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Definition figures which change the typical meaning of a word or words figures which move the letters or syllables of a word from their typical places figures which omit something--eg. a word, words, phrases, or clauses--from a sentence figures which repeat one or more words figures which repeat a phrase, a clause or an idea
Figures of Unusual Word figures which alter the ordinary order of words or sentences Order Figures of Thought a miscellaneous group of figures which deal with emotional appeals and techniques of argument
Poor broken glass, I often the substitution of a word for a did behold/ In thy sweet word whose meaning is close to the semblance my old age new original word born...---The Rape of Lucrece,1758-59 a noun is substituted for a noun in such a way that we substitute the cause of the thing of which we are speaking for the thing itself; this might be done in several ways: substituting the inventor for his I must comfort the weaker vessel, as doublet and hoseought to show itself courageous to petticoat.--As You Like It, 2.4.6
80-81 He was no notorious malefactor.--The Arte of English Poesie. the container for the thing contained or vice versa. the sign for the thing signified. an author for his work. 12. 183 synecdoche substitution of part for whole. the cause for the effect or vice versa Was this the face that launched a thousand ships. or vice versa irony expressing a meaning directly contrary to that suggested by the words metalepsis a double metonymy in which an effect is represented by a remote cause paradox For what the waves could a seemingly self contradictory never wash away/ This statement.--Direccions for Speech and Style Woe worth the mountain that the mast bear/ Which was the first causer of all my care (Medea cursing Jason).invention. but he had been twice on the pillory. genus for species. Faustus. 226 a condensed paradox at the level of O modest wantons! wanton a phrase modesty!---The Rape of oxymoron ./ And burnt the topless towers of Ilium?---Dr. and once burnt in the hand for trifling oversights.---The Arte of English Poesie. which yet is shown to be proper youth has wasted in a true day.
---Antony and Cleopatra. an adverb for a noun or a noun for an adverb Lord Angelo dukes it well. and ta'enthy epenthesis syncope . but not intended to be taken literally His legs bestrid the ocean. 29 aphaersis omission of letters Use every man after his desert.--Measure for Measure.--Shakespeare Sonnets.82 hyperbole Metaplasmic Figures prosthesis Definition addition of letters to the beginning of a word Example I all alone beweep my outcast state.1. his voice was propertied/ As all the tuned spheres.2.561 addition of letters to the middle of a word omission of letters from the middle of a Lie blist'ring fore the visitating sun.2.2. 2. 184 exaggerated or extravagant statement used to make a strong impression. 401 the substitution of one part of speech for another. 3. 5.Lucrece.--Two Noble Kinsmen./ Home art gone. for instance.146 Thou thy worldly task hast done. his rear'd arm/ Crested the world..---The Arte of of the contrary English Poesie. and from the beginning of who should 'scapewhipping?--a word Hamlet.100 anthimeria litotes deliberate understatement or denial He is no fool.. 1.
. 3.word paragoge addition of letters to the end of a word omission of letters from the end of a word wages. 4. ere they meet.. 819 omission of the verb of a sentence A maid in conversation chaste.1.1 omission of a word zeugma an ellipsis of a verb.---The Rape of clauses Lucrece. Frevent.]--- scesis onamaton . I verb is used to govern several Collatine. 2.---Hamlet. Part I.3.93 apocope antisthecon substitution of a letter Or./ And when I ope my lips let no dog bark!---The Merchant of Venice. 3.52 I am Sir Oracle.258 I can call spirits from the vasty deep. in me.1.75 transposition of a letter out of its normal order in a word With liver burning hot.1. Cymberline. in speech mild.2.122 metathesis Figures of Omission ellipsis Definition Example And he to England shall along with you. cesse!---All's Well That Ends within a word Well. in which one How Tarquin wronged me. in behavior modest .[etc. O or sound for another nature.---The Merry Wives of Windsor. 5. 1. in countenance cheerful.--Henry IV.3.
notwithstanding he speaketh most of all. or when he saith something: in saying he will not say it. 2. 130 I will make no mention of his drunken banquets nightly.---The Garden of Eloquence. reputation.3. I will not name his losses.---The Garden of Eloquence./ A mangled Shadow. his luxurity. reputation! O! I have word with no lost my reputation. whore masters. dicers.---Othello. 131 occupatio Figures of Repetition (words) Definition Example epizeuxis emphatic repetition of a Reputation.26.The Garden of Eloquence Haply you shall not see me more. anapodoton omission of a clause aposiopesis He said you were.2. never returne so that the statement is unfinished againe. 4. 139 When the orator feigneth and maketh as though he would say nothing in some matter. and his watching with bawds. and staining of his honesty.---The Arte of English Poesie. when.---Antony and Cleopatra. or if. I dare not tell you plaine:/ For words stopping a sentence in midcourse once out.264 other words between .
2.1./ Let there bechance him pitiful mischances.---Fidessa. andWill in overplus--two different Shakespeare Sonnets.561 clause. and power confronted power. 2./ Most true that I am captive unto love./ word. but in And Will to boot. and blows have answer'd blows:/ Strengthmatch'd with strength.polyptoton repetition of the same word or root in different grammatical functions or forms Disturb his hours of rest with restless trances./ Most true that fair Fidessa cannot love. 135 meanings repetition of a word at the Mad world! Mad kings! Mad composition!--beginning of a King John. or sentence repetition of a I'll have my bond!/ Speak not against my word at the bond!/ I have sworn an oath that I will have my end of a clause./ Afflict him in his bedwith bedrid groans.--King John. 974-977 antanaclasis repetition of a Whoever hath her wish.329-30 For I have loved long. thou has thy Will. I anaphora epistrophe symploce epanalepsis anadiplosis .---The Rape of Lucrece./ To make him moan but pity not his moans.1. 62 Blood hath bought blood. 3. line.---The Merchant of Venice.3./ Most true that I do feel the pains of love. or bond. line.4 sentence repetition of both beginnings and endings repetition of the beginning at the end repetition of Most true that I must fair Fidessa love.
and voyde of malice bad. BA) the needless repetition of words. in successive clauses. 3./ Simple in shew.--Macbeth./ and not the puddle in thy sea dispersed./ Kindness becommeth those of high regard/ Regardwith clemency a poor man's blindness---Fidessa.---The Faerie Queene.194 gradatio congeries But now I am cabin'd.4. bound in/ To saucy doubts and fears. 5.---Richard III. confin'd.. 16 My conscience hath a thousand several tongues. 1.---The Rape of Lucrece./ And every talecondemns me for a villain. a chiasmus on the level of words (AB. 657-658 pleonasm Sober he seemde. and very sagely sad.24 repetition of words.the end of a line or clause at the next beginning repeating anadiplosis a heaping together and piling up of many words that have a similar meaning crave reward/ Reward me not unkindly: think on kindness. Book 1.. a tautology on the level of a Thy sea within a puddle's womb is hearsed./ And to the ground his eyes were lowly bent./ And every tonguebrings in a several tale.3.29 . in reverse antimetabole grammatical order. cribb'd.
---Charles V If you have a friend. I can. yet doubts. I will. and German to my horse. French to men. what damned minutes tells he o'er/ Who dotes. Italian to women.--Othello. this I say to you as your friend. 3.3.169 isocolon tautology chiasmus . I do/ arrangement of clauses or Leave following that which it is sentences in ascending gain to miss. 47 repetition of phrases or clauses of equal length and corresponding grammatical structure needless repetition of the same idea in different words. yet strongly loves. for an old friend is to be preferred before a new friend. pleonasm on the level of a sentence or sentences reversal of grammatical structures or ideas in sucessive phrases or clauses. which do not necessarily involve a repetition of words I speak Spanish to God. I must.---The Garden of Eloquence. 49 But O. suspects.phrase Figures of Repetition (clauses and ideas) Definition Example auxesis I may. keep your friend.---Astrophil and order of importance Stella.
.3 hysteron proteron hypallage My dame that bred me up and bare reversal of temporal order me in her wombe.---The Arte of English Poesie.--Shakespeare Sonnets.2... and prov'd. a very woe.---Othello. 5. 1.---The Garden of . 129 periphrasis While memory holds a seat/ In this distracted globe. a joy propos'd.2. 142 a reversal of words which Open the day./ Before. behind a dream. a substitution of more words for less A bliss in proof.96 Figures of Unusual Word Order Definition arrangment by reversal of ordinary word order./ Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow.---Hamlet.407 hyperbaton Yet I'll not shed her blood..4.antithesis repetition of clauses or idea by negation the replacement of a single word by several which together have the same meaning. 5. usually confined to the transposition of two words only departure from ordinary word order Example anastrophe Figures pedantical---Love's Labour's Lost. and see if it be seems to change the sense the window.
. that lucklesse love.Eloquence a word. gave them to an harlot more lasciviously. and with how wan a face!---Astrophil and aporia true or feigned doubt or deliberation about an issue correctio a correction or revision of previous words representing an prosopopoeia imaginary or absent person as speaking or . phrase. 109 Shameful it is--ay. or sentence inserted as an aside in a sentence complete by itself But now my Deere (for so love makes me to call you still)/ That love I say. 239 With how sad steps. I cannot well declare.---The Garden of Eloquence./ How silently. thou climb'st the skies.---The Rape of Lucrece. if the fact be known.--Elementorum rhetorices libri.. removed them from the Roman people more wickedly or altered them more presumptuously. 141 parenthesis Figures of Thought adynaton Definition the impossibility of expressing oneself adequately to the topic Example Words cannot convey how much your letters have delighted me. 44f Whether he took them from his fellows more impudently. that works me all this ill. O Moon.---The Arte of English Poesie.
./ She married--O most wicked speed: to post/ With such dexterity to incestuous sheets.153 ...acting. attributing life. either present or absent Stella. 31 apostrophe Within a month. speech or inanimate qualities to dumb or inanimate objects a diversion of discourse from the topic at hand to addressing some person or thing.2.--Hamlet. 1..