called at 5 P. Even for Argentineans. People from US tend to come little early for any meeting. In such a culture. Gender. wisdom. Attitude disposes a person to act in a certain way toward something in a certain situation. and Professional Status – Different cultures give different regard to age. For instance. norms. and professional qualification.
the social status of an individual is determined as much as in by standing of the group.Similarly. thumbs-up gesture is used to indicate that “its fine” in the US and Europe. this in turn. but in some cultures. leads to high level of creativity. Global Training Class – Social Structure Social Structure refers to basic social organization. but it is obscene invitation in Turkey and Greece. On the other hand. Spoken Language– Trainees’ receiving training prefer to speak in their own language and trainer being able to speak the local language can help establishing rapport among trainees. it is not possible for women trainers to undergo training programs because people will not be as receptive as in other culture. entrepreneurial activity. etc. Individualism– Some countries emphasizes on individual achievement. high degree of managerial mobility. Bestest of the best training program will fail if trainer is not well versed in communicating trainees’ language. Also. Same is with high professional status. raising eyebrows is a sign of recognition in most cultures. then in turn. the more will be the importance attached to the information. raising eyebrows. the degree to which the social organization laid emphasis on the individual. women’s role is limited to households only. smiling. Language is one of the most important ingredients of culture. Chinese is the mother tongue of the largest number of people (shown below). In Latin America. facial expressions. Another case of unspoken language is the amount of distance between the persons talking to each other. In the training context. Language is one of the major barriers when it comes to giving training in crosscultural environment. encouraging individualism also make it difficult to work in teams. if the trainer gives training in Latin America and maintains a much larger distance than desired in their culture. as opposed to the group. Like in Japan. followed buy English and Hindi Percentage of the people speaking their first language Unspoken Language– means non-verbal communication. which may be very important for the transfer of training. Language Problem in International Training and Development Programs Language comprises of both spoken and unspoken means of communication. This may lead to better cooperation. group is the primary unit of organizations. For instance. It consists of many aspects such as. making a circle with the thumb and forefinger is a friendly gesture in the US. it’s not.the higher the qualification of the trainer. a very important part of communication. etc. the distance adopted by parties in a business discussion is 3 to 5 feet while in the US. Therefore. it is 5 to 8 feet. In such a culture. It may be difficult for them to co-operate which may serve as an obstruction in smooth flow of training. it may result in a regrettable lack of rapport between the trainer and the trainee. some countries are also biased about the gender. Western countries emphasize on individual performance. Like in Gulf countries. Similarly. but it is vulgar gesture in Greece. A failure to understand unspoken language can lead to a failure of communication because body language is not the same in every culture. . It is a communication that uses body movements and gestures such as. hand movements. using the right body language is very important in cross-cultural training. Group– In most of the countries.
It is important to analyze the audience on the factors of customs. This tendency to make assumptions and forming attitudes regarding certain things can be a big problem in a cross-cultural training. or anything. This leads to failure of the program. which results in collusion. But the problem arises when the organization outsource the training process. etc. responsibilities of organization. In this situation the organization assumes that the trainer must be aware of the type of training need s of the participants and their organization and their content will meet those needs. This can lead to discomfort and misjudging the other’s motives and goals. Assumptions – We all make assumptions every day. . As an example. trainees may believe that if they will ask question. The demand for the training in the organization increases when the organization wants: • To hire new people – training as a means of training new recruits • To Expand – When the company wants to increase its headcount • To increase certain number of staff (in position) by a certain date • To enhance the performance of employees • Organization’s name to be a part of training unit Demand for training also increases when there is change in the nature of job. in loss of recognition of individual achievement at work after training. trainer has to keep in mind the factor of the individual and the group while giving training because encouraging a particular individual in Japan might be considered as impolite or vice-versa. Most people see what they want to see and believe what they want to believe. good or bad. Presumptions can some times result in disrespect. etc. Lack of interest of trainees de motivates trainer to transfer expertise and skills.on the other hand it suppresses entrepreneurial activity. distrust or resistance to change behavior after training. For instance. It may be positive or negative. trainer may believe that if the trainees do not question. change in methods of product development. Each candidate plays an important role in the transfer of training because one participant’s attitude regarding the training influence the other participants and also each participant can assist by advancing the learning process to realize the training objectives. and language in case of cross-cultural training Stake holders Role of Organization in Training and Development An organization has a very close relationship with the trainee and the trainer because it is the first contact for both. individual creativity. On the other hand. etc. Differences in assumptions can some times be very problematic. climate. It some times leads to coinciding and some time clashes. trainees might misinterpret trainer because of his different accent. style. Therefore. change in taste of consumer. The whole training program is developed for the trainees only. This in turn. perceptions. the trainer might think they are dull. appearance. they understand the content. Therefore. The organization goes through the following steps for the transfer of training to the field. Assumptions influence our attitudes. Trainee – Role Of Trainee in Transfer of Training The trainee is a major stakeholder in a training program. it’s a foremost duty of the organization to make the trainer and their organization aware of their culture. values. may result.
accepting the share of accountability. methods. They do it with their own learning style. They change when they feel there is a need of it. • Content Development i. motivate the trainee to learn. time management. in the end it is the participant only who decides whether to change his behavior or not. graphics. The trainer and the organization can only try to remove the mental blocks of the trainee. Some perceptions remain the same during the program. etc • Self development i. etc Trainer’s Skills The skills that need to be present in a trainer are: • Training Design • Evaluating the training program . delete the negative perception of the trainee regarding the training. eating facilities. Importance of Trainer. tea/coffee breaks No matter how good the training program is. and strategies Environment in the program Composition of training group Infrastructure i. interpersonal skills. The major competencies that are required to be present in a trainer are: • Presentation Skills • Business Skills i. flexible. Each participant forms their own perception towards training. Besides all that. material production. techniques.Participant’s willingness to invest in the program is directly proportional to the benefits of the learning that the trainee could expect. rest depends on trainee itself.e.e. etc. budgeting. Role of Trainer The effective transfer of training depends a lot on the trainer because it is the trainer only who can remove the mental block of trainee. Trainees do not change their behavior merely because someone tells them to do. a lot depends on personality of trainer also.e. negotiation. while some faded depending upon the assessment of a program by the participant Some personal factors that affect the trainee’s learning are: • • • • • • • • • • Family Situation Personal Problems Relation between the training program and personal objective Level of self esteem Benefits expected from training Comfort level with the trainer Learning style of trainee KSA of trainee Previous training experiences Desire for professional growth and development Some environmental factors that affect the trainee’s learning are: • • • • • • • • • Relationship with colleagues and subordinates Training team Trainer team Training objective Content of training Training design i.e. layouts. good listening skills.e.
and Attitudes (KSAs) 3. and waste of resources. if the trainee believes and expects that the training would help him to improve upon his professional skills and would further help him in achieving his personal goals. FOCUS ON ORGANISATION INTERVENTION . the probability of training to meet the objective increases.e. Therefore. and expectations towards training i. This increases the motivation to learn and to be successful in training. Therefore. it is important to intervene before training and provide them the information about the learning outcome that they can expect and how the learning outcome will help in achieving the objectives. Knowledge. required KSAs. On the other hand. If the trainee perceives the training as waste of time. Skills. no learning is likely to occur. Expectations towards Training Expected Performance is directly proportional to the multiplication of motivation. and Attitudes (KSAs) – It is important that the selected trainees should have the right KSAs for the training because even if the methods and contents of the training is good but the candidates do not have the right KSAs. For the training to be successful. three things are required. Motivation 2. the training program will fail. No learning is possible with negative perception. or how talented the trainees are.• Training need analysis • Worksheet design • Exercises design Role of Trainer Facilitation Of Training Facilitation of Transfer of Training through Focus on Trainee and Organization Intervention Focus on Trainee Focus on Organization Intervention Focus on Trainee Training is successful not only with good training design and training objectives but also with the readiness and willingness of the trainees. proper selection technique is must that would ensure that hired have the requisite KSAs to be successful in training. Also the training methods would not be effective if the candidates are lacking the desired skills. Knowledge. 1. no learning is likely to occur no matter how good the training methods are. Skills. Motivation – If the trainee is not motivated to learn. Expectations – Positive expectations matter a lot in a training program.
For the successful transfer of training. Besides training. also by encouraging the learning culture in the organization. Gone are the days. reward system. peers support. trainer support. peer support. it is necessary to have supervisor support. concentrate on core competencies and offer an overall enhanced training to their employees. and learning. when the trainers’ role used to get over once the training program is done. for example. If the culture of the organization provides enough opportunities to its employees to implement what they have learnt in the workplace and provide them variety of others factors such as. trainer support. outsourcing allows companies to deliver best training to their employees and get the clients the best of their abilities. The key to increase in customer turn over is customer satisfaction. increase in access to information. supervisor can also reduce the negative factors of training. etc then the likelihood of the transfer of training increases. such as. increase in competition. challenging jobs. CULTURE – also have the impact over the transfer of training. climate and culture. These forces also hold back the transfer of training. Organizations go for outsourcing to save training costs. gain access to practical and technical proficiency. this situation can be avoided by involving the entire department in training. This situation also hampers in transfer of training. towards training. trainer’s role is to keep a check on how trainees are performing and help them and discuss with them if they encounter any problem in the workplace. technological innovation. then this support in turn encourages the employee to learn as much as possible.Facilitation of Training Through Organization Intervention Failure of training is not always because of lack of KSAs but sometimes it is because of the organizational forces also. Trainers’ role is now extended to the work place also. CLIMATE – Apart from supervisor support. for example. if the trainee is motivated to learn and receives full support from their supervisor. attitude of upper management towards employee. and improve in . it is important to keep in check those forces. Training as outsourcing Benefits Of Outsourcing The prospective benefits of training outsourcing are well recognized. Also. Also. PEERS SUPPORT – Peer support can also help in transfer of training. the work that piles up during training that makes the employee uncomfortable and employees’ negative perception about the training program. However. if the trainee is the only one who is receiving training in the department then probably the experienced peers might put pressure on trainee to forget the training and work. social support. If these factors are positive then the climate will also support the transfer of training. REWARD SYSTEMS – If the learning outcome that helps in achieving the objectives is linked to reward system then the probability of the success of training would increase. Therefore. TRAINER SUPPORT – can also have a positive impact on the transfer of training. With rapid globalization. Climate factor also comprises of company polices. SUPERVISOR SUPPORT – can affect their employees’ learning in number of ways. It is the organizations foremost duty to make the employees realize through these factors that adequate amount of time and resources are spent on them for their professional and personal development.
respondents reveal that there is a considerable shift in training activities outsourcing. when respondents were asked to rate the training activity that is outsourced in a greater percentage. and greater efficiencies on the part of employees. and resources to manage logistics related to training. staffed or budgeted. which indicates the changing scenario of training outsourcing i. Retaining existing customers is now much more important than acquiring new customers. then there is a need to outsource. Most of the times. there are many challenges as well no matter how well the program is planned.e. training delivery (i. In addition to that. and finances. Earlier. Different regions also put in considerable time. organizations are now becoming confident in training outsourcing activities Training Delivery – 76% Strategy Development – 13% Logistics – 9% Vendor Management . Below are few challenges that are faced by organizations while training outsourcing: Many stakeholders – Outsourcing by and large involve several inner and outer stakeholders. Activities Outsourced in Training According to a recent survey. customer loyalty.customer services. These two activities emerged as the “potatoes and onions” of the training function. On the other hand.4% Enroll Management – 10% Program Oversight – 14% Content Development – 68% Result/Measurement – 10% Learning Technology Management – 25% Challenges Of Outsourcing Where there are benefits of the training outsourcing. There is number of benefits of training outsourcing as it directly linked to the benefits like: Some facts • Recommendations from the existing customer is 107% greater than the fresh customer • Loyal customer spend 33% more than fresh customer • Selling to a prospect requires 6% more than selling to an existing customer But what if an organization lacks the resources. training outsourcing was not given much importance and was considered for the less visible back-office activities. training has to be localized for different languages and cultures which also requires specific resources. Outsourcing programs in diverse geographic regions most of the times are managed autonomously. 76%) and content management (i. outsourcing leads to customer retention. 68%) came out to be the two most commonly selected activities. the customer loyalty programs have become an integral part of the organizations. Outsourcing subtracts the risk in setting up a complicated function that is not a core competency.e.e. expertise. expenditure. Outsourcing is a competent tool that ensures and offers convincing Return on Investment (ROI). If outsourced to competitive and right consultancy then the cost savings could be as high as 50%. customer satisfaction. Dispersed Locations – Many organizations engage training consultancies in different geographical regions that adds further complications to the delivery and scheduling of training. .
Randomly applied know-how. Loss of control – According to Expertus survey in 2006. only selected training activities are outsourced. budget is one the major constraints to channel training. almost half use different LMS for employee training. are left with very little or no control over training partner. and execution and process costs linked with training technologies Eliminating Fixed Cost – 27% Alignment with Company’s Business Strategy – 27% Increase Competitiveness – 20% Increase Speed-to-Market – 41% Cost Reduction – 38% Not a Company’s Core Competency – 20% Others – 31% Type Of Training Outsourcing Type of Training Outsourcing Pursued According to the Company-Size Selected training type – In this type. content. In addition to that. and even basic reporting. training equipments or resources. Employment Inefficiencies – Obtaining satisfactory organizational resources is a constant problem for the organizations engaged with training consultancies. cost reduction is one of the major reasons of training outsourcing for organizations. and strategic business process outsourcing) 2006 survey. payments with incorrect vendors. Organizations going for outsourcing. lack of standards. Organizations that are short of these training resources and expertise often perceive outsourcing as a feasible key. A well planned effective training program can disseminate suitable knowledge and cut down an organization’s time to competence. Those companies who do not use LMS have to make greater effort with registration and setting up. loss of control was also rated as one of the major challenges to training outsourcing. Rationale Behind Training Outsourcing In today’s competitive and global economy. Know-how – According to Expertus survey. a company is able to trim down the rupees it spends on training staff. By contracting with training consultancies. Most of the times budget inefficiencies are caused by duplicate payments. organizations often are not able to keep up with the consistency and quality of training across the channel. unplanned customization work. . technology. class follow up. 70% of the respondents do not use LMS and those who use. According to the respondents. and decentralized vendor agreement management. Employee Turnover and inadequate employee training can make the problem even more difficult. evaluations.Budget Inadequacy – According to an Expertus (Expertus provides a variety of training outsourcing services in business consulting. the entire training function is outsourced. and scarcity of capable resources can twirl the knowledge support of channel training programs into a failure. Coverage – Measuring the results and finding the business focused information about the training consultancy is difficult or impossible to get. These challenges prevent the organizations to obtain the true insight of training consultancies. Comprehensive total training – In this type. developing and distributing expertise is essential to business goals accomplishment.
No. Inc. However. a comprehensive training outsourcing strategy was more worthful to smaller companies than mid-sized or large companies Selected Training Outsourcing Valuable For Large Companies – 43% Mid-Size Companies – 34% Small Companies – 23% Comprehensive Training Outsourcing Valuable For Small Companies – 45% Mid-Size Companies – 23% Large Companies – 32% Budding Training Providers in Outsourcing The ‘Budding Training Providers in Outsourcing’ lists renowned industry leaders that have exhibited creation and quality in offering training outsourcing function in business process categories to clients. Company Name 1 Tata Interactive Systems 2 Allen Communication Learning Services 3 Business Training Partnership. S. according to the review participants.A general insight of training outsourcing is that it is a function that is only worth for large enterprises. Ltd. leaving smaller companies to manage themselves. The strength and dedication needed by outsourcing providers so as to be successful in a bid combined with the time-span of the sales series requires that vendors go after the big contracts with big organizations. (BTP) 4 Vangent. 5 The Training Associates 6 Disney Institute 7 Learning Tree International 8 Synaptis 9 Knowledge Planet 10 Micro Tek 11 MICOR Solutions 12 Genpact 13 Hemsley Fraser 14 Talent2 International Qualities Looked For In Training Consultancies .
there appears to a strong number also using training outsourcing to reach partners. partners or allies. proficiency is the most important characteristic they look for while selecting training outsource provider.No. they confront with a problem of selecting suitable consultancy from a number of outsourcing providers. industry knowledge.e.GP 5 NIIT. Activity Proficiency – 74% Cultural Fit – 54% Successful Case Studies – 18% Economic Stability – 11% Industry Acquaintance – 52% Worth – 64% Others – 8% Target Audience With a huge number of organizations recognizing the worth of giving training across the complete value chain. respondents were asked to point out who the receivers were of the outsourced training. “worth i. Sixteen percent mentioned that they provided outsourced training to their associates.When an organization decides to outsource training programs. Ltd. Nineteen percent of the review participants said it was their clients or regular consumers. After that two-third of the respondents rated. this represents a considerable break for both buyers and sellers of outsourcing function. or allies and customers. therefore. The List is shown below: S. associates. The principal reason to pursue training outsourcing is to reduce cost. price involved” would be a key criterion. Internal Employees – 93% Customers – 19% Partners – 16% Suppliers – 5% Top 20 Training Providers The Top 20 training providers list includes those leaders in the outsourcing industry that have recognized knowledge. know-how and quality in providing educational services to a range of clients. skill. Company Name 1 Accenture Learning 2 RWD Technologies 3 Geo Learning 4 General Physics . etc. Ninety-three percent of review participants revealed that their organizational employees were the audience of outsourced training program. The majority of review participants revealed that they provide outsourced training to internal employees. According to three-fourth of the respondents. “worth of a training consultancy” as an important factor. or clients. According to IDC. The other important factors that are considered to be important while selecting training outsourcing provider are cultural fit. economic stability. and 5 % said they avail training programs for their suppliers. 5 Element K 6 Adayana 7 IBM Learning Solutions 8 Delta College 9 Raytheon Professional Services .
recruiting.No. Some companies recruit external trainers and call them to the company site make them use their tools to train employees. Product-related Training: The dealer who delivers the apparatus or installs the system offers the initial training. Independent Professionals: Considering the emerging threats and opportunities. 9 Enhance Systems 10 MountainTop Technologies. Internal Training: A lot of questions has been raised whether to go in for training outsourcing or setting up an internal division for training. The only issue in outsourcing training is that the quality of training has to be frequently tracked so as to ensure the trainer’s performance and training effectiveness. This alternative is generally for the new joinees who are given the fundamental or job-related training in-house and then send outside for higher training. One approach is to tie up with some reputed training or educational institutes and send employees for training. the responsibility of training is entirely on the individual and a better-trained professional will always have better market worth than others. Why SAP SAP is becoming increasingly popular these days as: . The apparatus dealer may choose to send their trainers or recruit outside trainers. (ACS) Aptech Worldwide Corporation Convergys Global Knowledge Intrepid Learning Solutions Innovatia Skill Soft Lionbridge Expertus Top Specialized Training Providers S. company gets to avail the required expertise and high-quality training programs and saves money on content development. Training Options There 4 training options that an organization can consider before providing training to their employees: Outsourcing: Outsourcing exempts the organizations to concentrate on its core business. Also. Inc. Inc. The user may negotiate with the dealer for a regular upgradation of product-related know-how or expertise in place of a one-time training. with the availability of sufficient amount of know-how. proficiency in the market it does not make business sense for organizations to have a separate training division. the professionals need to keep themselves updated of the developments.10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Affiliated Computer Services. This way. In this option. and maintaining training team. Company Name 1 Hewlett-Packard 2 Trifus 3 Siennax 4 Edista Learning 5 Harbinger Knowledge Products 6 Sify eLearning 7 LIQVID eLearning Services 8 InfoPro Learning. Inc.
familiar looking. such as Marketing. and has an experience of windows based applications can be used worldwide easy to process user transactions with SAP increases liability improves the effectiveness and efficiency of the employees • • • • SAP gives reliable. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at technical colleges and polytechnics.Students of Developed nation require information on India through temporary credit based tutorials Growing concept of studying abroad. Today it is often referred to as professional development. while only 10.• • • • • • SAP SAP SAP It is SAP SAP allows customizing the software to specific needs of the company is user-friendly. Mismatch in student mobility.000 U. On-the-job describes training that is given in a normal working situation. SAP in India Importance of SAP is increasing in India as it helps in delivering solutions to number of flourishing companies. Off-the-job training takes place away from normal work situation which means that the employee is not regarded as productive worker when training is taking place.000 of Americans live in India and are attracted by the technological and educational development.000 Indian students are living in the US. Human Resource. etc. and instant information Old software systems do not meet the need of companies SAP is a affordable and no special software is required to access SAP supports all the fields. On-the-job training is usually most effective for vocational work. GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of India is around 7%. accurate.000 Indian students are living in the US. Finance. An advantage of off-the-job training is that it allows people to get . students are living in India Meaning of Training Training refers to the acquisition of knowledge.000 U. documents or materials that they will use when fully trained. students are living in India Information not available easily.India is a growing economy and has the world’s youngest population.More than 70. skills. Logistics.More than 70. Training & Development is the field concerned with workplace learning to improve performance. Such training can be generally categorized as on-the-job or off-the-job. More than 65.S. while only 10. Other than thatGrowing Importance. and is expected to reach 10%. using the actual tools. equipment. Operations. and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills.S.
Objective is to drive our competitiveness through this training. in learning and in development. and it is the central concept around moving to the next level. the operation of a new performance management system • To train about a specific topic (see below) Typical Topics of Employee Training 1.. including the President. the term Human Resource Development is used. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Also. In some organizations the term Learning & Development is used instead of Training and Development in order to emphasis the importance of learning for the individual and the organization. ________________________________________ Typical Reasons for Employee Training and Development Training and development can be initiated for a variety of reasons for an employee or group of employees. We think this is the central concept around building quality of work life. Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. etc. In organizational development. benchmarking. Now. Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views. This is most effective for training concepts and ideas. or test. It can’t be overemph asized. Training can people to get along in the workplace. We’re talking about winning in a highly competitive business. 4. capacity. Training and developing people in an organization is one of the strategic focuses. e.. 7. and includes techniques to value diversity 5. 6. Training differs from exercise in that exercise may be a one of occasional activity for fun. the related field of training and development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of learning to improve performance within organizations. Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. 3. Importance of Training “Training is a very important priority for any organization. . In other organizations. Training is specific and done to improve one's capability. It is the central concept around getting the best people to come to work for you. training involves an expert working with learners to transfer to them certain areas of knowledge or skills to improve in their current jobs.g. 2.: • When a performance appraisal indicates performance improvement is needed • To "benchmark" the status of improvement so far in a performance improvement effort • As part of an overall professional development program • As part of succession planning to help an employee be eligible for a planned change in role in the organization • To "pilot". Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. often to perform some job or new role in the future.” As a brief review of terms. Development is a broad. it’s not going to happen unless every person in the division. ongoing multi-faceted set of activities (training activities among them) to bring someone or an organization up to another threshold of performance. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility. today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. makes a personal investment in leadership. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management. Quality Circles. and performance.away from work and totally concentrate on the training being given.
etc. resulting in financial gain • Increased capacity to adopt new technologies and methods • Increased innovation in strategies and products • Reduced employee turnover • Enhanced company image. training about sexual harassment.. e. General Benefits from Employee Training and Development There are numerous sources of online information about training and development. 8. 9. It can also help attract and retain good quality staff.. but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults. These reasons include: • Increased job satisfaction and morale among employees • Increased employee motivation • Increased efficiencies in processes.g.increasing the chances that they will satisfy your customers. repetitive activities. etc. guidelines and standards for quality. Training and development refer to the imparting to specific skills’ ability and knowledge to an employee. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment . conducting ethics training (not a good reason for ethics training!) • Risk management.. etc. hazardous chemicals.require basic training about quality concepts. Training and developing them can be one of the most important investments a business can make. Sexual harassment: Sexual harassment training usually includes careful description of the organization's policies about sexual harassment. The right training can ensure that your business has the right skills to tackle the future. Several of these sites (they're listed later on in this library) suggest reasons for supervisors to conduct training among employees. as well as increasing the job satisfaction of those presently with you . diversity training ________________________________________ Training and Development Q) Meaning and Definition A business' most important asset is often its people. e.g. A formal definition of training and development is: . especially about what are inappropriate behaviors.
Training. that is. when there is . such as those supplied by management development programmes. is confined to theoretical learning in the classrooms. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. on the other hand. education and development.“… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. as was started earlier. usually by changing the employee’s attitudes or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Needs assessment occurs at two levels: a) Individual b) Group Individual: An individual obviously needs training when his or her training falls short of standards. Before committing such huge resources. Education. Development activities. refers to the process of imparting specific skills. are generally voluntary. computed as follows: We can make a distinction among training.” The need for training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency. (2) ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS: Organizations spend vast sums of money on training and development. Instead. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these and other related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. THE TRAINING PROCESS (1) ORGANIZATIONAL OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES: The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. it provides general knowledge and attitudes. organizations would do well to assess the training needs of the employees. which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. TRAINING AND EDUCATION DIFFERENTIATED: Training Education ♣Application oriented experience♣Job ♣Specific tasks ♣Narrow perspective oriented♣Theoretical ♣Classroom learning ♣General concepts perspective♣Broad Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.
Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem. it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. (4) DEVISING THE TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Every training and development programme must address the following vital issues: 1. sell and service the new products. Group: Assessment of training needs occurs at group level too. Some are useful for organizational level needs assessment and others for individual needs assessment. it is not possible to design a training and development programme and. Nevertheless. or discharge will solve the problem. when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products. and measurable. however. It also helps facilitate group processes such as problem solving and decision – making. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Who are the trainers? . The problem of performance deficiency is caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. training and developmental goals must be established. Transfer. after it has been implemented. there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness.♣Trainers may be informed perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programme. For example. about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. Who are the trainees? Trainees are selected on the basis of: ♣Self Nomination Recommendations of the Supervisor♣ itself♣By the HR Department Whatever is the basis. the successful trainee will be expected to type 55 words per minute with two or three errors per page. poor job design. Goals must be tangible. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates.♣Trainers are able to pitch their (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF TRAINING GOALS: Once the training needs are assessed. This is easy where skill training is involved. Employees commonly require an orientation to new facilities and jobs. Faulty selection. or other problems are diagnosed. they do not necessarily require elaborate training efforts.performance deficiency. 2. There are specific benefits of needs assessment. With out clearly set goals. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Any change in the organization’s strategy necessitates training groups of employees. For example. But behavioral objectives like attitudinal changes can be more difficult to state. rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new process and their respective roles.♣The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants. Benefits of Needs Assessment: Needs assessment helps diagnose the cause of performance deficiency of employees. For example. verifiable. Causes require remedial actions. job redesign. clear behavioral standards of expected results are necessary so that the programme can be effectively designed and results can be evaluated. low morale and motivation. Recently. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continuous employment for many individuals. improving quality of supervision. Needs Assessment Methods: Several assessment methods for are available for assessing training needs. Although job transfers are as common as organizational personal demands vary.
– building games: Exercises requiring collaborative efforts.♣Communication Games: exercises to build bias – free listening and ♣Strategic Planners: Games to test ability to plan ahead. OJT method is mainly adopted while orienting new employees. Training methods are categorized into two groups – on-the-job methods and off-the-job methods. films and LCD Projectors. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks. creative. If the answers are correct. d) Simulations: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. 4. facts. overheads. (OJT):♣On-the-Job Method Majority of industrial training is on the job training type. administrative. technical & professional education and sales. either in a book form or through a teaching machine. but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. c) Programmed Instruction (PI): Training is offered without the intervention of the trainer. video-types. introducing innovations in products and services.♣Lateral training: Programmes to teach specifics of varied cultures. special skills training. Allowing the person to respond. b) Audio-Visuals: These include television slides. The advantages and disadvantages of some of the important techniques of off-the-job methods are listed below: a) Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. introducing innovations in products & services and in special skills training. What Methods and Techniques of Training should be used? A multitude of methods and techniques is used to train employees.♣Leadership games: exercises to teach skills. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers.Training and development may be done by: ♣Immediate Supervisors ♣Co – workers Personnel Staff♣ ♣Specialists in other parts of the company Consultants♣Outside ♣Industry Associations at Universities♣Faculty Members Who among these are selected to teach.♣Cross – cultural . 2. It is an attempt to create a realistic decision – making environment for the trainee. it is informal. or problems to the learner. Presenting questions. often depends on where the program is held and the skill that is being taught. The most commonly used techniques are shown in the table given below. Off-the-Job Training Method:♣ Off-the-job training is mainly adopted for orienting new employees. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to ‘create an environment’ similar to real situations the managers incur. This method can be made effective when combined with other means of training.♣Skill Games: Tests to develop analytical talking. as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. the learner proceeds to the next block. supervisory and managerial education. PI involves: 1. 3. 3. The other techniques of training are: different styles of leadership. Often.♣Team Thinking: thinking randomly to come up with new ideas. safety education. Training techniques are the means employed in the training methods.
The effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning.g. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language. At the same time the individual must also have the ability to learn. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes. the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. quality of life. or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. 5. particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. (feedback):♣Knowledge of Results Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. What should be the Principles of Learning? Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: Motivation:♣ Motivation to learn is the basic requisite of making training and development programmes effective. Schedules of learning involve: a) Duration of practice sessions b) Duration of rest sessions . Example: if an employee does something well and is complemented by the boss. Example: an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his boss. The trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. Differences:♣Individual Individuals enjoy varying learning stimuli. ♣Reinforcement: Reinforcement is anything that a) Increases the strength of response b) Tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. of learning:♣Schedules One of the most well – established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. In negative reinforcement. Reinforcement could be positive and negative. What should be the level of learning? The inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes can be taught at three basic levels. E. ♣Practice Opportunities: People learn best through practice. All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. Orientation Training Level II The goal is skill development. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. ♣Goals: Goal setting can also accelerate learning. particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. Level III Aims at increased operational proficiency.4. How effectively they are learned depends upon several principles of learning. The reinforcement consists of a positive experience for the individual. the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. job satisfaction) are the most powerful motivators. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences. Internal pressures (selfesteem. Level I The trainee must acquire fundamental knowledge. concepts and relationships involved in it. Feedback about the performances will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed.
or a conference center. At the job itself ii. (5) IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAMME: Once the training programme has been designed. hotel.c) Positioning of rest pauses All the three must be carefully planned and executed. its formal and informal organizations. Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: a) Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities b) Scheduling the training programme c) Conducting the programme d) Monitoring the progress of trainees (6) EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAMME: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. On site but not the job – for example. c) Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. such as in a university or college classroom. and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. Though. Finally. a resort. any other personnel specialty. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. the better the learning process. The more meaningful the material. Off the site. iii. it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles. should it occur. but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register. however. Since huge sums of money are spent in training and development. b) Availability of trainers is a problem. the trainers must know the company’s philosophy. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. In addition to possessing communication skills. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. ♣Meaning of material: A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee’s supervisor. credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. how far the programme has been successful must be judged or determined. that is. Implementation is beset with certain problems: a) Most managers are action oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts. ♣Transfer of Learning: What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. 6. in a training room in the company. creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job. what is learnt in a training session faces resistance back at the job. In practice. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. seldom is such a combination effected in practice. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the following programmes: a) Evaluation specialists must be clear about the goals and purpose of evaluation . Training requires a higher degree of creativity than. Where to conduct the programme? A training and development programme can be conducted: i. correcting performance deficiencies. Often. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. perhaps. its objectives. it needs to be implemented. and the goals of the training programme.
their practices. Two writers have suggested that four basic categories of outcome can be measured. Did he like the programme? Did he think it worthwhile? b) Learning: did the trainee learn the principles. complaints. motivation. and the results of this pre-test are compared with results on the same or similar test administered after the programme has been completed. Training and development programs are designed to keep an organization at the front of its industry maximize performance and energize every level of the organization. or the inability of the person to adapt himself to technological changes. a test related to the training material is applied. etc. Besides. and their products. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well.♣ Training programmes also deal with personality development of the employees (through goal setting. absenteeism. Q) Objectives of Training and Development Staying ahead in today's business world is more challenging than ever. All rounders can be . skills and the fact that the supervisor or the trainee wanted him to learn? c) Behavior: Whether the trainee’s behavior on the job changed because of the training programme? d) Results: what final results have been achieved? Did he learn how to work on machine? Did scrappage costs decrease? Was turnover reduced? Are productions quotas have been met? Questionnaires or structured interviews with the immediate supervisors of the trainees are acceptable methods for obtaining feedback on training. A sense of urgency must be developed. This can be well measured through the reduction in rejections. To get a valid measure of training effectiveness. The objectives of Training and Development are as follows: Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. There are various approaches to training evaluation. The supervisor is asked to rate the former trainee on job proficiency directly related to the training objectives.♣Fewer needs: Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. Prior to the training.♣Efficiency: Employees become efficient after undergoing training. accidents: Accidents.b) Evaluation must be continuous c) Evaluation must be specific d) Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves.♣Obsolescence prevention: • Versatility in operations: Training makes the employees versatile in operations. Training and Development is also seen to strengthen the tie between employee development and strategic operation objectives. Training is an investment in human resource with promise of better returns in future. leadership skills. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Quality of products or services will definitely increase. temperament. f) Realistic target dates must be set for each face of the evaluation process. Even dissatisfaction. e) Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards.♣Personal growth: Training and development programs foster the initiative and the creativity of the employees and help to prevent the manpower obsolescence. a) Reaction: evaluate the trainee’s reaction to the programme.♣Meeting manpower Improves quality: Better-informed workers are likely to make less operational mistakes. the personnel manager should accurately assess trainee’s job performance two to four months after completion of training. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Building trust and promoting teamwork are just two expectations of any business leader. pre-and-post tests be administered to the training groups. which may be due to age.) thus they personally gain through exposure to training programmes. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation.
Training can be made effective by making learning as one of the fundamental values of the company.Recognition of individual differences Regardless of individual differences. 2.It should be ensured that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Why Training Fails? clear to the top management. the individual must have the ability to learn.Employee Motivation-motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Further trained employees tend to stay with the organization. 4. Different strategies need different HR skills for implementation.Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists. This philosophy should percolate down to all employees in the organization.It should be ensured that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. which must be carefully planned and executed for an effective training programme.It should be ensured that there is proper linkage among organizational.transferred to any job.5% of its revenue on training. Growth renders stability to the work force. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. if action on the following lines is initiated: 1. and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. Training can be made effective. Growth indicates prosperity. Q) Effectiveness and Evaluation of Training and Development Effectiveness of Training Training and Development programmes are most likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles 1. duration of rest sessions and positioning of rest pauses are the three schedules. Motivation alone is not enough. 3. • Employee stability: Training contributes to employee stability in at least 2 ways. This is what high performing organizations do. operational and individual training needs. 6.♣The top management hardly rewards the plans and budgets systematically for training♣The top management rarely without proper incentives from top management does not account for training in production scheduling♣The . invest 300 $ million annually or about 2. Similarly Hewlet Packard spends about 5% of its annual revenue to train 87000 workers.And finally to make training effective a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training needs to be prepared so that the shortfalls can be easily looked at. which is reflected in profits every year. and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization.Schedule of learning Duration of practice sessions. For example XEROX.♣The benefits of training are not supervisors for carrying out effective training. the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what he is taught. Besides. 2. Flexibility is therefore ensured. 3. Practice is essential after individual is successfully trained. 5.
Criteria for evaluation. The last and one of the most important stages in the training and development process is the evaluation of results. knowledge and skills of the training. • And finally the credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibility from it. Organizational results The purpose of collecting organizational results is to examine the impact of training on the work group or .♣Without proper scheduling from above. 4. Principle of evaluation Evaluation of training programme must be based ob following principles 1.middle management. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves 5. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. Evaluation must be specific. if it occurs. II. Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development. A sense of urgency must be developed. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure. The evaluation specialist must b clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. 3. that is correctible performance deficiencies. There are a number of questions raised on the value derived from training programmes— both directly and indirectly.♣Trainers provide limited counseling and consulting Evaluation of Training Organizations are under pressure to justify various expenses. Learning Learning measures assess the degree to which trainees have mastered the concepts. Need for evaluation: • The main objective of evaluating the training programme is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives. Business heads and training managers are under pressure to prove the effectiveness of training Thus it can be seen. first line services to the rest of the organization. In practice is however seen. often. III. The training budget is. Reaction measures reveal trainees’ opinions regarding the training programme. supervisors have difficulty in production norms if employees are attending training programmes. Measures of reaction. how far the training has been useful must be judged/determined. Evaluation must be continuous. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. IV. • Secondly training programme should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. HR professionals should try to collect four types of data while evaluation training programmes. Behavioural change Behavior indicates the performance of the learners. not exempted from this purview. organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation. 6. 2. but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation. I.
their behavioral change and the longevity of the period during which the benefit would last. purchase of equipment. Even suitable modification / improvement in the training program is possible after analyzing the results available from such evaluation. However. Management will like to know actual results / benefits of training. The benefits to be compared to the costs are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainee’s performance. critical evaluation of training program is essential. the training programme is labeled as successful. but it is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of the training. suitable facilities required for evolution of training are not available. Q) Importance of Training and Development . These techniques are easy to use. Q) Follow – Up of Training Following-up is the last step in the training process. Training is essentially for achieving certain objectives. It may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which the evaluation can be done. follow–up action is required to ensure implementation of evaluation report at every stage of training. In some companies. For this. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme. programme development costs. Unfortunately. The following are the techniques of evaluation: 1. many organizations overlook this important step in the training process. They can be added on to existing training or designed with new training. For this.Longitudinal or time series analysis Measurements are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of training effort. Each group is randomly elected. If the gain demonstrated by the experimental group is better than those by the control group.Experimental and control groups. Measures are taken of relevant indicators of success. evaluation helps determine the results of training and development program. the training program is already completed and the trainees go back to their departments or positions and start doing the work assigned. supervisors. The follow up technique will increase the probability that learning and behavior changes will "stick" back on the job. This indicates the effectiveness of the training.g. Various follow-up approaches in the work place are used to support trainers.-words typed per minute. To further validate. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment costs. Techniques of evaluation Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organizations. pieces produced per hour etc) before and after training for both groups. one to receive training and the other not to receive training. This is a difficult task. don't require large amounts of time or organizational integration and cost very little. (E. that change has occurred as a result of training and not another variable. On the whole. follow-up of training in the form of evaluation training is essential. 2. productivity. the management feels that training / development is a means and not the end in itself. Follow-up is the key to ensuring that interventions improve performance. trainers cost during the training period. a control group can be included. high morale. The random selection helps to assure the formation of the groups quite similar to each other. Here. Management spent huge amount of money on training of employees and this expenditure should give positive return in terms of higher efficiency. salaries of training department staff.the entire company. In brief. service providers and others responsible for implementing the performance improvement interventions. it is important to assess the costs and benefits associated with the programme. cordial industrial relations and so on.
Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. All rounder can be transferred to any job. when there is performance deficiency. The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. job redesign. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Ultimately. and (3) Supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. This is particularly true when (1) The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform (2) The individual(s) have the aptitude and motivation needed to learn to do the job better. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem.g. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer.hey do not necessarily . Growth renders stability to the work force. which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. . the employee’s personal and career goals are furthered. Training and development is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. Accidents. Deputation to a part-time MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Needs assessment occurs at two levels group and individual. complaints. They seldom leave the company. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. that is. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. They are absorbed after course completion. Training and development is an investment in human resources with a promise and it serves as an effective source of recruitment. Flexibility is therefore ensured. job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. Before committing such huge resources. Transfer. There is greater stability. A company’s training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Faulty selection. trained employees tend to stay with the organization. Growth indicates prosperity. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. poor job design. Future need of employees will be met through training and development programmes. It is necessary that the employee be trained to acquire new skills. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Even dissatisfaction. How to identify training needs? Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Nobody else but well trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an organization. the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. Further. For ex. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development.Training and development programmes help remove performance deficiencies in employees. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. improving quality of supervision. the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. or discharge will solve the problem. organizations would do well to assess the training needs of their employees. An individual obviously needs training when his or her performance falls short of standards. Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization. selection. Figure illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. a needs assessment exercise might reveal that less costly interventions (e. absenteeism. uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. At the same time. compensation package.ample. Although job transfers are common as organizational personnel demands vary.
Recently. versatility. co-operation. Assessment should not be confined to past performance alone. As shown in Fig. economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals. when the organization decides to introduce a new line of products. Potentials of the employee for future performance must also be assessed. and quantity of output. there are certain specific benefits of need& assessment. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the training group and their sponsoring organizations. 9. or other problems are diagnosed. the performance being measured against such factors as job knowledge. dependability. initiative. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates. A formal definition of performance appraisal is: . Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the participants. appraisal may be understood as the assessment of an individual’s performance in a systematic way. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. 3. For example. quality. judgment. sell and service the new products. health. Although training is not a cure-all. They are: 1. Jobs have disappeared as technology.4. such undesirable happenings reflect poorly trained work force. low morale and motivation. sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce. foreign competition. Needs Assessment Methods: How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. This being a generalized statement. supervision. leadership abilities. Performance appraisal Q) Give the meaning and definition of performance appraisal and its objectives? In simple terms.require elaborate training efforts. 2. Group or Organizational Analysis Organizational goals and objectives∂ ∂Personnel/ skill inventories Organizational climate indices∂ ∂Efficiency indices ∂Exit interviews MBO or work planning systems∂ ∂Quality circles survey/satisfaction data∂Customer changes∂Consideration of current and projected Individual Analysis ∂Performance appraisal ∂Work sampling ∂Interviews ∂Questionnaires ∂Attitude survey progress∂Training ∂Rating scales Benefits of Needs Assessment: As was pointed above needs assessment helps diagnose the causes of performance deficiency in employees. The sponsoring organizations are able to reduce the perception gap between the participant and his or her boss about their needs and expectations from the training programme. however. and the like. and the force of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. Any change in the organization’s strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment and others for individual needs assessment. Causes require remedial actions.
What is the Performance Appraisal process? The employee performance appraisal enables you to identify. Data relating to performance assessment of employees are recorded. departmentally and organizationally • Identification of employees who have the potential for advancement or who might be better suited in other areas of the organization . Q. The main purposes for employee assessment are: 1) To effect promotions based on competence and performance 2) To confirm the services of probationary employees upon their completing the probationary period satisfactorily. It is linked to job analysis. This can also have the effect of increasing the trust between the rater and the ratee. Other important benefits of a formal appraisal process are: • Validation of hiring practices — are the right people in the right positions? • Provision of an objective measuring tool on which compensation decisions. and merit rating. personnel appraisal. employee assessment is as old as the concept of management. Nor performance appraisal is done in isolation. and transfer have been effective or not. and society all benefit. employee performance review. 4) To decide upon a pay raise.” The second definition includes employee’s behavior as part of the assessment. Objectives of performance appraisal. performance appraisal can be used to determine whether HR programmes such as selection. 5) To let the employees know where they stand insofar as their performance is concerned and to assist them with constructive criticism and guidance for the purpose of their development. Behavior can be active or passive. employee assessment. The other terms used for performance appraisal are: performance rating. 7) Finally. Either way behavior affects job results.“It is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his or her performance on the job and his or her potential for development. and promotions can be based • Identification of training needs — individually. employee evaluation. and in an informal sense. evaluate and develop an individual's performance. and used for several purposes.” A more comprehensive definition is: “Performance appraisal is a formal. stored. performance evaluation. 6) To improve communication. it is probably as old as mankind. and improves understanding of personal goals and concerns. training. It is a tool to encourage strong performers to maintain their high level of performance and to motivate poor performers to do better. structured system of measuring and evaluating an employee’s job related behaviors and outcomes to discover how and why the employee is presently performing on the job and how the employee can perform more effectively in the future so that the employee. In a formal sense. organization. Performance appraisal provides a format for dialogue between the superior and the subordinate. 3) To assess the training and development need of employees.
interpersonal impact. Likewise. (vi) When to evaluate? • Once in three months. promotions.. Goals should motivate people to improve and to reach for attainable ends. practical and achievable. Feedback to the employee regarding how the organization viewed the employee's performance 3. The formal approach is used as the primary evaluation. Ascertaining and diagnosing training and development decisions 7. the raters should discuss and review the performance with the ratees. The formal performance appraisal process is one of assessing. The performance appraisal process should include at least two meetings convened by the supervisor with the employee. separation. and human resources planning can be used 2. where as the informal approach is used more for performance feedback. Feedback is necessary to effect improvement in performance. (ii) Who are the raters? • Immediate supervisors. once in six months or once a year 4. Objectives Of An Appraisal: 1. Use Appraisal Data For Appropriate Purposes: The Hr department must use the data and information generated through performance evaluation. Realistic goals provide a "balance" between what is hard and what is easy to achieve. specialists from the hr department. and other rewards 6. Information upon which work scheduling plans. You should review your goals on a quarterly or semi-annual basis to check your progress and to make any necessary adjustments. Promotion. easy goals do not motivate any more than unattainable goals. For a goal to be motivational. ranking method. i. the person must feel that the goal can be achieved. 5. (iii) What problems are encountered? • Leniency. so that they receive feed back about where they stand in the eyes of the superiors. essay method etc. . Performance Interview: Once appraisal has been made of employees. bias (iv) How to solve the problems? • Train the raters and appraisers (v) What should be evaluated? • Quality. summarizing and developing the work performance of an employee.1. subordinates. assessment centers. Performance interview has 3 goals: (i) To change the behavior of employees whose performance does not meet organizational requirements or their own personal goals (ii) To maintain the behavior of employees who perform in an acceptable manner (iii) To recognize superior performance behaviors so that they will be continued 6. quantity. committees. or a combination of many. performance tests and observations. The employers offer significant rewards to employees in the form of: (i) Money to purchase goods and services. budgeting. clients. Criteria for evaluating the success of training and development decisions 8. Evaluations of relative contributions made by individuals and entire departments in achieving higher level organization goals 4. peers. Design An Appraisal Programme: (i) Formal versus Informal approach? • Many organizations encourage a mixture of both formal and informal approach. Appraise Performances: Use methods of appraisal such as psychological appraisals. Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of selection and placement decisions. severity. timeliness.e. cost effectiveness. including the relevance of the information used in the decisions within the organization 5. and transfer decisions 2. 3. Reward decisions. Establish Job Expectations: Goals should be realistic. Impossible goals demotivate and defeat the goal-setting process. for luxury (ii) Opportunities to interact with other people in a favorable working environment (iii) Opportunities to learn grow and make full use of their potential etc. need for supervision. including merit increases.
besides assessing performance. PAST ORIENTED Rating Scales This is the simplest and most popular method of appraising employee performance. The Arthur Anderson survey (1997) reveal the20% of the organizations use the 360-degree method. attitude and initiative. output. Nearly every type of job can be evaluated with the rating scale. Each man to be rated is compared with the man in the scale. initiative. ethical standards. superiors. numerical scoring gives an illusion of precision that is really unfounded Man to Man comparison method: This technique was used by the US army. attendance. Godrej soaps. The typical rating-scale system consists of several numeric scales. whereby so many points equal a rise of some percentage. the system has become popular in our country too.Data & information outputs of a performance will be useful in the following areas of HRM: (i) Remuneration administration (ii) Validation of selection programmes (iii) Employee training & development programmes (iv) Promotion. relatively easy use and low cost. Reliance Industries. A scale of man is also created for each selected factor. In performance appraisal it is not of much use because the designing of scales is a complicated task. subordinates and clients it is called 360-degree system of appraisal. Each of the methods discuss could be effective for some purposes for some organization as different organizations different methods. during the first world war. then computes the employee’s total numerical score. Furthermore. Rating scales offer the advantages of adaptability. each representing a job-related performance criterion such as dependability. Broadly all the approaches can be classified into past oriented and future oriented. This way a large number of employees can be rated in a short time. This method s used in job evaluation and is called the factor comparison method. Thermax and Thomas Cook are using the method with greater benefits. behavioural quirks. and the biases are particularly pronounced on subjective criteria such as co-operation. values. The rater checks the appropriate performance level on each criterion. 360-degree system of appraisal Where appraisal are made by peers. other attributes of the assesse. Crompton Greaves.talents. tempers and loyalty are evaluated by people who are best placed to do it. instead of comparing a “whole man” to a “whole man” personnel are compared to the key man in respect of one factor at a time. First developed at GE. . attitude and the like. The disadvantages of this method are several. the only requirement being that the job performance criteria should be changed. The number of points scored may be linked to salary increases. US in 1992. So. transfer & lay-off decisions (v) Grievance & discipline programmes (vi) HR planning Q)Methods of Evaluation of Performance Appraisal Numerous methods have been devised to measure the quantity and quality of employee’s job performance. Each scale ranges from excellent to poor. By this method certain factors are selected for the design by the rater for each factor. and the rater does not need any training to use the scale. and certain scores for each factor are awarded to him. Infosys. The raters biases are likely to influence the evaluation. Here. GB (India).
Finally. when reward allocation is based on peer evaluation. computer simulations. The evaluator figures out why the goals were not met and accordingly determines training needs. and what remains to be done. all the peers may join together to rate each other high. serious conflicts among co-workers may develop. say one to three days. Self evaluation and peer evaluation are also thrown in for final rating. . by observing and evaluating their behaviour across a series of selected exercises or work samples. friendship or animosity may result in distortion of evaluation. interpersonal effectiveness. After recording their observations. The decision regarding the performance of each assessee is based upon this discussion of observations. they know fairly well what there is to do. Assesses are requested to participate in-basket exercises. the raters meet and discuss these observations. what has been done. 4) The last step is establishing new goals and. Further. 2) Second step involves setting the performance standard for the subordinates in a previously arranged time period. superiors and subordinates together or just the superiors alone establish the goals of the employee. If the goals were succeeded the subordinate may have larger involvement in setting of his next goal otherwise the superior may have to do it alone. L&T follows MBO style of evaluation Assessment centers: Mainly used for executive hiring. role playing. Such facts include contribution to work group projects. This goal usually the desired outcome to be achieved and it can be used to evaluate performance. 3) Then the actual level of goal attained is compared to the goals agreed upon. communication skills. new strategies for goals not previously attained. The basic idea is to evaluate managers over a period of time. An assessment centre is a central location where managers may come together to have their participation in job related exercises evaluated by trained observers. Closeness of the working relationship and the amount of personal contacts place peers in a better position to make accurate assessments. MBO wroks can be described in four steps: 1) The organization. possibly. Unfortunately. this method has been criticised for not being applicable to jobs with little or no flexibility. And if this method is linked to employee rewards. Also if the rewards are semi annual or annual. then the employees may take up short term goals and neglect the important long term goals. reliability and initiative. FUTURE ORIENTED MBO The Management by objectives concept which was conceived by Peter Drucker. the they are more likely to take up less challenging goals so that they are more likely to achieve them. reflects a management philosophy which values and utilizes employee contributions. As subordinates perform. work groups (without leaders). as in the actual job.Peer appraisal Peers are in a better position to evaluate certain facts of job performance which the subordinates or supervisors cannot do. such as assembly-line work. However. It works well with managerial personnel and employees who have a fairly wide range of flexibility and self control in their jobs. and other similar activities which require the same attributes for successful performance. assessment centers are now being used for evaluating executive o supervisory potential.
They feel that the mgmt. where each job in an organization is tied to the prevailing market rate. transfers. Such policies become fair. In addition. These personnel policies are directly connected with the performance appraisal of employees. This is possible through training and exec. performance appraisal assists the employees in self-development. which uses a tightly constructed grid to ensure that each job is compensated according to the jobs above and below it in a hierarchy.Q)What are the uses of Performance Appraisal? • Suitable Placement: Performance appraisal is useful for evaluating performance of subordinates and also for understanding their potentials. • Employee Communication: performance appraisal facilitates direct communication with the employees through appraisal interview and post appraisal interviews. This is possible through performance feedback to every employee periodically. • Human Resource Planning and Development: performance appraisal facilitates human resource planning and development. technologists. And also provides more info. entry-level people. The two leading types of pay structures are the internal equity method. • Incentive to Grown and Develop: Performance appraisal acts as an incentive to employees to improve their performance. develop new qualities and secure higher positions in the org. gives due importance to them and is genuinely interested I their career development and well being. the employee with merit may be given special increments or promotion to higher position. Q)The meaning of Pay Structure A company's pay structure is its method of administering its pay philosophy. When they are based on performance appraisal. and market pricing. • Assistance in Self-improvement: Performance appraisal gives the details of plus points and weaknesses of employees. they are given guidance for removing their weaknesses and also for making their plus points more conspicuous. placement of staff and periodical adjustment in the placement can be made scientifically. In brief. Thus. It is also possible to train or develop the existing manpower as per the future needs of the enterprise. • High Employee Morale: scientific and impartial appraisal gets the support from the employees. • Introduction of Sound Personnel Policies: transfers. It is possible to remove such common weaknesses and deficiencies of employees by adjusting their training programmes accordingly. to the mgmt. promotions. A pay structure helps answer questions about who's who. this creates positive impact on the mental make-up of employees. They treat mgmt. as their friend. • Effective training programme: performance appraisal suggests the drawbacks and other weaknesses of employees. guide and well wisher. impartial and acceptable to emp. so that people know where they fall within the organization. A company needs job descriptions for positions such as executives. This information is available progressively and can be us purposefully for assigning duties to employees as per their merits and potentials. increments etc. • Cordial Employer-Employees Relation: performance appraisal avoids or at least minimizes grievances of employees as regards promotions. what each person's role is. managers. Such communication guides emp. . This raises the morale. Employees develop a sense of confidence that injustice will not be done to any employee as performance appraisal system is based on sound principles. Development programmes. and why people are compensated differently. Management is also not in a position to make partiality/ favouratism when performance appraisal records are maintained properly and used when required. This motivates others to improve their performance and qualities for similar benefits. and the like. wage rates and dismissal are the different areas of personnel management. It suggests the type of manpower available. regarding the expectations and feelings of the employees.
Although organizations often make pay level decisions (how much to pay) and pay structure decisions (pay relationship) at the same time. Compensation decisions are typically micro (individual) or macro (total organization) focused. Actually. In practice. For example." share their knowledge. Although organizations are under no constraint to separate these decisions. The average compensation is a reflection of the total compensation bill of the organization. is appropriate for employees in the learning and development phase of their job. most unsophisticated organizations make the decision on compensation level (how much to pay) and compensation structure (relationships to competitors) at the same time. this range is typically for employees new to a position and whose competencies are not yet fully developed. For example. The second implication is internal. Opportunities for incentives are also dealt with in the pay structure. meet job expectations.It also helps human resources personnel administer fairly any given pay philosophy. The relationships between the pay for jobs involve pay structure decisions. in this analysis. these decisions and the process by which they are reached require separate treatment. our concern is with pay differences between jobs. These employees exemplify the best way of doing their job. possess the full skill set necessary to perform their job well. But most organizations measure employee contributions first in terms of the jobs employees hold. community. determining the pay structure of an organization may be usefully described as putting dollar signs on jobs. To this analysis could be added the statement that wage structure decisions are intended to encourage employees to make a career with the organization and to accept training in preparation for higher-level jobs. are intended to attract employees. • Lower-range — pay is between minimum pay and mid-range. This has two implications. Decisions on wage relationships among jobs within an organization are largely within the control of its decision makers. • Mid-range — pay is appropriate for employees who are fully proficient in their job. exhibiting an exceptional skill set and consistently exceeding all job expectations. A potential employee's acceptance usually turns on this decision. The first is external: how does the organization compare with other organizations? This question is a strategic one of how the organization wishes to position itself in the marketplace. a course of study should. or pay some people at market and some above it. This is the target market-based competitive pay for employees who are fully competent. The rationale is usually serious and continual skill shortages experienced by the organization. In most organizations wage and salary rates are still assigned to jobs. Entry level pay falls in this range. and consistently demonstrate skills needed and fulfill responsibilities and duties. people with strategic roles will have opportunities for higher incentives. Labor is one of the claimants on organizational resources. wage structures represent wage relationships of all kinds. or occupation) deals with wage structure issues. and a large segment of the employer's costs are determined by it. go the "extra mile. The decision on compensation levels (how much will the organization pay?) may be the most important pay decision the organization makes. Wage level decisions are usually influenced more by forces external to the organization than are wage structure decisions. But because our primary focus is on pay decisions in organizations. Some organizations pay for skills possessed by employees rather than for the jobs employees hold. One interesting analysis of organizational compensation decisions is that pay structure decisions are intended to achieve retention of employees through prevention of dissatisfaction and encouragement of employee cooperation. In fact. Pay level decisions. . industry. Q)The Meaning of Pay Level The compensation and benefit level is the average compensation paid to employees. More administratively advanced organizations realize that individual decisions within a proper administrative structure are more consistent. and leverage their strengths to benefit the Organisation. The size of the compensation and benefits bill is a reflection of who gets what within the organization. • Upper-range — pay is appropriate for employees who serve as role models. Analysis of wage differentials of any kind (geographic. a company might want to pay everyone at market.
compensation level decisions are typically the focus of a manager’s attention. From the organization’s perspective. and for this reason alone an organization must pay close attention to compensation levels (both competitively and internally). with the result that labor costs per unit of output rise. are also considered. one individual’s compensation decision typically goes unnoticed at the end of the year. The competitive position of the organization may suffer. While evolving the wage policy. and here that member loyalty is built or lost. medical requirements and amenities. Q) Explain the Concepts of wages. the minimum wage must also provide for some measure of education. The compensation level decision may be considered the most important one for individuals. personal decisions. Minimum Wages. Frequently. the job. the employing organization. namely. Finally. three concepts of wages are generally considered. For this purpose. or pressing compensation demands from existing unions. Nor are employees and their representatives any less concerned with compensation level decisions. For these reasons. that a low compensation level may attract only less efficient workers. nature of the jobs. It is here that the absolute amount of the compensation or salary rate is determined. other factors like ability of the concern to pay. e. on the other hand. the applicant pool may dry up and recruitment efforts may meet with little success.fair. . The term compensation level simply means the average compensation paid to workers at some level of analysis. besides the needs of workers. compensation and benefit level decisions are hidden in the type and structure of benefit. Turnover rates may drop below some desirable minimum so that the organization tends toward inflexibility or stagnation. Of course. it seems essential to recognize that compensation level decisions can never be completely separate from job-mix. Also. Also. Changes in compensation levels have the most drastic effects on total payroll. but equally real. fringe. it is often considered by most managers as a primary consideration. Also. Also. If. hiring standards. 2. an industry. too frequent or too drastic changes in compensation levels affect the health of our economy. equally undesirable results are likely. and internal labor markets/relationships. the compensation level is too high. The importance of the compensation level decision to organizations rests on its influence in getting and perhaps keeping the desired quantity and quality of employees. and so on. some employees (often the best ones) may leave. Minimum wage may be tied by an agreement between the management and the workers. and retirement plans. and cost-effective over time. Fair Wages.g. but usually not nearly as great. or the economy. however. In terms of both employee attraction and cost considerations. other compensation decisions have payroll effects. it is here that unions exert their major effect. and 3. the consumer because wages are a major element in prices. Minimum Wages Minimum wage is the one that provides not merely the bare sustenance of life but also for the preservation of the efficiency of the worker. but is usually determined through legislation. Also. consumers and the general public have major interests in compensation level decisions. Substantial sums of money can be involved. Structure decisions (and the level of those structures) are what show up on an income statement. This is more so in the unorganized sector where labour is unionised. and the general public because wages and salaries represent the m ajor portion of national income. At the extreme. 1. It is less apparent. trouble may be forthcoming from these officials. the organization may be confronted with concerted organizing drives if no union is present. if compensation and salary levels are too high during periods of compensation controls by federal authorities. the organization may experience difficulties with state and federal regulatory bodies administering minimum compensation laws and prevailing wage laws. If the compensation level is too low. Living Wages. Equally serious. the department. In the fixation of minimum wages.
but a measure of frugal comfort including education for children. and/or measure of insurance against the more important misfortunes including old age. it will be fair if it is equal to the predominant rate for similar work throughout the country and for traders in general. PURPOSE 1. it can be fixed only by comparison with an accepted standard wage. therefore. awards and wage boards play major role in fair wage fixation. Fair wage is fixed for other industries considering prevailing rates of wages. it makes the company proactive and thus lowers the occurrence of errors by obtaining the most productive methods in hand. the strategy for various events is worked out during recruitment. EXTERNAL FORCES . In a narrow sense. 1948. varies from country to country. External forces 2. a definition of Recruitment:• It’s a process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment • It begins with soughting out the new recruits and ends when their applications are submitted. To increase the pool of job applicants at a minimum cost. the company is recruiting .Fair Wages Fair wage is understood in two ways. protection against ill health. Many people are of the opinion that living wage is a luxury for a developing country like India and can therefore be deferred. In a wider sense. 3. Tribunals. Thus. Living Wages Living wage is a step higher than fair wage.e. Broadly classified as :1. 2. Living wage may be described as one which should enable the wage earner to provide for himself and his family not on the bare essentials of life like food. living wage itself forms the basis for the minimum wage. The concept of living wage. FACTORS INFLUENCING RECRUITMENT. capacity of the employer to pay. Evaluate various techniques of recruiting i. RECRUITMENT Recruitment is understood as the process of • Searching for and • Obtaining applicants for jobs • From among whom the right people can be selected. productivity of labour. Since. In India. clothing and shelter. Internal forces. level of national income and other related factors. a pool of applicants is obtained from which new employees are selected. in terms of effectiveness and thus identify the one that fits in best with ones particular organisation. • As a result of which. requirements of essential social needs. A living wage must be fixed considering the general economic conditions of the country. wage is fair if it is equal to the rate prevailing in the same trade and in the neighbourhood for similar work. Such a standard can be determined with reference to those industries where labour is well organized and has been able to bargain well with the employers. In the more advanced countries. Irrespective of the way in which fair wage is understood. minimum wage is determined mainly for sweated industries under the provisions of the Minimum Wages Act.
And if the unemployment rate drops.political decisions in terms of reservation of jobs for SC’s /ST’S minorities or lesser privileged sections of the society. then the company needs to focus on exploring newer resources. These include the following :• Supply and demand :.the unemployment rate in an area is high. has to be respected by the recruiting company. Thus a company recruiting might have to make a tremendous effort to strike a balance. then the recruitment process is simpler as the company recruiting is in a better position to identify potential candidates from a better and larger pool of applicants. programmers or cost accountants their demand is greater than their supply. • Political and Legal:.the forces of demand and supply dictate the labour market.The conditi . Notification of vacancies by employers to Employment Exchanges .These external forces are the uncontrollable variables and thus have to be taken care off while recruiting. Eg:. recruiting companies need to abide by these legalities subjectively. Also legal considerations like for example child labour prohibition in certain employment. • Unemployment rate :.in case of professionals say. • LABOUR MARKETS :.