Biology CH # 1 (english medium) Science Our universe operates under certain principles.

For understanding of these principles, the experiments are done and observations are made; on the basis of which logical conclusions are drawn. Such a study is called "Science". In brief science is the knowledge based on experiments and observations. Biology The Scientific study of living organisms is called Biology. The word biology is derived from two Greek words "bios" meaning life and "logos" meaning thought, discourse, reasoning or study. It means that all aspects of life and every type of living organism are discussed in biology. Branches of Biology Biology is divided into following branches: Morphology The study of form and structure of living organisms is called morphology. It can be further divided into following two parts: 1. The study of external parts of living organism is called external morphology. 2. The study of internal parts of living organism is called internal morphology or anatomy. Histology the study of cells and tissues with the aid of the microscope is called Histology. Cell Biology The study of structure and functions of cells and their organelles is called Cell Biology. Physiology the study of different functions performed by different parts of living organism is called Physiology. Ecology The study of organisms in relation to each other and their environment is called Ecology or Environmental Biology. Taxanomy Living organisms are classified into groups and subgroups on the basis of similarities and differences. This is called classification Taxanomy is that branch of biology in which organisms are classified and given scientific names.

Embryology The study of development of an organism from fertilized egg (zygote) is called embryology. The stage between zygote and newly hatched or born baby is called embryo. Genetics The study of methods and principles of biological inheritance of characters from parents to their offspring is called genetics. Paleontology The body parts of ancient organisms or their impressions preserved in rocks are called fossils. The study of fossils is called paleontology. It also includes the study of origin and evolution of organisms. It can be divided into two parts: 1. The study of fossils of plants is called Palaeobotany. 2. The study of fossils of animals is called Palaeozoology. Biochemistry The study of metabolic reactions taking place in living organisms is called biochemistry. These reactions may be constructive or destructive. The assimilation of food is a constructive process and respiration is a destructive process. Biotechnology It is the branch of biology which deals with the practical application of organisms and their components for the welfare of human beings e.g. disinfections and preservations of food, preservations of insulin and biogas from bacteria etc. Relationship of Biology with other Sciences In ancient times, there was no distinction of biology and other sciences. Different fields of sciences like biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics are met together in the writings of ancient scientists. In ancient times, these subjects were studied under one head "science", but with the passage of time, the science developed very much and the huge scientific knowledge was then divided into different branches. However even today the interrelationship of these branches cannot be denied. Biophysics The study of various biological phenomena according to principles of physics is called biophysics. For example, movement of muscles and bones based on principles of physics. Biochemistry The study of different biochemical like carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids etc found in cells of living organisms and hundreds of the underlying chemical reactions in cells of organisms is called biochemistry.

Biometry The data obtained from observations and experiments on living organism is analyzed by various statistical methods. This is called Biometry. Biogeography The study of plants and animals and the basis of geographical distribution is called Biogeography. Bio-Economics The study of living organisms from economic point of view is called Bio-Economics. It includes the study of cost effectiveness and viability of biological projects from commercial point of view. Biological Method of Study or Method Used to Solve the Problem of Malaria Observation Most of the biological investigations start with an observation. After selecting, specific biological problem, observations are made to collect relevant information. For example; take the case of Malaria. Malaria is the greatest killer disease of man for centuries. Malaria was one among many other diseases for which a cure was needed. In 1878, A French physician, Laveran, studied the blood sample of Malaria patient under microscope and observed tiny creatures in it. These creatures were later called Plasmodium. Hypothesis To solve a scientific problem, one or more possible propositions are made on the basis of the observations. Such a proposition is called a Hypothesis. The hypothesis is tested by scientific method. Merits A good hypothesis has the following merits: 1. It is close to the observed fact. 2. One or more deductions can be made from this. 3. These deductions should be confirmed doing experiments. 4. Results whether positive or negative should be reproducible. To know the cause of malaria, following hypothesis was made: Plasmodium is the cause of Malaria." Note: One or more than one possible deductions can be made from the hypothesis. Deduction the logical conclusion drawn from a hypothesis is called deduction. Testing one deduction and finding it correct does not necessarily mean the hypothesis is correct and scientific problem is solved. Actually, if more deductions are found to be correct; the hypothesis will be close to solution of the problem.

Theory If hypothesis is proved to be correct from repeated experiments and uniform results. the experts examined the blood of about 100 healthy persons (control group).g.g. Abu-Usman-Umer Al-Jahiz Books: Al-Haywan Contribution: He explained the characteristics of about 350 species of animals. persons group of healthy persons. Contributions of Muslims Scientists in the Field of Biology Many Muslim scientists contributed a lot in the field of biology but the following names are more respectable: Jabar-Bin-Hayan Period: 722-817 A. a group of malarial patients. sheep. By keeping both of these groups under similar conditions. Control Group It is the group of unaffected people e. As-Sha. He wrote on the life of aunts especially.Experiments Following groups are designed to perform experiments: Experimental Group It is the group of those people who are affected in some way and we do not know the real cause e. On the other hand. Scientific Principle When a theory is again and again proved to be correct. Khalaqul Insan. The plasmodim was absent in the blood of healthy persons. wild animals and human beings in detail. then this hypothesis becomes a theory. the plasmodium is the cause of Malaria. To know the real cause of malaria.D Books: Alnabatat and Alhaywan Contribution: He studied the life of plants and animals and wrote many books about them. Results During the experiments mentioned above. These results verified the deductions and thus the hypothesis i. the experts examined the blood of about 100 malarial patients (experimental group). Abdul-Malik-Asmal Period:741 A. was proved to a considerable extent. the difference between them is determined. Al-Wahoosh. camels. Contributions: He described the body structure and functions of horses.D Books: Al-Kheil.e. then it is called a scientific principle. Al-Ibil. . the plasmodium was found in blood of most of malarial patients.

astronomy. Today. there are great achievements in agriculture. Control on Diseases Health is basic necessity of life. He explained the structure and functions of eyes and suggested the cornea as a site of vision. physics and paleontology. the discovery of new antibiotics for many infectious diseases like plague. Due to researches in biology. sugarcane and cotton has been enormously increased bringing healthy effect and prosperity. rice. Mizan-ul-Hikma Contributions: Both of these books were famous and well known at that time. tetanus and diphtheria.D Books: Al-Nabatat. the man has overcome the problems of balanced diet. Ali Ibne Isa Contribution: He worked on structure. Bu-Ali Sina Period: 980 A.D Books: Al-Manazir. The study of biology is very important in routine matters of our life as described below. pneumonia. AlZahravi was famous for removal of stone from urinary bladder. polio.Al-Farabi and Abu-ul-Qusim Al-Zahravi Period: 870-950 A. Hebrew.D Book: Al-Qanoon Fil Tib Al-Shifa Contribution: He wrote about plants. Significance of Biology or Impact of Biological Study on Human Life the present high level achievements of man are largely due to the advanced biological research. Greek and other western languages. cholera. On the other hand. tuberculosis and typhoid has made the life easy. The yield of wheat corn. For the production of cereal crops. food storage and famine. Today AIDS is problem for world. He was expert in mathematics. the best varieties of seeds were selected. Food Production Food has basic importance in our life. Ibn-ul-Nafees Contribution: he described the blood circulation in the human body. animals and non-living things in one book. Ibn-ul-Haitham Period: 965-1039 A. The germs of this . The infant mortality has reduced due to discovery of vaccines for fatal diseases like small pox. functions of eye and about 130 diseases of eyes and their treatment. These books were translated into Latin. Al-Haywanat Contribution: The above mentioned books were written by Al-Farabi. Due to researches in biology.

Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a technology in which useful genes are inserted into the bacteria etc.g. Many plants and animals have been maintaining the balance in our environment for millions of years and now at the verge of extinction due to pollution. flour beetle.g. the man and other organisms have to face a great danger. some evidence of life has been found which is still under further investigation. Doli sheep. We have controlled many infectious diseases by using drugs like penicillin and streptomycin. manipulation of heredity material is done and new species are produced e. "We made every thing from water. Using this technique. has greatly improved the quality of our life. Origin of Life from Water The second important fact we get from Quran is that Allah has created all living thins from water.(Surah Zamar-Ayat 62) Not only plants.Ayat 30) . Today human insulin gene is inserted into DNA of bacteria to synthesize insulin on commercial bases. land and water there is danger to humans aid wild life. fungi and bacteria in space and they have obtained very useful information. industrialization and automobiles. We have eliminated many harmful pests like locusts. Ultimate Creator The first thing learnt from teachings of Quran is that Allah is the ultimate creator of everything whether plants. Similarly many drugs have been discovered for treatment of cancer. Many organisms are used to produce drugs e. scientists are busy to find out causes and ways to control the pollution. "the environmental pollution". animals. bacteria and fungi. shipworm etc by using pesticides. termites. "Allah is the creator of all things and He is Guardian of overall things." .(Sura Ambia . Pollution Control Due to increasing urbanization. animals and non-living things and human beings but also the heavens and whole universe have been created by Allah. During exploration of space the scientists have been conducted experiments on different plants. This insulin is found to be very useful in treatment of diabetic patients. Islamic concepts About Origin of Life We have got much information about origin of life by studying the Holy Quran. By biological research.disease destroy the natural resistance and immunities against diseases. Space Biology On Mars. animals or non-living things." . The biology thus. A medicine called AZT has been found effective for AIDS. fungi. due to pollution of air. to get required beneficial results.

Common Origin From above mentioned sayings of God there is an indication for common origin of living things or we can at least say that all living things have come out from water. Allah creates what the pleases. respiratory system. Allah implemented the process of reproduction for the continuity of races of animals and other organisms. The same can also be applied to other animals because there are certain similarities between structure of man and other animals." . Creation of Man Allah also sys in Quran: "He created man from clay like the potter's.(Sura Rehman . bacteria. Concept of Abiogenesis and Biogenesis for Origin of Life on Planet Earth Scientific Views About Origin of Life How did life originate on this earth? This may never be know for certain to science because neither it is possible today to make observation of primitive events when the life actually originated nor there is any fossil record of first formed soft bodied organisms. The various stages of reproduction have been described in sura in following way: "Then fashioned we drop a clot." . on admixing with clay was transformed into more advanced beings.(Sura Dahar Ayat 1) The close study of above sayings of God reveals that all animals had a common origin but they gradually underwent changes after words and became different from each other i. other walk on two legs. fungi." (Sura Nur Ayat 45) "Hath there come upon man (every) any period of time in which he was a thing unrememberd?" .Viruses. Once the life had been created. although differ in other details. then fashioned we the lump bones. He has power overall thins. scientists formulated some ideas.Ayat 14) It seems that there were following two sages for creation of man: 1. Creation from water. in 1950 some scientists created the primitive earth condition (approximately 4 billion years ago) in the laboratory and performed experiments. some animals became crawler. In vertebrate animals. 2. different plants. all animals and humans are all living things. some bipedal and some other tetra pods. However. According to Quranic verses. The first created thing. the structures of digestive system. excretory system and reproductive system etc are similar to great extent. These ideas seem to be close to reality. then clothed the bones with flesh.e. algae. Reproduction in living things. Abiogenesis and Biogenesis . The present animals are advanced forms of the past animals who achieved this form after passing through many changes. and others on four. On the basis of results obtained from these experiments. then fashioned we clot a little lump. all diverse living things were created from water. blood circulatory system.(Sura Almominoon Ayat 14) Classification and Evolution "Allah has created every animal from water some of them creep up on their bellies.

They found some animals to be developed from non living matter. In this way. He left the same boiled meat and vegetables in open bottles at the same time. (1668) proved that this concept was wrong. The maggots were the larvae produced from the eggs of the visiting flies. Galileo. He put a dead snake in one bottle. Maggots were not produced in closed bottles. This is called concept of Abiogenesis.In ancient times. living things are produced spontaneously from non-living things. He put some dead animals in all four bottles but covered the mouth of bottles. He placed these sealed bottles in boiled water to kill the possible germs. (Figure from book) After few days. an English scientist Needham boiled the meat in the water and prepared gravy. maggots were produced in four open bottles. Therefore. offspring are produced from their parents by process of reproduction. there was neither so much advancement in science nor scientific tools like microscope and other instruments were invented. Needham's Experiment In 1948. no flies were seen. Harvey. He poured this gravy into the bottles and closes their mouth with corks. According to one view. Francesco Redi. This supportd the . Later on. Because at that time. and maggots from putrefied meat. many microscopic organisms were produced. Some living organisms were produced in these bottles. there were two views about the origin of life: 1. Therefore this concept seemed to be correct. insects are produced from dewdrops. a few dead fish in second bottle. which could help in detailed observations about reality. dead eel in third bottle and a piece of meat in the fourth bottle. an Italian scientists Spallanzani criticized the experiment of Needham. the believers of abiogenesis were once again gain courage. After some days. He said that air entered the bottles through the pores of cork and hence living organisms were produced. (Figure from book) Experiment of Spallanzani In 1767. scientists performed experiments with more care. Bacon. All these bottles were left open. Some scientists like Copernieus. According to other view. frogs from mud. he found no organisms. According to some people. From 16th to 18th century many scientists performed experiments to test this concept. 2. After some days. The flies could enter these bottles. rats from debris. First of all an Italian scientists. and Descartes also believed this concept. Moreover. Then he took four more such bottles. this is called concept of Biogenesis. (Figure from Book) Spallanzani put the boiled meat and vegetables in clean bottles and then sealed the mouth of bottles by heat. Redi's Experiment Redi took four bottles. it was proved that maggots were not produced spontaneously by produced due to flied which were visiting the open bottles.

ammonia. so that air containing microscopic organisms could reach the infusion. In these conditions. Heavy elements like iron. (Figure from Book) He boiled the yeast infusion in the flasks. Pasteur performed his experiment in front of the commission formed to solve the issue. Then he broke up the curved necks. According to Oparin and Haldane. which had long curved S-shaped necks. Haldane proposed that primitive earth's atmosphere had only carbon dioxide.concept of Biogenesis. while the light elements and compounds like hydrogen. no life could be produced because thee is no spontaneous generation of life from non life. nitrogen oxide. [ Chemical and Organic Evolution of Life on Earth The modern view of the origin of life stresses on the idea of chemical evolution. This process took a long time.B. methane. etc in the form of vapours existed on the surface of the earth. As free oxygen was not available to check the radiation from reaching the earth so substances like sugar and amino acids went on accumulating . In 1920. the origin of first life had been initiated from the time of the existence of the solar system (the sun with its nine planets). He took flasks. This proved that if care was taken and no microscopic organisms and reproductive structures (eggs or spores) approach the infusion. he allowed to cool them and kept them as such. nitrogen. it leads to the formation of organic compounds like sugar and amino acids. He proved that living organisms could only be produced from their parents.S 1-Ialdane suggested that life on earth was originated after a long and gradual molecular evolution and there was no spontaneous and miraculous origin of life on earth. He placed fermentable infusion (Yeast + sugar + water) in flasks and left their mouth open. When oxygen was discovered the supporters of Abiogenesis said that Spallanzani had removed oxygen where by no life could be produced in his experiment. after simple but very careful experiments. In 1864. Louis Pasteur proved. A well-known French scientist. After Pasteur. He observed that no life ws produced even after the lapse of several days. But the believers of Abiogenesis said that air removed by Spallanzani was necessary for living things so no organisms were produced in sealed bottles. no further experiments were performed on origin of life for the next 60 years. that abiogenesis could not occur in present environment of earth. nickel etc were present in the nucleus of the earth. Experiment of Louis Pasteur The argument on Biogenesis and Abiogenesis continued up to the middle of. the first life originated. The earth had high temperature and radiation and had frequent and abundant discharges. These light elements and compounds were responsible for the first life on earth. like the sun was made up of light and heavy elements. a Russian biochemist Alexander Oparin and a British biologist J. After this. If a mixture of these gases is exposed to ultraviolet radiation. carbon. ammonia and water vapours. Now he noted that microscopic organisms were produced within 48 hours. 19th century. Oparin and Haldane suggested that simple inorganic molecules slowly and gradually combined to produce complex organic molecules from which the simplest form of life (bacteria) came into existence. The earth. because microscopic organisms entering along with air got stuck up in on the curved walls of the glass necks.

In time. These molecules came down with the rains and accumulated in the seas. The universe started expanding and the temperature dropped drastically. the first eukaryotes appeared. From this it is speculated that the origin of life started about 4 billion years ago. rivers and the soil over a very long period of time.5 billions years ago. lakes. The primitive atmosphere of the earth was rich in hydrogen. This allowed condensation and heavy rains. It describes the process of reproduction as an essential ability of living organisms. It was supported by the experiments performed by Redi and Pasteur. about 4. the atmospheric temperature gradually dropped. Abiogenesis A theory which describes the origin of life on the earth from non living things is called Abiogenesis. It was based on practical basis. oceans. which caused formation of oceans.8 billion years ago. and added free oxygen into the atmosphere. About 1. Differentiate between Biogenesis and Abiogenesis Biogenesis A theory which describes the origin of life on the earth from pre-existing living organisms is called Biogenesis. • • • • • It was based on practical experiments and material evidence. The idea of organic evolution was supported by scientists like Lamarck and Charles Darwin. Thunder and lightning sparks together with ultraviolet radiation caused reactions of the atmospheric gases resulting in the formation of simple organic molecules. . The depletion of the pre-existed food from the environment led to the evolution of organisms capable of making their own food. all organisms were bacteria. These molecules interacted and produced amino acids and proteins which are the body building substances. It was supported by the fungus of bread: and production of frogs in the mud. They became autotrophs. The fossil evidence indicates that the earliest forms of organisms lived about 3. For at least the first 2 billion years of life on earth.6 billion years ago our earth and other planets appeared as part of the solar system. The earliest organisms were heterotrophs. there was a huge explosion (Big Bag). With the passage of time. About 15 billion years ago.under such conditions. • • • It was based on observations and national thoughts.

Hypothesis is an uncertain intelligent statement. Inorganic Chemistry The study of all elements and their compounds except carbon is called inorganic chemistry. Organic Chemistry The branch of chemistry in which we study the compounds of carbon is called organic chemistry. Differentiate between Hypothesis and Theory Hypothesis The process of making some possible answers for the related biological problem is called Hypothesis. . Hypothesis is formed from observations and collected facts. changes in matter and the laws or principles which govern these changes is called Chemistry. It gives no scientific reasoning about the production of life. • • • • It is the step of biological methods which gives the way to carry on the research. physical evidence to explain the laws of nature Chemistry The branch of science which deals with the composition and properties of matter.• • It was based on theoretical basis. Theory is formed by experimentation. Theory The final explanation which is given on the basis of hypothesis and deduction if they are found correct is called theory. Branches of Chemistry Physical Chemistry The branch of chemistry which deals with the physical properties and physical behavior of material things is called physical chemistry. • • • • It is the step of biological method which gives actual reason to biological method. Theory is certain intelligent statement.

Experiment Observation The observations are made by the five senses of man. Men made equipments are also used for making observations. The results are discussed by the scientists and the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. Observation 2. Sensitive balance is used to determine the mass of a very light object. Steps Involved in Getting Information in the Scientific Method Science is not only an integrated knowledge of physical and biological phenomena but also the methodology through which this knowledge is gathered. For example microscope is used for observing minute objects. But it can be improved by improving technology. Correlating the knowledge thus acquired with previous knowledge. The process of scientific discoveries is a cyclic process. Industrial Chemistry The application of chemical knowledge in technology and industry and the preparation of industrial products are called industrial chemistry. Prediction 4. The accepted hypothesis then takes the form of theory. Inference 3. The validity of this hypothesis is tested through the results obtained from experiments. The capacity of man made instruments is also limited. The tentative solution is called hypothesis. Thermometer is used to measure temperature. The scientific method include following four steps: 1. Inference The facts gathered through observations are carefully arranged and properly classified. . In science the facts are gathered through observations and experiments and then theories or law are deduced. we try to think of a tentative solution to explain the observed phenomenon. These facts are foundation of scientific knowledge. Thus better and more reliable information are given to the scientists who produce better result. A theory when repeatedly gives the same results after experimentation and gives correct explanation of the scientific facts becomes a law or principle. Biochemistry The study of chemical compounds present in living things is called biochemistry.Analytical Chemistry The branch of chemistry which discusses the analytical methods for getting information about chemical compounds and chemical processes is called analytical chemistry. Information acquired through careful observations are called facts.

rivers and has bad effect on land. The hazards of chemistry are so vast that no aspect of human life has remained unaffected. glass. crops protected by insecticides. Prediction Facts. But Avogadro's hypothesis has been accepted as law without any experimental support. Law of Definite Proportions 3. The smoke coming from chimneys of chemial industries and from vehicles pollute the air. If it is proved wrong. theories and laws which are deduced from observation can help in deducing more facts and phenomenon. It is very dangerous to breath in that air. 2010. Excessive chemical spray on plants also has bad effect. If a hypothesis is proved correct. Law of Multiple Proportions 4. paint etc are all due to chemistry. Chemistry and Society Chemistry has played important role for well being of mankind in the form of food. Law Reciprocal Proportions Antoine Lavoiser has rejected the worn out ideas about the changes that take place during a chemical reaction. iron bricks. Production of cement. pollute canals. it stil can give information which can be used to deduce other results. Thus a hypothesis requires experimental support. This process is called prediction. Experiment An experiment is an integrated activity. Such information is used to test the validity of the hypothesis. Law of Conservation of Mass Statement . Chemical Combinations and Chemical Equation 9th ClassChemistry Notes « on: July 02. medical treatment and chemical fertilizers. which is performed under suitable conditions with specially designed instruments to get the required information. refined food and production of artificial fiber. shelter. clothing. He made careful quantitative measurements in chemical reactions and established that mass is neither created nor nor destroyed in a chemical change. It increases the reliability of known facts. 06:41:44 PM » 2.A theory remains valid until contrary informations are given on the basis of experimentation. Similarly waste water from industry.

well. will be in simple whole number ratio. The following experiment easily proves law of conservation of mass." . It is defined as: "Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but it only changes from one form to another form. canal. rain or by the chemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen." In a chemical reaction. The tube was weighed initially in a vertical position so that the solution should not intermix with each other.It is presented by Lavoiser. He observed that weight remains same. he took H. the ratio between the masses of these elements will always remain the same." Proust proved experimentally that compound obtained from difference source will always contain same elements combined together in fixed proportions. the different masses of one element. The tube was sealed so that material could not escape outside. which will combine with the fixed mass of other element. to test the validity of the law of conservation of mass. it will have two elements. HCl + AgNO3 ----------> AgCl + NaNO3 Law of Definite Proportions Statement It is presented by Proust. with silver nitrate (AgNO3) in limb A and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in limb B. tube well. The tube was weighed after mixing (on the formation of white precipitate of AgCl). Practical Verification (Landolt Experiment) German chemist H. hydrogen and oxygen and the ratio between their mass is 1:8. studied about fifteen different chemical reactions with a great skill. If different samples of water are analyzed. ocean. Law of Multiple Proportions Statement This law is defined as: "When two elements combine to give more than one compounds. Landolt.shaped tube and filled the two limbs A and B. But the total mass of the reactants and products remains the same. For this. reactants are converted to products. Example Water can be obtained from different sources such as river. The reactant were mixed by inverting and shaking the tube. It is defined as: "When different elements combine to give a pure compound.

Two different elements can combine to form more than one compound. They can do so by combining in different ratios to give different compounds. Example Hydrogen and oxygen combine with one another to form water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In water and hydrogen oxide 2 g of hydrogen combine with 16g and 32g of oxygen respectively. According to law of multiple proportions, the different masses of oxygen (16g and 32g) which have reacted with fixed mass (2g) of hydrogen will have a simple ratio between each other i.e. 16:32 or 1:2. It means that hydrogen peroxide contains double the number of oxygen atoms than water. This law proves this point of Dalton's Atomic Theory that atoms do not break in a chemical reaction. Law of Reciprocal Proportions Statement This law is defined as: "When two element A, B combine separately, with the mixed mass of the third element E, the ratio in which these elements combine with E is either the same or simple multiple of the ratio in which A and B combine with each other." Example Hydrogen and Nitrogen separately combine to form ammonia (NH3) and dinitrogen oxide (N2O), in these compounds, fixed mass of nitrogen is 14g and combines with 8 g of oxygen and 3 g of hydrogen. The ratio between the mass of oxygen and hydrogen is 8:3. Hydrogen and oxygen also combine with one another to form water (H2O). The ratio between hydrogen and oxygen in water is 16:2. These ratios are not same. Let us observe whether these ratios are simple multiple to each other or not following mathematical operation is carried out. 8:3 ::16:2 8/3 : 16/2 or 8/3 x 2/16 or 1/3 => 1:3 Definitions Atomic Mass

The mass of an atom of the element relative to the mass of some reference or standard element is called atomic mass. Atoms are very small particles. They have very small mass. If the masses of atoms were to be expressed in gram. It is a very big unit for this very tiny object. Then it was decided by the chemists that masses of the atoms were to be found after comparing with mass to some standard form. Hydrogen being the lightest element is taken as standard. The mass of the hydrogen atom taken as one. The atomic mass could be defined as "Atomic mass of an element is the mass of an atom of that element as compared to the mass of an atom of hydrogen taken as one." Example The atomic mass of sodium is 23. It means that an atom of sodium is 23 times heavier than hydrogen atom. Similarly atomic mass of oxygen is 16. It means that an atom of oxygen is 16 times heaviest than that of hydrogen. Atom The smallest particle of an element which cannot exist independently and take part in a chemical reaction is known as Atom. Examples Hexogen(H), Carbon (C), Sodium (Na), Gold (Au) etc. Molecule The particle of a substance (Element or Compound) which can exist independently and show all the properties of that substance is called molecule. Atoms of the same or different elements react with each other and form molecule. Atoms of some elements can exist independently, since they have property of molecule so they are called mono atomic molecule. Examples Examples of Molecules of the elements are Hydrogen (H2). Nitrogen (N2), Sulphur (S8) etc. Molecules of different elements are called compounds. For example HCl, H2O, CH4 etc. Valency

The combining capacity of all elements with other elements is called valency. Example H=1 C=4 Al = 3 Mg = 2 Na = 1 Chemical Formula "A brief name used for full chemical name at a compound is called Chemical Formula." A chemical formula is used to represent an element or a compound in terms of symbols. It also represents the number and type of atoms of elements present in the smallest unit of that substance. Example The chemical formula of hydrogen sulphide is H2S. It shows two types of elements (H and S) and number of atoms of element (2H and 1S). Similarly the formula of NaCl show number and type of different atoms present in its smallest unit. Empirical Formula "The formula which shows the minimum (simple) ratio between atoms present in a compound is known as Empirical Formula." Example For example the empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide is HO that of water is H2O and benzene is CH. Molecular Formula The formula of an element or a compound which represents the actual number of atoms present in the molecule of these substances is called molecular formula. Example Water, Hydrogen Peroxide, Ethylene Benzene and Sulphur have molecular formula H2O, H2O2,

u Mass of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) = 2 + 32 = 34 a.5x2 = 111a. 1. Molecular Mass Molecular mass of an element or a compound is defined as the mass of its molecule relative to 1/12th of the mass of C-12.5 = 58. It is the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms presents in its molecular formula.016g Thus mass of substance is related to the particles by mole.u Formula Mass Formula mass of a compound is the mass of its formula unit relative to 1/12th of the mass of C12.m. Example Formula mass of Sodium Chloride NaCl = 23 + 35.u Formula mass of Calcium Chloride CaCl2 = 40 + 35.m. Example Molecular mass of water (H2O) = 2 + 16 = 18 a.m. Example 1 mole of Hydrogen atom (H) = 1.m. Evolution of a gas .008g 1 mole of Hydrogen molecule (H2) = 2.C2H4. Zn + 2HCl --------> ZnCl2 + H2 The fact that a chemical reaction is taking place can be inferred from the following observation. C6H6 and S8 respectively.u Molar Mass The mass of one mole of a substance is called molar mass.5 a. Chemical Reaction A chemical change in which reactants are converted to products is called chemical reaction.

Addition Reactions When two different compounds or elements react together to give only one confound. Fe + CuO ---------> Cu + FeO 2. Change in temperature. Double Displacement Reactions The reactions in which reacting substances exchange their radicals or ions are double displacement reaction. 2Mg + O2 --------> 2MgO 4. Write the formulae and sympols of the products on the right hand side. the reaction will be called addition reaction. Write the formulae and symbols of the reactants on the left hand side.2. 4. Emission of light. Types of Chemical Reaction The chemical reaction is classified into following types: 1. Displacement Reaction The reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is displaced by another atom or group of atoms in a compound is called displacement reaction. Insoluble salts are formed by mixing soluble salts. Decomposition Reaction The reaction in which some compounds may decompose into elements or simpler compounds on heating is called decomposition reaction. . 2. 3. Method of Equation Writing A chemical equation can be written as follows: 1. Change in colour 3. CaCO3 ---------> CaO + CO2 (Heat) Chemical Equation Symbolic representation of chemical change in terms of symbols and formulae is called Chemical Equation.

Why are Chemical Equations Balanced A chemical equation must be balanced in order to satisfy the law of conservation of matter. 2. Separate the reactants and products by an arrow which is directed towards the products. which states that matter can neither be created nor be destroyed during a chemical reaction. Reactants Those substances. 2010. A balanced equation indicates that which reactant undergo chemical change. Information obtained from a Chemical Equation 1. 2. ZnCl2 and H2 are products. It should be balanced in terms of atoms/molecules of reactants and products. Chemical equation must be representative of a chemical reaction. It indicates that how many moles of products are formed. Period The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called Periods. Zn + 2HCl ------> ZnCl2 + H2 In the above reaction Zn and HCl are the reactants. It should represent molar quantities. which react together in a chemical reaction. It indicates that which products are formed. Periodicity . « on: July 02. Products Those substances.3. are called products. It indicates that how many moles of reactants under go chemical change. are called reactants. Zn + 2HCl ------> ZnCl2 + H2 In the above reaction. Characteristics of Chemical Equation 1. 3. which are formed in a chemical reaction. 06:41:05 PM » Group The vertical column of elements in the periodic table are called Groups.

Arsenic. Gold. Antimony etc. Law of Triads A German Chemist. This is known as Law of Triads. Copper etc. this classification did not get wide acceptance. Periodic Law Physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses. 2. Silicon. Metal Elements which are good conductors of heat and electricity are malleable and ductile and have a metallic luster are called Metals like Sodium. Nitrogen. arranged chemically similar elements in groups of three on the basis of their atomic masses called Triads and it was found that atomic mass of the middle element was approximately equal to the average of atomic masses of other two elements. In the same way no blank spaces for the undiscovered elements were present in his table. Drawback or Defects 1. Germanium. This is knows as Law of Octaves. Non-Metals Elements which are non or bad conductor of heat and electricity are neither malleable or ductile and have no metallic luster are called Non-Metals like Carbon. Chlorine etc. Potassium.The repetition of physical and chemical properties of elements periodically is called Periodicity of Properties. Dobereiner (1829). Noble gases were not discovered at that time and no place was reserved for the undiscovered noble gases. Mendeleyv's Period Table and Periodic Law . Drawback or Defect As very few elements could be arranged in such groups. Metalloids Metalloids are semi metals have the properties which are intermediate between a metal and nonmetal like Boron. every eight element will have similar properties to the first. Law of Octaves An English Chemist Newland (1864) stated that if the elements were arranged in the ascending order of their atomic masses.

Atomic Mass Correction Mendeleyv's corrected the atomic masses of certain elements on basis of their properties and provided proper place to them in the periodic table. next to Calcium (40) should be Titanium (48) but it resembled silicon (28) instead of Aluminium (27). Defects in Mendeleyv's Periodic Table The Mendeleyv's Period Table has following defects: Irregular Position of Some Elements According to Mendeleyv's Periodic Law Potassium (39) should be placed before Argon (40) but he placed Argon (40) before Potassium (39) which goes against his law. Important Features of Mendeleyv's Periodic Table The important features of Mendeleyv's Periodic table are: Periods and Groups The horizontal rows which run from left to right in Periodic Table are called Periods and they are twelve in number. Mendeleyv's stated this periodicity in the form of Periodic Law.Russian Chemist. the elements with similar properties were repeated after regular interval and were placed one above the other. According to Mendeleyv's when the element were arranged in order of their increasing atomic mases. Vacant Spaces Mendeleyv's left many vacant spaces for the still unknown elements. Position of Isotopes Mendeleyv's periodic table gives no indication about the position of isotopes. Mendeleyv's (186) who wa working separately from Lother Mayer published a table of elements. For example. .A table obtained in this manner is called Periodic Table. Discovery of New Element Mendeleyv's discovered new elements and also guessed their atomic mass and properties. The vertical rows which run from top to bottom in periodic table are called groups and they are eight in number. He left vacant space for element with atomic mass 44.

Modern Periodic Table When Mendeleyv's periodic law was modified and new elements were discovered. Due to some defects present in Mendeleyv's periodic law. Position of Lanthanides and Actinides Lanthanides and Actinides have not been given proper place in Periodic Table. Example When isotopes were discovered. Elements of Group I * Lithium * Sodium * Potassium . The electronic configuration of atoms also played an important role in he arrangement of the modern periodic law. The word alkali is derived from an Arabic word meaning Ashes.The Alkali Metals The elements of group I are called "Alkali Metals". Mosely (1913) says that atomic mas is not fundamental property. it was thought advisable to arrange the elements on basis of their atomic number instead o increasing atomic mases. Modern Periodic Law and Modern Periodic Table Modern Periodic Law Physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic function of their atomic number. This defect has been replaced by placing them into two sub groups. Group I . Isotopes were needed different position in the Mendeleyv's periodic table.Structure of Atom Mendeleyv's Periodic table gives no idea about structure of atoms. Hence Mendeleyv's periodic law was modified. This form of periodic table is called "Long form of Periodic Table" because it contains eighteen groups instead of eight but seven periods instead of twelve. Mosely introduced the concept of anomic number for the elements. Coinage and Alkali Metals Alkali metals and coinage metals with different properties are placed in the same group. This forcd the scientists to change Mendeleyv's periodic law.

2. They are mono atomic. These elements occur in nature as silicate mineral and their oxides and hydroxides are strongly basic. Elements of Group II * Beryllium * Magnesium * Calcium * Strontium * Barium * Radium Properties of Group II 1.* Rubidium * Cesium * Francium Properties of Group I 1. They are mono atomic. 6. They exist in solid state. Elements of this group are strongly electro-positive. They exist in solid metallic state. Elements of this group are highly reactive. 2.The Alkaline Earth Metals The elements of group II are called Alkaline Earth Metals. . Group II . 4. 5. Therefore these elements are called Alkaline Earth Metals. 3. Outer most shell of these elements is incomplete having one electron. Elements of this group have large tendency to form compounds.

5. 4. Group IV . Elements of this group are moderately reactive. Group III . 2.The Boron or Aluminium Family The elements of group III exist in solid state. They exist in solid state. Elements of this group have moderate tendency to form compounds. They are mono atomic.3. Outer most shell of these elements is incomplete having two electrons. Elements of this group are quite reactive. 5.The Carbon and Silicon Family Elements of Group IV * Carbon * Silicon * Germanium * Tin . Outer most shell of these elements is incomplete having three electrons. Elements of Group III * Boron Metalloid * Aluminium Metal * Gallium Metal * Indium Metal * Thallium Metal Properties of Group III 1. 3. Elements of this group have moderate tendency to form compounds. 4.

* Lead Properties of Group IV 1. They are mono atomic. 2. They exist in solid state. 3. Outermost shell of these elements is incomplete. 4. Elements of this group are quite reactive. 5. Elements of this group have moderate tendency to form compounds. Group V - The Nitrogen Family Elements of Group V * Nitrogen * Phosphorus * Arsenic * Antimony * Bismuth Properties of Group V 1. Some are mono atomic and some are di-atomic. 2. Some of them exist in gaseous and some are in solid state. 3. Outermost shell of these elements is incomplete having five electrons. 4. elements of this group are quite reactive. 5. Elements of this group have quite tendency to form compound. Group VI - The Oxygen Family Elements of Group VI * Oxygen

* Sulphur * Selenium * Tellurium * Polonium Properties of Group VI 1. Some are mono atomic and some are di-atomic. 2. Some of them exist in gaseous and some are in solid state. 3. Elements of this group have quite tendency to form compounds. 4. The tendency of forming covalent bond decreases from oxygen to polonium. 5. There is a gradual decrease in the ionization potential down the group. Group VII - The Halogen Family Elements of Group VII * Fluorine Gas * Chlorine Gas * Bromine Liquid * Iodine Solid * Astatine Radioactive Properties of Group VII 1. They are diatomic except At. 2. Halogens are very active non-metals. 3. Outer most shell of these elements is incomplete having seven electrons. 4. Elements of this group are highly reactive. 5. There is a gradual decrease in the ionization potential down the group.

Transition Elements Definition Elements in Group IB, IIB, through VIIB are known as Transition Elements because they show their properties which are transitional between higly reactive and strong electro-positive elements of S-block which form ionic compounds and p-block elements which form largely covalent compounds. Properties of Transition Elements 1. Transition Elements have incomplete inner electron shells. 2. They show variable valency. 3. They show similar behaviour. 4. They all are metals. 5. They have strong inner atomic bonds. Group 0, The Noble Gases The elements of Group VIII A are called "Noble Gases" or "Inert Gases" or "Zero Group Elements". Elements of Group 0 * Helium * Neon * Argon * Krypton * Xenon * Radon Properties of Group 0 1. They are mono atomic. 2. They exist in gaseous state. 3. Outer most shell of these elements is either complete or contains eight electrons.

P) Definition The minimum energy needed to remove an electron from an isolated.E The greater the nuclear charge the higher is the ionization energy. Atomic Radius Definition One half of the distance between the nucleus of two identical atoms when these are in close contact with each other is called Atomic Radius.4. These elements have no tendency to form compounds (only a few of these compounds are known). Trend in Group Atomic radius increases from top to bottom in a group. This is because. But the number of shells remains same within a period. although nuclear charge increases from top to bottom but at the same time on new shell is also added for each successive element down the group. Effect of Nuclear Charge on I. Unit It is expressed in electron volts or kilo-joules permole.E in Period . Effect of Atomic Size The larger the size of atom the lower is the ionization energy. gaseous atom in its ground state is called Ionization Energy. Unit It is measured in angstrom unit A. 2. Ionization Energy (I. This is because nuclear charge increases with the increase of atomic number. Trend of I. 1 ev = 96. These elements are mostly chemically non-reactive.E) or Ionization Potential (I. 5.49kj Factors Affecting Ionization Energy The ionization energy of elements depends upon the following factors: 1. Trend in Period The atomic radii decreases from left to right within a period in the periodic table.

Trend of I. energy is released but for further addition of electrons it is positive because energy has to be added to over come repulsion between negative ion and electron. Electron Affinity Definition The energy change that occurs when an electron is gained by an atom in the gaseous state is known as Electron Affinity. Trend or Variation in the Group Electronegativity values decreases from top to bottom within a group due to increase in atomic size. Electronegativity Definition The tendency of each atom in a covalent molecule to attract a shared pair of electrons towards itself is known as its electronegativity. Unit . Electron Affinity for the addition of first electron is negative i. Factors Affecting Electronegativity Electronegativity depends upon the following factors: * Atomic size * Atomic Number * Electron Affinity * Ionization Energy Trend or Variation in the Period Electronegativity increases from left to right within a period due to increase in nuclear charge and decrease in atomic size.Ionization energy increases from left to right in a period due to increase in nuclear change and decrease in atomic size.E decreases from top to bottom in a group due to increase in atomic size.E in Group I.e.

Properties of Solids . They collide with one another and with the walls of container. Gas 2. In gaseous state. But this theory was also able to explain the composition of liquid and solid state of matter. there is to and fro motion only. molecules or ions. 2. Water exists in three physical states solid (ice).It is measured in KJ/mol or in e. liquid and gas(steam) has same chemical properties. The three states of one matter may have different physical properties while their chemical properties are same. « on: July 02. According to Kinetic Theory of matter: 1. the electron affinity increases from left to right because the incoming successive atoms have higher nuclear charge and attract electron more towards itself. All matter is composed of atoms. 3. Kinetic Theory of Matter The Kinetic theory was presented to explain the properties of gases and is called kinetic theory of gases. 4.e. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. These particles have kinetic energy due to which they are in the state of motion. i. translational. In liquids the rate of their movement is very small but in solids. Liquid 3. solid These are physical states of matter. rotational and vibrational. these particles move in a straight line.v per atom. So its is called Kinetic Theory of Matter. Generally material particles can have three types of movements.css". 2010. Factors Affecting Electron Affinity * Atomic Size * Nuclear Charge Tend or Variation of Electron Affinity in Group Down the group in the periodic table. Trend or Variation of Electron Affinity in Period In a period. Solids The state of matter which has definite shape and volume is called solid. electron affinity decreases because the addition of a new shell to each atom decreases its force of attraction. 06:40:25 PM » States of Matter Matter has three states: 1.

Definite Volume and Shape The cohesive forces in solid substances are so strong that they keep their particles arranged in fixed positions. The molecules of liquid are able to move. The solid collapses and turns to liquid. the solids have definite volume and shape. Sublimation The conversion of some solids directly into gaseous state on heating is called sublimation. On heating solid is converted to liquid and gaseous state. 3. Iodine. Liquid The state of matter having definite volume but indefinite shape is called liquid. The molecules of liquid come to the surface of liquid and escape by overcoming cohesive forces. Properties of Liquid 1. In liquid particles are very close to one another and have cohesive forces among the particles. 5. So liquid is . a liquid does not have any specific shape. the particles of solid loose their means position and their arrangement. Effect of Heat The physical state of solid substance can be changed by heating.Motion of Particles The solid particles have vibrational motion only because these particles are held in fixed position by strong cohesive forces. Due to the presence of cohesive forces. 2. ammonium chloride and naphthalene change directly into vapour state upon heating. Evaporation Conversion of liquid into its vapours at any temperature is called evaporation. Volume Liquids have definite volume. At melting point. At a particular temperature the vibrational motions become fast that they overcome the cohesive forces and solid melts to liquid. Shape Liquids do not have any specific shape. Melting Point The temperature at which the solid is converted to liquid on heating is called melting point. So due to restrict movements of particles. 3. liquids have definite volume and keep their level as well. 2. Heat increases the kinetic energy of the particles and they start vibrating at higher frequency.1. They adopt the shape of the container. 4. Due to this random motion the molecules of liquid do not have fixed position and as a result.

converted to vapours at all temperature. 4. Boiling Point The temperature of a liquid at which its vapour pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure is called boiling point. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.css"; Gas The state of matter which does not have definite shape and volume is called gaseous state. Properties of Gaseous State 1. Indefinite Volume and Shape In gaseous state, the molecules have insignificant cohesive forces among themselves. They move very fast in all possible directions. As a result, a gas neither has fixed shape nor a fixed volume. 2. Kinetic Energy of the Particle of a Gas Gas particles have very high kinetic energy as compared to liquid and solid state. 3. Pressure The molecules of a gas are in the state of random motion. The molecules of gas not only collide with one another but also with the walls of the container in which they are enclosed. Due to their collision, the velocity of the molecules changes every moment. The pressure exerted by gas is also due to the collision of its molecules with the walls of the container. 4. Elastic Collision The collision of gas molecules is elastic in nature which means that the total energy of the colliding molecules remains the same before and after the collision. 5. Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of molecules of gas is very high as compared with solid and liquid. Diffusion The movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration is known as Diffusion. If the concentration of molecules at a particular place is higher, they start moving towards a place where their concentration is lower. When the concentration of molecules at both the places becomes equal the process of diffusion stops. Diffusion in Gases The molecules of one gas can diffuse easily into the molecules of other gas. For example if an open bottle of a perfume is kept in a room, its smell will spread uniformly throughout the room. The liquid perfume present in the bottle volatilized slowly and its vapours diffuse through out the

room. Graham's Law of Diffusion Scottish Chemist, Thomas Graham (1833) discovered that lighter gs can diffuse through porous pot faster than the heavier one. This is called Graham's Law of Diffusion. Hydrogen being lighter gas will diffuse faster than oxygen or carbon dioxide. Diffusion in Liquids Liquid molecules can also diffuse because they have free movement. Since the molecules of liquid move comparatively slowly than gas molecule, their rate of diffusion are also lesser than gases. Brownian Movement Robert Brown (1927) discovered this phenomenon: The free movement of the molecules of gases and liquid is called Brownian Movement." When a pollen grain is put in water. The movement of pollen grain in water is observed by microscope. It is observed that pollen grain is continuously moving in all directions. This free movement of pollen grain was due to the free movement of water molecules. The colliding water molecules will also force pollen grain to move as well. The students can observe Brownian movement with the help of simple experiment. Experiment Put a drop of milk on a microscope slide and cover it with cover slip. Put it under microscope and observe it. You will see small particle of fat moving randomly in milk. The movement of fat particles is actually due to the movement of water molecules in milk S o l u t i o n a n d S u s p e

n s i o n 9 t h C l a s s C h e m i s t r y N o t e s « o n : J u l y 0 2 , 2

Solvent The component of a binary solution which is in greater amount is called solvent.0 1 0 . If this blue liquid is filtered. Saturated solution . 0 6 : 3 9 : 5 0 P M » Solution A homogeneous mixture of different chemical substances which has uniform chemical composition through out and shows uniform physical properties is called solution. For example in copper sulphate solution. it will pass through the filter paper without leaving any solid. Binary Solution A solution which is formed by mixing two substances is called binary solution. The mixture thus prepared is called a solution. For example solution of glucose and water. For example dissolve a small amount of copper sulphate in water the water will become blue. For example in copper sulphate solution. copper sulphate is solute. Solute The component of a binary solution which is in lesser amount is called solute. water is solvent.

. Supersaturated Solution The solution which contains even more amount of solute required to prepare saturated solution is called super saturated solution.css". Concentrated Solution A solution which contains excess amount of a solute as compared to that of a solvent is called a concentrated solution. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in many ways depending upon the amount o solute and solvent present in it. Such a solution is called supersaturated solution. Percentage by Mass The percentage of solute by mass is the mass of solute present in hundred part of the solution. Concentration of Solution The amount of solute present in given quantity of solvent is called concentration of solution. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.A solution in which maximum amount of a solute has been dissolved at a particular temperature and in which the dissolved form of solute is at equilibrium with its undissolved form is called saturated solution. Concentrated Solution The amount of solute present in given quantity of solvent is called concentration of solution. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in many ways depending upon the amount of solute and solvent present in it. Dilute Solution A solution which contains small amount of a solute as compared to the solvent is called dilute solution. The hot saturated solution of compound like sodium thiosulphate does not crystallize its solute if cooled slowly without disturbance. Unsaturated Solution Solution which can dissolve further amount of a solute at a [particular temperature is called an unsaturated solution.

It is expressed as M. For example 15% solution of alcohol by volume will mean that 15cm3 alcohols are present in 100cm3 of solution. It is a useful process because it can be used to purify the impure solid compounds. Suspension A suspension in such a mixture in which solute particles do not dissolved in solvent and if filtrated its particles do not pass through the pores of filter paper. The concentration of this solution is expressed as M. Molarity Molarity of a solution is the number of moles of solute present in 1dm3 of the solution.For example 5% hydrogen peroxide solution by mass means that 5g hydrogen peroxide are dissolved in 95g of water to give 100g of solution. Colloidal Solution In a colloidal solution the solute particles are slightly bigger than those present in a true solution but not big enough to seen with naked eye. It can also be used to separate a mixture of solids. (Here 3 represents cube) Percentage by Volume = (Volume of Solute/Volume of Solution) x 100 Molar Solution The solution that contains one mole of solute in 1dm3 of solution is called a molar solution. M = Number of Moles of Solute/Volume of Solution in dm3 or M = (Mass of solute/Molecular Mass) x (1/ Volume of Solution in dm3) Crystallization The process in which crystal separates from saturated solution on cooling is called crystallization. If water is a solvent these ions are called hydrated ions. Percentage of Mass = (Mass of Solute/Mass of Solution) x 100 Percentage by Volume The concentration unit expresses the volume of solute present in 100cm3 of solution. . Hydration The ions surrounded by solvent molecules in solution are called solvated ions.

silver nitrate. Effect of Solute Different solutes have different solubility's in a particular solvent e. which can dissolve in one kilogram of the solvent at a particular temperature. Potassium chloride etc. it is found that the concentration of sodium chloride solution is 5. If there is dissimilarity in properties. if the chemical structure and the electrical properties such as dipole moment of solute and solvent are similar.g. if the saturated solutions of table sugar and sodium chloride are prepared. Usually the solubility increase with the increase in temperature but it cannot be taken as a general rule. This is due to the fact that the attraction of sodium (Na+ and chloride (Cl-) ions with water is greater than that of sugar molecules with water. The solubility of gases in water also decreases with the increase in temperature. Solubility Solubility o a solute in a particular solvent is defined as the amount of solute in grams. which can dissolve in 100g of the solvent at a particular temperature to give a saturated solution. Effect of Temperature Change in temperature has different effects on the solubility of different compounds. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. calcium chromate decreases with the increase in temperature.g. there are a large number of compounds whose solubility in water increase with the increase in temperature e. Factors Affecting the Solubility Effect of Solvent Similar solvents dissolve similar solutes.8 molar. the solubility of sodium chloride in water does not increase appreciably with the increase in temperature .css". i. In other words. the solubility will increase. sodium nitrate. The solubility of compounds like lithium carbonate. then either the solute will not dissolve or there will be very little solubility. the solubility of sodium chloride in water is far greater than that of sugar.Standard Solution A solution whose molarity (strength) is known is called Standard Solution.e. or The amount of a solute in gram moles.3 molar while that of sugar solution is 3. to give a saturated solution. True Solution A True Solution is such a mixture in which solute particles are completely homogenized in the solvent for example solution of sodium chloride or copper sulphate in water. On the other hand.

Electro-Chemistry 9th ClassChemistry Notes « on: July 02. wood are non-conductors. This process is called electrolysis. For example plastic. Weak Electrolyte . bases and salts are strong electrolytes. For example acids. 2010. Electrolysis The process in which electricity passes through the aqueous or infused state of some substance. Strong Electrolyte The substances which are highly soluble and completely ionized are called strong electrolyte. Non-Electrolyte Those compounds through which electricity cannot pass are called non-electrolyte. For example all metals are conductors. Non-Conductors Those substances through which electric current cannot pass are called non-conductors. Conductors Those substances through which electric current can pass are called conductors. 06:39:16 PM » Electro-Chemistry The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of chemical energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to chemical energy is called electro-chemistry. Electrolyte The compound in molten state or in aqueous solution through which electricity can pass are called electrolyte. The substances itself decompose into its component.

It must be good conductor. 2. Noble and precious metals like gold or silver are deposited on the inferior metals to enhance their beauty and look beautiful. silver. May not easily oxidized or reduced or hydrolyzed. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. 06:38:43 PM » Metals and Non Metals . This metal is made cathode and the metal which is going to be deposited is made anode. 3. (Diagram) « on: July 02.css". Electroplating A process in which metal is deposited on the surface of another metal by electrolysis is called electroplating. Cheap 4. The electrolyte is a salt of metal being deposited and electroplating is carried out in a tank made of cement. It must be very soluble in water. It is called an electrolytic tank. nickel and gold are used for electroplating. Procedure of Electroplating The metal which is to be electroplated is first cleaned with sand and then washed with caustic soda solution and finally with a lot of water. Repair It can be used to repair the broken machinery by electroplating with other metals. Protection Electroplating is done to protect the metals from rusting as well as from attack of other substance like organic acids and acidic gases. glass or wood. Objectives of Electroplating Decoration It is done for decoration. Usually the metals like copper. The electrolyte should have following properties: 1. chromium. 2010.The substances which are not highly soluble and remain in un-ionized form are called weak electrolyte.

2. 3. Those mixtures. 4. Empirical Formula . Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Mixture Homogeneous Mixture 1. 2. Sugar and water. which have uniform composition throughout their mass are called homogeneous mixtures. Homogeneous mixture has only one phase through out its mass. Non-Metals have no luster. Heterogeneous Mixture are not solutions. Homogeneous mixture are also known as solution. It represents covalent compounds only. 2. Heterogeneous Mixture 1. Molecular Formula = n x Empirical Formula. which do not have uniform composition through their mass are called Heterogeneous Mixture. Metals reflect heat and light. Molecular and Empirical Formula Molecular Formula 1. 5. Examples: Rocks. Non-Metals usually don't reflect heat and light. Formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule is called Molecular Formula. Non-Metals are non-malleable and can not form sheets. 3. 2. Non-Metals are non ductile and cannot be drawn into wire. 4. 5. Non-Metals 1. Food products. Examples: Salt and water. Molecular Formula shows the structure of compound. Two or more compounds cannot have same Molecular Formula. 3. 4.Metals 1. 3. Metals are ductile and can be drawn into wire. Metals have luster shine surface. 3. Non-Metals do not conduct heat and electricity. 4. Those mixtures. Soil. 2. Heterogeneous Mixture has more than one phase through out its mass. Metals conduct heat and electricity 4.

It represents one atom of an element. 4. Molecular mass of any element or compound expressed in grams is called gram molecule. 4. It is associated with element and compound. Gram Molecule 1. Cl. 3. 4.css". is called Empirical Formula. Symbol is written for elements. 2. which shows the relative ratio of atoms of each element present in a molecule. Examples: H2O. It is the mass of one molecular mole. Symbol and Formula Symbol 1. Atom and Molecule Atom . 2. F etc. Empirical Formula = Molecular Formula / n 5. It represents an ionic compounds as well as a covalent compound. 4. formula. It represents one atom of an element. One gram molecule of any substance contains 6.02 x 10(23) atoms. Representation of compound in terms of symbols is called formula. It is associated with element only.02 x 10(23) atoms. It represents atoms of same or different elements present in one molecule. 3. (23 is the power of 10). Br. It is the mass of one atomic mole. A symbol is an abbreviation for the chemical name of an element and represents only one atom of the element. 4. It represent an ionic compound as well as a covalent compound. Empirical Formula can not show the structure of compound. (23 is the power of 10). 2. Gram and Gram Molecule Gram The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is called gram atomic mass. NH3 etc. Formula 1. 3. Two or more compounds can have same Empirical Formula. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. 2. 3. Examples: Na. 2. One gram atom of any substance contains 6.1. 3.

It is the smallest particle of a substance which can exist and show all the properties of the substance. 3. H is therefore positive in endothermic reaction. 3. The temperature of reaction therefore decreases.1. formation of a magnet from ice etc. 2. It shows the properties of the element. H is therefore negative for an exothermic reaction. 4. The chemical properties of a substance indicate the ability of a substance to undergo chemical . These are related to the physical state of matter. 3. Endothermic Reactions 1. It does not retain its identity in a chemical reaction. It is represented by a symbol of the element. Those chemical reactions in which heat energy is absorbed are called endothermic reactions. It is the smallest particle of an element which can enter into a chemical reaction. 4. Those chemical reactions in which heat energy is evolved are called exothermic reactions. It shows the properties of the substance. 4. the system becomes colder and net potential energy of substance increases. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions Exothermic Reaction 1. It is represented by a molecular formula of the substance. In exothermic reactions the enthalpy of products is lower than the reactants. 4. Physical and Chemical Properties Physical Properties 1. the system becomes colder and net potential energy of substance increases. 2. Molecule 1. The temperature of reaction therefore decreases. The energy is absorbed during these reactions. Examples: Formation of ice from water. 5. Chemical Properties 1. 3. 2. The physical properties of a substance are those characteristics which serve to distinguish it from other substance but do not deal with its ability to undergo chemical changes. During endothermic reaction. 2. 2. 5. The energy is absorbed during these reactions. During endothermic reaction. 3. It retains its identity in a chemical reaction. In endothermic reactions the enthalpy of reactants is lower than the products.

2. sugar. Electrolytes conduct electricity in molten or in solution form. They are related to the chemical change of a substance. . 3. Those compounds which provide hydrogen ion (H+) in aqueous solutions are called Acids. Non-electrolytes do not conduct electric current in molten or in solution form. Bases turn red litmus to blue. 2. 2.g. NaCl form Na+ and Clions when dissolved in water. A base is a species (molecule or ion) which can donate a pair of electrons. A base is a species. 4.g. Acid turn blue litmus red methyl orange red. rusting of iron. Those compounds. A base is a substance. 5. These form positive and negative ions when dissolved in water e. 4. A base is also called a nucleophile (Nucleus loving). glucose etc. 3. 3. Generally these are ionic or polar covalent compounds. These do not form positive and negative ions when dissolved in water e. which accepts or tends to accept a proton.css". An acid is a species (molecule or ion) which can accept a pair of electron. Acid is a species (a compound or ion) which donates or tends to donate a proton (H+). which provides hydroxyl (OH-) ion in aqueous solution. No chemical change occurs in them on passing current. 4. Examples: burning of paper. An acid is also called an electrophile (electron loving). @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. 3. 4. 2. Bases have bitter taste. Generally these are non polar covalent compounds. Non-Electrolytes 1.changes. Base 1. 2. which gives (OH-) in aqueous solution. colorless phenolphthalein to pink and methyl orange to yellow. Generally these are non polar covalent compounds. An acid is a substance which produces H+ ions in aqueous solution. Electrolyte and Non-Electrolyte Electrolytes 1. 5. Acid and Base Acid 1. 6. 6. Urea. They have sour taste. are called bases. 2. 3. Chemical changes occur when electric current is passed through the electrolyte.

3. Covalent bond may be formed between similar or dissimilar atoms e. 3.e. A pure covalent compound does not conduct electricity. It is formed between similar and different types of atoms. 6. 2. 5. Ionic compounds have high melting points and boiling points. These have usually low melting and boiling points. Ionic and Covalent Compounds Ionic Compounds 1. Co-Ordinate Covalent and Covalent Bond Co-Ordinate Covalent Bond . 2. O2. Ionic bond is formed by complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom. Ionic Compounds have high melting points and boiling points. This bond is usually formed between metals and non-metals. CaCl2. 4. 7. Ionic bond is always formed between different atoms. This bond is comparatively less strong. This bond is usually formed between non-metals only. This bond is very strong. Covalent Compounds 1.7 or more. 3. Covalent compounds are mostly volatile. 2. 4. These are soluble in water. It is formed when difference of electro-negativity of combining atoms is less than 1. 7. In ionic bond atoms have very large electro-negativity and ionization energy difference. 5.7. NaCl. 8. The ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity either in fused state or in the form of aqueous solution. Covalent bond is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between two atoms. These are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. 5. hard and brittle. 4. 5. liquid and solid. Covalent Bond 1. 3. 8. In covalent bond atoms have very small electro-negativity or ionization energy difference.g. 4. As a result of this bond ionic compounds are formed. It is formed when difference of electro-negativity of combining atoms is 1. Covalent compounds exist in all the three states i. 2.g. As a result of this bond covalent compounds are formed. E. HCl etc. gas. The ionic compounds are usually solid. H2. It is always formed between two different atoms.Ionic and Covalent Bond Ionic Bond 1. 6.

In a non polar bond. 2. 2. 2. Polar and Non-Polar Covalent Bond Polar Covalent Bond 1. The bond energy is greater. 6. In a polar bond. 5. 4. chemical reaction takes place. It is represented by ->. 3. It is formed by the mutual sharing of electrons between atoms. 5. 5. 4. It is a bond formed by the mutual sharing of electrons. 3. The covalent bond between two atoms having same electro-negativity is called a non-polar covalent bond. Lewis acids and bases do not form this bond. 6.1. It has an ionic character. the shared electron pair is not equally attracted by the bonded atoms. Lewis acids and bases always from this bond. the shared electron pair is equally attracted by the bonded atoms. The covalent bond between two atoms having different electro-negativity is called a polar covalent bond. In the shared electron pair both atoms have equal contribution. Example: Electrolysis of aqueous solution of NaCl. The bond energy is lesser. 3. 2. It is a device for converting electrical energy into chemical energy. 3. It has no ionic character. 3. It is formed by the completely filled atomic orbital. Bonded atoms remain electrically neutral and do not acquire partial charges. 5. 4. It is represented by _. 4. It consists of a vessel containing an electrodes and a source of direct current (battery). Bonded atoms become slightly charged and acquire partial =ve and -ve charges. Galvanic or Voltaic Cell . Electrolytic and Galvanic or Voltaic Cell Electrolytic Cell 1. It means by passing current through an electrolyte. Covalent Bond 1. Non-Polar Covalent Bond 1. It is formed by the donation of an electron apir by one of the two bonded atoms. One atom donates electrons but other has no contribution. 2. It is formed by the overlap of partially filled atomic orbital. It is a bond in which the shared electron pair is denoted by one atom only.

It consists of two half-cells. Analytical Chemistry It is the branch of chemistry which discusses the analytical methods forgetting information about chemical compounds and chemical processes.1 to 1nm. 6. Atomic Number .1. Particles cannot be seen with low power microscope. It is homogeneous. Solution and Suspension Solution The size of particles is between 0. hence named as Galvanic or Voltaic Cell. 06:37:46 PM » Acidity The acidity of a base is defined as the number of ionizable hydroxyl groups in its molecule. Components can be separated by filtration. It means spontaneous redox reaction is used for the production of electric current. 2010.Volts. 3. 6. Particles settle down. 2. Particles do not settle down. It is not transparent. Particles can be seen by low power microscope. 4. Example: Daniel Cell-Zn/ZnSO4 and Cu/CuSO4 cell. Components cannot be separated by filtration. This cell was prepared by L. It is a device for converting chemical energy into electrical energy. Each half cell consists of an electrodes and the solution with which it is in contact. It is transparent. 2.Galvani and A. « on: July 02. 3. 2. It is heterogeneous. 5. The size of particles is larger than 1000nm. 3. 4. 5. They carry two positive charges and are called helium nuclie. Suspension 1. Anode It is an electrode through which electrons enter the external circuit. Alpha Rays There are positively charged particles emitted from a radioactive substance.

Ampere The amount of electric current which liberate one electrochemical equivalent of a substance per second during electrolysis of that substance is called ampere. Alchemist A scientist trying to convert cheaper metals into precious metals is called Alchemist and this branch of chemistry is called Alchemy. Bronsted Acid A compound which can donate proton. Beta Rays These are electrons emitted from a radioactive substance. Atomic Mass The mass of an element relative to the unit mass. are partially replaced by metallic atoms. Acidic Salts An acidic salt is obtained when hydrogen atoms present in an acid. Arrehenius Base It is a chemical compound which gives hydroxide ion (OH-) in water. Atomic Spectrum Spectrum of radiations emitted by the excited atoms when they come to the normal state.Number of positively charged particles (protons) present in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic Size Average distance between the nucleus of an atom and its outermost electronic shell. Balancing of Chemical Equations Equating the atoms of reactants with those of products. which is 1/12th o the mass of C-12. Its units are nm or pm. Bronsted Base . Arrehenius Acid It is a chemical compound which gives proton (H+) in water. Brownian Movement The free movement of the molecules of gases and liquids is called Brownian movement. Biochemistry It is the study of chemical compounds present in living things.

Co-Ordinate Covalent Bond When the shared pair of electrons is provided by one of the bonded atoms. which deals with the composition of matter changes in matter and the laws or principles which govern these changes. liquid and a gas. Covalent Bond It is the force of attraction that arises between two atoms due to mutual sharing of an electron pair.A compound which can accept proton. Cathode Rays Rays emitted from cathode in the discharge tube. Chemical Equation The representation of a chemical change in terms of symbols and formulas. Chemistry The branch of science. Colloidal Solution A solution in which solute particles are bigger than those present in a true solution and which cannot be filtered. Conductor A substance which allows electric current to pass through it. Covalent Solid A solid in which there exist a covalent bond between atoms. Basic Salts A basic salt is obtained when the hydroxyl groups present in a base are partially replaced by some other groups. of ionizable hydrogen atoms present in its molecule. Cohesive Forces The forces of attraction present between the particles of solid. . a coordinate covalent bond is formed. Cathode It is an electrode through which electrons leave the external circuit. Boiling Point A temperature at which a liquid changes into gaseous state. Basicity The basicity of an acid is defined as the number.

which contains a small amount of a solute as compared to that of a solvent. Degree of Ionization It is the extent to which an electrolyte ionizes in water. Atomic mass of the middle atom of a triad was equal to the average of the atomic masses of first and third members. Experiment An experiment is an activity performed under suitable conditions with specially designed instruments to get the required information. Diffusion The movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a Lowr concentration is called Diffusion.Concentration of a Solution The amount of a solute which has been dissolved in a particular amount of a solvent. Cell The vessel containing reacting substances in which transfer of electrons takes place is called cell. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. Coulomb It is unit of electric current. Dipole-Dipole Forces The forces of attraction which originate due to the difference in electro negativities of the bonded atoms in polar molecules. Dilute Solution A solution. When one ampere electric current is passed for one second the quantity of electric current is one coulomb. Doberiner's Law of Triads Dobereiner arranged similar elements in sets of three. . The physical properties of the crystals of double salt are different from those of the component salts.css". called Triads. which contains an excess amount of a solute as compared to that of a solvent. Double Salts When two typical salts are crystallized together a double salt is formed. Discharge Tube A glass tube containing a gas at a very low pressure and provided with electrodes to study the passage of electricity through the gas. Concentrated Solution A solution.

Empirical Formula The formula of a compound which shows the minimum ratio present between the atoms. Exothermic Reaction Those chemical reactions during which heat is evolved. it is decomposed into its constituents. Electrolysis The passage of electricity through an electrolyte is called electrolysis. Electro-Chemistry It is that branch of chemistry in which chemical energy is converted into electrical energy or electrical energy is converted into chemical energy. Electrolytic-Cell In a non-spontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction takes place with the help of electrical energy. Enthalpy of Reaction . Its units are KJ/mol. Elastic Collision When gas molecule collides with each other their total energy does not decrease or increase. Electroplating The process of depositing a metal on another metal with the help of electricity. Evaporation The continuous escape of the molecules of a liquid from its surface. The ionic compound is called an electrolyte. Endothermic Reactions Those chemical reactions in which heat energy is absorbed. Electrolytes When electricity is passed through an ionic compound which is either in the fused state or in the form of aqueous solution. Electron Affinity The amount of energy given out when an electron is absorbed in the outermost electronic shell of all isolated gaseous atom. Electro-Negativity It is the power of an atom to attract the shared pair of electrons. Electrochemical Series A list of ions in which they are arranged in the order of their ability to get discharged. This type of collision is called an elastic collision.

Heat of Reaction Heat evolved or absorbed during a chemical reaction which takes place at pressure. This process is called Ionization.Heat of reaction which takes place at constant pressure. Farad It is the unit of charge 1 farad = 96500 coulomb. Ionization Energy The minimum amount of energy required to remove an electron from the outermost electronic shell of an isolated gaseous atom. Its unit is KJ/mol. . It is quite possible that after sometime. This tentative explanation is called hypothesis. on the basis of new experiments this hypothesis may be rejected. Ionic Bond A bond formed due to the electrostatic force of attraction between oppositely charged ions. Hydrated Ions Ions of a solute surrounded by water molecules are called hydrated ions. Ionic Theory A theory which explains the process of electrolysis. Intermolecular Forces The forces of attraction present between the molecules of a compound. Formula Mass Formula mass is the mass of compound relative to the unit mass which is 1/12th of the mass of C-12. there appears strong dipole forces which are called hydrogen bonding. Fusion When a solid change into liquid this phenomena is called Fusion. the scientists try to explain observations and facts. oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Hydrogen Bonding When a hydrogen atom is attached to any one of fluorine. Hypothesis In the light of experiments. Ionization An electrolyte splits up into charged particles upon heating or in its aqueous solution. Heat of Neutralization The heat given out during a neutralization reaction is called heat of neutralization.

Isotope Atoms of an element having the same atomic number but different mass number. Inference To deduce results after coordinating the observed facts with integrated scientific knowledge is called inference. Kinetic Theory The theory which explains the composition and properties of all the three states of matter. Inorganic Chemistry The study of all elements and their compounds except carbon is called inorganic chemistry. which combine with the fixed mass of the other element. Industrial Chemistry The application of chemical knowledge in technology and industry and the preparation of industrial products are called industrial chemistry. Law Multiple Proportions When two elements combine together to give more then one compounds. have a simple ratio between them.Ionic Solid A solid which is made up of ions of opposite charges. Molar Solution A solution in which one mole of a solute has been dissolved in one dm3 of solution. It is . Law A theory when repeatedly gives the same results after experimentation and offers correct explanation of scientific facts it then becomes a law or principle. Law of Definite A compound always contains elements combined together in a fixed ratio by mass. Law of Reciprocal Proportions When two or more elements A and B combine separately with the fixed mass of the third element E the ratio in which they do so may be the same or some simple multiple of the ratio in which these two elements (A and B) combine with each other. Law of Conservation of Mass Total mass of reactants is equal to that of products during a chemical reaction. Lewis Acid A substance which can accept an electron pair. the different masses of an element.

Mendeleyv's Periodic Law Properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic masses. Mass Number The total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom. Normal Salts Salts. Metallic Bond When positively charged metal ions are held together by freely moving electrons. Neutralization Acids and bases react together to form salts and water and in this way they neutralize the properties of each other. which neither have replaceable hydrogen atoms nor hydroxyl groups. This reaction is called Neutralization reaction. Melting Point A temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid. Neutron It is the smallest neutral particle present in the nucleus of atoms. Non-Conductor A substance through which electric current cannot pass. Molecular Solid A solid which has Vander Waal's forces present between its molecules. Molecular Formula The formula of an element or a compound which tells the actual number of atoms present in the molecule of that element or a compound. Molecular Mass Molecular mass is the mass of an element or a compound relative to the unit mass. Modern Periodic Law Properties of elements are a periodic function of their atomic numbers. Its mass is slightly more than that of a proton.represented as M. the bond formed is called a metallic bond. Molar Mass The mass of an element or a compound which contains Avogadro's number particles. Nucleus . which is 1/12th of the mass of C-12.

pH Scale The negative log of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration present in a solution is called pH. Its size is very small as compared to the size of the atom. Orbits The circular path of an electron around the nucleus. Observation The process of observing natural phenomena with the help of five senses and the scientific equipment. .Central part of an atom where most of its mass is concentrated. which deals with the physical properties and physical behaviour of material things. Octet Rule When an atom has eight electrons in its outer most shell. This scale measures the concentration of hydrogen ions present in a solution. Organic Chemistry The branch of chemistry in which we study the compounds of carbon. its is said to be stable and does not combine with other atom to reduce its energy. The mass of this particle is equal to the mass of the hydrogen nucleus (H+). Percentage by Volume Volume of a solute present in 100 cm3 of a solution. Newland's Law of Octaves If elements are arranged in the increasing order of their atomic masses every 8th element repeats the properties of the 1st element. Proton It is the smallest positively charged particle present in all kind of atoms. Oxidation A chemical reaction in which oxygen is added or hydrogen is removed or electrons are lost. Percentage by Mass Volume of a solute present in 100cm3 of a solution. Physical Chemistry The branch of chemistry. This is called octet rule. Prediction The inference based on observed facts.

Sublimation Some solids. forward as well as backward. Reduction A chemical reaction in which hydrogen is added or oxygen is removal or electrons are absorbed. Strong Acid An acid which ionizes completely in water. Solute The substance present in relatively lesser amount in a solution. which takes place both directions. which contains the maximum amount of a solute at a particular temperature and which is unable to dissolve further amount of solute in it. Scientific Method The method which helps to collect facts on the basis of observations and experiments. Theories and laws are then formulated to explain these facts. which can cause fogging of the photographic plate. Radioactive Rays Rays emitted from radioactive element or their compounds. which are traveling in a direction opoposite to the cathode rays. Solvent the substance present in excessive amount in a solution. Saturated Solution A solution. Supersaturated Solution A solution which contains an amount of solute more than that required for the preparation of a saturated solution at a particular temperature. Solvated Ions Ions of a solute surrounded by solvent molecules in a solution are called solvated ion. Strong Base A base which can ionize completely in water giving excess of hydroxide ions. change directly into vapors instead of changing into liquid. Standard Solution . Reversible Reaction Chemical reaction.Positive Rays Rays produced in the discharge tube. upon heating.

which is equal to 1/12th of the mass of C-12. Unsaturated Solution A solution. Theory If a hypothesis is accepted (after discussion and experimentation) it is called a theory. Strong Electrolytes An electrolyte which completely ionize in water. Water of Crystallization The number of water molecules present in the crystals of a solid. Weak Electrolyte An electrolyte which undergoes partial ionization in water. Suspension A mixture in which solute particles do not dissolve in solvent. Weak Acid An acid which ionizes partially in water. is called unsaturated solution. Thermo Chemistry It is the branch of chemistry in which we study the heat changes during a chemical reaction. Unified Atomic Mass Unit Unit of a new scale. Voltaic Cell In a cell a spontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction is used to produce electric current. Weak Base A base which ionizes partially in water. which can dissolve further amount of a solute at a particular temperature.A solution whose concentration is known. Transition Elements Elements having incomplete penultimate (next inner to the outermost) electronic shell. Solubility The amount o solute in grams which can dissolve in 100 gm of solvent at a particular temperature to give a saturated solution. .

so that enzymes can act upon it efficiently and effectively. the digestive enzymes mix with the food and act upon it to break it down further into simple and diffusible chemical forms. The saliva lubricates the food and makes the particles adhere to one another.Digestion of Food 9th Class Biology Notes « on: July 03. Definition of Digestion Digestion is the process in which the insoluble and non-diffusible components of food are broken down and by the action of enzymes are converted into soluble and diffusible substance to be absorbed into the blood stream. The combined action of teeth. forming a ball of food called bolus. and then it reaches the stomach. 2010. proteins and fats separately. tongue and saliva pushes the bolus through the throat into the oesophagus. 09:49:14 AM » First of all food comes in the oral cavity where the teeth crush and break the food and convert it into small particles. Mechanical digestion of food takes place in the mouth and stomach. All the organs which take part in this process make a system which is called the digestive system. the food consisting of large sized particle is broken into fine pieces by cutting. Mechanical digestion 2. Chemical digestion takes place in all the major parts of the digestive system. grinding. Digestive System All living things require food to live and carry on their life functions. Chemical Digestion Mechanical Digestion In mechanical digestion. chewing and churning up. Chemical Digestion In chemical digestion. The enzymes act on carbohydrates. . The digestive glands such as liver and pancreas also play very important role in this digestion. The tongue rolls the morsel of food and pushes it under teeth again and again so that the food is evenly divided into fine particles and the saliva secreted from the salivary glands gets mixed with the food. Now the chemical digestion of food begins. Animals are unable to synthesize their food. Digestion is the process in which the non-diffusible molecules of food are changed to diffusible ones by the action of enzymes. Types of Digestion 1. Saliva contains an enzyme to digest starch in the food.

in which food is stored for some time. It consists of the mouth. Taking in of the food in the oral cavity and swallowing is called ingestion. the pepsin acts on proteins and breaks them down into peptones. It is rolled down by the swallowing action into the oesophagus which conveys it to the stomach by the wave of peristalsis. the food is mixed thorougly with the saliva while the food is in the oral cavity (buccal cavity). When digestion in the stomach is complete. This enzyme converts starch into sugar (maltose). Due to this process. oesophagus. also play important roles in digestion. Hydrochlroic acid changes the medium of food to acidic. These glands secrete a juice called gastric juice.Human Digestive System The process of digestion takes place in the alimentary canal. It starts from the mouth and ends at the anus. Peristalsis The muscles of alimentary canal produce rhythmic waves of contraction which is called peristalsis. renin and pepsin.css". Digestion of Food in the Mouth During mastication. the distal end of the stomach called the pyloric end relaxes. stomach. The saliva is secreted by three pairs of salivary glands located in the buccal cavity. Saliva is alkaline and contains an enzyme ptyalin. the food is changed into a thick fluid called chyme. Gastric juice contains Hydrochloric acid and two enzymes. Besides these organs liver and pancreas. The saliva is continuously secreted by the salivary glands in response to the presence of food in the buccal cavity. the regular movements of the stomach churn up the food. and large intestine. Ingestion The food of animals and human is in the solid form and may be bulky. The tube assumes different shapes according to their role in the process of digestion. and allows a small amount of chyme to pass into the first part of the small intestine. This medium kills the bacteria that may be found in the food. There is no chemical action on carbohydrates and fats present in food. Its inner surface has numerous glands called gastric glands. Its wall is strong and muscular. The morsel of food after being chewed and thoroughly mixed with the saliva is called a bolus. Digestion of Food in the Small Intestine . small intestine. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense. Human stomach secretes about one to two liters of this juice daily. Digestion of Food in the Stomach Stomach is a thick sac like structure. Food stays in stomach for about 2-3 or 3-4 hours. The end of stomach lined with oesophagus is called cardiac end. food is carried through various parts of the alimentary canal. Renin helps to curdle milk in infants.

3. 2. It contains bile salts and bile pigments which give greenish yellow colour to the juice. bile juice also kill the germs in the food. If any of the constituents of food still remain undigested. It rather alkaline besides these juices other intestinal juices from the walls of the small intestine are also poured. Functions of Liver 1. Enzyme trypsin which breaks down proteins into peptides. It has five lobes. but it does contain bile salts which break down the large molecules of fats to small fat droplets. therefore liver helps to keep the body warm. Liver It is largest gland. 2. These entire juices act on food and help in digestion of food. It produces and secretes bile juice which is stored in the gall bladder. This juice flows down the pancreatic duct into the duodenum. It contains three enzymes. this process is called deamination. It lies just below the diaphragm on the right side of the body under the ribs. Its colour is reddish brown. The pancreas produces a juice which is called the pancreatic juice. Bile contains no digestive enzymes. It makes fibrinogen and other blood proteins. Pancreatic amylase which acts on undigested starches of the food and converts them into maltose. 8. Pancreas It is a leaf like organ. 5. fats. maltose and other sugars to glucose and fats to fatty acids and glycerol. It is involved in detoxification. 1. It decomposes the damaged red blood cells. It lies below the stomach and between the two arms of duodenum. The enzymes secreted by the intestinal walls are amino-peptidases and disaccharidase. enzymes secreted by the glands in the small intestine act upon them and complete the digestion by converting peptides to amino acids. In this way food is completely digested at intestine. 4. 7. This process helps in the digestion of fats. Besides this.(which form glucose from maltose. lactose and sucrose). 6. The cells of the liver secrete a greenish yellow alkaline fluid which is called the bile juice. Bile juice also contains bile pigments that are by products of red blood cells. An alkaline pancreatic juice from the pancreas and bile juice from the liver and poured into the duodenum by a common duct. Lipase which splits fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Both the juices contain bicarbonates which neutralize the acidic chyme and make. This process is called emulsification.Food from stomach enters the duodenum which is the first part of the small intestine. As a result of chemical changes a lot of heat is produced. It breaks down excess amino acids. . It metabolizes carbohydrates. three on the right side and two on the left. 3. Liver stores glycogen and regulates the level of glucose in the blood. proteins and other compounds. and the colour of faeces is due to these pigments. in the body. these pigments are eliminated from the body along with the faeces.

engineering.astronomy and medicine. He was one of the great Muslim Scientist. Magnetism) that modifying the general properties of body. He was a freat scholar of physics. 2. Head. Optics "It is the branch of Physics which deals with light and its properties. He gave us many laws of reflection and wrote many books about the reflection of light. Atomic physics "It is the branch of Physics which deals with properties and structure of Atom". AL-BERUNI INTRODUCTION . Calorimetery "It is the branch of Physics which deals with measurement of heat". natural philosophy. 3. Dynamics "It is the branch of Physics which deals with causes of motion and their effects" 5. 4.INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS. DEFINITION OF PHYSICS The science of the nature. He was a first man who discussed in detail about the luminous. Electronics "It is the branch of Physics which deals with development of electrons. IBNE-AL-HAITHAM(965-1039 A. 7. Light. He also first time gave the idea that whenever the ray of light is incident on an object some of the incident rays are reflected from the object and enter the eyes consequently the object becomes visible to the eyes which is accepted the scientific view. 6. He also gave the structure and working of eyes. Mechanics "It is the branch of Physics which deals with motion of particles or bodies under the action of given force". BRANCHES OF PHYSICS There are many branches of physics: 1. CONTRIBUTION OF MUSLIMS SCIENTISTS 1. CONTRIBUTION 1. non-luminous and transparent bodies. emitting the devices and utilization and controlling of electrons flow in electrical circuit designed for various purpose. Physics is that branch of science which treats of laws and properties of matter and force acting upon it. 2.D) INTRODUCTION He was born in Basra a city of Iraq. 3. OR Physics is an important branch of Science which offers the study of matter and energy along with the interaction between them." 2 Kinemetics "It is the branch of Physics which deals with description of motion without reference to any opposing or external force". The department of natural science (Physics) which treats the causes (Electricity.mathematics. 4.

Al-Khwarizmi wrote a book on astronomical tables. He also refined the geometric representation of conic sections. During respiration _________ is released from food.D at Khwarizm (Kheva). 4. Several of his books were translated into Latin in the early l2th century by Adelard of Bath and Gerard of Cremona. Kitab al-Jam'a wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi. The fourth whorl of a flower is known as _________. The study of tissues is called _________. He was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. 12. The hormone insulin is secreted by _________. He developed in detail trigonometric tables containing the sine functions. 2. The treatises on Arithmetic. which were later extrapolated to tangent functions. He was a first man who introduce the decimal system in mathematics. _________ supplies blood to the brain and to the parts associated with the brain of forg. He determined the densities of various metals . Al-Khwarizmi was one of the greatest mathematicians ever lived. The distance between two nodes of a stem is called _________. 3. 3. The physical and chemical breakdown of food in humans first begins in the _________. 7. Fungi cannot make their own food because they lack _________. 10. 3. a town south of river Oxus in present Uzbekistan.culture. which led him to the concept of differentiation.He wrote many books on various subjects like physics. Tape-worm belongs to the phylum _________. He also awarded that he was a first who said that the velocity of light is more than the velocity of sound. Cell was discovered in 1665 by _________. The different parts of human body and their functions are described in the book _________ written by Abdul Malik Asmai. 5. 9. 4. are known only from Latin translations. 8. He is also famous as an astronomer and geographer. The organs of locomotion in _________ are called Setae. The third eyelid (transparent membrane) that protects the eye of frog in water is known as _________. 15. 2. He discussed in detail about the movement of sun moon and others planets . 14. 4.He was born in Berun a small town of Afghanistan. 6.c CONTRIBUTION 1. 11.mathematics. 5.astronomy e. 3.MUHAMMAD IBNE MUSA KHAWRZMI INTRODUCTION Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi was born in 850A. Al-Khwarizmi also developed the calculus of two errors. 2. Stem increases in thickness due to _________. CONTRIBUTION 1. 13.t. “Al-Mansoora” is written by _________. Al-Maqala fi Hisab-al Jabr wa-al.Muqabilah. and the one on Algebra. Biology Class 9th IMP fill in blanks Complete the following sentences with appropriate answers: 1. . He gave an idea that Earth is floating in the sky like a ships in the water.

hydrogen and oxygen are called _________. 29. 41. 37. Androecium is the _________ whorl of a flower. The transfer of pollen grains from another to the stigma of carpel is called _________. 31. 32. 24. 36. are called _________. _________ controls all functions of a cell. 40. Glucose and fructose combine to form a 2-sugar carbohydrate called _________. The building blocks of proteins are _________. The blind sac at the juction of small and large intestine is called _________. Invertebrates with spiny skins and hard plates. One gram of glucose releases about _________ calories of energy. Mosses belong to the group called _________. 50. 17. 18. 34. When food is burnt in our cells in the presence of oxygen to produce energy the process is called _________. Mango is an Angiosperm plant with two cotyledons. 26. All organisms need food for _________. Star-fish belogns to the phylum _________. 25. 35. 21. 33. which feed on other plants and harm them. The tiny organs of a cell are called _________. So it belongs to the subgroup called _________. Goitre is caused by the deficiency of _________. 23. Life can be best defined by comparing _________ of living things with those of _________ things. Wave-like automatic contractions of the gut are called _________. Glucose produced by photosynthesis may be transformed into complex carbohydrates and other _________ which are utilized by plants or stored in edible plant parts. The total number of known amino acids is _________. 27. 52. The single major contribution of Muslim scientists in the field of scientific method is use of _________. are known as _________. 28. A long narrow and cylindrical fruit of Brassica compestris is called _________. When a cell divides to produce two new cells exactly like the parent the process is called _________. 42. The sum of chemical reaction in cells is called _________. 19. The two main subdivisions of biology are _________ and _________ each of which has several further branches. Cells were described for the first time by _________. 20. 46. Birds possesses _________ bones. Fish respires by means of special structures called _________. 38. The internal factor necessary for photosynthesis in plants is _________. Some plants are specially adapted to get their food by _________ mode of nutrition. The major distinguishing feature of vertebrates in the presence of _________. 30. 49.16. Firdous-ul-Hikma is written by _________. The genes representing a pair of contrasting characters are called _________. 45. . 51. Organic compounds in our food consisting of carbon. 44. 39. Plants. 48. 53. Plants that feed on dead organic matter are called _________. 47. Physical and chemical breakdown of food in man first begins in the _________. Excretory organs in insects are called _________. 43. Fungi cannot make their own food because they lack _________. 22.

Excretion involves removal of _________. . Glands without duct are called _________. 55. The volume of the thoracic cavity increases when muscles of the rib cage and the diaphragm _________. 78. 71. 83. 87. 62. The main effectors in the body of animals are _________ and _________. 79. 81. are called _________ sites. Plants transport water. 61. Nitrogenous wastes are produced when _________ are metabolized. 77. Single-celled organisms are too small to need special means of _________ of information. 56. 60. minerals and food from region to region by a _________ system. 69. adrenal. 63. which respond to hormones. Respiration takes place in _________ cells of a plant while photosynthesis occurs only in _________ parts. Like animals. During respiration _________ is released from food. O2 and water in plants is released through _________. 82. 73. 86. The type of muscle which makes possible movements of a vertebrate animal is called _________. 59. Too rapid evaporation of water in hot weather causes loss of _________ pressure in plant cells and _________ of plants. 80. 88.54. is called _________ gland. The capillary network enclosed in Bowman’s capsule is called _________. The joints of skull bones are of _________ types. 74. Leaves remain cool even in sunlight due to the cooling effect of _________. Hear muscle is different from _________ in working continuously and automatically without experiencing fatigue. Tissues and organs. Breathing means _________ of oxygen and carbon dioxide with the _________. 72. ovary and testis. The body of invertebrates such as arthorpoda is protected and supported by an _________. 68. 75. Food is prevented from entering the larynx by _________ which guards the opening into it. 67. 65. plants too are _________ to environmental factors. Any environmental factor to which plants react is called a _________ whereas the reaction itself is called a _________. Extra quantities of CO2. Large animals have developed two special systems of communication namely _________ and _________ systems. 64. The basic processes of transport of substances in cells of all organisms are _________ and _________. The structure which perceive environmental stimuli are called _________. 76. Heart failure may occur due to _________. 84. 66. A blockage in the _________ stops the flow of blood and oxygen to muscles of the heart. 57. Persons suffering from kidney failure can be helped either by such artificial means as _________ or by _________ transplants. Co-ordination of various activities of the body in multicellular animals is not possible without _________ systems. The control center for breathing is located in the _________. 58. excess _________ and _________. The endocrine gland. which controls the function of thyroid. Support and movement human being is a function of _________ and _________. Oxygen from the lungs is transported to the cells in the form of _________. 70. Hormones are substance made by _________ and are released directly into _________. Ligaments hold the _________ together. 85.

89. _________ and _________. Some bacteria can reproduce so fast that they can produce almost _________ generations in 24 hours. whereas tracheophytes have vascular tissue. 94. The cell of these plants is made up to cellulose. All bryophytes and generally found growing in moist habitants such as damp soil and rocks. The development of a tadpole to become an adult frog is called _________. and along the banks of streams. 4. The science which deals with structure and working of DNA and genes inheritance is called _________. 2. 96. An ecologist specializes in learning about interrelationships _________ and their interaction with _________ environment. Marchantia is an example of liverworts. and their reproductive organs are multicellular. 103. 98. The different living thing component in an ecosystem constitute a _________. Bryophytes are plants without vascular tissue (xylem a phloem). hornworts. their zygote develops into small. and mosses. protozoa and microscopic fungi is called _________. Bryophytes are the simplest land plants. Liverworts. . 99. Biological principles which explain similarities and differences among individuals are called _________. The basic functional unit of environment is an _________. 101. Fusion of sperm with the egg results in formation of a _________ with _________ number of chromosomes. The part of the seed which contains nourishment for the embryo is called _________. The science which deals with the study of viruses. The place where organisms live is called _________. Therefore tracheophytes are vascular plants. 95. 102. protected embryo that develops into a complete new hence bryophytes have also been called embryophytes. The a***ual method of reproduction in yeast is _________. 104. Bryophytes Bryophytes are on of the two main groups of kingdom 'Plantae' the second being the 'tracheophytes'. photosynthetic eukaryotes. The 3rd and 4th whorls of flower are _________ and _________. Bryophytes is a group of plants which are multicellular. moist brick walls. 93. __________________ BRYOPHYTES AND TRACHEOPHYTES. and Funaria is a moss. 105. Anthoceros is a horn wort. Genetic engineering is a branch or area of _________. 5. 100. 3. Characteristics of Bryophytes The important characteristics of Bryophytes are as follows: 1. bacteria. Food can be preserved by _________. 91. 90. An individual receives _________ percent of its chromosomes from each parent during ***ual reproduction. The components of environment are _________ and _________. Bryophytes divided into three groups. Budding results in new individuals by the process of _________ division. whereas bryophytes are nonvascular plants. 92. its plant body is a thick branched green thallus. 106. 97. Chromosomes consist of _________ and _________.

Unlike bryophytes and pteridophytes.Life Cycle of Funaria Moss It is a common moss found grwoing t moist places. Capsule The foot is anchored to the female branch and absorbs nutrients from the gametophyte. It contains a young plant with embryonic root. Male *** organs. fruits and seeds. A long stalk like seta 3. The sporophyte gets water. They also have life cycles with alternation of generations. and anchor the plant to the soil. The zygote develops into the embryo (2n). called antheridia (singular antheridium) are located at the tip of male branch. which has stored food material and is protected by a resistant seed coat or testa. Within the capsule. stem and one or more leaves. haploid gametophyte generation is dominant. whereas diploid sporophyte is attached to and more or less dependent on the gametophyte. Seed is a ripened ovule. spermatophytes do not have free living gametophyte. and the life cycle continues. instead the gametophyte is attached to and nutritionally dependend upon the sporophyte generation. 2. (Diagram) Gamatophyte Generation It consists of 3 parts: 1. 4. which are composed of a single layer of cells. Funaria also has well defined alteration of generations. The seta elevates the capsule in the air. called archegonia (singular archegonium) are located at the tip of female branch. Pteridophytes 1. Spermatophytes like pteridophytes possess vascular tissues. Although the dominant generation in Pteridophytes is also the sporophyte but unlike gymnosperms and angiosperms both sporophyte and gametophyte generations are independent and free living. Funaria is haploid gametophyte. and the female *** organs. slts and also part of its food. haploid spores are produced by meiosis. In contrast to other vscular plants Pteridophytes do not bear flowers. 2. Fertilization takes place in the presence of water within the archegonium located at the tip of female branch. Leaf like photosynthetic structures arranged on the stem.1 inch. The sporophyte remains attached to the tip of female branch. Like other bryophytes. Main Groups of Spermatophytes . moss plant of Furania. The embryo forms the sporophyte (2n). A foot 2. Spermatophytes Seed plants or Spermatophytes are that group of vascular plants which produce seeds. Numerous multicellular rhizoids. from the parent gametophyte plant. and without stalk. Sporophyte Generation The sporophyte consists of three parts: 1. However. 3. stem and leaves. 3. they are similar to gymnosperms and angiosperms. Green leafy. Unlike bryophytes the plant body in Pteridophytes is differentiated into root. Due to presence of vascular tissues. A vertical stem like structure. Each spore develops eventually into new haploid gametophyte plant. The spores are dispersed by wind. arising from the lower side of the stem and which absorb water and salts.5 . the gametophyte in much reduced and smaller in size. as like all Bryophytes. its height is about 0.

Each male cone is composed of spirally arranged leaf-like structures called scales or microsporophylls. They are very short (only a few millimeters in length). some species are found in the plains. They are covered by scale leaves. membranous and brown in colour. stout and woody stem and its branches. chir. Each dwarf shoot with its cluster of needles is called a spur. Pinus and Thuja . Female Cone of Thuja In Thuja the female cones are spherical or oval in shape. usually 1 cm or less in length. Depending upon the type of species.g. Male Cone of Pinus Male cones. are much smaller than the female cones. Foliage Leaves or Needles These are commonly long and narrow. It has many types e. It is conical in appearance.Gymnosperms They produce seeds which are totally exposed or borne on the scales of cones. Both male and female cones are produced on the same tree but on different branches. kail. dark green scale leaves. It is grown as ornamental plant in parks and homes. It has profuse branches. They are produced in clusters. Pinus Pinus has two types of shoots. However. In this way. The upper branches progressively become shorter in length. brown colour scales with triangular apices. Each . tough. In contrast to scale leaves they are green and photosynthetic. a cluster of 2 to 5 needles is produced on each dwarf shoot. These are generally born on the lower branches of the tree. Shoots of Pinus Long Shoots or Shoots of Unlimited Growth They are formed on the main stem and continue growth indefinitely by buds borne at their apices. (Diagram) Thuja Thuja (common known as Mor Pankh) is a short tree.The Typical Gymnosperm Pinus is normally grows at an altitude of 5000 ft to 8000 ft. Dwarf Shoots or Shoots of Limited Growth These shoots originate in the axils of the scale leaves on the long shoots. which are covered with small. which is evergreen and quite tall. Each dwarf shoot bears 1 t 5 foliage leaves in addition to scales leaves. Reproduction in Pinus Pinus tree produces reproductive structures known as cones every year. the tree assumes a symmetrical conical shape. They consist of hard. It is also grown as ornamental plants. Cones are of two types. It consists of an extensive root system and a strong. male and female c9ones. Pinus tree is a sporophyte. Leaves of Thuja Thuja has small scale like green leaves that cover the stem. They cover the stem. Leaves of Pinus Scale Leaves These are small. and leathery. chilghoza etc. These are about the size of a bair (berry). Angiosperms They are flowering plants which produce their seeds within a fruit.

Dicots 1.. It is the male gametophyte in which male gametes or sperms are produced. te endosperms is usually absent. 3. Haploid megaspores are formed in the ovule by meiosis. in the lamina of the leaf veins run parallel to one another. Measpores give rise to female gametophytes which produce female gametes.) 6.microsporophyll has two long sacs called pollen sacs of microsporangia on it are under surface. On the basis of size and woody texture. Female Cone of Pinus The female cones are much larger than the male cones. 4.e. Dicot seeds have two cotyledons. Female cones normally remain attached for three years on the plant. Angiosperms Angiosperms are the flowering plants which are most successful plants. Monocots include different grasses. Monocot seeds have only one cotyledon or embryonic leaf.e. Two ovules are present side by side at the base of each scale. angiosperms have efficient water conducting structures known as vessels in their xylem. branched veins resembling a net. Fertilization results in the formation of embryo after which the ovule is ripened to form seed.000 species. Leaves have parallel veins i. The fruit protects the developing seeds and also helps in their dispersal. They have adapted to almost every type of environment. Pollen grains are haploid. They are dominant plants. They are more important than the gymnosperms. The flower parts are four or five in number or multiples of 4 or 5. 3. Angiosperms are found in wide variety of sizes and forms. 4. 3. Shrubs are shorter than trees but have more branches.e. In mature seed. maize etc) . . Classes of Angiosperms On the basis of the number of cotyledons in the seed. Seed and fruit producing habit have helped flowering plants in their evolutionary success. angiosperms are divided. These scales become woody on maturity. There are about at least 235. 5. Monocots are mostly herbs with long narrow leaves. Monocotyledons or Monocots 2. shrubs (bushes) and trees. onions and lilies. In contrast shrubs and trees have hard woody stems. Their seeds are produced within fruits.palms. which retain their shape even after being cut. Ensize they range from over 300 ft in height (some species of Eucalyptus) to searcely 1mm in length (duckweed. cereals (wheat rice. A nutritive tissue called "endosperm" is usually present in the mature seed. Leaves have reticulate veins i. After being transferred to the ovule. Their leaves vary in shape but usually are broader than monocot leaves. Woiffia). The floral parts of most flow3ers usually occur in threes or multiples of three (i. Angiosperms are vascular plants which bear flowers. 6. 9 . Herbs are the plants which are small in size. into two classes. 1. 2. the pollen grain forms pollen tube. 2. Their stems are Herbs which are then cut or pulled from the soil. Each female cone is also made of spirally arranged scales which are called megasporophylls. On maturity the cones open up and the seeds are set free and dispersed. microspores or pollen grains are produced by meiosis in the microsporangia. A***ual reproductive cells. angiosperms are classified as herbs.. In addition to tracheids. Dicotyledons or Dicots Monocots 1. These are usually found on the upper branches.

Glucose --------> 2 Lactic Acid + Energy (47. RESPIRATION Respiration The oxidation of the absorbed food material in order to obtain energy is called respiration. In this stage all these reactions are included which extract the chemical energy of glucose and other compounds and store it in the form of ATP molecule. This type of respiration is known as Aerobic Respiration. In anaerobic respiration a glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of lactic acid with a release of only 47. with molecular oxygen. Many useful bacteria and yeasts are anaerobic. Some existing organisms like bacteria and parasites which live in oxygen environment have anaerobic respiration. In this type of respiration considerably less amount of energy is released as compared with the other type of respiration. Kiikar (Acacia). amino acid and fatty acids etc. 2. mango. Even in the aerobic respiration of the first phase is anaerobic.5. Anaerobic Respiration Some organisms oxidize their food without using any molecular oxygen. peas and pulses. this respiration is also called cellular respiration as it occurs within cells. (b) Internal Respiration The second stage is called internal respiration. Stages of Aerobic Respiration There are two stages of Aerobic Respiration: (a) External Respiration In this stage. Anaerobic Respiration 2.000 calories of energy.000 calories) Importance of Anaerobic Respiration 1. this stage includes the transport of oxygen obtained from the inhaled oxygen to each cell of the body. Aerobic respiration thus produces 20 times more energy than the anaerobic respiration. In aerobic respiration food is oxidized in presence of molecular oxygen. It consists of the oxidation of glucose.000 calories of energy. There are two types of Respiration in the organisms: 1. orange and sunflower etc. This is known as Anaerobic Respiration. 3. 4. Dicots include rose. the organisms take the air (containing oxygen) into their bodies. sarsoon (mustard). The early organisms started respiration in the absence of oxygen to produce energy for survival of organisms. Aerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration In most of the higher and larger organism. the glucose etc is oxidized by using molecular oxygen. In aerobic respiration a mole of glucose is oxidized completely into carbon dioxide and water releasing enormous amount of energy. The glycolysis which is the first . sheesham. cacti. One glucose molecule in this respiration produces 686. In the internal or cellular respiration glucose and other compounds are passed through such enzymatic reactions which release the chemical energy gradually in small amounts with the help of which ATP molecules are synthesized. When earth came into being its environment was totally devoid of oxygen. The aerobic organisms cannot lie in anaerobic environment. This is called external respiration.

Some gaseous exchange also occurs through cuticle. In this process. heat production or transport of substances etc.phase of carbohydrate metabolism involves reaction which does not require the expenditure of molecular oxygen. Gaseous Exchange in Plants Plants get their energy from respiration.e. fats. Adenosine is formed of a nitrogenous base called adenine and a sugar called ribose. The two terminal bonds between the phosphate groups contain large amount of the chemical energy. Gaseous Exchange in Woody Stems and Roots In woody stem and roots. Gaseous Exchange in Leaves and Young Stems In the leaves and young stems. When the terminal bond is broken the ATP is changed into ADP and phosphate 7300 calories of energy are released. Its name indicates that it contains adenosine and three phosphate groups. This proves the idea that aerobic organisms have evolved from anaerobic organisms. Some of the water (vapours) comes in the airspaces from where they diffuse out to the atmosphere through lenticels . These are involved in gaseous exchange. ATP is an abbreviation of adenosine triphosphate. Later on. The conducting system (xylem and phloem) of plants transports water and nutrients but plays no role in the transport of gases. 5. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) It is a chemical compound. there are present dead cells beneath the epidermis which form cork tissue. stem and roots are involved in the gaseous exchange. Significance of ATP ATP is a big source of energy. In ATP three phosphate groups are attached to the adenosine in a series one after the other. stems and leaves etc according to their energy demand. In the cells this oxygen oxidizes the carbohydrates and other organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water to produce energy. although aerobic metabolism takes place but in sustained activity when the oxygen supply cannot keep pace with energy demand. large amount of energy is released by which energy requiring activities are accomplished. Whereas the land plants get their oxygen from air directly through their stomata which are more abundant on the lower surface than the upper surface of leaves. When these bonds are broken in enzymatic reaction. Gaseous Exchange in Leaves The aquatic parts obtain oxygen for their respiration by diffusion from the dissolved oxygen in water. The air spaces present between the cells of parenchyma of leaves. proteins and hormones etc or for carrying out any physical work like muscle contraction. like synthesis of various compounds of carbohydrates. gaseous exchange occurs through stomata. Gaseous Exchange in Roots The roots get their oxygen for gaseous exchange through diffusion from the air existing in the space between soil particles. of every part of the plant i. anaerobic respiration supplies the energy continuously by the breakdown of glucose to lactic acid. roots. Process of Respiration in Plants The respiration in plants continues day and night. The gaseous exchange in plants occurs in cells. In our skeletal muscles. The pores are called lenticels. Plants have no special organ or system fro exchange of gases. the oxygen from the airspaces in the leaves and stems is diffused into tissues and cells after getting dissolved in the film of water which is present over the cells. this tissue becomes porous.

Gaseous Exchange in Animals The gaseous exchange in different animals takes place by different methods and organs. because of high rate of photosynthesis the carbon dioxide produced in respiration falls short and therefore. because these parts require more energy to accomplish the growth process.and stomata. The blood in all animals has some respiratory pigments like haemoglobin which carry large amount of oxygen efficiently from respiratory surface to the interior cells. In the bright sunshine. Gaseous Exchange Through Skin For the exchange of gases through the skin the skin must be moist and richly supplied with blood. 3. These large animals have developed blood vascular system which transports oxygen from the respiratory surface to the deep cells and tissues in all parts of the body. apical meristem of roots and shoots. In unicellular aquatic animals like amoeba. The various chemical reactions of respiration are controlled by the specific enzymes. carbon dioxide and water are used in the process of photosynthesis. Thus the gaseous exchange became impossible through diffusion. 4. Respiratory surface should be moist. The elimination of carbon dioxide is more evident from the parts without chlorophyll like growing seeds and buds. In the day time the plants therefore. The oxygen is diffused from the external water to the blood and the carbon dioxide is diffused from the blood to exterior water. the moist vascular skin. In large animals certain organs were developed for exchange of gases w. 2. Respiratory surface should be thin walled. Gills are of two types: (a) External Gills (b) Internal Gills (a) External Gills . In amphibia and fishes the gaseous exchange occurs through the skin besides through the gills or lungs. some carbon dioxide has to be taken into the plant from outside for photosynthesis.g. Relationship between Respiration and Photosynthesis The gaseous exchange in plant is not very evident during the day time as the products of respiration i. This is the simplest way of gaseous exchange and it can occur only in small animals with a diameter of less than one millimeter. Gaseous Exchange by Gills The gills are very effective for gaseous exchange in aquatic animals. Respiratory surface should have large surface area. During evolution. This process occurs at a faster rate in the parts of the plant having rapid growth like growing seeds.e. as the animals became complex and complex and grew in their size. the dissolved oxygen in water diffuses directly through their cell surface into the interior of the animal and the carbon dioxide similarly diffuses out from their bodies into the external water. take in carbon dioxide and expel out oxygen. Respiratory surface should have blood supply. gills. The water produced in this process becomes a part of the already present water in the body of plants. The process of photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts whereas the process of respiration takes place in cytoplasm and mitochondria. Properties of a Respiratory Surface 1. their skin or external body surface become impervious to water. buds. The frogs and tortoises breath through the skin during their hibernation period. lungs and tracheoles. These animals have greater surface area of volume ratio and have low rate of metabolism.

Water Carbohydrates They are organic compounds. They get energy from these substances. They use the components of food in growth and repairing of damaged tissues. They grow in size during their life span as they are small when born and are large when adult. Oils 4. Fats. the dermal papillae of star fish and arthropods.g. One gram of carbohydrates provides 3800 calories of energy. Need for Food Everything needs energy to do some job e. Have you ever examined a fish closely? How ill you know that the fish is fresh or not? If the colour of gills is red then it is fresh but if the colour of gills is changed. They are commonly known as sugars. and reproduce for continuation of their race. These are as follows: 1. They maintain the complex structure of cells. The organisms burn up their food (metabolize) to get a special form of energy called ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) which is used by them to carry out their functions of life. FOOD AND NUTRITION. They are found in all organisms. Organisms get their energy from food. Nutrients of Food and Their Importance The food of organisms and the organic compounds. to operate machines. building their bodies are almost same. Proteins 3. (b) Internal Gills These are present inside the body inner to skin e. hydrogen and oxygen in which hydrogen and oxygen exists in 2:1 ratio that is why they are called hydrates of carbon or carbohydrates. in fishes and arthropods. Their bodies are composed of carbohydrates. They contain three elements carbon. Forms of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates occur in three forms. The type of food depends upon the kind of organism using the food.g. The red colour of the fish gills shows the presence of oxygenated blood. Monosaccharide . Thus substances acquired by organisms to obtain energy are called nutrients and the process by which they are obtained is called nutrition. steam. fuels like coal. A considerable amount of energy is required to carry out the functions of life. These gills have very thin and highly vascularized surfaces e. petrol. Vitamins 5. Some organisms use vegetables (plants) while some others require flesh (animals) as their food. These substances are used by organisms as their food. electricity. Minerals 6. it is definitely not fresh. proteins and fats etc.Some animals have external gills which project out of body of animals. living organisms require energy to carry out their diverse activities of life.g. Some organisms use inorganic compounds to get their energy requirements. 1. Carbohydrates 2. therefore. Similarly. need to have some source of energy in order to maintain their life. wood etc are burned to get energy. excrete waste material. The organisms. The food of all organisms which depends upon already prepared food has been found to consist of six basic components.

It is the most abundantly occurring carbohydrate. The common examples of polysaccharides are glycogen and starch. Disaccharides 3. One gram of protein produces 4. involved in physical labor need more carbohydrates in their daily diet whereas other should avoid them because their excess in the body can cause blood pressure. beet. Polysaccharides Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are simple sugars. they form polysaccharides. Another polysaccharide is cellulose. Amino acids are building units of a protein molecule. The Carbohydrates are the cheapest and easy source of energy. rice. Simple sugar called glucose is obtained from grapes.g. Proteins contain carbon. radish. diabetes. A protein molecule is composed of many building units linked together to form a chain. Glycogen occurs in animals and starch in plants. There are about twenty different types of amino acids which are used in the synthesis of protein found in the human body. present in the cell walls of plants. nitrates and sulphates but animals can not synthesize all amino acids. A chain of amino acids is called polypeptide. They are also obtained from carrots. obesity and heart diseases. Polysaccharides Why many monosaccharides link together.3 kilo cal of energy which is used to synthesize ATP. A single polyusaccharide may have many hundred units of monosaccharides. Surplus carbohydrates are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Importance of Carbohydrates in Human Body One gram carbohydrate food provides 3800 calories to our body. Amino Acids Plants can synthesize all the amino acids they need from carbohydrates. Glucose is main source of energy in our body cells. oxygen and nitrogen and sometimes some amount of sulphur. Non-Essential Amino Acids There are many amino acids which a human body can synthesize within the body. Then from beet and sugar cane is called sucrose and that from milk is lactose. Amino acids are the building units of proteins. These are . carbohydrate products should be taken with care. hydrogen. laborers and people. They form different structures in the body like muscles. maize. They also occur in our blood and cells. The enzymes which control different chemical reactions in the body are also proteins in nature. oats and barley. There is no 2:1 ratio between hydrogen and oxygen. or converted to fats and stored in the fat cells beneath the skin and causes obesity. Proteins are structural part of the cell membrane. As a result of protein catabolism. Their common example is glucose. Some proteins are fibrous. About twenty different amino acids occur in nature that combines in different manners to make different type of proteins. energy is released. Proteins Proteins are very important organic compounds found in all organisms. sucrose is formed by the combination of glucose and fructose. Children. turnip. Sources of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates containing starch are obtained from cereals and their products like wheat. bones and skin. therefore. Maltose is another disaccharide. Disaccharides Disaccharides are formed by condensation of two monosaccharide units e. beet root and potatoes.2. The sugar derived from fruit is called fructose.

Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a Latin word derived from two words photo (light) synthesis (building up).called non-essential amino acids. corn oil. olive oil. If proteins are eaten in excess than needed by body.pregnant women and lactating mothers need a lot of proteins. Many proteins are required for making enzymes. 8. legumes. Plant Sources e. which human beings cannot make. Fatty acids are basically of followin two types: 1. These are called essential amino acids and can be obtained directly from proteins in the diet. They cause narrowing of blood vessels which may result in heart attack. Protein deficiency in children and cause a disease called Kwashiorkor. Saturated fatty acids (molecules without double bond) are solid at room temperature and are called fat. which are either oxidized to release energy and converted into glycogen and fat and stored. which is absorbed by chlorophyll and oxygen . mustard oil. green plants manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. They are very important compounds made up of carbon. meat. The energy needed for this process is obtained from sunlight. fish.1 kilo cal of energy to make ATP.g. Sources of Proteins Following are the sources of proteins: Animal Sources e. 7. the excessive amino acids are converted into carbohydrates by the liver. 4. Fatty Acids Different kinds of fats contain different fatty acids. Importance of Proteins in Human Body 1. hormones and antibodies.g. animals and humans. 6. dry fruit and cereals. Fats and Oils They are also organic compounds found in plants. 3. etc. They are not good for human health because they increase cholesterol level in the body. milk and cheese.g. An adult requires 50-100 gms of proteins daily. One gram of fat on oxidation releases 9.g. In this process. Source of Energy Fats and oils are rich source of energy they provide double energy as compared to carbohydrates and proteins. Fats contain more carbon and hydrogen as compared to oxygen. Essential Amino Acids There are approximately ten amino acids. butter. 2. Saturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated fatty acids (molecules with one or more than one double bonds) are liquids at room temperature and are called oils. chicken. They also play an important role in the building of muscles and connective tissues. Unsaturated Fatty Acids 2. 5. These are good for human health. Growing children . A fat molecule has two parts. coconut oil. pulses. Vegetable Sources Vegetable fats are liquid and are called oils e. Proteins play an important role in the building of cellular protoplasm. ghee and fatty meat. Proteins are essentially required for growth and development. Animal Sources Animal fats are solids e. hydrogen and oxygen. glycerol and fatty acids.

This result indicates that starch is formed only in those parts of the . Opening of more stomata provide more carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. Light intensity varies from day to day and from place to place. so it becomes necessary to use a leaf where chlorophyll is present only in patches. Plants photosynthesize faster on a bright sunny day than on a cloudy day. Plants lacking chlorophyll cannot carry out photosynthesis occurs only in those parts where chlorophyll is present. yet photosynthesis cannot take place without it. it reaches the mesophyll cells in the leaves. Chlorophyll changes light energy into chemical energy and makes food in plants. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is about 0. In leaves. The leaf is then removed from plant. which are found in the green leaves and herbaceous stems. Sunlight Light is very important for the process of photosynthesis.03% the rate of photosynthesis also declines. It provides energy needed for the synthesis of glucose molecule. it is present in the mesophyll cells. Water enters the root hair from the soil. un-ripened fruit can carry out photosynthesis. Finally. This process occurs during day time only.is produced as by-product. If the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases below 0. less stomata open. Such a leaf is known as variegated leaf and a plant with such leaves is used in this experiment. e. While light consists of seven colours. this reduces the rate of photosynthesis. Is Chlorophyll Necessary for Photosynthesis? Experiment Since it is not possible to remove chlorophyll from a leaf without killing it. From here it moves to the stem and then the veins of the leaves. Carbon dioxide provides carbon to build up glucose molecule. Carbon Dioxide This is an important factor which affects photosynthesis. Conditions and Factors Necessary for Photosynthesis Water Plants need water for many functions of life. Without light the photosynthesis cannot take place. Leaves are the major sites of photosynthesis in most plants but all green parts of a plant including green stems. This test shows that only those parts which were prevously green turned blue with iodine while the white parts turned brown. For destarching the leaves. the concentration of carbon dioxide close to the ground in a dense forest is higher than in an open field. Chlorophyll It is the green substance. If leaves get less water. Its outline is carefully drawn to note the position of presence or absence of chlorophyll on it.g. It is found in special organelles called chloroplasts. Although carbon dioxide is needed in very little amount by the plants. If the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases to 1% rate of photosynthesis also increases. It diffuses from the air into the intercellular spaces through stomata and enters the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells. It passes through various cells and reaches the xylem of the root. Now iodine is applied to the leaf to test for the presence of starch (starch when ever comes in contact with iodine turns blue). and it starts decreasing if concentration of carbon dioxide is decreased. Its amount differs from place to place which may affect the rate of photosynthesis.03% and does not vary much. Temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis. It provides hydrogen for the synthesis of glucose and helps in opening and closing of stomata. the pot is kept in a dark place for a couple of days and then exposed to day light for a few hours. The blue and red are best for photosynthesis. Temperature also plays a very important role in photosynthesis.

Mineral Salts 6. (Diagram) Is Carbon Dioxide Necessary for Photosynthesis Experiment Two potted plants are destarched by keeping them in a dark room they are watered properly during this period. A leaf from each pot is detached and tested for starch. The leaf from the other pot where carbon dioxide was being released by the sodium bicarbonates solution turns blue indicating the presence of starch. In other words photosynthesis is not possible without chlorophyll. The leaf from the pot containing soda lime does not turn blue. Vitamins 5. The two leaves are now detached from the plant and tested for presence of starch. It would be observed that the leaf which does not receive any light is free of starch (remains brown with iodine). light is essential for this process. light could pass through the L-shaped opening in the black paper. Carbohydrates 2. However. Each pot is enclosed in a transparent polythene bag as show in figure. Lipids 4. To maintain health and build resistance against various diseases. The plant is placed in the sunlight for 4 to 6 hours. 2. To get energy this may be used to carry out different activities in the body. The other leaf is also wrapped in black paper but an L-shaped part of the paper is cut out so that light can reach this part of the leaf through it. A petri dish containing soda lime (potassium hydroxide) is placed on one of the pots to absorb any carbon dioxide present in the polythene bag. soda lime had absorbed any carbon dioxide present in the bag. In the other pot a petri dish is placed containing sodium bi-carbonate solution which would produce carbon dioxide. If this were possible the white parts of the laf should have also given a blue colour with iodine. One leaf is wrapped completely in black paper. Water Lipids Lipids are obtained from two sources: . Proteins 3.e.leaf where chlorophyll exists (i. The plants are then left in light for several hours. It is then transferred to light. Two of its leaves are selected for the examination. 3. green parts). To build new protoplasm in the cells. (Diagram) Is Light Necessary for Photosynthesis Experiment A potted plant is destarched by keeping it in the dark room for two days. Only this L-shaped area turns dark blue while the other parts of the leaf remain brown. Nutrition in Man Like all other animals human beings need food for following activities: 1. This shows that light plays a vital role in the manufacture of starch since starch is manufactured due to photosynthesis. renew and replaced damaged cells and tissues for grwoth and reproduction. Man's diet consists of following components: 1. in the second leaf. These results show that carbon dioxide is essential for photosynthesis.

Importance of Lipids 1. butter. cream. olives. Now it is known that vitamin B is not a single vitamin but a group of vitamins call ed as vitamin B complex. It has eight different compounds as B1. their chemical nature was not well known. D. Saturated fats (animal fats) should be used with. 5. Vitamins Vitamins are very complicated compounds. Events of Mitosis Mitosis has the following phases: 1. Vitamins are needed for healthy growth and development of the body. Mitosis It is that cell division in which the number of chromosomes in both daughter nuclei remains same as in parent nucleus. C. 2. sunflower and peanuts. maize. They provide 9000 cal/gm energy to the body. they are found beneath the skin and around the kidneys where they are not only stored but also protect these parts. fats and proteins but lacking vitamins. It has been observed that when animals were given a diet rich in carbohydrates. Plant Sources Oils from mustard. the growth and development of the organisms were affected and the animal suffered from various diseases. They provide materials for building new protoplasm and cell membrane. Plants can prepare their vitamins from simple substances but animals obtain it directly or indirectly from plants. B2 etc although they have no energy value but they are essential in small quantities for the normal activities of life. our body will receive all those vitamins which are necessary for us. The use of fat rich products increase in winters because they provide double the amount of energy as compared to carbohydrates. soya beans. animal fat and fish oil. If our diet has variety and consists of fresh fruit and vegetables. Fat Soluble Vitamins Some vitamins are fat-soluble and can be stored along with fat. great care in our diet as they lead to rise in the cholesterol level. B. Therefore. 3. Water Soluble Vitamins Some vitamins are water soluble and hence cannot be stored in the body. Prophase 2. When vitamins were discovered. which accumulates in the blood vessels. coconut. 4.Animal Sources Ghee. They also serve as enzyme. E and K. 6. Some fatty acids are essential for man. In plants fats are stored in seeds. and thus affects the flow of blood in the arteries This can result in heart attack. they were denoted with English letters as A. Metaphase . Fifteen or more vitamins have been isolated and most of them seem to act as essential part of coenzyme involved in chemical changes taking place in the body. thus their in take is required continuously. and in animals.

Metaphase 1. 6. centrioles and aster collectively form mitotic apparatus. In this phase. one set of chromosomes moves towrds one pole while other towards the other pole. chromosomes become more visible. Nucleolus disappears and chromosomes scatter over the spindle fiber. 3. In this condition. Therefore two nuclei are formed. these chromatids are united to each other by means of centromere. 2.3. Cytokinesis . In plants. this process is called condensation. The chromosomes reach their poles. It means that chromosomes become shorter and thicker. Microtubules arrange to form a structure called spindle. Telophase 1. 3. Spindle fibers. The centromere of each chromosome then divides and the two chromatids of each chromosome start separating. this apparatus is made up of only spindle fibers as asters are absent in these cells. 5. Anaphase 4. Cytokinesis Prophase 1. Anaphase 1. The chromosomes uncoil and become less visible. Telephase 5. Each daughter nucleus has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Each chromosome consists of two similar threads like structure called chromatids. In animal cell. The chromosomes arrange themselves on equator of the spindle to form an equatorial plate. Nuclear membrane is broken down. First of all spindle fibers shrink and become short. From each centriole. Nuclear membrane reforms and nucleolus appears too. 2. 3. These chromosomes start moving slowly towards the opposite poles. coiling of chromosomes starts and their length decreases but diameter increases. there are also present centrioles on both poles of spindle. 2. 4. 2. At this stage these are not called chromatids because these are no in united condition these are called chromosomes. The chromosomes are attached at their centromere to one spindle fiber from each pole. small microtubules or fiber arise forming a star shaped aster. In this way.

Mitosis occurs in all types of somatic cells. In this way. the process of crossing over takes place. Here. all cells of body of an organism have same number of chromosomes. In this. Meiosis consists of two sub divisions: 1. It is divided into five stages during which there is continuous condensation of chromosomes. 4. two daughter cells are formed from one parent cell which are identical to their parent cell. 5. four daughter cells are formed and chromosome number is reduced to half. At end of this phase. homologous bivalents arrange at equatorial plate of spindle.The division of cytoplasm is called cytokinesis. cytoplasm divides by formation of cell plate which is also called phragmoplast. 2. 3. 4. 2. 6. Daughter cells formed as a result of mitosis have same number of chromosomes as that of parent cell. mitotic apparatus is also formed here. In animals. (Diagram) Metaphase I 1. 3. Zygote divides by mitosis to form embryo and after hatching or birth. It is very important phase. It is lengthy than prophase of mitosis. mitosis continues up to maturity of an individual. In mitosis. 5. The chromosomes arrange on scatter of the spindle. Like mitosis. The important process of this phase is synapsis in which homologous chromosomes pair with each other length wise. there occurs inward pinching of cell membrane resulting into two daughter cells. Nucleolus disappears and chromosomes scatter over the spindle. Each pair consists of four chromatids or two chromosomes. It means that one diploid (2n) parent cell divides to form four haploid (n) daughter cells. Meiosis It is that type of cell division in which cytoplasm and nucleus divides twice and as a result of this. cytoplasm divides by furrowing. In plant cell. Mitosis also results in growth and repairing of damaged or worn out tissues. Meiosis II Meiosis I It has following stages: Prophase I 1. homologous chromosomes exchange their chromatids parts at certain places. It gradually extends outward and finally two daughter cells are separated. It begins at the last stages of nuclear division. nuclear membrane breaks up. . After synapsis. 2. During this. Healing of wounds is also due to mitosis. Significance of Mitosis 1. Meiosis I 2.

3. Nucleolus reappears. 6. The number of chromosomes is constant for each species. Only one spindle fiber is attached to each chromosome. the number of chromosomes would have doubled after each generation in a species. Meiosis takes place only in germ mother cells which form gametes or spores. 4. During meiosis. 2. Half the number of chromosomes reach at opposite poles. 2. Nuclear membrane is reformed and in this way two daughter nuclei are formed. 5. He drew the cells he saw and also coined the word cell. In this way variations are produced which are raw material for evolution. 3.3. Anaphase I 1. Even today the study of cells reveals more detail. These cells afterwards change into spores (in plants or gametes (animals) Significance of Meiosis 1. Gametes unite to form a diploid zygote. 1665: English Scientist and Microscopist Robert Hooke described a honeycomb-like network of cellulae (Latin for little storage rooms) in cork slice using his primitive compound microscope. This phase is different from metaphase of mitosis because half the number of chromosomes moves towards each pole and each chromosome still has two chromatids. which are in fact the secrets of life itself. Chromosomes again increase their length. Spindle fibers contract. The . and its secrets. During meiosis. Now cytoplasm divides and two daughter cells are formed. Chromosomes begin to move towards the opposite poles. Robert Hooke used the term cells to describe units in plant tissue (thick cell walls could be observed). are revealed with ever increasing clarity. 4. Each cell is haploid (n). If gametes had the same number of chromosomes as in somatic cells. Exchange of genetic material occurs during meiosis. 4. With the invention of the microscope and its subsequent improvement. Homologous pairs of chromosomes are separated. 3. pairing of chromosomes takes place which is called synapsis. gametes (both and) formed are haploid. 7. 2. cells became visible and many new discoveries were made about them. Telephase I 1. Discovery of Cells and the Development of Cell Theory The study of cells started about 330 years ago. It maintains the chromosome number of a species constant generation after generation. Meiosis II It is similar to mitosis. Of course he saw only cell walls because cork cells are dead and without protoplasm. The haploid cells formed in meiosis I pass through phases of meiosis II and ultimately four haploid (n) daughter cells are formed. Before that time cells escaped notice because of their small size.

After the Great Fire of London in 1666. A Dutch businessman and a contemporary of Hooke. and the object to be studied was placed on the head of a movable pin just on the other side of the lens. Hooke also made original contributions to many other fields of science. and devised improvements in pendulum clocks. Hooke published his findings in his famous work. Although future microscopes were to contain more than one lens (compound microscopes). He described them in a letter to the Royal Society. Hooke was also a poioneer in microscopic research and pulished his observations. Hooke. Robert (1635-1703). The most powerful of these instruments can magnify objects about 275 times. and grasped. Hooke's most important contributions include the correct formulation of the theory of elasticity. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. he was appointed surveyor of London. He made his own fine quality lens for use in monocular microscopes and was the first person to observe bacteria and protozoa. Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe singlecelled animals (protozoa) with a microscope. 24. Hooke was born on the Isle of Wight and educated at the University of Oxford. English scientist. as a Dutch businessman. including Montague House and Dethlehem Hospital. Hooke's Microscope Hooke's drawing of Cork Cells 1670: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (16321723) described cells in a drop of pond water using a microscope. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1663 and was appointed Gresham Professor of Geometry at Oxford in 1665. was a Dutch biologist and microscopist. In 1662 Hooke was appointed curator of experiments of the Royal Society and served in this position until his death. He formulated the theory of planetary motion as a problem in mechanics. Micrographia. and he designed many buildings. many of which still exist. Each microscope consisted of a flat brass or copper plate in which a small. which included the discovery of plant cells. He also used microscopes and was a physicist. he began grinding lenses and building simple microscopes as a hobby. Hooke anticipated some of the most important discoveries and inventions of his time but failed to carry many of them through to completion. . Leeuwenhoek made over 400 microscopes.word cell is derived from the latin word cellula which means small compartment. He became interested in science when. 1632. He was the first to use the balance spring for the regulation of watches. and analysis of the nature of combustion. but did not develop mathematically. Some of his lenses could magnify objects 250X. born Oct. the fundamental theory on which the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton formulated the law of gravitation. single glass lens was mounted. which states that an elastic body stretches in proportion to the force that acts upon it. He served as assistant to the English physicist Robert Boyle and assisted him in the construction of the air pump. Leeuwenhock's single lens was ground to such perfection that he was able to make great advances and to draw attention to his field. best known for his sturdy of elasticity. The lens was held up to the eye.

his conception of the cell as the common structural unit of plants had the profound effect of shifting scientific attention to living processes as they happened on the cellular level-a change that initiated the field of embryology. Leeuwenhoek was also the first person. came about through the production of new cells. reached the same conclusion as Schleiden about . Schleiden left law practice to study botany. thereby bringing botany and zoology together under one unifying theory. using a microscope. he studied the structure of plants. aphids. as well as sperm cells. or cell division. he speculated. which. where prophagates from the nuclei of old cells. Matthias Schleiden 1839: Theodor Schwann. This statement of Schleiden was the first generalizations concerning cells. his friend Schwann extended it to animals. or cells. and ants. concluded that all plant tissues are composed of cells and that an embryonic plant arose from a single cell. In addition. a German botanist.which published his detailed pictures in 1683. Born in Hamburg and educated in law at Heidelberg. Schlieden investigated plants microscopically and conceived that plants were made up of recongnizable units. A year after Schleiden published his cell theory on plants. a German biologist. Plant growth. A man of disputatious nature he scorned the botanists of his day who limited themselves to merely naming and describing plants. he stated in 1837. Antony van Leeuwenhoek 1833: English Botanist Robert Brown discovered the nucleus in plant cells. the compound eyes of insects. 1838: Matthias Jakob Schleiden. He declared that the cell is the basic building block of all plant matter. Although later discoveries proved him wrong about the role of the nucleus in mitosis. and the life cycles of fleas. which he then taught at the University of Jena from 1839 to 1862. to observe clearly and to describe red blood cells in humans and other animals.

The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms and that plants and animals consist of combinations of these organisms which are arranged in accordance with definite rules. of animals. He also conducted valuable research on the processes of fermentation. the digestive enzyme. Theodor (1810-82). the German physiologist. the study of the structure of plant and animal tissues. and muscular and arterial contraction. archaeologist.animal tissue being composed of cells. serving as professor of anatomy from 1848 to 1858. in the stomach epithelium. 1845 Carl Heinrich Braun Cells were first identified as the basic unit of life 1855: Taking Brown's original description of nuclei and observations by Karl Nägeli on cell division. and . He pulled existing observations together into theory that stated: 1. 2. Schwann described cellular strucures in animal cartilage (rigid extracellular matrix). there after until his death he was associated with the University of Libge. Schwann. Rudolf (1821-1902). He was (1838-48) professor of anatomy at the University of Leuven in Belgium. While assisting the German physiologist Johannes Miller in the Anatomical Museum of Berlin. purefaction. generally considered the founder of modern histology. and Berlin. and anthropologist Rudolf Virchow was able to add a third tenet to the cell theory: Omnis cellula e cellula. Schwann was born in Neuss and educated at the universities of Bonn. This statement was the second generalization concerning cells and is the most important in the development of biology. German physiologist. also in Belgium. pathologist. physician. Schwann achieved the physiochemical nature of life by applying the cell theory of the German botanist Matthias Jakob Schleiden to the evolution of animal life. His principal work is Microscopic Investigations on the Accordance in the Structure and Growth of Plants and Animals (1839-1847). or all cells develop only from existing cells. Schwann discovered pepsin. Warzburg. German pathologist. Theodor Schwann 1840: Albrecht von Roelliker realized that sperm cells and egg cells are also cells. Cells are organisms and all organisms consist of one or more cells. or membrane tissues. the cell is the basic unit of life. when he became professor of physiology. ending speculations that plants and animals were fundamentally different in structure. It became known as the cell theory. In other words.Virchow. He also demonstrated that the mature tissues of all animals are traceable to embryonic cells.

He did not. Law of Conservation of Mass Statement It is presented by Lavoiser. He made careful quantitative measurements in chemical reactions and established that mass is neither created nor nor destroyed in a chemical change. and in 1847 a university lecturer. among them Crania Ethnica Americana (1892). Law of Multiple Proportions 4. Poland). He is best known for his text Cellular Pathology as Based on Histology (1850-1860). however. In 1849 he was invited to the medical school of Wurzburg as professor of pathological anatomy." . having been dismissed from his Berlin posts because of revolutionary activities. the founder of cellularpathology. He engaged also in extensive research in the fields of archaeology and anthropology. In 1856 he returned to Berlin as professor and director of the university's pathological institute. producing numerous writings. Virchow was born in Schivelbein. In 1843 he became prosector at the Charite Hospital in Berlin. CHEMICAL COMBINATIONSAND CHEMICAL EQUATION Laws of Chemical Combinations There are four laws of chemical combinations these laws explained the general feature of chemical change. He was instrumental in the establishment of the Pathological Institute and Museum in Berlin. Other publications include discussions of topical political and social questions. Virchow was the first to demonstrate that the cell theory applies to diseased tissue as well as to healthy tissue-that is. that diseased cells derive from the healthy cells of normal tissue. where he opposed the policies of the German chancellor Prince Otto von Bismarck. and educated at theUniversity of Berlin. Law of Definite Proportions 3. These laws are: 1. It is defined as: "Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but it only changes from one form to another form. Pomerania (now Swidwin. Law of Conservation of Mass 2. accept Louis Pasteur's germ theory of disease. Virchow was influential in German politics and from 1880 to 1893 served as a Liberal in the German Reichstag.anthropologist. Law Reciprocal Proportions Antoine Lavoiser has rejected the worn out ideas about the changes that take place during a chemical reaction.

B combine separately. hydrogen and oxygen and the ratio between their mass is 1:8. studied about fifteen different chemical reactions with a great skill. it will have two elements. Law of Reciprocal Proportions Statement This law is defined as: "When two element A. The tube was sealed so that material could not escape outside.In a chemical reaction. to test the validity of the law of conservation of mass. with silver nitrate (AgNO3) in limb A and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in limb B. 16:32 or 1:2. According to law of multiple proportions. He observed that weight remains same. the different masses of one element. The following experiment easily proves law of conservation of mass.shaped tube and filled the two limbs A and B. But the total mass of the reactants and products remains the same. reactants are converted to products. If different samples of water are analyzed. For this. HCl + AgNO3 ----------> AgCl + NaNO3 Law of Definite Proportions Statement It is presented by Proust. the ratio in which these elements combine with E is either the same or simple multiple of the ratio in which A and B combine with each other. the ratio between the masses of these elements will always remain the same. Practical Verification (Landolt Experiment) German chemist H. will be in simple whole number ratio. Example Water can be obtained from different sources such as river. It means that hydrogen peroxide contains double the number of oxygen atoms than water. This law proves this point of Dalton's Atomic Theory that atoms do not break in a chemical reaction. Landolt. rain or by the chemical combination of hydrogen and oxygen. They can do so by combining in different ratios to give different compounds. tube well." Two different elements can combine to form more than one compound. ocean." Example . well. The tube was weighed initially in a vertical position so that the solution should not intermix with each other. canal. the different masses of oxygen (16g and 32g) which have reacted with fixed mass (2g) of hydrogen will have a simple ratio between each other i. Law of Multiple Proportions Statement This law is defined as: "When two elements combine to give more than one compounds. The tube was weighed after mixing (on the formation of white precipitate of AgCl). he took H. In water and hydrogen oxide 2 g of hydrogen combine with 16g and 32g of oxygen respectively. The reactant were mixed by inverting and shaking the tube." Proust proved experimentally that compound obtained from difference source will always contain same elements combined together in fixed proportions. which will combine with the fixed mass of other element. with the mixed mass of the third element E. It is defined as: "When different elements combine to give a pure compound.e. Example Hydrogen and oxygen combine with one another to form water (H2O) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).

For example HCl. since they have property of molecule so they are called mono atomic molecule. Example H=1 . The ratio between hydrogen and oxygen in water is 16:2. Carbon (C). Atoms of the same or different elements react with each other and form molecule. in these compounds. It means that an atom of sodium is 23 times heavier than hydrogen atom. CH4 etc. Hydrogen and oxygen also combine with one another to form water (H2O). Atoms of some elements can exist independently. It means that an atom of oxygen is 16 times heaviest than that of hydrogen. The mass of the hydrogen atom taken as one. It is a very big unit for this very tiny object. Hydrogen being the lightest element is taken as standard. Molecules of different elements are called compounds. Atoms are very small particles. H2O. Let us observe whether these ratios are simple multiple to each other or not following mathematical operation is carried out. Gold (Au) etc. Valency The combining capacity of all elements with other elements is called valency. If the masses of atoms were to be expressed in gram. Nitrogen (N2). These ratios are not same. Molecule The particle of a substance (Element or Compound) which can exist independently and show all the properties of that substance is called molecule. Sulphur (S8) etc. Then it was decided by the chemists that masses of the atoms were to be found after comparing with mass to some standard form. Atom The smallest particle of an element which cannot exist independently and take part in a chemical reaction is known as Atom.Hydrogen and Nitrogen separately combine to form ammonia (NH3) and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The ratio between the mass of oxygen and hydrogen is 8:3. fixed mass of nitrogen is 14g and combines with 8 g of oxygen and 3 g of hydrogen. 8:3 ::16:2 8/3 : 16/2 or 8/3 x 2/16 or 1/3 => 1:3 Definitions Atomic Mass The mass of an atom of the element relative to the mass of some reference or standard element is called atomic mass. Examples Hexogen(H). They have very small mass. Examples Examples of Molecules of the elements are Hydrogen (H2). The atomic mass could be defined as "Atomic mass of an element is the mass of an atom of that element as compared to the mass of an atom of hydrogen taken as one. Similarly atomic mass of oxygen is 16. Sodium (Na)." Example The atomic mass of sodium is 23.

The capacity of man made instruments is also limited. Inference 3. Branches of Chemistry Physical Chemistry The branch of chemistry which deals with the physical properties and physical behavior of material things is called physical chemistry. In science the facts are gathered through observations and experiments and then theories or law are deduced. Steps Involved in Getting Information in the Scientific Method Science is not only an integrated knowledge of physical and biological phenomena but also the methodology through which this knowledge is gathered. changes in matter and the laws or principles which govern these changes is called Chemistry. Observation 2. Men made equipments are also used for making observations. Inorganic Chemistry The study of all elements and their compounds except carbon is called inorganic chemistry. Sensitive balance is used to determine the mass of a very light object. Experiment Observation The observations are made by the five senses of man. Information acquired through careful observations are called facts. Organic Chemistry The branch of chemistry in which we study the compounds of carbon is called organic chemistry. Analytical Chemistry The branch of chemistry which discusses the analytical methods for getting information about chemical compounds and chemical processes is called analytical chemistry. These facts are foundation of scientific knowledge. Industrial Chemistry The application of chemical knowledge in technology and industry and the preparation of industrial products are called industrial chemistry. Prediction 4. For example microscope is used for observing minute objects. But it can be improved by improving technology.C=4 Al = 3 Mg = 2 Na = 1 __________________ CHEMISTRY: INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY Chemistry The branch of science which deals with the composition and properties of matter. Thermometer is used to measure temperature. Biochemistry The study of chemical compounds present in living things is called biochemistry. Thus better and more reliable information are given to the scientists who produce better result. . The process of scientific discoveries is a cyclic process. The scientific method include following four steps: 1.

This similarity because of common ancestral origin is called Homology e. Prediction Facts. rivers and has bad effect on land. external morphology. whale and bad had common ancestors and are placed in same large group "vertebrate". Correlating the knowledge thus acquired with previous knowledge. Experiment An experiment is an integrated activity. which is performed under suitable conditions with specially designed instruments to get the required information. These organs are called homologous organs. iron bricks.g. it stil can give information which can be used to deduce other results. theories and laws which are deduced from observation can help in deducing more facts and phenomenon. A theory remains valid until contrary informations are given on the basis of experimentation. The accepted hypothesis then takes the form of theory. The results are discussed by the scientists and the hypothesis is accepted or rejected. The presence of similar characters in different organisms indicates their common ancestory. pollute canals. Excessive chemical spray on plants also has bad effect. Such information is used to test the validity of the hypothesis. say that monkey. flipper of a whale and wing of a bat show homology. Similarly waste water from industry. Thus a hypothesis requires experimental support. The tentative solution is called hypothesis. If it is proved wrong. Chemistry and Society Chemistry has played important role for well being of mankind in the form of food. They are dissimilar apparently but their internal structure (arrangement of bones and muscles) is same. especially the number of chromosomes and chemical composition (especially of proteins) and embryology of the organisms. If a hypothesis is proved correct. refined food and production of artificial fiber. we can.Inference The facts gathered through observations are carefully arranged and properly classified. cell structure. But Avogadro's hypothesis has been accepted as law without any experimental support. Basis of Classification The classification of organisms is based on such features or characters. Due to this homology. A theory when repeatedly gives the same results after experimentation and gives correct explanation of the scientific facts becomes a law or principle. arm of a monkey. The hazards of chemistry are so vast that no aspect of human life has remained unaffected. CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS Classification The arrangement of organisms into groups and subgroups on the basis of similar characters is called classification. This process is called prediction. These characters help in study of intra specific (within the same species) and intra specific (between different) species differences. medical treatment and chemical fertilizers. clothing. . we try to think of a tentative solution to explain the observed phenomenon. These characters may be about internal morphology. glass. physiology. It increases the reliability of known facts. crops protected by insecticides. paint etc are all due to chemistry. shelter. It is very dangerous to breath in that air. Production of cement. (anatomy). which are similar in one kind of organisms and different in different kind of organisms. The validity of this hypothesis is tested through the results obtained from experiments. The smoke coming from chimneys of chemial industries and from vehicles pollute the air.

It includes several species like mustard. Difference between Homologous and Analogous Organisms The fruit of all plants. Aristotle classified the organisms on the basis of their resemblances. wings of an insect. or sour. First of all. they have more number of of similar character. 3. despite having same function.Chordata .Brassicaceae Genus ----------------------. whether sweet. the organisms found in this group. To arrange organisms on the basis of similarities and differences. These organs are similar in function but different in basic structure and origins are called analogous organs. are not homologous because their origin is different. many closely related genera are placed in a bigger group called Family. Brassica is a genus. division) in case of plants.Dictyledonae Order ----------------------. Similarly green leaf of moss plant and that of any vascular plant are not homologous. All these units are divided into subunits e. It includes several species like lion. The phyla or divisions are grouped into kingdom. orders are grouped into a class and classes are grouped into a phylum (plural.Brassica Species --------------------. would be more similar. cabbage and turnip. after a long time.Mustard Phylum or Division ---------. Aims/Objectives of Classification These are given below: 1.Anthophyta Class ----------------------.g. Theophrastus classified the plants. 2. tiger and cat. 4. After this. all are the homologous structures because they develop from ovary of flower. which are closely related. To determine similarities and differences between different organisms. All the human beings belong to another species. genera) e. To find out inter-relationships of organisms.Brassica Campestris Classification of Human Beings Common Name ---------------. sub genus. A species is a group of organisms that can breed with one another in nature and produce fertile offspring. The members of one species differ from members of other species and do not breed naturally with each other. families are grouped into an order. The smallest the group or unit. Similarly. Then.Capparales Family ---------------------. they are grouped in large group called genus (plural. sub phylum and sub kingdom etc. On the other hand. suggested a new system of classification. Biological Classification of Mustard Plant Common Name ----------------. All the mustard plants belong to one species. Units of Classification The basic unit of classification is specie (Plural specie). phyla) or division (plural. he started modem taxonomy. and a bird.Animalia Phylum --------------------. To identify the organisms on the basis of their structure and other prominent characters and study them systematically and logically. Similarly. Carolous Linnaeus (1707-1778). Felis is a genus.This homology is proved to be very helpful in classification. small and dry or large and fleshy. In this way. All members of a species have same number of chromosomes and also have many other features in common. Their origin is common.Human Kingdom -------------------.g. Such different species.

Significance of Binomial Nomenclature Before establishment of binomial nomenclature. It starts with a small letter. The scientific name of rose plant is Rose indica.It includes all the animals. This method is called Binomial Nomenclature. The first part is the name of genus and is called generic name. Animal Kingdom (Animals) .Homo sapiens Scientific Name -----------. so it is accepted and used in whole world. Plant Kingdom (Plantae) . nor has only one system of classification been followed rather it is dynamic. Both parts of scientific name of a species are either underlined separately or italicized. it is used in classification. the method was formulated by carolous Linnaeous (1753). Living organisms are classified into two to five kingdoms. In different countries. Because tis system is simple and comprehensive. and gogroon are all names of same plant. Therefore.Mammalia Order ---------------------. local names were used for plants and animals. thipar. To give such names to living organisms. Important Characters of Plants and Animals Presence of cell wall and ability to prepare their own food were considered the most important characters of plants. 2. Two Kingdom Systems All organisms were classified into two kingdoms before present time.Homo Species -------------------. Similarly the scientific name of frog is Rana tigrina and that of human is Homo sapiens. even in different parts of same country. there are at least fifty names for pansy. It starts with a capital letter. Lack of cell wall and inability to prepare food and characteristic mode of nutrition and especially the ability to locomote were considered the most important characters of animals.Hominidae Genus ---------------------. Binomial Nomenclature The method of giving scientific names to organisms is called nomenclature. every species of living organisms is given a Latinized scientific name consisting of two parts. shaljam. According to this method. Whenever any new knowledge is available about organisms. gongloo. Same animal or same plants may be known by different names. The same organism may be given different names e. It must have one scientific name so that there may be no confusion.Homo sapiens Kingdoms of Organisms The classification is not static. This confusion can be avoided by giving each .Primates Family --------------------.g. Similarly a single common name may be used for different kind of organisms e.Class ---------------------.g. The second part is the name of species and is called specific name. turnip. the word "raspberry" is used for about 100 kinds of plants. 1. Rules of Binomial Nomenclature 1. the names of organisms consisted of many words. These words were based on the characters of these plants or animals. many systems of classification have been used. The scientific name of mustard plant is Brassica campestris. 3.It includes all the small and large plants. 2. Plant kingdom and animal kingdom were divided into large groups. 4. In England.

.Salientia (Anura) Family ---------------------. Anaerobic Respiration 2. this stage includes the transport of oxygen obtained from the inhaled oxygen to each cell of the body. In this stage all these reactions are included which extract the chemical energy of glucose and other compounds and store it in the form of ATP molecule. with molecular oxygen.Chordata Class ----------------------. amino acid and fatty acids etc.Animalia Phylum ---------------------. In aerobic respiration a mole of glucose is oxidized completely into carbon dioxide and water releasing enormous amount of energy. the organisms take the air (containing oxygen) into their bodies.Homo sapiens Biological Classification of Frog Common Name ----------------. the glucose etc is oxidized by using molecular oxygen.Chordata Class ----------------------.Animalia Phylum ---------------------. Aerobic respiration thus produces 20 times more energy than the anaerobic respiration. Stages of Aerobic Respiration There are two stages of Aerobic Respiration: (a) External Respiration In this stage.Mammalia Order ----------------------. This is called external respiration.Frog Kingdom --------------------.000 calories of energy.Hominidae Genus ----------------------. Biological Classification of Man Common Name ----------------.Primates Family ---------------------. this respiration is also called cellular respiration as it occurs within cells. There are two types of Respiration in the organisms: 1.Man Kingdom --------------------. Aerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration In most of the higher and larger organism. It consists of the oxidation of glucose.organism a scientific name according to binomial nomenclature proposed by Carolous Linnaeus in 1753. (b) Internal Respiration The second stage is called internal respiration.Rana tigrina __________________ RESPIRATION Respiration The oxidation of the absorbed food material in order to obtain energy is called respiration. In aerobic respiration food is oxidized in presence of molecular oxygen. This type of respiration is known as Aerobic Respiration.Amphibia Order ----------------------.Ranidae Species --------------------.Homo Species --------------------. It is adopted by all taxonomists. One glucose molecule in this respiration produces 686.

e. This proves the idea that aerobic organisms have evolved from anaerobic organisms. Gaseous Exchange in Leaves and Young Stems In the leaves and young stems. The air spaces present between the cells of parenchyma of leaves. The gaseous exchange in plants occurs in cells. 2. In anaerobic respiration a glucose molecule is broken down into two molecules of lactic acid with a release of only 47. fats. ATP is an abbreviation of adenosine triphosphate. anaerobic respiration supplies the energy continuously by the breakdown of glucose to lactic acid. In our skeletal muscles.000 calories of energy. of every part of the plant i. ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) It is a chemical compound. stem and roots are involved in the gaseous exchange. The early organisms started respiration in the absence of oxygen to produce energy for survival of organisms. Gaseous Exchange in Plants Plants get their energy from respiration.000 calories) Importance of Anaerobic Respiration 1. Some gaseous . Significance of ATP ATP is a big source of energy. The two terminal bonds between the phosphate groups contain large amount of the chemical energy. This is known as Anaerobic Respiration. 4. Adenosine is formed of a nitrogenous base called adenine and a sugar called ribose. When these bonds are broken in enzymatic reaction. Its name indicates that it contains adenosine and three phosphate groups. Some existing organisms like bacteria and parasites which live in oxygen environment have anaerobic respiration. 5. proteins and hormones etc or for carrying out any physical work like muscle contraction. The conducting system (xylem and phloem) of plants transports water and nutrients but plays no role in the transport of gases. In this type of respiration considerably less amount of energy is released as compared with the other type of respiration. gaseous exchange occurs through stomata. although aerobic metabolism takes place but in sustained activity when the oxygen supply cannot keep pace with energy demand. Many useful bacteria and yeasts are anaerobic. heat production or transport of substances etc. like synthesis of various compounds of carbohydrates. large amount of energy is released by which energy requiring activities are accomplished. When earth came into being its environment was totally devoid of oxygen. The aerobic organisms cannot lie in anaerobic environment. The glycolysis which is the first phase of carbohydrate metabolism involves reaction which does not require the expenditure of molecular oxygen. Plants have no special organ or system fro exchange of gases. In ATP three phosphate groups are attached to the adenosine in a series one after the other. Even in the aerobic respiration of the first phase is anaerobic. When the terminal bond is broken the ATP is changed into ADP and phosphate 7300 calories of energy are released. stems and leaves etc according to their energy demand. 3. roots.In the internal or cellular respiration glucose and other compounds are passed through such enzymatic reactions which release the chemical energy gradually in small amounts with the help of which ATP molecules are synthesized. Anaerobic Respiration Some organisms oxidize their food without using any molecular oxygen. Glucose --------> 2 Lactic Acid + Energy (47.

carbon dioxide and water are used in the process of photosynthesis. because these parts require more energy to accomplish the growth process. The pores are called lenticels.g. The water produced in this process becomes a part of the already present water in the body of plants. the moist vascular skin. Gaseous Exchange in Woody Stems and Roots In woody stem and roots. In the bright sunshine. Relationship between Respiration and Photosynthesis The gaseous exchange in plant is not very evident during the day time as the products of respiration i. Gaseous Exchange in Roots The roots get their oxygen for gaseous exchange through diffusion from the air existing in the space between soil particles. take in carbon dioxide and expel out oxygen. In the day time the plants therefore. Gaseous Exchange in Leaves The aquatic parts obtain oxygen for their respiration by diffusion from the dissolved oxygen in water. In large animals certain organs were developed for exchange of gases w. Thus the gaseous exchange became impossible through diffusion. This is the simplest way of gaseous exchange and it can occur only in small animals with a diameter of less than one millimeter.exchange also occurs through cuticle. lungs and tracheoles. the dissolved oxygen in water diffuses directly through their cell surface into the interior of the animal and the carbon dioxide similarly diffuses out from their bodies into the external water. some carbon dioxide has to be taken into the plant from outside for photosynthesis. because of high rate of photosynthesis the carbon dioxide produced in respiration falls short and therefore. The blood in all animals has some respiratory . The various chemical reactions of respiration are controlled by the specific enzymes. These are involved in gaseous exchange. Later on. In the cells this oxygen oxidizes the carbohydrates and other organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water to produce energy. The elimination of carbon dioxide is more evident from the parts without chlorophyll like growing seeds and buds. as the animals became complex and complex and grew in their size. Some of the water (vapours) comes in the airspaces from where they diffuse out to the atmosphere through lenticels and stomata. Gaseous Exchange in Animals The gaseous exchange in different animals takes place by different methods and organs. gills. this tissue becomes porous. buds. These animals have greater surface area of volume ratio and have low rate of metabolism. Whereas the land plants get their oxygen from air directly through their stomata which are more abundant on the lower surface than the upper surface of leaves. This process occurs at a faster rate in the parts of the plant having rapid growth like growing seeds. In this process. there are present dead cells beneath the epidermis which form cork tissue. their skin or external body surface become impervious to water. In unicellular aquatic animals like amoeba. the oxygen from the airspaces in the leaves and stems is diffused into tissues and cells after getting dissolved in the film of water which is present over the cells. apical meristem of roots and shoots. Process of Respiration in Plants The respiration in plants continues day and night.e. During evolution. The process of photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts whereas the process of respiration takes place in cytoplasm and mitochondria. These large animals have developed blood vascular system which transports oxygen from the respiratory surface to the deep cells and tissues in all parts of the body.

Organisms get their energy from food. the dermal papillae of star fish and arthropods. In amphibia and fishes the gaseous exchange occurs through the skin besides through the gills or lungs. (b) Internal Gills These are present inside the body inner to skin e. Gaseous Exchange Through Skin For the exchange of gases through the skin the skin must be moist and richly supplied with blood. The oxygen is diffused from the external water to the blood and the carbon dioxide is diffused from the blood to exterior water. The frogs and tortoises breath through the skin during their hibernation period.g. They grow in size during their life span as they are small when born and are large when adult. excrete waste material. Properties of a Respiratory Surface 1. to operate machines. petrol. building their bodies are almost same. Respiratory surface should have large surface area. proteins and fats etc. Respiratory surface should have blood supply.g. Nutrients of Food and Their Importance The food of organisms and the organic compounds. Respiratory surface should be moist. Respiratory surface should be thin walled. in fishes and arthropods. electricity. The organisms. __________________ FOOD AND NUTRITION. Some organisms use inorganic compounds to get their energy requirements. living organisms require energy to carry out their diverse activities of life. The organisms burn up their food (metabolize) to get a special form of energy called ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) which is used by them to carry out their functions of life.g. Some organisms use vegetables (plants) while some others require flesh (animals) as their food. The type of food depends upon the kind of organism using the food. wood etc are burned to get energy. need to have some source of energy in order to maintain their life. Gaseous Exchange by Gills The gills are very effective for gaseous exchange in aquatic animals. These gills have very thin and highly vascularized surfaces e. steam. 3. These substances are used by . Similarly. therefore. Their bodies are composed of carbohydrates. fuels like coal. it is definitely not fresh. Gills are of two types: (a) External Gills (b) Internal Gills (a) External Gills Some animals have external gills which project out of body of animals. Need for Food Everything needs energy to do some job e. Have you ever examined a fish closely? How ill you know that the fish is fresh or not? If the colour of gills is red then it is fresh but if the colour of gills is changed. They maintain the complex structure of cells. The red colour of the fish gills shows the presence of oxygenated blood. and reproduce for continuation of their race.pigments like haemoglobin which carry large amount of oxygen efficiently from respiratory surface to the interior cells. 4. 2. A considerable amount of energy is required to carry out the functions of life.

involved in physical labor need more carbohydrates in their daily diet whereas other should avoid them because their excess in the body can cause blood pressure. Disaccharides 3. turnip. Polysaccharides Why many monosaccharides link together. carbohydrate products should be taken with care. Disaccharides Disaccharides are formed by condensation of two monosaccharide units e. hydrogen and oxygen in which hydrogen and oxygen exists in 2:1 ratio that is why they are called hydrates of carbon or carbohydrates. Children. beet root and potatoes. or converted to fats and stored in the fat cells beneath the skin and causes obesity. The sugar derived from fruit is called fructose. Sources of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates containing starch are obtained from cereals and their products like wheat. Glucose is main source of energy in our body cells. They contain three elements carbon. Surplus carbohydrates are stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. The Carbohydrates are the cheapest and easy source of energy. sucrose is formed by the combination of glucose and fructose. Minerals 6. They are found in all organisms. Oils 4. obesity and heart diseases. 1. The common examples of polysaccharides are glycogen and starch. A single polyusaccharide may have many hundred units of monosaccharides. They get energy from these substances. Simple sugar called glucose is obtained from grapes. Monosaccharide 2. therefore. Carbohydrates 2.organisms as their food. they form polysaccharides. Their common example is glucose. diabetes. Polysaccharides Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are simple sugars. Maltose is another disaccharide. Importance of Carbohydrates in Human Body One gram carbohydrate food provides 3800 calories to our body. Then from beet and sugar cane is called sucrose and that from milk is lactose. present in the cell walls of plants. Glycogen occurs in animals and starch in plants. One gram of carbohydrates provides 3800 calories of energy. Vitamins 5. Another polysaccharide is cellulose. oats and barley. Proteins 3. beet. radish. They are also obtained from carrots. The food of all organisms which depends upon already prepared food has been found to consist of six basic components. Water Carbohydrates They are organic compounds. rice. Fats. maize. Thus substances acquired by organisms to obtain energy are called nutrients and the process by which they are obtained is called nutrition. They are commonly known as sugars. It is the most abundantly occurring carbohydrate. . They use the components of food in growth and repairing of damaged tissues. These are as follows: 1. laborers and people. Forms of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates occur in three forms.g.

which human beings cannot make. 3. They also occur in our blood and cells.g. animals and humans. As a result of protein catabolism. Protein deficiency in children and cause a disease called Kwashiorkor. which are either oxidized to release energy and converted into glycogen and fat and stored. Amino acids are building units of a protein molecule. 7. Fatty Acids Different kinds of fats contain different fatty acids. chicken. There is no 2:1 ratio between hydrogen and oxygen. 8.g. A fat molecule has two parts. Growing children . Essential Amino Acids There are approximately ten amino acids. They are very important compounds made up of carbon. Proteins are essentially required for growth and development. 6. hydrogen and oxygen. About twenty different amino acids occur in nature that combines in different manners to make different type of proteins. oxygen and nitrogen and sometimes some amount of sulphur. bones and skin. Many proteins are required for making enzymes. meat. Non-Essential Amino Acids There are many amino acids which a human body can synthesize within the body. 5. glycerol and fatty acids. 2. Proteins are structural part of the cell membrane. If proteins are eaten in excess than needed by body. They form different structures in the body like muscles. hydrogen. 4. The enzymes which control different chemical reactions in the body are also proteins in nature. A chain of amino acids is called polypeptide.Proteins Proteins are very important organic compounds found in all organisms. the excessive amino acids are converted into carbohydrates by the liver. milk and cheese. An adult requires 50-100 gms of proteins daily. pulses. Sources of Proteins Following are the sources of proteins: Animal Sources e. Proteins contain carbon. nitrates and sulphates but animals can not synthesize all amino acids.pregnant women and lactating mothers need a lot of proteins. Amino acids are the building units of proteins. Fats and Oils They are also organic compounds found in plants. fish. A protein molecule is composed of many building units linked together to form a chain. Plant Sources e. One gram of protein produces 4. These are called essential amino acids and can be obtained directly from proteins in the diet. There are about twenty different types of amino acids which are used in the synthesis of protein found in the human body. Proteins play an important role in the building of cellular protoplasm. hormones and antibodies. dry fruit and cereals. These are called non-essential amino acids. Fats contain more carbon and hydrogen as compared to oxygen.3 kilo cal of energy which is used to synthesize ATP. Importance of Proteins in Human Body 1. Some proteins are fibrous. They also play an important role in the building of muscles and connective tissues. legumes. energy is released. Fatty acids are basically of followin two types: . Amino Acids Plants can synthesize all the amino acids they need from carbohydrates.

Vegetable Sources Vegetable fats are liquid and are called oils e. Carbon dioxide provides carbon to build up glucose molecule. and it starts decreasing if concentration of carbon dioxide is decreased.g. mustard oil.03% and does not vary much. Carbon Dioxide This is an important factor which affects photosynthesis. It diffuses from the air into the intercellular spaces through stomata and enters the chloroplasts in the mesophyll cells. coconut oil. which are found in the green leaves and herbaceous stems. Source of Energy Fats and oils are rich source of energy they provide double energy as compared to carbohydrates and proteins. Animal Sources Animal fats are solids e. Temperature also plays a very important role in photosynthesis.1 kilo cal of energy to make ATP. One gram of fat on oxidation releases 9. less stomata open. If the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases to 1% rate of photosynthesis also increases. They cause narrowing of blood vessels which may result in heart attack. Leaves are the major sites of photosynthesis in most plants but all green parts of a plant including green stems. Plants lacking chlorophyll . The energy needed for this process is obtained from sunlight.g. ghee and fatty meat. In this process. From here it moves to the stem and then the veins of the leaves. olive oil. If leaves get less water. Saturated fatty acids (molecules without double bond) are solid at room temperature and are called fat. it is present in the mesophyll cells. It provides hydrogen for the synthesis of glucose and helps in opening and closing of stomata. Finally. Saturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated fatty acids (molecules with one or more than one double bonds) are liquids at room temperature and are called oils. This process occurs during day time only. which is absorbed by chlorophyll and oxygen is produced as by-product. Its amount differs from place to place which may affect the rate of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is a Latin word derived from two words photo (light) synthesis (building up). Opening of more stomata provide more carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. corn oil. the concentration of carbon dioxide close to the ground in a dense forest is higher than in an open field. e. green plants manufacture carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water.03% the rate of photosynthesis also declines. They are not good for human health because they increase cholesterol level in the body. If the concentration of carbon dioxide decreases below 0. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is about 0.1. butter. Chlorophyll changes light energy into chemical energy and makes food in plants. yet photosynthesis cannot take place without it. Unsaturated Fatty Acids 2. it reaches the mesophyll cells in the leaves. It is found in special organelles called chloroplasts. Temperature affects the rate of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll It is the green substance. These are good for human health. Although carbon dioxide is needed in very little amount by the plants. etc. Conditions and Factors Necessary for Photosynthesis Water Plants need water for many functions of life. In leaves. It passes through various cells and reaches the xylem of the root.g. this reduces the rate of photosynthesis. Water enters the root hair from the soil. un-ripened fruit can carry out photosynthesis.

While light consists of seven colours. Now iodine is applied to the leaf to test for the presence of starch (starch when ever comes in contact with iodine turns blue). A leaf from each pot is detached and tested for starch. The plants are then left in light for several hours. This shows that light plays a vital role in the manufacture of starch since starch is manufactured due to photosynthesis. green parts). The other leaf is also wrapped in black paper but an L-shaped part of the paper is cut out so that light can reach this part of the leaf through it. In other words photosynthesis is not possible without chlorophyll. Each pot is enclosed in a transparent polythene bag as show in figure. in the second leaf. Such a leaf is known as variegated leaf and a plant with such leaves is used in this experiment. Two of its leaves are selected for the examination. However. The plant is placed in the sunlight for 4 to 6 hours. Its outline is carefully drawn to note the position of presence or absence of chlorophyll on it. If this were possible the white parts of the laf should have also given a blue colour with iodine. The leaf from the pot containing soda lime does not turn blue. A petri dish containing soda lime (potassium hydroxide) is placed on one of the pots to absorb any carbon dioxide present in the polythene bag. Only this L-shaped area turns dark blue while the other parts of the leaf remain brown. It would be observed that the leaf which does not receive any light is free of starch (remains brown with iodine). This test shows that only those parts which were prevously green turned blue with iodine while the white parts turned brown. The blue and red are best for photosynthesis.cannot carry out photosynthesis occurs only in those parts where chlorophyll is present. soda lime had absorbed any carbon dioxide present in the bag. One leaf is wrapped completely in black paper. Without light the photosynthesis cannot take place. (Diagram) Is Carbon Dioxide Necessary for Photosynthesis Experiment Two potted plants are destarched by keeping them in a dark room they are watered properly during this period. light could pass through the L-shaped opening in the black paper. Sunlight Light is very important for the process of photosynthesis. The leaf is then removed from plant. For destarching the leaves. This result indicates that starch is formed only in those parts of the leaf where chlorophyll exists (i. Light intensity varies from day to day and from place to place. It is then transferred to light.e. Plants photosynthesize faster on a bright sunny day than on a cloudy day. In the other pot a petri dish is placed containing sodium bi-carbonate solution which would produce carbon dioxide. the pot is kept in a dark place for a couple of days and then exposed to day light for a few hours. It provides energy needed for the synthesis of glucose molecule. so it becomes necessary to use a leaf where chlorophyll is present only in patches. The two leaves are now detached from the plant and tested for presence of starch. The leaf from the other pot where carbon dioxide was being released by the sodium . Is Chlorophyll Necessary for Photosynthesis? Experiment Since it is not possible to remove chlorophyll from a leaf without killing it. (Diagram) Is Light Necessary for Photosynthesis Experiment A potted plant is destarched by keeping it in the dark room for two days. light is essential for this process.

Plant Sources Oils from mustard. Proteins 3. 2. To build new protoplasm in the cells. The use of fat rich products increase in winters because they provide double the amount of energy as compared to carbohydrates. Plants can prepare their vitamins from simple substances but animals obtain it directly or . 2. 3. D. cream. E and K. B. 4. They also serve as enzyme. butter. their chemical nature was not well known. It has been observed that when animals were given a diet rich in carbohydrates. the growth and development of the organisms were affected and the animal suffered from various diseases. sunflower and peanuts. olives. These results show that carbon dioxide is essential for photosynthesis. 5. Lipids 4. Carbohydrates 2. they are found beneath the skin and around the kidneys where they are not only stored but also protect these parts. Nutrition in Man Like all other animals human beings need food for following activities: 1. Man's diet consists of following components: 1. 3. Therefore. In plants fats are stored in seeds. and thus affects the flow of blood in the arteries This can result in heart attack. Water Lipids Lipids are obtained from two sources: Animal Sources Ghee. B2 etc although they have no energy value but they are essential in small quantities for the normal activities of life. coconut. Vitamins are needed for healthy growth and development of the body. animal fat and fish oil. To get energy this may be used to carry out different activities in the body. Importance of Lipids 1. Vitamins Vitamins are very complicated compounds. 6. They provide 9000 cal/gm energy to the body. fats and proteins but lacking vitamins. which accumulates in the blood vessels. and in animals. renew and replaced damaged cells and tissues for grwoth and reproduction. Mineral Salts 6. great care in our diet as they lead to rise in the cholesterol level. Now it is known that vitamin B is not a single vitamin but a group of vitamins call ed as vitamin B complex. They provide materials for building new protoplasm and cell membrane.bicarbonates solution turns blue indicating the presence of starch. Vitamins 5. Some fatty acids are essential for man. When vitamins were discovered. It has eight different compounds as B1. they were denoted with English letters as A. C. Saturated fats (animal fats) should be used with. To maintain health and build resistance against various diseases. soya beans. maize.

The larva of frog is called Tadpole. Reptiles 1. This larva later changes into adult. The head and trunk are directly jointed together and neck absent. During the process of reproduction fertilized egg is changed into adult passing through a number of physical changes. 8.The fertilized egg develops into larva. They have a head. They body is covered with scales which remain moist by special type of secretion of body. According to their size and shape.indirectly from plants. The skin is thin. 4. They need water for reproduction. . 9. 2. They are also called crawlers. our body will receive all those vitamins which are necessary for us.g. Therefore they are called Amphibians. The class of fishes is called Pisces. 4. Fat Soluble Vitamins Some vitamins are fat-soluble and can be stored along with fat. which is called air bladder. 6. 10. which are attached to the trunk. thus their in take is required continuously. Eggs are laid in water or moist places and their outer shells are not hard. This group of animals can live both in water and on land. 7. Breathing organs are gills which are present in the hollow spaces found on both sides of the head for exchange of gases i. 5. Mouth has teeth. Small teeth are present in the upper jaw which is only used for grasping the prey. Most of the reptiles are terrestrial and only a few five in water. Body of fish is flexible tapering at both ends and streamlined. Fifteen or more vitamins have been isolated and most of them seem to act as essential part of coenzyme involved in chemical changes taking place in the body. Water Soluble Vitamins Some vitamins are water soluble and hence cannot be stored in the body. They have thick. 10. They can swim with fins. This process is called hibernation. Skin is also used for the exchange of gases. Characters of Class Pisces (fishes) 1. 5. 9. 4. It has tail and gills. 8. They have following features. This type of body helps in swimming. moist and slimy. Breathing organs are two lungs.e. CHORDATA AND VERTEBRATE. 6. which is used for grasping instead of grinding of food. 2. 7. Class Amphibia 1. They are aquatic vertebrates. 3. In some fishes air pouch is present. dry and rough skin. 3. they cannot maintain their body temperature constant. This process is called metamorphosis. The air bladder is used for buoyancy. 3. Class Reptilia The animals of this class are called reptiles. If our diet has variety and consists of fresh fruit and vegetables. 2. the fishes are of many kinds. a trunk and a tail. They become very slow and bury themselves in the mud. They are cold blooded animals e. oxygen and carbon dioxide. The skin is covered with scales which originate from the ectoderm.

Class Aves The animals included in this class are called Birds. They have flattened sternum. 3. Their common examples are pigeon. There are almost four thousand species of mammals including man. 9. 5. Nervous system and especially eye sight is very well developed so that they can track their path even at a very high speed. Rhea and Casso wary. Types or Groups of Birds Running Birds (Ratitae) They have following characters: 1. It is the most studied and most observable class in the world. Characteristics of Mammals Their distinguishing characters are given below: Hair The body of mammals is covered with hair. 6.g. 9. Emu. turtle also lay their eggs on land. 10. Their examples are Ostrich. which are used for cutting and biting. 8. A keel is present on sternum in these birds. Flying Birds (Carinatae) They have following characters: 1. There are present lungs for respiration. 3. They have a higher blood pressure and higher metabolic rate. 2. which makes them different from other animals which is the presence of feathers.5. 3. 6. wading and sitting on the branches. Birds have a single unique feature. 8. 2. All the birds lay eggs. 2. 10. Teeth are present in their buccal cavity. Keel is vertical bony part that is present below the sternum in the centre from anterior to posterior end. hen. 4. Their forelimbs are modified to form wings while hind limbs help in walking. Their digestive system is able to digest high caloric food. In most of the mammals hair may cover the whole . Most of the lizards are not poisonous except members of the genus Heloderma which are found in American desert. All the birds have horny beaks without teeth. kite etc. 7. Class Mammalia All the animals included in this class are called "mammals". 4. All the reptiles lay their eggs on land. Water dwelling reptiles e. powerful and are inserted on the keel. Their pectoral muscles are weak. 7. Pectoral muscles are very strong. strong but light and hollow bones. The birds are very beautiful and have melodious voices. The locomotary organs are legs but snakes and a few types of lizards have no legs. crow. These muscles help them to fly. Their distinguishing characters are as follows. All the birds must have two wings for support and propulsion. These animals are highly advanced vertebrates. They migrate during winters towards warmer places covering thousands of miles. 1. Their eggs have a tough outer shell of calcium carbonate.

It perform more functions than that of other vertebrates. Fertilization of eggs and development of embryo is internal. Mother feed their children with milk. Teeth Two sets of teeth are present. Circulatory System Circulatory system has four chambered heart. Breast Feeding They feed the children by milk from mammary glands. Young ones are hatched from the eggs. 1. they can maintain their body temperature according to the environment. Fertilization Most of them have internal fertilization and fetus developed inside the uterus of female giving birth to their children. 4. Glands Their skin is provided with sweet glands. Eggs are laid in burrows of animals. Fertilization of egg is internal i. The embryo is at first encapsulated by shell membrane and floats free for several days in the uterine fluid. the embryo does not implant or "take root" in the uterus and absorb nutrient secretions from the vascularized yolk sac. Endothermic They are endothermic i. The gestation period is brief and the marsupials give birth to tiny young that is effectively still an embryo. Mostly two eggs are laid in one year. It means that they are warm-blooded animals. 5.e. Pouched Mammals or Marsupial Mammals These mammals have a pouch outside the belly called marsupium.e. ***es ***es are separate i. 2. After hatching from the shell membranes. there are two individuals. male and female. persistent left aorta and non-nucleated biconcave red blood corpuscles are present in female. Duck bill platypus and Spiny ant eater are the examples of egg laying mammals. 3. Their egg laying character shows their relationship with reptiles. scent glands.body but in a few may be restricted to some areas. Brain Brain is higly developed. three bones in middle ear and fused pelvic bones and seven cervical vertebrae are present in their skeleton. Milk teeth are replaced by permanent set of teeth.e. Egg Laying Mammals These mammals lay eggs. External Ear Fleshy external ears are present in mammals. inside the body of mother. There is no placenta. secondary bony palate. sebaccous glands and mammary glands. this is the reason that they are also known as Marsupial mammals. Cranial Nerves Twelve pairs of cranial nerves are present. The hair conserves heat of the body. Eyelids Moveable eyelids are present in mammals. Skeleton Two occipital condyles. .

In areas where rainfall is low. Malhi. rice. Flora and Fauna of Pakistan Flora Definition "Different types of plans present in a particular region constitute its flora. In sea. canals and streams. Hilly regions of Pakistan have snow fall and low temperature. Fertile plains have trees of Sheesham. sea urchins. In case of rat. 3. mussels. in rabbit 30 to 36 days. Chalghoza. Ber. 8. lady of night. ponds. Plum Peach and Loqaut are very common. Besides this wheat. In mice it is 21 days. whale. banana. Plain areas of Pakistan have fertile and less fertile soils. as well as a source of earning lively hood. maize. algae are abundant. chrysanthemum etc.g. Plain and hilly areas have natural pasture lands that provide fodder for cattle. eyes are open and it can walk about. Grapes. 3. Fauna Definition "Different kinds of animals present in a particular region are known as its Fauna. 2. The conditions of young ones at time of birth are different in different mammals. amphibians. These are found in Australia and Tasmania. young is very weak. prawns. onion. Cane. Trout. It lives on trees. Our rivers are rich in fish life particularly Rohu. the body of young is covered over. Jamman etc. potatoes. Kino. 6. Pregnancy is called Gestation Period. crabs. Placental Mammals This is common group of mammals in which embryo completes its development inside the mother's uterus. at the time of birth. These regions have thick forests where trees of Juniper (Sanober). Koala. crabs and fish etc. Kikar. It lives in marsupium until it can take care of itself. Orange. 7. Embryo remains in the uterus and gets its nourishment from mother through umbilical cord and placenta. star fish. Examples are Kangaroo. cabbage and turnips etc are cultivated in plains and hilly areas to meet our food requirements. prawns. . dolphin etc. desert environment is present in which Aeacia (Babool). These are source of timber whereas. and carps are abundant and used as human food. Cedar. The most noticeable are octopus. A large number of plants are used as ornamental plants. in cats and dogs 60 days. Chir. in cattle 250 days and in elephants 22 months. Tasmanian wolf and Wombat etc. 4. 5. It is lengthier in large mammals. which on one hand are the source of food for aquatic animals and on the other hand they provide oxygen to atmosphere. fishes. carrots. grams garlic. After gestation period young ones are born. jasmine. eyes are closed and has no hair on the body. Gestation period of these mammals is longer than those of other mammals. rivers.6. Khagga. These young creeps into the marsupium where it gets milk from mother through nipple. with heavy fur. Many animals are used as food e. Bakain. For example in antelope. Pilas etc grow. In the seas adjoining our coastal areas numerous types of animals are found starting from protozoa to mammals. In man it is of 9th months. 2. motia. These include flowering plants like rose." Detail 1. Olive Apple. oats." Details 1. Frogs and toads are abundant. 7. Bamboo and Eucalyptus. fruit trees include mango. burley. Opossum is found in America.

The tortoises. 6. protozoa are the first phylum of invertebrate animals but according to five kingdom classification it is placed in a separate kingdom. Blue ball. Urial. On the plains of Pakistan we have very rich wild life. "protista" in . slugs to toads. myriapods. partridge. (i) Shark (ii) Labeo (Rohu) (iii) Trout (iv) Hilsa (Pullah Fish) (v) Cat Fish (Khagga) (vi) Frog (vii) Toad (viii) Snake (ix) Wall-Lizard (x) Crocodile INVERTEBRATE. lizards. Some are used for transportation. Their body temperature remains constant. 7. almost all kinds of insects. Example Common examples of warm blooded animals are following. Some of the birds peculiar to Pakistan are Houbara bustard. Asiatic ass. falcons etc.etc. 5. Most of the animals provide milk. Brown bear. Example Common example of cold blooded animals are following. snails. 8. Protozoa 1. Ibex. hide and wool.4. crocodiles are also common. snakes and enormous variety of birds and mammals. (i) Parrot (ii) Sparrow (iii) Pigeon (iv) Ostrich (v) Kiwi (vi) Duck billed platypus (vii) Kangaro (viii) Oppossum (ix) Elephant (x) Whale (xi) Monkey (xii) Man COLD BLOODED ANIMALS The animals in which the body temperature is changed with the changes of temperature in the environment are called Cold Blooded Animals. spiders. WARM BLOODED ANIMALS The animals which do not change their body temperature with the change of temperature in environment are called as Warm Blooded Animals. The mammals peculiar to Pakistan include Black buck. According to two-kingdom classification. pheasant. Some of the animals are now endemgered species because of their excessive hunting and pollution. meat. There is a great diversity of land fauna starting from earthworms. turtles. snakes. Musk deer.

They are so small in size that they cannot be seen with naked eye. 5. In a colony. Protozoans are also useful for man because they feed and destroy bacteria which are harmful for human health. which is used by algae for photosynthesis. 4. If separated from group they still can perform all life activities and can live independently. They are unicellular but they intake food. a type of Amoeba causes dysentery. Many protozoa like Amoeba and Paramecium are unicellular but they respond to the intensity of light like all other multicellular organisms. Most of them are found in sea water but some live in fresh water. 7. There are two contractile vacuoles.g. 3. Every cell performs its all function. This association in which both the organisms benefit from each other is called mutualism. respire. Their habitat is mostly moist soil. plasmodium causes malaria.which all other eukaryotic unicellular organisms are also placed. 6. 4. Most of them live singly but some form colonies. 3. unicellular organisms become partially interdependent and limit themselves to perform specific functions in a group. 2. They can be seen with the help of a microscope. watery places. Cilia are small hair like out structures arising from protoplasm. Paramecium It is unicellular animal which is found in pools and ponds. They are mostly marine but few live in fresh water. one at each end of the body for discharging surplus water there are two nuclei one large. Cilia push food inside the protoplasm through a canal called gullet making a food vacuole in the protoplasm. They are diploblastic animals as their bodies have two layers of cells. 5. 2. Bacteria and other small protozoans. Their lashing movement in water acts as oars and help in swimming (locomotion) of the animal. 7. Some protozoans are parasites and causes different diseases e. Body of all protozoans consists of one cell and istherefore called unicellular. Paramecium feed on algae. Between these layers a jelly like substance the mesoglea is present. Outer layer is called ectoderm and inner layer is called endoderm. for example Amoeba can feed on bacteria. 6. . Algae produce oxygen during photosynthesis which is used by sponges and the sponges release carbondioxide. It is slipper shaped its body is covered with cilia. Sponges are aquatic animals. They are multicellular but they have no organs or true tissues. They can detect high intensity of light and move towards the area having low intensity of light. 3. Sponges have different colours. decaying matter of animals and plants. 2. Animals belonging to this phylum have a special cavity in their body which is called coelenteron and due to this reason they are called coelenterates. through an oral groove provided with cilia. micro or reproductive nucleus which controls reproduction. mega nucleus which controls almost all functions of cell other small. Phylum Porifera 1. Protozoans mostly live in damp. This phylum is called porifera because animals belonging to this phylum have numerous small pores on their bodies. Green colour of sponge is due to algae that live in their body. They are also called sponges. Coelentrates are aquatic animals. Phylum Cnidaria 1. reproduce.

Nematodes or round worms have long smooth cylindrical body which is pointed at both the . These animals are considered to be closest to the chordates from evolutionary point of view. 4. They have a muscular foot for locomotion and gills for respiration. a middle mesoderm and an inner endoderm layer. 9. Common examples are Prawn. forming an exoskeleton. Phylum Annelida 1. 4. 3. Buttons are made from their shell. These animals are found in all habitats. Animals in this group have elongated segmental body. Centipede. Most of Mollusca are used as human food. 5. They have well developed systems in their bodies. Jellyfish and Sea anemone are common examples of this phylum. 4. Liver fluke. Phylum Platyhelminthes They are triploblastic animals because their body is made of three layers. They are also called flat worms because their body is thin. Phylum Arthropoda 1. an outer ectoderm. stomach and intestine of other animals. Spider. It has about fifty thousand species. Mollusca are a latin word which means "soft". 7. 6. 3. The bodies of these animals are also segmented but these segments are external. They are found in aquatic and moist habitat. They have jointed legs on their body and therefore they are called arthropoda (arthro means jointed and poda means foot) 4. Their body is soft so in most of the animals and external shell is present for support and protection. 2. 8. The animals of this phylum are exclusively marine. The pearls are produced by these animals. Brittle star. This phylum is one of the largest phyla of animal kingdom. flattened and tape like. Sea urchin and Sea cucumber are examples of this phylum. Some animals are free living but most are parasite. All animals have internal skeleton consisting of dermal caleareous ossicles. 2. They attach themselves to the walls of intestine of their host by ****er and **** blood and food. Fresh water mussel. Octopus and Oyster are common examples of this phylum. Millipede and Insects. 3. tape worm and planaria are common examples of this phylum. They are called echinoderms because their bodies are covered with spines or spicules. water and on land. Their bodies are covered with the hard shell composed of chitin. They have a water vascular system and dermal gills. Their body is quite complicated. Hydra. 3. Parasites live in liver. 2. 5. Crab. Most of the animals of this phylum can move freely but a few remain attached to stones or rocks throughout their life. Sea star (known as star fish). Phylum Nematode 1. Scorpion. 5. They have close type circulatory system. Phylum Echinodermata 1. They are also known as shell fish. Cuttle fish. Snails. Tape worm ****s food from intestine and sometimes grows up to 40 feet in length. 2. 10. Annelids occur in water as well as on land. in air.4. Some animals have internal shell and some lack shell. 5. Phylum Mollusca 1.

Cell wall is made up of Chitin instead of cellulose. FUNGI AND ALGAE. They clean the environment and also cause the recycling of nutrients. their wastes and decaying materials. 2. many radial plates or gills are seen on the underside of the cap on which enormous numbers of spores are produced. e. Characteristics of Fungi 1.ends. 3. Fungi During rainy season. Saprotrophic fungi get their food from dead animals. Parasitic fungi obtain their food from other living organisms. Mushroom 1. They are free-living as well as parasites of animals. 3. When spores are to be formed. 2. many hyphae of mycelium come out of the soil to form umbrella shaped fruit bod. 2. these mushrooms and molds are fungi. For example. Fruid body consists of two main parts. Edible Fungi Mushrooms and some other fungi are edible. absorbed prepared food). and an upper umbrella shaped cap or pilens which bears annulus around it just below the cap. The body is un-segmented. 4. the familiar mushroom. can be used as food before their fruit bodies become overripe. Mycorrhizal Fungi Mycorrhizal fungi improve the growth production of crop plants. Penicillin is obtained from the fungus penicillium. During rainy season. a lower stalk or stripe. 4. 6. Some mushrooms. Fungi are simple heterotrophic eukaryotes which cannot manufacture their food and have absorptive mode of nutrition (e. 5. Agaricus is rich in protein. decaying and organic matter. are deadly poisonous. 3. Yeasts Yeasts are used in making bread and alcohol.4 inches in height. Some mushrooms. like Agaricus. Economic Importance of Fungi Fungi are useful as well as harmful to humans. man and even plants. Penicillin. On maturation. plants. Fluffy mass of tangled threads like structure with black-dots of molds is also often seen growing on orages and bread. 4. a large number of umbrella-shaped mushrooms emerge on dung-piles. 5. It can be 3. .g. Antibiotics Some antibiotics are also obtained from some fungi. Mycelium of mushroom is saprotrophic. Useful Aspects of Fungi Saprotrophic Fungi Saprotrophic fungi chemically break down dead bodies of organisms and their wastes into simple components. the first antibiotic discovered in 1928 by Alexander Flemming. spreading under group in the soil that contains. like Amanita. Nematodes have a complete and one way digested tube. a large number of umbrella like mushrooms emerge on dung piles. Some fungi are parasitic while others are saprotrophs.g.

streams and rivers. 3. Characteristics of Algae 1. (Diagram) Spirogyra . It is single celled green algae which are seen only under a microscope. A thin cell membrane lies beneath the cell wall. Previously algae were regarded as plants and were placed in thallophyta. called the helps and grow as long as 60 meters or more in a season. puddles. 2. 3. commonly found in fresh pond and drains. chlamydomanas and spirogyra to multicellular large seaweeds like sargassum. It reproduces both *** and a***ual. Chlamydomonas It is fresh water green alga. 7.Algae Algae are a group of simple eukaryotes in which. In cytoplasm. 5. Algae. their organs are unicellular and body is simple. a cup shaped chloroplast. However unlike plants but ike fungi. 10.5. 11. like plants. there is. 6. Some marine algae. 2.A nucleus is present in the middle of chloroplast in the cytoplasm. In the anterior part. 12. which is involved in production of food by process of photosynthesis. The chloroplast contains. oval or pear-shaped. Therefore they are placed in another kingdom. 4. All the algae have chlorophyll so they are autotrophic. Their reserved food material is starch. Algae are sometimes classified on the basis of the pigments they contain. Algae have a wide variety from unicellular algae. e. Structure 1. Some of them are used as food. ponds. These help in swimming. chlorophyll is found. 8. 4.There are two contractile vacuoles near the base of flagella 'which periodically expel excess water and waste from the cell. they make their own food by photosynthesis. and a single red orange light-sensitive eye-spot on one side in its anterior regions. 7. a spherical structure called pyrenoid in its posterior part. Two flagella (singular flagellum) arise from the cytomplasm below the apical papilla and come out through the cell wall. the Protista. While others are found in fresh water lakes. Algae are mostly marine found in the sea.g. puddles. stem or leaf. yet it performs all the basic functions of life. it represents the ourter surface of cytoplasm. thallus. are mostly (found in water). other are found in lakes. Chlamydomonas is spherical. The pyrenoid is supposed to store carbohydrates in the form of starch grains. 6. The cell is enclosed by a cell wall which maintains its shape. Their green colour can be masked by the presence of other pigments. The eye spot helps chlamydomonas to determine its position nd direction according to changes in the intensity of light. These are called marine algae. Their plant body is called a thallus without a true root.Although body. 9. Their cell walls are made up of cellulose. 8. A large number of algae are found in vast saltwater oceans. the cell wall forms an outgrowth called apical papilla. These are called fresh water algae. They are photosynthetic autotrophs and have cellulose in their cell wall. streams and rivers and they are also found in damp soil. of chlamydomonas consists of a single cell. ponds.

Spirogyra continually grows in length by cell division. For their observation. . Spirogyra is a multicultural filamentous green alga. Viruses 1. 6. Numerous pyrenoids are located in a row in the chloroplast and are meant for storing starch. 7. A single nucleus is suspended near the vacuole by cytoplasmic strand. The vacuole is filled with cell sap. The cell is surrounded by cellulosic cell wall. Micro-organisms As a Heterogeneous Group Micro-organisms are a heterogeneous group. The chloroplasts run along the. These microscopic organisms are called micro-organisms. 7. we need a light microscope or even an electron microscope. The filaments are surrounded by a layer of mucilage that makes them slippery. certain algae and some fungi. That is why they are placed between living and non-living things. Some of them are large and some are small. cell and are only made up of proteins and nucleic acids. Each cell can be divide into two. bacteria. length of the cell in the form of spiral ribbon in the peripheral cytoplasm. Therefore. On the basis of structure they range from sub-cellular to cellular for example. 10. When they enter the body of any living organisms. Each cell of Spirogyra is usually twice as long as broad. These cells are joined end to end. 4. Viruses are so small that they can only be seen with electron microscope. they are studied in a separate group where as bacteria and cyanobacteria. A peripheral layer of cytoplsm is present just inside the cell wall and around a large. they reproduce there like living organism. 9. fungi and protozoa are eukaryotes (with nucleus). They look like non-living crystals when they are out of the body of a living organism. Viruses have charcteristics of both living and non-living things. BACTERIA AND CYANO BACTERIA. so filament increases in length. protozoa. It includes different kinds of organism viruses. Its filamentous thallus consists of cylindrical cells. and cyanobacteria are prokaryotes (without nucleus) where as algae. micro-organisms differ in their structure and mode of characteristics of viruses. Bacteria. 8. Majority of the organisms are so small that they re not seen with naked eyes. the oxygen produced during photosynthesis stores in the mucilage and the filaments start floating on the surface of water. Stanley isolated viruses in crystalline form from infected leaves of tobacco and observed them under electron microscope. 5. 6. Usually the filaments are found occurring in a large number. In 1935 W. 5. 2. VIRUS. lakes and streams. 8. 3. Viruses were discovered by Iwanowsky in 1892 from infected tobacco leaves. 3. central vacuole. 2. The Spirogyra reproduces both ***ually and a***ually. Structurally they are not like.M.1. viruses are sub-cellular and all other microorganisms are cellular. Virus is a Latin word which means "Poison". During day time. to form un-branched filaments. On the basis of mode of nutrition algae are autotrophic while fungi and protozoa are heterotrohic. being prokaryotes. All viruses are parasites and cause different diseases in their hosts. 11. There may be one ore more than one chlrorplasts in each cell. The most prominent part of cell is its chloroplast. cyanobacteria. Micro-Organisms A large number of living things are present in this world. are included in kingdom Monera. 4. It is found in great abundance in fresh water ponds.

The outer protein coat determines the shape of viruses. viruses produce common cold. buffalo and cows are caused by viruses. bacillus) 3. bean and cabbage are the various diseases of plants. vibrio) Bacteria occur both singly and in colonies. These are as follows: 1. Through contact. living and dead bodies of organisms and even in glaciers and hot springs. Through insects. or in irregular groups and even in the form of long beads.2um to 1um in width and can be observed under light microscope. Rounded . contaminated water and food. Baccilli are found singly or may join end . Discovery of Bacteria Leeuwenhoek discovered bacteria in 1697 for the first time.01um to 0. cancer and AIDS. Cocci bacteria are found in groups of two or four. They discovered that bacteria produce many diseases in men and animals.g. By reuse of already used syringes. e.Spirilla (singular. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch worked on them. infectious hepatitis. 6. coccus) 2. Viral Diseases in Plants Ring spot in different plants. caused by viruses.03um(um is micrometer = 1/10. they are made up of only two parts. 5. Later.00. Types of Bacteria On the basis of shape and form. 3. an outer "coat". bacteria are of four types. in bacteriophage (virus that lives in bacteria) protein coat consists of two parts. By air. potato. few polyhedral while some viruses look like tadpoles. These are unicellular micro-organisms.000 meter) Shape of Virus Viruses are of different shapes some are rounded. Viral Diseases in Animals Mouth and foot disease in cattle and cowpox in horses. Ways of Viral Transmission 1. Spiral shaped . In spite of their different shapes. few are rod shaped. Through droplets produced during coughing and sneezing. The core is made up of DNA or RNA (never both) and the coat is made of protein. By un-sterilized surgery equipments. small pox. Structure of Virus Viruses have same biochemical nature. Rod-like . influenza. yellow fever. 4. Size of Bacteria Bacteria (singular : bacterium) range from 1um to 10um in length and from 0. yellow in sugar beet and mosaic disease in tobacco.Cocci (singular. 2. Comma like .Vibrios (singular.Size of Virus Viruses are of different sizes. Most of the animal viruses contain DNA whereas plant viruses have RNA core bacteriophage is also called phage virus. tomato. and an inner "core". Viral Diseases in Humans In human beings. head and tail. spirillum) 4. Bacteria Bacteria are found every where in air. Their size varies from 0.Bacilli (singular. polio. DNA is present in the head region but the tail has only protein. water.

This is not bounded by a nuclear membrane. However. Motile (which can move) bacteria like bacilli are spirilla have one or more thread like flagella (singular. coffee. Plasmids are also used a vectors in genetic engineering. Bacterial cell is surrounded by a cell wall which is made of carbohydrates and amino acids. 2. which protects them and prevents them from drying. These are used in processing of commercial fibers. In this way fertility of soil is increased. tobacco and vinegar. Bacteria Synthesize Enzymes Bacteria synthesize cellulose enzyme in the stomach of herbivore animals which helps in the digestion of food. These are used in manufacturing butter. . clothes and other things. Harmful Bacteria 1. But this is wrong impression. Another kind of bacteria live in the soil. Structure of Bacteria 1. Nucleus is absent in bacterium. pear and apple. Bacteria and Nitrogenous Compounds in Soil These bacteria are called nitrogen fixing bacteria. 2. Ribosomes help in synthesis of proteins. help to decompose dead organisms and their refuse into simpler substances replenishing the raw materials in the soil and atmosphere and can thus purify the environment. Industrial and Commercial Purposes 1. Denitrifying bacteria in soil decrease the amount of nitrogen in soil and reduce the soil fertility. 6. called nitrifying bacteria which convert ammonia into nitrite and then to nitrate. 3. and potato scab in potato. These are called identifying bacteria. Some bacteria have an additional slime capsule around their cell wall. Bacterial decomposition on one hand is beneficial but on other hand causes damage to food. There are number of bacteria which are not only beneficial for mankind but are also essential for living system. 3. But Spirilla and Vibrios occur singly. It is known as nucleoid. flagellum) which help them in their locomotion. Bacteria as Bio-Insecticides Recently the use of bacteria in bio-insecticides has become popular. Economic Importance of Bacteria It is generally thought that bacteria are fatal and harmful organisms and there is no beneficial aspect. Bacteria play very important role in the life of living organisms. In addition to main bacterial DNA small. Beneficial Bacteria Ecological Importance These. rot and fire blight in peach.to end to form long threads. Bacteria are single celled prokaryotic organisms. leather. along with fungi. 5. circular molecules of DNA called plasmids are also found. Some bacteria also synthesize vitamin "B" and "K" in the large intestine of man and other mammals. 2. Plasmids play an important role in transmission of some heredity characteristics. only a single large circular molecule of DNA is present which is surrounded by a clear zone of cytoplasm. wood. 4. cheese and yogurt. Many bacteria are harmful and cause many diseases in plants. such as canker disease in citrus fruits. Non motile bacteria like cocci lack flagella. enhancing the amount of nitrogen in the soil.

Each filament is unbranched and has a row of rounded or oval cells STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF LIFE. are transmitted from one organism to another through contaminated water and food. mitochondria. 4. Whooping cough. A single filament looks like a chain of beads. Some of them are symbionts and some are epiphytes. It has a filamentous structure which form a ball like structure of Nostoc. Cyanobacteria are usually unicellular and solitary. Typhoid. Nostoc is an autotroph like other Blue-green-Algae. rocks and soil. Bacteria causing Typhoid and Cholera.4. Structure of Nostoc The structure of Nostoc is filamentous. Leprosy etc. Plague and bacterial dysentery read through vectors like flies and animals. Generally Cyanobacteria are found in moist places like of trees. The filaments are interring mixed in agelatinuous mass forming a ball like structure.B and Pneumonia causing bacteria are transmitted from one person to other person through sneezes and cough droplets released in air. The protoplasm is differentiated into two parts. 3. Discovery of Cell In 1665. 3. Cyanobacteria 1. Cholera. 6.B and anthrax. biologists observed different . Bacterial Dysentery. In animal like cattle bacteria cause T. 2. Bacteria and Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes and they are placed in kingdom Monera. Taxonomic Position of Nostoc According to new classification. Each cell of Nostoc has double layered wall. Cyanobacteria are also called blue green algae. He noticed in them small box like chambers of same size which he called "cells". 4. Diphtheria. Diphtheria. It floats on water. Ways of Bacteria Transmission 1. golgi bodies and vacuoles are not present in the structure of Nostoc. 5. Structurally they resemble bacteria. 2. Heterocyst are found which help in nitrogen fixation. They are simplest living organisms which have the ability to manufacture their own food by photosynthesis. Characteristics of Nostoc The important characteristics of Nostoc are: 1. 8. Whooping Cough. Plague. fresh water and oceans. Bacteria also cause many diseases in man like T. Pneumonia. The Discovery of Cell and Cell Theory. Each filament of Nostoc is unbranched and has a single row of rounded or oval cells. Nostoc belongs to kingdom prokaryota or Monera. 3.B. After this. T. It floats on water. 7. Endoplasmic reticulum. 2. Tetanus. NOSTOC A common example of cyanobacteria which has filamentous structure which is found in the form a ball is called Nostoc. an English biologist Robert Hooke invented first compound microscope and observed the sections of corks and leaves under this microscope. 5.

2. New cells come from the divisions of pre-existing cell.5 nm. Each organelle has a definite job in the cell. Section cutting of tissues and cells and their staining became easier and better. At that time. Theoclor Schwann obsrved that the bodies of of animals were made up of cells which were similar to plant cells. In 1839. Salient Features of Cell Theory 1. Purkinji gave the name "Protoplasm" to the things found inside the cells.organisms under the microscope. In 1840. (iv) Maximum useful magnification is X. They found that structure of cells was complex. After this. All animals and plants are made up of cells and cell products. 3.000 on screen as image or photograph.s All animals and plants are thus made up of cells and cell products.000 its original size. 250. 2. Robert Brown discovered nucleus in cells of plants. so it is called Electron Microscope. any object an be magnified up to 250. Comparison of Light Microscope and Electron Microscope Light Microscope (i) The radiation source is light so it is called light microscope. resolving power and quality of microscopes were highly improved. According to this. (iv) Maximum useful magnification is X 1500 with eye.33. Among these some organisms are unicellular and some are multicellular. . (v) Lenses are used. which provided basic information for cell theory. It revealed that cell was not a simple mass of granular substance. Cell is structural and functional unit of living organisms. 1. 5. Human is made up of about 60 trillion cells. In this microscope. In 1831 . (iii) Maximum resolution is 200 nm. Schleiden and Schwann formulated the "Cell Theory". Its resolving power is 250 times or more that of a compound microscope.005 nm. the compound microscope was highly advanced and biologists observed things just a micrometer apart. a beam of electrons under high voltage is passed through the object and its image is reflected on to a screen through an electro magnetic lens to make a photograph.700 nm. a German botanist Mathias Scheiden observed that all plants were made up of cells. a series of discoveries started. instead it contained many sub cellular bodies called "Organelles". cell was considered as a bag of thick dense substance containing a nucleus. (ii) Wavelength of light is 400 . Cell Theory In 19th century. (Diagram) With the help of microscope. J. In 1838. 4. Later on. Electron Microscope This is the most advanced form of microscope. Thus. From Amoeba and unicellular algae to whales and tallest red wood trees. all' are made up of similar basic units called cell. 6. all organisms are made up of cells. Electron Microscope (i) The radiation source is beam of electrons. (ii) Wavelength of beam of electrons is 0. (iii) Maximum resolution is 0. 3.

xylem vessel elements and tracheids (which transport water and minerals) have thick walls whereas as parenchyma cells (which store water and food) have thin walls. It is present in cells of all plants and animals. It is outer most boundary of animal cell while in plant cells. The primary layer of cell wall is known as primary walls which are further strengthened by an additional layer called secondary wall especially in xylem vessels. cell of Radish has 18 chromosomes. rigidity. It is chemically composed of Cellulose. It is present in center of the animal cell while in plant cell it is pushed on one side due to large central vacuole. The walls of some cells are thick and walls of some cells are thin. For example. The cell wall of fungi is made up of Chitin. With the help of light microscope and electron microscope. Cell Wall 2. It means that it allows some things to pass through easily while some not. Functions Cell wall provides a definite shape. E. cell membrane is composed of two layers of lipids in which protein molecules are partially or completely embedded. Both nucleus and cytoplasm are surrounded by cell membrane. protection and support to plant cell. According to fluid mosaic model. It is rigid and non-living. Nucleus 4. Chromosomes are composed of protein and DNA.g. Prokaryotic cell 2. Thus. Cell Membrane It is a thin membrane which is also called Plasma membrane. Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic cell lacks a membrane bound nucleus and membraned organelles e. The number of chromosomes is fixed for each species.g. it is present inner to cell wall. Nucleus It is most important and distinct part of the cell. (Diagram) 1. Cytoplasm Cell Wall It is the outer most boundary of plant cells. Electron microscope studies reveal that cellulose fibers in primary and secondary walls have a criss cross arrangement. 1. Under microscope. it controls the movement of material inside or outside the cell. It is also surrounded by a membrane which is called membrane. 2. and cell of union has 16 chromosomes.(v) Electromagnets are used. Secondary wall is thicker than the primary wall. . Functions Cell membrane is selectively permeable membrane. This number is called diploid number (2n). in plants. it to be doubled and nuclear electron appears porous. cells of plants and animals. bacterial cell while eukaryotic cell has a membrane bound nucleus and membraned organelles e. Structure of Cell There are two types of cells: 1. a typical Eukaryotic cell shows the following structural details. Cell Membrane 3.g human's cell has 46 chromosomes.

Outer membrane is smooth while inner membrane has enfolding in the mitochondrial matrix. their number is more than 1000 e. It is present between nuclear membrane and cell membrane. Nucleoli) ribosomal RNA is formed which helps in the formation of ribosome. Number of Mitochondria Their number is different in different cells of different animals. Golgi bodies are in the form of network in some cells or meshwork or filamentous in other cells. It also . 2.s The cells of ear lobes have a few number of mitochondria. enzymes and inorganic compounds like water and salts.s Many oxidation-reduction reaction occur in the mitochondria. proteins. Function Mitochondria re very important organelles of Eukaryotic cell. This the reason that mitochondria are also called "Power house of cell". liver cell. They are involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Their membrane is doubled. The cristemae are stacked over each other. In a living cell. It contains many insoluble granules of storage substances. Function Golgi bodies store the secretions. lipids (fats). Golgi Bodies They were discovered by Camillo Golgi. In more active cells. Functions Cytoplasm provides chemicals. Cytoplasm It is viscous opaque substance. There are about one million elementary particles in one mitochondrian. This energy is used by cell in various functions. These enfolding are called cristae.g. which transport secretions outside the cell. They also have many respiratory enzymes.3. Endoplasmic Reticulum It is a network of tubules and cristemae extending throughout the cytoplasm from nuclear membrane to cell membrane. Smooth endoplasmic Reticulum plays a role in synthesis of lipids. The cristae bear small rounded bodies which are called particles. There are also present organic compounds like carbohydrates. In the nucleolus (plural. many types of organelle of different sizes and shapes are found. Rough endoplasmic reticulum plays an important role in synthesis of proteins. flattened sacs which are called cristernae. site and environment for different biochemical reactions. As a result energy is produced. They consist of set of smooth. convert them into finished products and pack them at their margins into small rounded sacs called Golgi vesicles. Functions 1. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum It is also called granular endoplasmic reticulum because ribosomes are attached on it. Organelles in Cytoplasm Mitochondria They re oval or rod like in shape. Types of Endoplasmic Reticulum Following are the two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum It is also called non-granular endoplasmic reticulum because ribosomes are not attached on it.

Vacuole It is a fluid filled small sac which is bounded by a single membrane. Spindle is composed of protein fibers which help the chromosomes to move. photosynthesis takes place and food is prepared for plant. Increase in size of vacuole results in an increase in size of cell. In some cells. Centriole In animal cells. These re green in colour and found in green parts of plant. These are found in plant cells. These are present in the petals of the flowers and in the ripened fruit. These are found in food storage prts of the plant especially the roots and tubers. Chromoplasts These are second type of plastids. there is a large central vacuole which is filled with water and salts. Functions In chloroplasts. These impart various colours to petals and fruits. The inner membrane forms stacked membrane system which becomes suspended in the stroma. . It is the only organelle which is also found in Prokaryotic cell.transports materials from one part of cell to other. These contain chlorophyll which helps in photosynthesis. which is made up of proteins and other chemicals. In plants. In animal cells. 3. Functions In small organisms. The study of ultra structure reveals that it is bounded by a double membrane. Functions Ribosome is involved in protein synthesis. centrioles help in the formation of flagella or cillia. Ribosomes These are tiny granular structures. These are formed in the nucleolus nd re freely dispersed in cytoplasm or attached with endoplasmic reticulum. The membranes of grana are the sites where photosynthesis occurs in the presence of sun light. Inside the chloroplast there is present a semifluid matrix called called stroma. Plastids These are pigment containing organelles. Many plastids have one or more than one pigments. Functions These help the plants in pollination. extra water and wastes are excreted through contractile vacuoles. Each centriole consists of nine triplets of microtubules. two centrioles are present near the nucleus. Function Centrioles help in spindle formation during division of animal cell. These are colourless plastids. Endoplasmic reticulum provides support to the cell. colours other than green are due to chromoplasts. Each membrane stack is called granum (plural grana. Centrioles are absent in cells of higher plants. These re not bounded by any membrane. These are of various colours other than green. Types of Plastids Plastids are of three types which are as follows: Chloroplasts These are mot important plastids. Leucoplasts These are third type of plastids. These are triangular tubular or of any other shape. There are hollow and cylindrical. while food is digested in food vacuole. these are comparatively smaller in size but many in number while in plant cells.

Metaphase 3. The hereditary material (DNA) is found in cytoplasm. there are also present centrioles on both poles of spindle. Spindle fibers. (v) Cellulose is present in cell wall of plant cells. coiling of chromosomes starts and their length decreases but diameter increases. 6. Microtubules arrange to form a structure called spindle. (ii) These cells lack a membrane bound nucleus. 2. Cytokinesis Prophase 1. animals. Telephase 5. From each centriole. these chromatids are united to each other by means of centromere. Anaphase 4. (v) Cellulose is absent in cell wall. rather it is made up of peptido-glycan or murein. Each chromosome consists of two similar threads like structure called chromatids. this apparatus is made up of only spindle fibers as asters are absent in these cells. small microtubules or fiber arise forming a star shaped aster.g. bacteria and cyanobacteria. 4. (iv) Ribosomes are of large size and are present in endoplasmic reticulum free in cytoplasm. plants fungi and protists. Metaphase . The cell wall of most of fungi is composed of chitin. In animal cell. (vi) These cells are complex and of larger size (Average diameter 10-100nm) Mitosis It is that cell division in which the number of chromosomes in both daughter nuclei remains same as in parent nucleus. (ii) These cells have a membrane bound nucleus. In plants. (iii) These cells have membrane bound organelles. 5.g. In this phase. (Diagram) Events of Mitosis Mitosis has the following phases: 1. (vi) These cells are simple and of smaller size (average diameter 0. (iii) These cells lack membrane bound organelles.10 nm) Eukaryotic Cell (i) The organisms mae of Eukaryotic cells are called Eukaryotes. Nuclear membrane is broken down. (iv) Ribosomes are of small size in and freely scattered cytoplasm. this process is called condensation. It means that chromosomes become shorter and thicker. Prophase 2. centrioles and aster collectively form mitotic apparatus. e. 3. Nucleolus disappears and chromosomes scatter over the spindle fiber.Difference between Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic Cell (i) The organisms made of prokaryotic cells are called prokaryotes e. and hereditary material is found inside the nucleus.5 .

Therefore two nuclei are formed. Mitosis occurs in all types of somatic cells. 2. In animals. It is divided into five stages during which there is continuous condensation of chromosomes. In this way. cytoplasm divides by furrowing. During this. Meiosis It is that type of cell division in which cytoplasm and nucleus divides twice and as a result of this. one set of chromosomes moves towrds one pole while other towards the other pole. 2. . mitosis continues up to maturity of an individual. Each daughter nucleus has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It gradually extends outward and finally two daughter cells are separated. 2. four daughter cells are formed and chromosome number is reduced to half. 3.1. Cytokinesis The division of cytoplasm is called cytokinesis. Mitosis also results in growth and repairing of damaged or worn out tissues. In this condition. In plant cell. 2. Nuclear membrane reforms and nucleolus appears too. there occurs inward pinching of cell membrane resulting into two daughter cells. It means that one diploid (2n) parent cell divides to form four haploid (n) daughter cells. all cells of body of an organism have same number of chromosomes. 3. First of all spindle fibers shrink and become short. At this stage these are not called chromatids because these are no in united condition these are called chromosomes. The chromosomes are attached at their centromere to one spindle fiber from each pole. In mitosis. 5. Significance of Mitosis 1. Telophase 1. The important process of this phase is synapsis in which homologous chromosomes pair with each other length wise. Meiosis I 2. 4. Meiosis II Meiosis I It has following stages: Prophase I 1. 3. It is lengthy than prophase of mitosis. These chromosomes start moving slowly towards the opposite poles. cytoplasm divides by formation of cell plate which is also called phragmoplast. Daughter cells formed as a result of mitosis have same number of chromosomes as that of parent cell. chromosomes become more visible. Healing of wounds is also due to mitosis. In this way. The chromosomes arrange themselves on equator of the spindle to form an equatorial plate. The chromosomes reach their poles. Meiosis consists of two sub divisions: 1. The centromere of each chromosome then divides and the two chromatids of each chromosome start separating. two daughter cells are formed from one parent cell which are identical to their parent cell. Anaphase 1. Zygote divides by mitosis to form embryo and after hatching or birth. 2. It is very important phase. It begins at the last stages of nuclear division. The chromosomes uncoil and become less visible.

6. Each cell is haploid (n). 3. Tissues A group of cells which perform same function is known as tissue. If gametes had the same number of chromosomes as in somatic cells. At end of this phase. The haploid cells formed in meiosis I pass through phases of meiosis II and ultimately four haploid (n) daughter cells are formed. In this. Homologous pairs of chromosomes are separated. Exchange of genetic material occurs during meiosis. Half the number of chromosomes reach at opposite poles. pairing of chromosomes takes place which is called synapsis. Chromosomes again increase their length. 5. Simple Tissues 2. After synapsis. the process of crossing over takes place. The tissues are divided into different types on the basis of their form and structure or function. Telephase I 1. Anaphase I 1. Spindle fibers contract. Like mitosis. Each pair consists of four chromatids or two chromosomes. 2. Now cytoplasm divides and two daughter cells are formed. homologous bivalents arrange at equatorial plate of spindle. Meiosis II It is similar to mitosis. 3. Gametes unite to form a diploid zygote. mitotic apparatus is also formed here. 2. Chromosomes begin to move towards the opposite poles. The chromosomes arrange on scatter of the spindle. 5. 2. Only one spindle fiber is attached to each chromosome. Here. In this way variations are produced which are raw material for evolution. 4. 4. 7. During meiosis. Nuclear membrane is reformed and in this way two daughter nuclei are formed.3. 4. Nucleolus reappears. 2. Nucleolus disappears and chromosomes scatter over the spindle. (Diagram) Metaphase I 1. 3. nuclear membrane breaks up. 3. the number of chromosomes would have doubled after each generation in a species. These cells afterwards change into spores (in plants or gametes (animals) Significance of Meiosis 1. The number of chromosomes is constant for each species. This phase is different from metaphase of mitosis because half the number of chromosomes moves towards each pole and each chromosome still has two chromatids. gametes (both and) formed are haploid. 6. homologous chromosomes exchange their chromatids parts at certain places. Meiosis takes place only in germ mother cells which form gametes or spores. Compound Tissues . 4. During meiosis. It maintains the chromosome number of a species constant generation after generation. Plant Tissues Following are the types of tissues in plants: 1.

In this way. and these add. There are non intercellular spaces. Cells are large in size. These are more flexible or elastic than sclerenchyma. This type of growth is called secondary growth. Usually walls are thickened at angles. parenchyma. Supporting or Mechanical Tissues These provide strength flexibility to the plant. 6. 2. 5. There are no intercellular spaces. 2. Cells are rectangular in shape. All cells are identical. In the epidermal tissues of stem and leaves. Cytoplasm is dense nd nucleus is big in these cells. secondary tissues. Ground Tissues (a) Epidermal Tissues 1. These are given below: a. 3. Their walls are thin and nucleus is present in centre of cell. 5. 4.Simple Tissues Simple tissues consists of only one type of cells. and redivide to add primary tissue for elongation of setm or root. 5. 8. they are of following types: 1. 3. In plants. Their main functions are to prepare and store food and water. They are found as the outermost covering of leaf. Collenchyma Tissues b. 4. They are of following two types: a. 2. there are small openings called stomata for gaseous exchange. The cells of these tissues divide. in midrib of leaves and in cortex of petiole. 4. Permanent Tissues The cells of this tissue lack the ability to divide and they originate from meristems. 4.e. Sclerenchyma Tissues (a) Collenchyma Tissues 1. Most of the portion of body of herbaceous plants consists of ground tissues i. They are thin walled. Permanent Tissues Meristematic Tissues 1. Vacuoles are smaller if present other wise absent. Cells of this tissue have ability to divide. These tissues are found in stem. Epidermal Tissues b. 7. Meristematic or embryonic tissues 2. (b) Sclerenchyma Tissues 1. This type of growth is called primary growth. thickness of stem or root is increased. These consist of dead cells. . Meristematic cells are also found on the lateral sides of roots and stems as lateral(cambium) or intercalary meristem. These tissues found on apex of root or shoot are called apical meristems. Their walls are not uniformly thickened. 2. 3. stem or root. (b) Ground Tissues 1. 3. These consist of living cells. Cells sometimes may develop the ability to divide.

It helps in two directional conduction of food material i. Xylem conducts water in one direction that is from roots towards the stem and leaves. there are present xylem parenchyma and two types of thick walled dead cells. These Tissues are of following types: Xylem Tissue 1. These transport water from roots to leaves. 3. These provide strength to root and shoot etc. which are called sieve tubes. Animal Tissues Following are four types of tissues that are found in animals: 1. These cells join to form long pipelines. Muscle Tissues 4. Centripetal Force Definition "The force that causes an object to move along a curve (or a curved path) is called centripetal . There is no nucleus in these cells. (b) Sieve Tube Cells Their end walls have small pores called sieve plates. Lignin provides hardness and strength to the cell. This tissue mostly consists of living cells. They can start to divide when needed. each sieve tube cell is accompanied by a companion cell. The companion cell has a nucleus. 4. But all cells perform a common function. Nerve Tissues Physics. In this tissue. which are called tracheicts. found in testa of seeds. Sclerenchyma cells are of two types. They are joined together to form long pipe-lines. 2. There are three types of cells (a) Phloem Parenchyma (b) Sieve Tube Cells (c) Companion Cells (a) Phloem Parenchyma These cells store surplus water and food. 3. Phloem Tissues 1. Connective Tissues 3. 2.Chapter 7 CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITION. The corn cell controls the movement of food through sieve tubes. (c) Companion Cells In some plants. This vascular tissue transports water in the plants and provides strength to the plant. • Spindle shaped cells.. • Long cells which are called vessel elements or cells. Their main function is to transport food. Their walls are highly thickened due to deposition of lignin. These cells are without protoplasm. •Fibrous cells which are elongated cells found in xylem and phloem for strength and transport of water Compound Tissues These are the tissues which consists of two or more than two types of cells.2. This vascular tissue transports food in the plants.e. from leaves to roots and vice-versa.. Epithelial Tissues 2. •Stone cells having uniformly thick cell walls. 5.. 3.

the centrifugal force is also exerted on the track. According to Newton's third law of motion action and reaction do not act on the same body. • Fc = Centripetal Force • m = Mass of object • v = Velocity of object • r = Radius of the curved path Factors on which Fc Depends: Fc depends upon the following factors: • Increase in the mass increases Fc. Examples • If a stone is tied to one end of a string and it is moved round a circle. It is a well-known fact that Fc is directed towards the centre of the circle. • The pilot while turning his aeroplane tilts one wing in the upward direction so that the air pressure may provide the required suitable Fc. so the centrifugal force does not act on the body moving round a circle." Explanation Centrifugal force is actually a reaction to the centripetal force. • The aeroplane moving in a circle exerts force in a direction opposite to the pressure of air. the required centripetal force is supplied to it by our hand. then the force exerted on the string on outward direction is called centrifugal force.force. but it acts on the body that provides Fc. • When a train rounds a curve. Centrifugal Force Definition "A force supposed to act radially outward on a body moving in a curve is known as centrifugal force. • It increases with the square of velocity. • It decreases with the increase in radius of the curved path. • If a stone tied to a string is whirled in a circle. As a reaction the stone exerts an equal force which is felt by our hand. is directed away from the centre of the circle or the curved path. a(c) < v2 (Here < represents the sign of proportionality do not write this in your examination and 2 represents square of v) a(c) < 1/r Combining both the equations: a(c) < v2/r From Newton's Second Law of Motion: F = ma => F(c) = mv2/r Where." Mathematical Expression We know that the magnitude of centripetal acceleration of a body in a uniform circular motions is directly proportional to the square of velocity and inversely proportional to the radius of the path Therefore. so the centrifugal force. . Examples • The centripetal force required by natural planets to move constantly round a circle is provided by the gravitational force of the sun. which is a force of reaction.

3. TORQUE It is the turning effects of a force about an axis of rotation is called moment of force or torque.. 2. Resultant Force The net effect of two or more forces is a single force. which is directly proportional to the product of masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centres. F < m1m2 ((Here < represents the sign of proportionality do not write this in your examination) Also F < 1/r2 (Here 2 represents square of r) Combining both the equations : F < m1m2/r2 Removing the sign of proportionality and introducing a constant: F = G (m1m2/r2) Physics.. DEFINITIONS 1. that is called the resultant force. two stones are not only attracted towards the earth. Mathematical Expression Two objects having mass m1 and m2 are placed at a distance r. REPRESENTATION Torque may be represented as.. 2. the gravitational attraction exists between all bodies. The magnitude of the applied force. Hence.Law of Gravitation Introduction Newton proposed the theory that all objects in the universe attract each other with a force known as gravitation. Moment Arm The perpendicular distance between the axis of rotation and the line of the action of force is called the moment arm of the force. The perpendicular distance between axis of rotation and point of application of force. Centre of Gravity of Regular Shaped Objects We can find the centre of gravity of any regular shaped body having the following shapes: .Chapter 6 STATICS. the equilibrium and the conditions of equilibrium. Torque = Force * moment arm T=F*d CENTRE OF GRAVITY The centre of gravity is a point at which the whole weight of the body appears to act. Statement Every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force. Static Statics deals with the bodies at rest under number of forces. but also towards each other. According to Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation. FACTORS ON WHICH TORQUE DEPENDS 1.

e the centre of gravity. 4. Using the hole A. Drill a few small holes near the edge of the irregular plate. Repeat the same process using the second hole B. We can use this procedure with any irregular shaped body and find out its centre of gravity. suspend the plate from a nail fixed horizontally in a wall. The centre of gravity is located somewhere on this line. it has the tendency to come back to its initial position. It will be in a position so that its centre of gravity is vertically below the point of suspension. Static Equilibrium When a body is at rest and all forces applied on the body cancel each other then it is said to be in static equilibrium. It is our required point.1. i. Now. 5. 3. Triangle: The point of intersection of all the medians. The lines AA'." Sum of torque = 0 STATES OF EQUILIBRIUM There are following three states of Equilibrium: 1. Dynamic Equilibrium When a body is moving with uniform velocity and forces applied on the body cancel each other then it is said to be in the dynamic equilibrium. then the body is said to be in second condition of equilibrium. In the other word we can also write that: A body is said to be in equilibrium condition if there is no unbalance or net force acting on it. First State (Stable Equilibrium) A body at rest is in stable equilibrium if on being displaced. 2. This gives the line BB' on the plate. then body is said to be in stable equilibrium. then the body is said to be in first condition of equilibrium. Draw a line AA' in the plate along the plumb line. BB' and CC' intersect each other at a point. The plate will come to rest after a few moments." ( Fx = 0 Fy = 0 ) SECOND CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM "A body will be in second condition of equilibrium if sum of clockwise(Moment) torque must be equal to the sum of anticlockwise torque(Moment). EQUILIBRIUM A body will be in equilibrium if the forces acting on it must be cancel the effect of each other. Parallelogram: Point of intersection of the diagonals. suspend a plumb line from the supporting nail.e. CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM FIRST CONDITION OF EQUILIBRIUM "A body will be in first condition of equilibrium if sum of all forces along X-axis and sum of all forces along Y-axis are are equal to zero. Centre of Gravity of Irregular Shaped Objects We can find the center of gravity of any irregular shaped object by using following method. Also repeat this process and use hole C and get line CC'. When the centre of gravity of a body i. Square: Point of intersection of the diagnonals. below the point of suspension or support. Circle: Centre of gravity of circle is also the centre of gravity.e. Sphere: Centre of the sphere. .

REST "When a body does not change its position with respect to its surrounding so the body is said to be in the state of rest". Linear or Translatory Motion If a body moves in a straight path so the body is to be in Linear motion or Translatory motion. Vibratory Motion To and fro motion about the mean point so the body is to be in Vibratory motion. 3. Third State If a body is placed in such state that if it is displaced then neither it topples over nor does it come back to its original position. TYPES OF MOTION There are three types of motion: 1. Example A bus is moving on the road. MOTION "When a body changes its position with respect to its surrounding so the body is said to be in the state of motion". 3. Rotatory motion 3. Rotatory Motion If a body spins or rotates from the fixed point . When the centre of gravity of a body lies at the point of suspension.. the body is said to be in the state of unstable equilibrium. Example The blades of a moving fan. DEFINITION "It is the branch of Physics which deals with description of motion without reference to any opposing or external force". then such state is called neutral equilibrium. 2. When the centre of gravity lies above the point of suspension or support. Second State (Unstable Equilibrium) If a body on displacement topples over and occupies a new position then it is said to be in the state of unstable equilibrium.2.Chapter 4 KINEMATICS. A person is running on the ground.. The wheel of a moving car. Linear or Translatory motion 2. Example Motion of a spring. Vibratory motion 1. then the body is said to be in neutral equilibrium __________________ Physics.so the body is to be in Rotatory motion. .

" 1." OR "Speed in a definite direction is called velocity. 2. Variable speed If a body does not cover an equal distance in equal inteval of time so the body is said to be in variable speed. Uniform Velocity If a body covers an equal distance in equal interval of time in a Constant direction so the body is said to be in uniform Velocity. or m/s Kinds Of Velocity 1. 2.I unit of Velocity in M.A tree in the garden.K. Positive Acceleration ." OR "The rate of change of displacement is called speed. Uniform Speed If a body covers an equal distance in equal interval of time so the body is said to be in uniform speed.Example A book is laying on the table.K.I unit of speed in M.A person is standing on floor." OR "The rate of change of distance is called speed.S system is Meter/second. Variable Velocity If a body does not cover an equal distance in equal interval of time in a particular direction so the body is said to be in variable velocity." FORMULA Velocity = Displacment/Time or V = S/t UNIT The S." FORMULA Speed = Distance/Time or V = S/t UNIT The S. SPEED "The distance covered by a body in a unit time is called speed. or m/s Kinds Of Speed 1. VELOCITY "The distance covered by a body in a unit time in a particular direction is called velocity.S system is Meter/second. ACCELERATION "The rate of change of velocity is called acceleration." OR "Acceleration depends upon the velocity if the velocity continously increases or decreases the accelerattion will be produced.

Chapter 3 SCALAR AND VECTORS SCALAR "Scalar quantity are those physical quantity which are completely specified by their magnitude express with suitable unit." CHARACTERISTICS OF VECTOR QUANTITY 1. 2..1) . But they also require a particular direction for complete their specificaton is called vector quantity. 3. Scalar quantity can be added.subtracted.c VECTOR "VECTOR quantity are those physical quantity which do not require only their magnitude express with suitable unit. express with suitable unit only is called scalar quantity.multiplied. REPRESENTATION It can be represented by an arrow with headline. They do not require any mention of the direction for complete their specificaton is called scalar quantity. It can be added." OR " Scalar quantity are those physical quantity which require magnitude .t.multiplied. express with suitable unit as well as proper direction is called vector quantity..If the velocity continously increases then the acceleration will be positive.multiplied.c.Graphical method e. vector quantity can not be added. REPRESENTATION It can be represented by the numbers with decimals.Temperature.divided according to the ordinary algebraic rule. 2.divided according to the some speciall rules like head and tail rule. Two scalars are equal if they have same unit.subtracted.subtracted.volume.speed e. vector always treats as positive. FORMULA Acceleration = change of velocity/Time or a = (Vf-Vi)/t Physics. The length of an arrow represents its magnitude and the headline represents the direction of the vector(figure 1. (positive negative) EXAMPLE Mass. 2. divided according to the ordinary algebraic rule." OR " vector quantity are those physical quantity which require magnitude .t. Negative acceleration If the velocity continously decreases then the acceleration will be negative." CHARACTERISTICS OF SCALAR QUANTITY 1.Distance.1) -------------------------------------> (figure 1.

The new vector R will be the resultant of the given vector.c ADDITION OF A VECTOR "The process of combining of two or more vector to produce a signal vector having the combinig effect of all the vector is called the resultant of the vector and this process is known as the addition of a vector". 3. It can be measured by the Dee or any suitable mean. 4. First of all chose a suitable scale and representation of all the vector have been drawn on the paper. 2. 1. Now join the tail of the first vector with tail of the second vector such that it join the two vector with head to head and tail to tail by another. Put all the vector for finding the resultant of given vector such that the head of the first vector join the tail of the second vector.This method is called the head and tail or tip to tail rule.Displacement. From a point A draw perpendicular to the horizontal surface OX. /\/\ /| /| /| /| R/|B /| /| /| /| /--------------> A RESOLUTION OF A VECTOR "The process of splitting up of a signal vector into two or more vector is called the resolution of a vector" OR "The process of splitting up of a signal vector into its components is called the resolution of a vector" RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS A vector which is not along x-axis or y-axis it can be resolved into infinite number.t.Torque.Mo mentum e.Acceleraton. but generally a vector can be resolved into its components at a right angle to each other MATHEMATICALLY PROVED suppose a vector F is denoted by a line AB which makes an angle @ with horizontal surface OX. A /\/\ /| /| /| . HEAD AND TAIL RULE Suppose we have two vector A and B having the different magnitude and direction.Velocity.EXAMPLE Weight. 5.

Meter The length of the path traveled by light in vacuum in 1/299.770 periods of radiation of Cesium-133 in ground state. Kilogram (kg): mass (m) 3. 2. Definitions 1. Second (s): time (t) . height (l) 2. distance and height. Kilogram The mass of a Platinum-Iridium cylinder kept at 0 C in International Bureau of Weight and Measurements (IBWM) near Paris is considered to be 1 kilogram.792.Chapter 2 MEASUREMENTS. distance. Second It is equal to the duration of 9. Meter (m): length. Length is a fundamental unit used for measurements of length. Now in the triangle AOB Sin@= AB/OA {sin@= Perpendicular/Hypotonuse} or sin@= Fy/F or Fy= Fsin@ Similarly Cos@= OB/OA {sin@= Base/Hypotonus} or Cos@= Fx/F or Fx= FCos@ For the triangle Tan@= AB/OB {Tan@= per/hyp) or Tan@= Fy/Fx or @=Tan-1 =Fy/Fx SUBTRACTION OF A VECTOR "It is defined as the Addition of A to the negative of a B is called the subtraction of a vector (AB)" Physics. It is equal to the distance between two marks on a Platinum-Iridium bar kept at 0 C in International Bureau of Weight and Measurements (IBWM) near Paris.631..192. 3. Kilogram is a fundamental unit used for measurements of mass. These are given below: 1..The line OB represents its horizontal component and it is denoted by Fx. Fundamental Units The international system of units is based on seven independent units known as Fundamental or Basic Units.458 of a second is known as meter./| F / | B Fy /| /| /| /@|B O /----------------> X Fx The line AB represents its vertical component and it is denoted by Fy.

Mole (mol): amount of substance (n) 7. plastic and metal sheets accurately up to 0. The circular scale rotates over the main scale. The vernier scale (VS) slides over the main scale (MS).s): quantity of electric charge (Q) 13.m): work (W). Pascal (Pa) (N/m2): pressure (P) 10. Cubic meter (m3): volume (V) 3.m/s2): force (F) 9. Tesla (T) (Wb/m2): magnetic flux density (B) 21. quantity of heat (q) 11. Ampere (A): electric current (I) 5. Coulomb (C) (A. Ampere per meter (A/m): magnetic field strength (H) 22.s): magnetic flux (@) 17.01mm. electromotive force (E) 14. Candela (cd): luminous intensity (Iv) Derived Units The units that require two or more basic measurements of same units or different fundamental units for its definition are called derived units. Ohm (Omega): electric resistance (R) 15. 1. Joule (J)(N. Watt (W) (J/s): power (P) 12. Least count of the vernier calipers is calculated by L. Meter per second m/s: speed velocity (V) 6. Newton per coulomb (N/C): electric field strength (E) 20. diameter and depth of solid substances accurately up to 0.4.1mm. Volts per meter (V/m): electric field strength (E) 19. A micrometer screw gauge has two scales. the main scale (MS) and the circular scale (CS). glass. Kelvin (K): temperature (T) 6. Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3): mass density (p) 5. Volt (V) (W/A): potential difference (V). the main scale (MS) and vernier scale (VS). Least Count (LC) The smallest measurement that can be made with the help of a screw gauge is known as least count of screw gauge.s/V): capacitance (C) 16.C = Value of Smallest Division of MS/Total Number of Divisions on VS Micrometer Screw Gauge A screw gauge is an instrument that is used to measure thickness of a wire. Square meter (m2): area (A) 2. Farad (F)(A. Hertz (Hz): frequency (v) 4. Meters per second square (m/s2): acceleration (a) 8.K) specific heat (Q) Vernier Callipers A vernier calipers is an instrument that is used to measure the length. A vernier calipers has two scales. energy(E). Henry (H) (V. Radians per second (rad/s): angular velocity (w) 7. Newton (N) (kg. Vernier Count (VC) The smallest measurement that can be made with the help of a vernier calipers is known as least count of vernier calipers or vernier count (VC). Joules per kilogram Kelvin: (J/kg. Weber (Wb)(V. Least count of the screw gauge is calculated by: .s/A): inductance (E) 18.

L. Acidic Salts An acidic salt is obtained when hydrogen atoms present in an acid. Measuring Cylinder A measuring cylinder is a glass cylinder of uniform area of cross section with a scale in cubic centimeter or millimeter marked on it. Atomic Spectrum Spectrum of radiations emitted by the excited atoms when they come to the normal state.Glossary GLOSSARY Acidity The acidity of a base is defined as the number of ionizable hydroxyl groups in its molecule. are partially replaced by metallic atoms. Atomic Number Number of positively charged particles (protons) present in the nucleus of an atom. Arrehenius Base It is a chemical compound which gives hydroxide ion (OH-) in water. Analytical Chemistry It is the branch of chemistry which discusses the analytical methods forgetting information about chemical compounds and chemical processes. Stop Watch A stop watch is an instrument that is used to measure accurately the time interval for any physical event.C = Pitch of the Screw / Total number of divisions of CS where pitch is the distance between two consecutive threads of the linear screw. It can be used to measure the fraction of a second. Alpha Rays There are positively charged particles emitted from a radioactive substance.. Arrehenius Acid It is a chemical compound which gives proton (H+) in water. Chemistry. it is the lever of the first kind with equal arms.. It is used to measure the volume of a liquid. which is 1/12th o the mass of C-12. Ampere The amount of electric current which liberate one electrochemical equivalent of a substance per . Alchemist A scientist trying to convert cheaper metals into precious metals is called Alchemist and this branch of chemistry is called Alchemy. Atomic Mass The mass of an element relative to the unit mass. Its units are nm or pm. Physical Balance A physical balance is an instrument that is used to find the mass of an object. Anode It is an electrode through which electrons enter the external circuit. Atomic Size Average distance between the nucleus of an atom and its outermost electronic shell. They carry two positive charges and are called helium nuclie. Actually.

liquid and a gas. Basicity The basicity of an acid is defined as the number. Colloidal Solution A solution in which solute particles are bigger than those present in a true solution and which cannot be filtered. a coordinate covalent bond is formed. Beta Rays These are electrons emitted from a radioactive substance. Chemistry The branch of science. Boiling Point A temperature at which a liquid changes into gaseous state.second during electrolysis of that substance is called ampere. Cohesive Forces The forces of attraction present between the particles of solid. Brownian Movement The free movement of the molecules of gases and liquids is called Brownian movement. Concentration of a Solution . Chemical Equation The representation of a chemical change in terms of symbols and formulas. Cathode It is an electrode through which electrons leave the external circuit. Conductor A substance which allows electric current to pass through it. Biochemistry It is the study of chemical compounds present in living things. which deals with the composition of matter changes in matter and the laws or principles which govern these changes. Cathode Rays Rays emitted from cathode in the discharge tube. Covalent Solid A solid in which there exist a covalent bond between atoms. Co-Ordinate Covalent Bond When the shared pair of electrons is provided by one of the bonded atoms. Bronsted Acid A compound which can donate proton. Bronsted Base A compound which can accept proton. Covalent Bond It is the force of attraction that arises between two atoms due to mutual sharing of an electron pair. Basic Salts A basic salt is obtained when the hydroxyl groups present in a base are partially replaced by some other groups. Balancing of Chemical Equations Equating the atoms of reactants with those of products. of ionizable hydrogen atoms present in its molecule.

Non-Metals have no luster. Double Salts When two typical salts are crystallized together a double salt is formed. Metals and Non Metals Metals 1. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Mixture Homogeneous Mixture 1. 4. Metals have luster shine surface. Non-Metals are non ductile and cannot be drawn into wire.. Those mixtures. Metals reflect heat and light. Non-Metals are non-malleable and can not form sheets. Homogeneous mixture are also known as solution. Cell The vessel containing reacting substances in which transfer of electrons takes place is called cell. 2. Dipole-Dipole Forces The forces of attraction which originate due to the difference in electro negativities of the bonded atoms in polar molecules. Discharge Tube A glass tube containing a gas at a very low pressure and provided with electrodes to study the passage of electricity through the gas. 3. Dilute Solution A solution.. 3. Metals conduct heat and electricity 4. Concentrated Solution A solution. 3. which have uniform composition throughout their mass are called homogeneous mixtures. When one ampere electric current is passed for one second the quantity of electric current is one coulomb. Non-Metals do not conduct heat and electricity. Non-Metals 1. which contains an excess amount of a solute as compared to that of a solvent. which contains a small amount of a solute as compared to that of a solvent. Metals are ductile and can be drawn into wire. The physical properties of the crystals of double salt are different from those of the component salts Chemistry.General Differences DIFFERENCES. Diffusion The movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a Lowr concentration is called Diffusion. Coulomb It is unit of electric current. Homogeneous mixture has only one phase through out its mass. 2.The amount of a solute which has been dissolved in a particular amount of a solvent. . 5. 2. Non-Metals usually don't reflect heat and light.

02 x 10(23) atoms. 4. 2. Empirical Formula 1. Symbol and Formula Symbol 1. 5. 3. It is the mass of one atomic mole. Two or more compounds can have same Empirical Formula. Empirical Formula can not show the structure of compound. (23 is the power of 10). Symbol is written for elements. It represents an ionic compounds as well as a covalent compound. Those mixtures. Representation of compound in terms of symbols is called formula.4.02 x 10(23) atoms. NH3 etc. 3. 4. A symbol is an abbreviation for the chemical name of an element and represents only one atom of the element. Br. F etc. Gram and Gram Molecule Gram 1. It is associated with element only. It represent an ionic compound as well as a covalent compound. . 3. 3. Empirical Formula = Molecular Formula / n 5. Two or more compounds cannot have same Molecular Formula. Molecular and Empirical Formula Molecular Formula 1. It represents atoms of same or different elements present in one molecule. One gram molecule of any substance contains 6. Gram Molecule 1. 4. formula. which shows the relative ratio of atoms of each element present in a molecule. Sugar and water. which do not have uniform composition through their mass are called Heterogeneous Mixture. It represents one atom of an element. Formula which shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule is called Molecular Formula. Heterogeneous Mixture has more than one phase through out its mass. 2. Heterogeneous Mixture are not solutions. The atomic mass of an element expressed in grams is called gram atomic mass. Molecular Formula shows the structure of compound. One gram atom of any substance contains 6. 4. 2. Soil. 3. Cl. Examples: H2O. It represents covalent compounds only. 3. 4. Food products. 2. 4. is called Empirical Formula. Examples: Rocks. Examples: Na. Molecular mass of any element or compound expressed in grams is called gram molecule. 2. It represents one atom of an element. It is the mass of one molecular mole. 4. 2. Examples: Salt and water. 3. It is associated with element and compound. Molecular Formula = n x Empirical Formula. 2. (23 is the power of 10). Formula 1. Heterogeneous Mixture 1.

It retains its identity in a chemical reaction. the system becomes colder and net potential energy of substance increases. It shows the properties of the element. Chemistry. Those chemical reactions in which heat energy is absorbed are called endothermic reactions. 2. formation of a magnet from ice etc.. H is therefore negative for an exothermic reaction. The temperature of reaction therefore decreases. During endothermic reaction. It is the smallest particle of an element which can enter into a chemical reaction. Exothermic and Endothermic Reactions Exothermic Reaction 1. 3. The chemical properties of a substance indicate the ability of a substance to undergo chemical changes. In endothermic reactions the enthalpy of reactants is lower than the products. During endothermic reaction. rusting of iron. Endothermic Reactions 1. It is represented by a molecular formula of the substance. The energy is absorbed during these reactions. the system becomes colder and net potential energy of substance increases. It shows the properties of the substance. Those chemical reactions in which heat energy is evolved are called exothermic reactions. 2. . Molecule 1. 3. The physical properties of a substance are those characteristics which serve to distinguish it from other substance but do not deal with its ability to undergo chemical changes. 4. It does not retain its identity in a chemical reaction. 3. 4. 3. Physical and Chemical Properties Physical Properties 1.Atom and Molecule Atom 1. The energy is absorbed during these reactions. In exothermic reactions the enthalpy of products is lower than the reactants. 3. 4. 3. The temperature of reaction therefore decreases. Chemical Properties 1. 2.. Examples: burning of paper. 2. 2. 2.. It is represented by a symbol of the element. These are related to the physical state of matter. They are related to the chemical change of a substance. H is therefore positive in endothermic reaction. Electro-Chemistry The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of chemical energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to chemical energy is called electro-chemistry. 5. 5. It is the smallest particle of a substance which can exist and show all the properties of the substance. 4. Examples: Formation of ice from water.Chapter 7 ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY.

Conductors Those substances through which electric current can pass are called conductors. For example all metals are conductors. Non-Conductors Those substances through which electric current cannot pass are called non-conductors. For example plastic, wood are non-conductors. Electrolysis The process in which electricity passes through the aqueous or infused state of some substance. The substances itself decompose into its component. This process is called electrolysis. Electrolyte The compound in molten state or in aqueous solution through which electricity can pass are called electrolyte. Non-Electrolyte Those compounds through which electricity cannot pass are called non-electrolyte. Strong Electrolyte The substances which are highly soluble and completely ionized are called strong electrolyte. For example acids, bases and salts are strong electrolytes. Weak Electrolyte The substances which are not highly soluble and remain in un-ionized form are called weak electrolyte. Electroplating A process in which metal is deposited on the surface of another metal by electrolysis is called electroplating. Objectives of Electroplating Decoration It is done for decoration. Noble and precious metals like gold or silver are deposited on the inferior metals to enhance their beauty and look beautiful. Protection Electroplating is done to protect the metals from rusting as well as from attack of other substance like organic acids and acidic gases. Repair It can be used to repair the broken machinery by electroplating with other metals. Usually the metals like copper, silver, chromium, nickel and gold are used for electroplating. Procedure of Electroplating The metal which is to be electroplated is first cleaned with sand and then washed with caustic soda solution and finally with a lot of water. This metal is made cathode and the metal which is going to be deposited is made anode. The electrolyte is a salt of metal being deposited and electroplating is carried out in a tank made of cement, glass or wood. It is called an electrolytic tank. The electrolyte should have following properties:

1. It must be very soluble in water. 2. It must be good conductor. 3. Cheap 4. May not easily oxidized or reduced or hydrolyzed. (Diagram) Chemistry....Chapter 6 SOLUTION AND SUSPENSION Solution A homogeneous mixture of different chemical substances which has uniform chemical composition through out and shows uniform physical properties is called solution. For example dissolve a small amount of copper sulphate in water the water will become blue. If this blue liquid is filtered, it will pass through the filter paper without leaving any solid. The mixture thus prepared is called a solution. Binary Solution A solution which is formed by mixing two substances is called binary solution. For example solution of glucose and water. Solute The component of a binary solution which is in lesser amount is called solute. For example in copper sulphate solution, copper sulphate is solute. Solvent The component of a binary solution which is in greater amount is called solvent. For example in copper sulphate solution, water is solvent. Saturated solution A solution in which maximum amount of a solute has been dissolved at a particular temperature and in which the dissolved form of solute is at equilibrium with its undissolved form is called saturated solution. Unsaturated Solution Solution which can dissolve further amount of a solute at a [particular temperature is called an unsaturated solution. Supersaturated Solution The solution which contains even more amount of solute required to prepare saturated solution is called super saturated solution. The hot saturated solution of compound like sodium thiosulphate does not crystallize its solute if cooled slowly without disturbance. Such a solution is called supersaturated solution. Dilute Solution A solution which contains small amount of a solute as compared to the solvent is called dilute solution. Concentrated Solution A solution which contains excess amount of a solute as compared to that of a solvent is called a concentrated solution. Concentrated Solution The amount of solute present in given quantity of solvent is called concentration of solution. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in many ways depending upon the amount o solute and solvent present in it.

Concentration of Solution The amount of solute present in given quantity of solvent is called concentration of solution. The concentration of a solution can be expressed in many ways depending upon the amount of solute and solvent present in it. Percentage by Mass The percentage of solute by mass is the mass of solute present in hundred part of the solution. For example 5% hydrogen peroxide solution by mass means that 5g hydrogen peroxide are dissolved in 95g of water to give 100g of solution. Percentage of Mass = (Mass of Solute/Mass of Solution) x 100 Percentage by Volume The concentration unit expresses the volume of solute present in 100cm3 of solution. For example 15% solution of alcohol by volume will mean that 15cm3 alcohols are present in 100cm3 of solution. (Here 3 represents cube) Percentage by Volume = (Volume of Solute/Volume of Solution) x 100 Molar Solution The solution that contains one mole of solute in 1dm3 of solution is called a molar solution. The concentration of this solution is expressed as M. Molarity Molarity of a solution is the number of moles of solute present in 1dm3 of the solution. It is expressed as M. M = Number of Moles of Solute/Volume of Solution in dm3 or M = (Mass of solute/Molecular Mass) x (1/ Volume of Solution in dm3) Crystallization The process in which crystal separates from saturated solution on cooling is called crystallization. It is a useful process because it can be used to purify the impure solid compounds. It can also be used to separate a mixture of solids. Hydration The ions surrounded by solvent molecules in solution are called solvated ions. If water is a solvent these ions are called hydrated ions. Suspension A suspension in such a mixture in which solute particles do not dissolved in solvent and if filtrated its particles do not pass through the pores of filter paper. Colloidal Solution In a colloidal solution the solute particles are slightly bigger than those present in a true solution but not big enough to seen with naked eye. Standard Solution A solution whose molarity (strength) is known is called Standard Solution. True Solution A True Solution is such a mixture in which solute particles are completely homogenized in the solvent for example solution of sodium chloride or copper sulphate in water. Solubility Solubility o a solute in a particular solvent is defined as the amount of solute in grams, which can dissolve in 100g of the solvent at a particular temperature to give a saturated solution. or The amount of a solute in gram moles, which can dissolve in one kilogram of the solvent at a

there are a large number of compounds whose solubility in water increase with the increase in temperature e. On the other hand. to give a saturated solution.e. molecules or ions. it is found that the concentration of sodium chloride solution is 5. Liquid 3. 3.g. The three states of one matter may have different physical properties while their chemical properties are same. In liquids the rate of their movement is very small but in solids. Potassium chloride etc. i. So its is called Kinetic Theory of Matter. The solubility of gases in water also decreases with the increase in temperature. If there is dissimilarity in properties. silver nitrate. All matter is composed of atoms. the solubility will increase. These particles have kinetic energy due to which they are in the state of motion. In other words. liquid and gas(steam) has same chemical properties. solid These are physical states of matter. This is due to the fact that the attraction of sodium (Na+ and chloride (Cl-) ions with water is greater than that of sugar molecules with water. then either the solute will not dissolve or there will be very little solubility. Water exists in three physical states solid (ice).particular temperature.8 molar. 2. In gaseous state. But this theory was also able to explain the composition of liquid and solid state of matter. there is to and fro motion only. the solubility of sodium chloride in water does not increase appreciably with the increase in temperature STATES OF MATTER.3 molar while that of sugar solution is 3. They collide with one another and with the walls of container. Kinetic Theory of Matter The Kinetic theory was presented to explain the properties of gases and is called kinetic theory of gases. if the saturated solutions of table sugar and sodium chloride are prepared. Usually the solubility increase with the increase in temperature but it cannot be taken as a general rule. 4. States of Matter Matter has three states: 1. i.g. The solubility of compounds like lithium carbonate.e. Factors Affecting the Solubility Effect of Solvent Similar solvents dissolve similar solutes. Generally material particles can have three types of movements. the solubility of sodium chloride in water is far greater than that of sugar. if the chemical structure and the electrical properties such as dipole moment of solute and solvent are similar. translational. According to Kinetic Theory of matter: 1. sodium nitrate. these particles move in a straight line. Gas 2. calcium chromate decreases with the increase in temperature. Effect of Temperature Change in temperature has different effects on the solubility of different compounds. Effect of Solute Different solutes have different solubility's in a particular solvent e. rotational .

At melting point. At a particular temperature the vibrational motions become fast that they overcome the cohesive forces and solid melts to liquid. Melting Point The temperature at which the solid is converted to liquid on heating is called melting point. Indefinite Volume and Shape In gaseous state. So liquid is converted to vapours at all temperature. Heat increases the kinetic energy of the particles and they start vibrating at higher frequency. 3. the molecules have insignificant cohesive forces among themselves. 5. 4. Effect of Heat The physical state of solid substance can be changed by heating. Properties of Liquid 1. Solids The state of matter which has definite shape and volume is called solid. So due to restrict movements of particles. The solid collapses and turns to liquid.Motion of Particles The solid particles have vibrational motion only because these particles are held in fixed position by strong cohesive forces. The molecules of liquid are able to move. 4. Definite Volume and Shape The cohesive forces in solid substances are so strong that they keep their particles arranged in fixed positions. 2. 3. Gas The state of matter which does not have definite shape and volume is called gaseous state. Due to this random motion the molecules of liquid do not have fixed position and as a result. Properties of Gaseous State 1. the particles of solid loose their means position and their arrangement. They move very fast in all possible directions. . They adopt the shape of the container. As a result. liquids have definite volume and keep their level as well. In liquid particles are very close to one another and have cohesive forces among the particles. Liquid The state of matter having definite volume but indefinite shape is called liquid. a gas neither has fixed shape nor a fixed volume. ammonium chloride and naphthalene change directly into vapour state upon heating. On heating solid is converted to liquid and gaseous state.and vibrational. Sublimation The conversion of some solids directly into gaseous state on heating is called sublimation. Iodine. Boiling Point The temperature of a liquid at which its vapour pressure becomes equal to the atmospheric pressure is called boiling point. Due to the presence of cohesive forces. The molecules of liquid come to the surface of liquid and escape by overcoming cohesive forces. 2. Volume Liquids have definite volume. Evaporation Conversion of liquid into its vapours at any temperature is called evaporation. Properties of Solids 1. the solids have definite volume and shape. Shape Liquids do not have any specific shape. a liquid does not have any specific shape.

The molecules of gas not only collide with one another but also with the walls of the container in which they are enclosed. Kinetic Energy The kinetic energy of molecules of gas is very high as compared with solid and liquid. Hydrogen being lighter gas will diffuse faster than oxygen or carbon dioxide.. 3. When the concentration of molecules at both the places becomes equal the process of diffusion stops." When a pollen grain is put in water. The colliding water molecules will also force pollen grain to move as well. Since the molecules of liquid move comparatively slowly than gas molecule. Graham's Law of Diffusion Scottish Chemist. The movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration is known as Diffusion. Kinetic Energy of the Particle of a Gas Gas particles have very high kinetic energy as compared to liquid and solid state. Diffusion. Diffusion in Liquids Liquid molecules can also diffuse because they have free movement. Experiment Put a drop of milk on a microscope slide and cover it with cover slip. The students can observe Brownian movement with the help of simple experiment. Elastic Collision The collision of gas molecules is elastic in nature which means that the total energy of the colliding molecules remains the same before and after the collision. Thomas Graham (1833) discovered that lighter gs can diffuse through porous pot faster than the heavier one. It is observed that pollen grain is continuously moving in all directions. Pressure The molecules of a gas are in the state of random motion. their rate of diffusion are also lesser than gases. the velocity of the molecules changes every moment. 5. The pressure exerted by gas is also due to the collision of its molecules with the walls of the container. its smell will spread uniformly throughout the room. The movement of fat particles is actually due to the movement of water molecules in milk. Due to their collision. If the concentration of molecules at a particular place is higher. This is called Graham's Law of Diffusion.2. The liquid perfume present in the bottle volatilized slowly and its vapours diffuse through out the room. Put it under microscope and observe it.. Diffusion in Gases The molecules of one gas can diffuse easily into the molecules of other gas. . they start moving towards a place where their concentration is lower. This free movement of pollen grain was due to the free movement of water molecules. The movement of pollen grain in water is observed by microscope.Chapter 4 PERIODICITY OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODIC TABLE. Brownian Movement Robert Brown (1927) discovered this phenomenon: The free movement of the molecules of gases and liquid is called Brownian Movement. You will see small particle of fat moving randomly in milk. Chemistry.. 4. For example if an open bottle of a perfume is kept in a room.

Important Features of Mendeleyv's Periodic Table . According to Mendeleyv's when the element were arranged in order of their increasing atomic mases. Mendeleyv's stated this periodicity in the form of Periodic Law. Law of Triads A German Chemist. Arsenic. Noble gases were not discovered at that time and no place was reserved for the undiscovered noble gases. Periodic Law Physical and chemical properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses. Potassium. Copper etc. Antimony etc. arranged chemically similar elements in groups of three on the basis of their atomic masses called Triads and it was found that atomic mass of the middle element was approximately equal to the average of atomic masses of other two elements. Non-Metals Elements which are non or bad conductor of heat and electricity are neither malleable or ductile and have no metallic luster are called Non-Metals like Carbon. Dobereiner (1829). Nitrogen. 2. Drawback or Defect As very few elements could be arranged in such groups. In the same way no blank spaces for the undiscovered elements were present in his table. this classification did not get wide acceptance. Germanium. Gold. Mendeleyv's Period Table and Periodic Law Russian Chemist. Metal Elements which are good conductors of heat and electricity are malleable and ductile and have a metallic luster are called Metals like Sodium. Metalloids Metalloids are semi metals have the properties which are intermediate between a metal and nonmetal like Boron. Group The vertical column of elements in the periodic table are called Groups. Period The horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table are called Periods. This is known as Law of Triads. Chlorine etc. Silicon. every eight element will have similar properties to the first. This is knows as Law of Octaves. Periodicity The repetition of physical and chemical properties of elements periodically is called Periodicity of Properties.Definitions Periodic Table A table of elements obtained by arranging them in order of their increasing atomic number in which elements having similar properties are placed in the same group is called Periodic Table. Mendeleyv's (186) who wa working separately from Lother Mayer published a table of elements.A table obtained in this manner is called Periodic Table. Law of Octaves An English Chemist Newland (1864) stated that if the elements were arranged in the ascending order of their atomic masses. Drawback or Defects 1. the elements with similar properties were repeated after regular interval and were placed one above the other.

Modern Periodic Law and Modern Periodic Table Modern Periodic Law Physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic function of their atomic number. Defects in Mendeleyv's Periodic Table The Mendeleyv's Period Table has following defects: Irregular Position of Some Elements According to Mendeleyv's Periodic Law Potassium (39) should be placed before Argon (40) but he placed Argon (40) before Potassium (39) which goes against his law.The Alkali Metals . Discovery of New Element Mendeleyv's discovered new elements and also guessed their atomic mass and properties. Coinage and Alkali Metals Alkali metals and coinage metals with different properties are placed in the same group. Mosely (1913) says that atomic mas is not fundamental property. next to Calcium (40) should be Titanium (48) but it resembled silicon (28) instead of Aluminium (27). Due to some defects present in Mendeleyv's periodic law. Atomic Mass Correction Mendeleyv's corrected the atomic masses of certain elements on basis of their properties and provided proper place to them in the periodic table. Hence Mendeleyv's periodic law was modified. For example. This forcd the scientists to change Mendeleyv's periodic law. Modern Periodic Table When Mendeleyv's periodic law was modified and new elements were discovered. Group I . The electronic configuration of atoms also played an important role in he arrangement of the modern periodic law. He left vacant space for element with atomic mass 44. This form of periodic table is called "Long form of Periodic Table" because it contains eighteen groups instead of eight but seven periods instead of twelve. Position of Isotopes Mendeleyv's periodic table gives no indication about the position of isotopes. Structure of Atom Mendeleyv's Periodic table gives no idea about structure of atoms.The important features of Mendeleyv's Periodic table are: Periods and Groups The horizontal rows which run from left to right in Periodic Table are called Periods and they are twelve in number. Example When isotopes were discovered. Position of Lanthanides and Actinides Lanthanides and Actinides have not been given proper place in Periodic Table. Mosely introduced the concept of anomic number for the elements. Vacant Spaces Mendeleyv's left many vacant spaces for the still unknown elements. Isotopes were needed different position in the Mendeleyv's periodic table. This defect has been replaced by placing them into two sub groups. The vertical rows which run from top to bottom in periodic table are called groups and they are eight in number. it was thought advisable to arrange the elements on basis of their atomic number instead o increasing atomic mases.

4. Atom cannot be destroyed or produced. They have same mass and properties.. Elements of this group have large tendency to form compounds. These elements occur in nature as silicate mineral and their oxides and hydroxides are strongly basic. (Diagram) Sir William Crooks (1895 performed experiments by passing electric current through gas in the discharge tube at very low pressure. The word alkali is derived from an Arabic word meaning Ashes.The Alkaline Earth Metals The elements of group II are called Alkaline Earth Metals. They exist in solid metallic state. Atoms of different elements combine in a definite simple ratio to produce compounds.. Group II . Atoms of an element are similar in all respects. 2.The elements of group I are called "Alkali Metals". Elements of this group are highly reactive. 3. 2. He observed that at 10-4 (-4 is power to 10) atmosphere . All elements are composed of atoms. It has two electrode. Elements of Group II • Beryllium • Magnesium • Calcium • Strontium • Barium • Radium Chemistry. They are mono atomic. 3.Chapter 3 ATOMIC STRUCTURE Dalton's Atomic Theory The important postulates of Dalton's atomic theory are: 1. a source of electric current and a vacuum pump. 5. Discovery of Electron A discharge tube is a glass tube.. Atom is too small so that it could not be divided into further simpler components. 6. 4. Outer most shell of these elements is incomplete having one electron. Therefore these elements are called Alkaline Earth Metals. Elements of this group are strongly electro-positive. Elements of Group I • Lithium • Sodium • Potassium • Rubidium • Cesium • Francium Properties of Group I 1.

(-19 is power of 10) Natural Radioactivity The phenomenon in which certain elements emit radiation which can cause fogging of photographic plate is called natural radioactivity. They move with speed equal to the 1/10th of the velocity of the light. Beta Rays 1. 2. They can pass through a few millimeter thick metal sheets. These particles are deflected in electric and magnetic fields. They cannot pass through thick-metal foil. They travel with speed equal to velocity of light. These rays were named cathode rays. The temperature of the object rises on which they fall. 2. These particles are deflected towards positive plate of electric field. another type of rays were present in the discharge tube. Discovery of Proton Gold Stein (1886) observed that in addition to the cathode rays. Alpha Rays 1. They move with the speed equal to the velocity of light. Natural radioactivity is nuclear property of the elements. 3. 4. They are very good ionizer of a gas. They are negatively charged. Radium etc. 4. Properties of Cathode Rays The properties of these particles are given below: 1. shining rays are emitted from cathode. They can affect the photographic plate. 2. 2. 4. They are doubly positively charged. These rays were named positive rays. 4. They are deflected towards negative plate of electric field. He2+. These particles are emitted from cathode surface and move in straight line. They produce shadow of opaque object placed in their path. By using perforated cathode in the discharge tube the properties of these rays can be studied. 2. 5. Henri Bequrel (1896) discovered radioactivity. Therefore these rays carry positive charge. When cathode rays strike with gas molecule. Thorium. These rays travel in a direction opposite to cathode rays. 3. They are electromagnetic radiations. . The minimum mass of positive particles is equal to the mass of hydrogen ion (H+).602x10-19 Coulomb. 3. The charge on proton is equal to +1. The positive rays are not emitted from anode. They affect the photographic plate. They are produced by the ionization of residual gas molecules in the discharge tube. Cathode rays are material particles as they have mass and momentum. There are about 40 radioactive elements. 5. These positive ions are called Protons. 3. The elements which omit these rays are called radioactive elements like Uranium.pressure. Properties of Positive Rays 1. In natural radioactivity nuclei of elements are broken and element converted to other elements. 5. They are good ionizer of a gas.Madam Curei also has valuable contribution in this field. The mass of positive rays is equal to the mass of the gas enclosed in the discharge tube. Positive rays are also composed of metered particles. Gamma Rays 1. They are helium nuclei. electrons are removed and positive particles are produced.

Rutherford Experiment and Discovery of Nucleus Lord Rutherford (1911) and his coworkers performed an experiment. Hence energy of electron remains constant. Defects of Rutherford Model Rutherford model of an atom resembles our solar system. The orbit nearest to the nucleus is the first orbit and has lowest energy. The size of the nucleus is very small as compared with the size of atom. According to classical electromagnetic theory. electron being charged body will emit energy continuously. They are weak ionizer of gas. This model was developed for hydrogen atom which has only proton in the nucleus and one electron is revolving around it. Nearly all of the mass of atom is concentrated in the nucleus. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in a fixed orbit. They carry no charge. 3. 2. (Diagram) Bohr's Atomic Model Neil Bohr (1913) presented a model of atom which has removed the defects of Rutherford Model. They observed that most of the particles passed straight through the foil undeflected. The change in energy is related with the quantum of radiation by the equation : E2 . 5. 4.3. 5. gold fail with Alpha particles from a radioactive source. 4. Energy is emitted in the form of radiations. 4. One out of 4000 Alpha particles was deflected at an angle greater than 150. when an electron jumps from higher energy orbit to lower energy orbit. It explains the formation of atomic spectrum. 1. Postulates of Bohr's Atomic Model The main postulates of Bohr's Model are given below: 1. 2. If revolving electron emits energy continuously then there should be a continuous spectrum but a line spectrum is obtained. (Diagram) Conclusion Following conclusions were drawn from the Rutherford's Alpha Particles scattering experiment. It has following defects: 1. The deflection of a few particles over a wide angle of 150 degrees shows that these particles strike with heavy body having positive charge. They bombarded a very thin. The heavy positively charged central part of the atom is called nucleus. 2. As long as electron revolves in a fixed orbit it does not emit and absorb energy.E1 = hv where E1 = Energy of first orbit E2 = Energy of the second orbit h = Planck's constant . The unit of energy emitted in the form of radiations is called quantum. But a few particles were deflected at different angles. 3. Thus the orbit of the revolving electron becomes smaller and smaller until it would fall into the nucleus and atomic structure would collapse. They have high penetration power than alpha and beta rays. When an electron absorbs energy it jumps from lower energy orbit to higher energy orbit. The fact that majority of the particles went through the foil undeflected shows that most of the space occupied by an atom is empty.

The percentage of deutrium in naturally occuring hydrogen is about 0. The proton in the nucleus of an atom is equal to number of electrons revolving around its nucleus. It is denoted by symbol H. It has one proton in its nucleus and one electron revolve around the nucleus. T. It has one electron revolving around its nucleus.v = Frequency of radiation Atomic Number The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom is called atomic number or proton number. It has one proton and 2 neutrons in its nucleus. The protons and neutrons together are called nucleon. Isotopes of Different Elements Isotopes of Hydrogen Hydrogen has three isotopes: 1. H. Mass Number = No of Protons + No of neutrons A=Z+N Isotopes The atoms of same elements which have same atomic number but different mas number are called Isotopes. the number of neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom is rperesented by N. Ordinary Hydrogen or Protium. It has one proton and one neutron in its nucleus. Hence it is also known as nucleon number. It is denoted by z. It is denoted by A. 3. It is denoted by symbol T. • Number of Proton = 1 • Number of Electron = 1 • Number of Neutrons = 1 • Atomic Number = 1 • Mass Number = 2 Tritium Radioactive hydrogen is called tritium. Heavy Hydrogen or Deutrium. Radioactive Hydrogen or Tritium. • Number of Proton = 1 . • Number of Protons = 1 • Number of Electrons = 1 • Number of Neutrons = 0 • Atomic Number = 1 • Mass Number = 1 Deutrium Deutrium is called heavy hydrogen. 2. Mass Number The total number of the protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom is called mass number. It is denoted by symbol D. The number of tritium isotope is one in ten millions. D. Protium Ordinary naturally occurring hydrogen contains the largest percentage of protium. It has one electron revolving around its nucleus.0015%. The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom remains the same but number of neutrons may differ.

it moves in a straight line with uniform velocity. STATEMENT "Every body continues its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight path until it is acted upon by an external. SECOND LAW OF MOTIONS STATEMENT "When a force acts on an object it produces an acceleration which is directly proportion to the amount of the force and inversely proportional to the product of mass" EXPLANATION It is well known fact that if we push a body with greater force then its velocity increases and change of velocity takes place in the direction of the force. When we apply a force. but when we apply an opposite force.• Number of Electron = 1 • Number of Neutron = 2 • Atomic Number = 1 • Mass Number = 3 Physics. or unbalance force to change its state of rest or uniform motion". it changes its state of rest and starts moving along a straight line.. If we apply a certain force F on a mass m. When Body is in Motion Newton's Law states that when a body is moving. NEWTON FIRST LAW OF MOTIONS Newton's first law of motion is also known as the Law of Inertia. EXPLANATION This law consists of a two parts (a) When body is at rest (b) When body is moving with uniform velocity When Body is At Rest Newton's Law states that when a body is at rest.. then it moves with certain velocity in the direction of the force. In this way if we go on increasing the fore there will be increase in velocity. Examples • A body riding a push-bike along a leveled road does not come to rest immediately when we apply a force.Chapter 5 FORCE AND MOTION. it changes its state of rest and starts moving along a straight line. it continues its rest unless we apply a force on it. If the force becomes twice then its velocity will also increase two times. • If a bus suddenly starts moving. DERIVATION . DYNAMICS "It is the branch of Physics which deals with causes of motion and their effects" LAW OF MOTIONS Newton formulated three laws of motion in his book. but the upper part of the body remains at rest due to inertia and so the passengers fall in backward direction. it changes its state of motion and come to rest. It is due to the reason that the lower part of the passengers which is in contract with the floor of the bus is carried forward by the motion of the bus. the passengers standing in the bus will fall in the backward direction.. which will increase the acceleration.

K. a < F { here < is the sign of directly proportional : Do not write this sentence in examination } and inversely proportional to the product of mass a < 1/m Combining all:. THIRD LAW OF MOTION " To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction " EXPLANATION According to Newton's Law of Motion. FORMULA W = mg UNIT The unit of weight in M.K.F(BA) F(AB) represents the force exerted on A and F(BA) is the force exerted on B.According to the Newton`s Second law of motion when a force acts on an object it produces an acceleration which is directly proportion to the amount of the force. WEIGHT It is a force with which earth attracts towards its centre is called weight. FORMULA F = ma m = F/a UNIT The unit of mass in M. If we consider one of the interacting objects as A and the other as B. We can further say that: Force is an agent which stops or tends to stop the motion of a body. MASS The quantity of matter contained in a body is called mass.S system is Kilograme (kg) 3. a = F/m or F = ma 1.S system is Newton (N). Examples • We we walk on the ground. we push the ground backward and as a reaction the ground pushes . a < F/m a = K F/m If the Value of K is 1 so. 2. FORCE Force is an agent which produces motion in a body but some time force may not be succeeded to produce motion in a body so we can say that the force is an agent which produces or tends to produce motion in a body. In simple word we can also say that force is an agent which changes or tends to change the sate of an object. then according to the third law of motion: F(AB) = .F(reaction The negative (-) sign indicates that the two forces are parallel but in the opposite direction. we have: F(action) = .

As a result he may fall. It is due to the fact that the lower part of the standing passengers comes to rest as the bus stops.. 3. it is said to do work. The table as a reaction pushes the book upward.Joule • C. Hence: W = Force * Displacement . If a moving bus stops suddenly. Physics. Watt Watt is the unit of power that is equal to the quantity of 1 Joule work done in 1 second.G. it exerts some force on the table. 2. If the stroke has been made correctly. INERTIA Definition "Inertia is the tendency of a body to resist a change in its state. which is equal to the weight of the book. Joule It is the work done by a force of one Newton when the body is displaced one meter. Now strike the post card swiftly with the nail of your finger. Fx = Fcos@ Fy = Fsin@ As the machine moves along the ground. But the upper portion remains in motion due to inertia. Work When a force produces displacement in a body.Erg Explanation When force is applied in the direction of the displacement we can find the work by using definition Work = Force * Displacement W = F*s W = Fs Suppose a man is pulling the grass cutting machine then the direction of the foce and displacement is not same. • If a book is placed on the table." Examples Cover a glass with a post card and place a coin on it.I System . the postcard will be thrown away and the coin will drop in the glass. 5. In this case force is resolved into its components. Force It is an agent that moves or tends to move or stops or tends to stop a body. so Fx is doing the work.us forward. Foot Pound (ft-lb) It is the work done by a force of one pound when the body is displaced one foot.Chapter 8 WORK. The applied force makes an angle @ with the ground while the motion takes place along the ground. ENERGY AND POWER. 4. Units of Work • S.S System . This is the reason thta the book is stationary on the table and it does not fall down.. Erg It is the work done by a force of one Dyne when the body is displaced one centimeter. the passenger standing in it feels a jerk in the forward direction. Definitions 1. Due to this reason we are able to move on the ground.

• A railway engine moving at high speed. Some Types of Energy • Potential Energy • Kinetic Energy • Chemical Energy • Heat Energy • Light Energy • Nuclear Energy Potential Energy Definition The energy possessed by a body due to its position is known as the Potential Energy of the body. Mathematical Expression If we lift a body of mass m to a height h. So. and is measured in Joules in System International. Energy is also measured in Joules. It is represented by P. • The compressed spring. • Motion of a simple pendulum. Examples The energy of the following is kinetic energy: • A bullet fired from a gun. Examples The energy of the following is potential energy: • A brick lying on the roof of a house. Definitions 1. Work = Force * Distance W=W*h Since W = mg. = mgh Kinetic Energy Definition The energy possessed by a body due to its motion is known as the Kinetic Energy of the body. It is represented by K..W = Fcos@*s W=Fscos@ Energy Energy is define as the capability to do work. Physics.Chapter 9 MACHINES. then the force applied on it is the its weight and it will act through a distance h. • Water stored up in elevated reservoir in water-supply system. • The spring of a watch when wound up.E.E.. Machine .E. therefore: W = mg * h Since work is equal to energy possessed by a body: P.

Lever Definition Lever is the simplest machine in the world. Output Output is useful work done by the machine. Examples • Door • Nut Cracker • Punching Machine . Second Kind of Lever In the second kind of lever. Examples • Physical Balance • Handle of Pump • Pair of Scissors • See Saw 2. If the magnitude of these moments acting in opposite direction is equal. Efficiency The ratio between the useful work done and the work done on the machine is called efficiency. Mechanical Advantage The ratio between the resistance or weight to the power applied in a machine is called the mechanical advantage of that machine. M. It means that: Moment of P = Moment of W Mechanical Advantage We know that according to Principle of Lever: Moment of P = Moment of W => Force * Force Arm = Weight * Weight Arm P * AB = W X BC AB/BC = W/P Hence. It is denoted by M. M. First Kind of Lever In the first kind of lever.A machine is a device by means of which useful work can be performed conveniently and it can also transfer one form of energy into another form of energy.A. the fulcrum F is in the between the effort P and Weight W. Input Input is the work done on the machine.A = W/P = AB/BC = Weight Arm/ Force Arm Kinds of Lever 1.A. It is a rigid bar. 2. which can be rotated about a fixed point. 5. the weight W is in between the fulcrum F and effort P. then the lever will be in equilibrium. = Weight over-comed by Machine/ Force Applied on the Machine 3. Principle of Lever In the lever the moment P acts opposite to that of work W.A = (output/Input) * 100 4. M. It means that force F tends to rotate the lever in one direction which the wight W rotates in opposite direction.

Mechanical Advantage of Moveable Pulley In an ideal system of a moveable pulley. according to the principle of lever: W * Radius of the Wheel = 2P * Radius of the Wheel => 2P = W .A = W/P = l/h = Length of Inclined Plane/Perpendicular Height Pulley A pulley consists of a wheel mounted on an axle that is fixed to the framework called the block. In this system.3.A = W/P = OB/OB M. Such a pulley is called moveable pulley. Mechanical Advantage M. As two segments support the weight. the pulley can move. then M. The load and weight to be lifted is hung from the hook of block. Third Kind of Lever In the third kind of lever. If we neclect the force of friction then: Load = Effort In the given case: Load = W * Load Arm Load = W * OB Also. the tension in each segment of the rope is equal to the applied effort. Effort = P * Effort Arm Effort = P * OA So. the effortP is in between the fulcrum F and weight W. OA = OB. • A Pair of Forecepes Inclined Plane Definition A heavy load can be lifted more easily by pulling it along a slope rather than by lifting in vertically. The wheel can rotate freely in the block. one end of the rope that is passing around the pulley is tied to a firm support and effort P is applied from its other end. Such a slope is called an Inclined Plane. the force P is the applied force and weight W is lifted. the ffort acting on the weight W is 2P. Mechanical Advantage of Fixed Pulley In a fixed pulley. The groove in the circumference prevents the string from slipping.A = 1 Moveable Pulley In this pulley. Examples • Human forearm • Upper and Lower Jaws in the Mouth. Therefore. Fixed Pulley If the block of the pulley is fixed then it is called a fixed pulley. W*OB = P*OA => W/P = OA/OB But.

The Mechanical Advantage is given by: M. • The molecules attract each other with a force.Chapter 10 MATTER. • These molecules are in the same state of motion. Explanation The cause of this tiny particle motion is the rapid motion of the molecules. vibratory or rotational. Physics. • When a substance is heated its temperature as well as molecular motion increases. we can say that when the kinetic energy of the molecules increases.A = 2 Hence. the mechanical advantage of a moveable pulley is 2. liquids have the following properties." Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter has the following postulates: • Matter is made up of very small particles called molecules.. Their motion can be translatory. kinetic energy also increases. States of Matter Matter has been classified into three states. The properties of solids are given below: • The particles are very close to each other. which collide with the particles and push them in one direction. . solid has the least kinetic energy. particles change their direction. Force is inversely proportional to the distance between the molecules. • Particles in a solid vibrate to and fro from their mean position. • They have greater kinetic energy than solids but less than that of gases. This force depends upon the distance between them. If some molecules come from other direction and collide with the same particles. hence they possess kinetic energy. • Some solids also convert directly into gas on heating. then temperature of the substance rises.A = 2P/P => M. Brownian Motion. a scientist. He called the motion.A = W/P M. He observed that the tiny particles in water are constantly moving in a zigzag path. Due to this motion. • On heating they melt and convert into liquid. Definition of Matter "Anything having mass and volume is called matter. • They move more freely than solids. Liquid According to the kinetic theory of matter. These states are discussed below: 1. • The volume of liquid is fixed. • Their shape and volume is fixed. Brownian Motion In 1827.Solid According to the kinetic theory of matter. 2. Robert Brown observed the motion of molecules with the help of a microscope.. This process continues and the motion becomes zigzag.

The phenomenon of turning back to its original shape is called Elasticity. it is stretched.G. the body returns to its original shape. Different material have different elasticity depending on the nature of the material. also known as pressure. Tensile Stress: It is a stress tending to stretch a body. gases possess the following properties.Chapter 11 HEAT. Elastic Behaviour and Molecular Theory The elastic behaviour of a material can be explained by the Kinetic Theory of Matter. volume or shape by the application of an external force. . Shear Stress: It is a stress tending to produce an angular deformation. • On heating. • Their temperature rises with increase in pressure. • Gases possess more kinetic energy. Since the molecules in a solid are very close to each other. Gas According to the kinetic molecular theory. 2. • Their shape and volume are not fixed. the opposing force per unit area is called Stress. Bulk Stress: It is an overall force per unit area. 3. 3. Thus when force is removed.E System . • The distance between the molecules is greater than that of solids.lb/ft2 and lb/in2 (Here 2 in all above systems shows square) Types of Stress Following are some types of stress: 1. the attraction forces between the molecules pull them back again and the material is restored to its original shape. • On cooling. they convert into liquid and gases.N/m2 or Pascal (Pa) • C. When the applied force is remove. Elasticity Definition " The tendency of a material to return to its original dimension after the deforming stress has been removed is known as elasticity.P.S or B.." If we apply a force to a body. there exist strong attracting forces between them.S system ." Formula Stress = Force / Area o = F/A (Here o represents (Rho) do not write in your examination paper) Units • S.• The attraction between molecules is lower than solids.Dyne/cm2 • F. they convert into vapours. Elastic Limit The maximum resisting force of a material is called the Elastic Limit of that material. • On cooling. Physics..I or MKS System . • The distance between their molecules is large. they convert into solid. Stress Definition "When a body is made to change its length. • Their temperature is proportional to their kinetic energy.

Apparent expansion is less the real expansion. Difference Between Heat and Temperature Heat • Heat is the energy in transit from one body to another due to temperature difference. • Its units are F. 1. Internal Energy Internal Energy of a body is the sum of all kinetic and potential energy of all molecules constituting the body. Real Expansion = Apparent Expansion + Expansion of the Vessel 3. • It is the total kinetic energy of the body. Linear Thermal Expansion Change in length or any one dimension of a solid on heating is known as LInear Thermal Expansion.5 C. • Heat is measured using Joule meter. solids. i.5C.5 C to 15. Thermal Expansion of solids can be classified into three types. Temperature • Temperature is the degree of hotness or coldness of a body.e. Apparent Expansion Apparent Expansion is the expansion in which only the expansion of liquid is considered and expansion of the vessel is not taken into account. they expand on heating. Anomalous Expansion of Water . Hence. Thermal Expansion change in length. the average kinetic energy of the molecules increases and they vibrate with larger amplitudes. Real Expansion The sum of the observed increase in the volume of a liquid and that of the containing vessel is called real Thermal expansion. Joules It is the amount of heat required to rise the temperature of 1/4200 kg of pure water from 14. 3. breadth and height of a body due to heating is known as Thermal Expansion. Their ability to expand depends on their molecular structure. Thermal Expansion of Solids Solids expand on heating. As the temperature is increased. This results in increase in the distance between them. British Thermal Unit It is the amount of heat tht is required to rise the temperature of 1 pound of pure water from 63F to 64F. • Temperature is measured using thermometer. C and K. Calorie It is the amount of heat required to rise the temperature of 1 g of pure water from 14. • It is the average kinetic energy of the body. 4.5C to 15.Definitions 1. liquids and gases. It occurs in all the three states. • Its unit is Joule. 2. 2.

3. The air from the capillary tube is also removed. Types of Thermometer 1. usually mercury or alcohol coloured with a red dye. In winter. In winter.The increase in the volume of water as its temperature is lowered from 4 C to 0C is known as anomalous expansion of water. This bulb is filled with a liquid. As the temperature fall below 4 C water on the surface expands and stays afloat. V < T (Here < represents sign of proportionality. GAS LAWS 1. 2. the rock get broken due to this expansion. Pressure Law The pressure of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature. Ordinary Liquid-in-Glass Thermometer Introduction An ordinary liquid-in-glass thermometer is used in a laboratory to measure temperature within a range of -10C to 110C. when the water expands. If the temperature is kept constant. if the volume is kept constant. . The upper end of the capillary tube is sealed so that the liquid will neither spill not evaporate. Ice continues building up at the surface while the temperature at the bottom remains at 4 C. This helps fish and other forms of marine life to live. In cold climate. P<T P=C*T C = P/T The above is known as the equation of the Pressure Law. the temperature in the north and south poles of the earth falls. ==2. Effects of Anomalous Expansion of Water 1. if the pressure is kept constant. Charle's Law The volume of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature. having a small bulb at one end. Do not write this in your examination paper) P = C * 1/V C = PV The above equation is known as equation of Boyle's Law. THERMOMETER The instrument that is used to measure temperature is called a thermometer. Do not write this in your examination paper) V=C*T C = V/T The above equation is known as equation of Charle's Law. P < 1/V (Here < represents sign of proportionality. Construction It consists of a glass stem with a capillary tube. During the rainy season a lot of water seeps through the cracks in the rocks. 3. Boyle's Law The volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure. water supply pipes burst when the water expands on cooling.

2. the liquid in it expands and rises in the tube. this motion is called Oscillation. 8. The air from the capillary tube is also removed. 5. 6. Frequency It is the number of vibrations executed by an oscillating body in one second. It has a range from 35 C to 43 C (95F to 110F).Working When the bulb is heated. Construction It consists of a glass stem with a capillary tube. or If a body in periodic motion moves to and fro over the same path. The glass stem of a clinical thermometer has a construction in its capillary tube near the bulb. having a small bulb at one end. Wave Length The distance between two consecutive crests and troughs is called wavelength. Displacement It is the distance of a vibrating body at any instant from the equilibrium position. Natural Frequency The frequency at which an object will vibrate freely (without any external periodic force or resistance) is known as natural frequency of that object.Chapter 12 WAVES AND SOUND.. Definitions 1. Octave The interval between a waveform and another of twice the frequency is known as Octave. 4.. Amplitude The maximum distance of the body on either side of its equilibrium position is known as amplitude. This helps to stop the mercury thread from moving back when the thermometer is removed from the patient's mouth. Physics. The upper end of the capillary tube is sealed so that the liquid will neither spill nor evaporate. Audible Sound Our ear can hear only those sounds whose frequency is between 20Hz and 20000Hz. A temperature scale is marked on the glass stem to indicate temperatures according to the various levels of liquid in the tube. 10. Ultrasonic Sound Sound with frequency greater than 20000 Hz is known as ultrasonic sound. Time Period (T) The time required to complete vibration is known as time period. This range is known as audible sound. Units . This bulb is filled with a liquid usually mercury or alcohol colored with a red dye. 9. 2. Vibration One complete round trip of a simple harmonic motion is called vibration. Clinical Thermometer Introduction A clinical thermometer is a device that is used to find the temperature of the human body. 3. 7.

Another pendulum E of same length as A is also fastened. When pendulum E is set to vibrate. Resonance Definition "The large amplitude vibration of an object when given impulses at its natural frequency is known as Resonance. It imparts its motion to the string.M The conditions for simple Harmonic Motion are given below: • Some resisting force must act upon the body. Wave Definition " A method of energy transfer involving some form of vibration is known as a wave.M) Definition "To and fro motion of a body in which acceleration is directly proportional to displacement and always directed towards mean position is known as Simple Harmonic Motion. This phenomenon under which pendulum A begin to vibrate is called resonance. B. • Motion of the projection of a body in a circle with uniform circular motion.H. Four pendulums A." Experiment Consider a long string stretched tightly between two pegs. • Acceleration must be directly proportional to the displacement.H. which travels through a medium due to periodic motion of particles of the medium about their mean position. as pendulum E is set into vibration. So. This string in turn imparts the same periodic motion to the pendulums. So there may occur a force on vibration in bridge. Experiment . C and D of different lengths are fastened to the string." Wave Motion Wave motion is a form of disturbance.H. it will be observed that all the pendulums start to swing but pendulum A begins to vibrate with larger amplitude." Condition for S. it is written that soldiers must march out of stop while crossing the bridge.M: • Body attached to a spring horizontally on an ideal smooth surface.Frequency: Cycles per second (eps) or Hertz (hz) Wavelength: Meter Intensity of Sound: Watt/meter2 or W/m2 Noise: Decibel (DB) Simple Harmonic Motion (S. The natural frequency of all other pendulums except A is different. Due to the same natural frequency only A vibrates as the same vibration of E. Example March of Soldiers while Crossing the Bridge Each bridge has its own natural frequency and marching of soldiers is another vibrating system. • Motion of a swing. for safely precautions. This may damage the bridge. • Acceleration should be directed towards mean position. Examples Following are the examples of S. • Motion of a simple and compound pendulum. • System should be elastic.

This experiment shows that air or any other medium is necessary for the propagation of sound. although the hammer is still seen striking the bell. Experiment (Diagram) Suspend an electric bell in a jar by its wires through a cork fixed in its mouth." Production of Sound Sound is produced by a vibrating body like a drum. etc. due to the to and fro motion of the drum. Due to its slow velocity sound lags behind. Repeat . we will hear the sound of the bell. when a body vibrates. Transverse Wave Definition "The wave in which amplitude is perpendicular to the direction of wave motion is known as Transverse Wave. a pulse-shaped wave is formed which travels along the rope. Waves can also be produced on very long ropes. sound propagates in a medium. Propagation of Sound Waves When a body vibrates in air. it produces longitudinal waves by compressions and rarefactions. Similarly when a gun is fired its sound is heard a little after seeing its flash. The sound will decrease. Velocity of Sound It is a matter of common experience that the flash of lightning is seen earlier than hearing the thunder of cloud. These compressions and rarefactions are traveled by the particles of the medium and transferred into the next particles. However if we dip the pencil and take it out many times. bell. a number of ripples will be formed one after the other." Example • Sound Waves • Seismic Waves Sound Definition "A vibration transmitted by air or other medium in the form of alternate compressions and rarefactions of the medium is known as Sound. Fire a gun at station A and note the time of sound taken for such distance. Due to this transference. Switch on the bell. The reason is that light is faster than sound. Now start removing air from jar with the help of an exhaust (vacuum) pump. If one end of the rope is fixed and the other end is given sudden up and down jerk. Experiment Select two stations at a distance of 8 km (or any more distance) such that there is no obstacle between them. compressions and rarefactions are produced and transmitted or propagated in air." Examples • Radio Waves • Light Waves • Micro Waves • Waves in Water • Waves in String Longitudinal Wave Definition "The wave in which amplitude is parallel to wave motion is called longitudinal wave.We see that if we dip a pencil into a tap of water and take it out a pronounced circular ripple is set up on the water surface and travels towards the edges of the tub.

If we substitute the mean of the two times recorded and distance S (8km) in the formula V = S/t. • Density of the medium. Factors Effecting Quality Quality depends upon the following factors: . Pitch Definition "The sensation that a sound produces in a listener as a result of its frequency is known as Pitch. 3. • Relative Motion of Sound: If source and listener both are coming closer pitch will increase. Amplitude of Motion of Vibrating Object: Greater will be the amplitude." Intensity can be defined as the energy carried by the sound waves through a unit area placed perpendicular to the direction of waver per second. Factors Effecting Velocity of Sound The factors are given below: • Velocity of air or any other medium. Factors Effecting Loudness of Sound Loudness depend on following factors: Area of Vibration of Body: Greater will be the surface area more will be the loudness. more will be the loudness. Motion and Direction: If source of sound is moving towards the listener loudness will be greater or if wind supports the velocity of sound the loudness will be greater.Loudness Definition "Loudness is the magnitude of auditory sensation produce by sound." This is the property of sound by virtue of which we can distinguish between a shrill and grave sound. 2. Factors Effecting Pitch of Sound Pitch depends on following factors: • Frequency of Vibrating Body: The greater the fundamental frequency. • Temperature of the medium.the process and note the time taken by the sound to travel from B to A. The properties of sound are given below: 1. more shrill will be the sound. Density of Medium: Loudness is directly proportional to the density of medium. we will get the velocity of sound. • Nature of the medium Characteristics of Sound The characteristic properties of sound by which we can distinguish between noise and music." This is the property of sound by virtue of which it is possible to identify a sound of the same loudness and pitch but originating from different instrument. Quality or Timbre or Tone Definition "The characteristic of a musical note that is determined by the frequency present is known as Quality or Timbre or Tone of that sound. shrill and grave sounds or sound of men and women are known as characteristics of sound.

• Noise has become a great cause for depression and blood pressure. • Mental system shows less efficiency due to noise. In longitudinal waves.• Phase of the Sound Wave. Definitions 1. Physics. Center of Reflection . 4. 4. • Shape of Waves Harmful Effects of Sound (Noise) Nowadays noise is considered as a great pollution.. 2. 3. Examples of transverse wave are microwaves and radio waves. which is very dangerous for us. Incident Ray The ray that strikes the surface of the medium is known as Incident Ray. Difference Between Longitudinal and Transverse Waves Longitudinal Waves 1. Normal Perpendicular line on the reflecting surface is known as normal. Angle of Reflection The angle subtended by the reflected ray to the normal is known as angle of reflection. • Consequently it is harmful in all respects for living body. Examples of longitudinal waves are sound wave and seismic waves. 5. Reflected Ray The ray that is sent back into the same medium after reflection is known as reflected ray. 2. 8. In transverse waves. The portion in which particles of medium are higher than their normal position is called crest. Transverse Waves 1. Musical Sound The sound producing pleasing effect on our ears are called musical sounds..Chapter 13 PROPAGATION AND REFLECTION OF LIGHT . Distance between the centre of two compressions and rarefactions is called wavelength. Pole The centre of the spherical mirror is called pole. Some of them are as follows: • Continuous noise damages hearing and can result in complete deafness. Angle of Incidence The angle subtended by the incident ray to the normal is known as angle of incidence. Distance between two crests and troughs is called wavelength. which shows regular reflection is known as plane mirror. 2. The portion of wave in which particles of medium are very close to each other is called compression. particles of the medium vibrate in the direction of the waves. 7. 6. 4. Plane Mirror A flat smooth reflecting surface. 3. particles of the medium vibrate in the direction perpendicular to the direction of wave.. 3.

Radius of Curvature The distance between the center of curvature and the pole is called radius of curvature. all lie in the same plane. Real Image the image that can be seen on a screen is known as a real image. In this case rays does not remain parallel after reflection and they scattered. 2. The angle of reflection. 9. Focal Length The distance between the principle focus and pole of the mirror is called Focal Length." Laws of Reflection 1. The incident ray. Principle Axis The straight line passing through center of curvature nad the pole is known as principle axis. Principle Focus The ray coming parallel to principal axis after converges to or diverges from a point. 15. Virtual Image The image that cannot be seen on a screen is known as a virtual image. they are said to be regularly reflected and the phenomenon is known as regular reflection. 13. 2. 11. this type of reflection is called irregular reflection. reflected ray and normal.The center of the hollow sphere of which the mirror is a part is called center of curvature. Magnification The ratio between the image height and object height is known as magnification. which is called principle focus. 10. In regular reflection parallel rays remain parallel after reflection. It occurs when parallel rays strike with an irregular rough surface. 14. sunlight reaches us before sunrise and persists for some time even after the sunset. is equal to the angle of incidence: n<i = m<r. Reflection of Light Definition "The process in which light striking the surface of another medium bounces back in the same medium is known as Reflection of Light. Irregular Reflection Definition When some rays of light strikes a surface and the reflected rays scatter in different directions. • Due to this reflection sunlight reaches to each of the leaves of a tree and photosynthesis takes place on large scale. Regular reflection occurs when parallel rays of light strike with an ideal smooth plane surface. 12. The ratio between the image distance to the object distance is known as magnification. Kinds of Reflection There are two types of Reflection: 1. . Regular Reflection Definition When parallel rays of light strike a surface and most of them are reflected in a same particular direction or same angle. • Due to this reflection we get sufficient light in our rooms and other places where sunlight do not reach directly. Advantages of Irregular Reflection • Due to this reflection.

• Extremely Small . Concave Mirror Definition "The spherical mirror in which inner side of the surface is polished for reflection is called a concave mirror. both types of images. Hence P' is the image of P. • Reflection occurs from its hollow side. Details of Image • Formed at F. 1. Consider that a point P lies on the tip of the object. infinite points lying an object produces infinite images of points and complete image of an object is formed. • They can form real and imaginary." Properties • The bulging side is polished. they meet at principal focus and image is formed at the focus. • They converge the parallel rays at a point. After reflection. • They can form real and imaginary. Characteristics of Image Formed by a Plane Mirror • Image is same in size as that of the object." Properties • The bulging side is polished. • They converge the parallel rays at a point. Convex Mirror Definition "The spherical mirror in which inner side of the surface is polished for reflection is called concave mirror.• Due to this reflection. the rays coming from the object are parallel to principal axis. From P as ray travels and strikes mirror and reflect back to the eye." Types of Spherical Mirrors There are two types of spherical mirror: • Concave Mirror (Converging Mirror) • Convex Mirror (Diverging Mirror) 1. Image Formed by a Plane Mirror Consider a mirror MM'. 2. • The distance of object and image are equal from the mirror. Similarly. • The image formed is virtual and inverted. Formation of Image by Concave Mirrors There are six cases to form an image by concave mirror. AP is an object. we can see luminous objects. Object at Infinity (Diagram) If the object is placed at infinity from the mirror. From Point P' as shown in the figure. Spherical Mirrors Definition "A spherical mirror is a section of a of a hollow sphere. • Reflection occurs from its hollow side. both type of images. they appear to come back.

The two parallel lines meet at infinity. Details of Image • Formed beyond C. • Extremely Large • Real • Inverted 6. • Large in size . rays coming from the object are not parallel. the image is formed backward or behind the mirror. we say the image is formed at infinity. the image formed at the same place. Object between P and F (Diagram) For locating object between pole and focus the rays reflected do not meet because they diverge. • Real • Inverted 3. Object at Center of Curvature 'C' When object is placed at the centre of curvature. Object Beyond C (Diagram) If the object is placed beyond C. the image is formed beyond the centre of curvature. So. Therefore. • Real • Inverted 5. image is formed between the focus and center of curvature. (Diagram) Details of Image • Formed at C • Equal in size • Real • Inverted 4. Therefore. • Small in size. But they meet backward.• Real • Inverted 2. They meet after reflection between the focus and center of curvature. Object Between F and C (Diagram) When the object is placed between the focus and Centre of curvature. Object at F (Diagram) When object is placed at focus the reflected rays become parallel to each other. Details of Image • Formed at Infinity. Details of Image • Formed behind the mirror. • Large in size. Details of Image • Formed between F and C.

refracted ray and the normal at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane. 3. Refraction of Light Definition "The change in the direction and velocity of light as it enters from one medium to another is known as Refraction of Light. throat and eyes of patients.• Virtual • Erect Uses of Spherical Mirror Spherical mirrors are used in several places. Its unit is Dioptre. • In Searchlights and Headlights: Concave mirror is used to form the rays in searchlights and headlights. • In Medical Examination (Opthalmoscope): Doctors use concave mirror for the examination of ear. This constant is known as Refractive Index (u). 4.Chapter 14 REFRACTION OF LIGHT AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS. Emergent Ray The ray after passing the second medium comes again in the first medium. Emergence Angle The angle formed by the emergent ray and normal is called emergence angle denoted by <e. • The ratio of sine of angle of incidence (i) to the sine of angle of refraction (r) is constant for all rays of light from one medium to another. If the object is removed. • Microscope: A convex mirror is used for magnification in a microscope. This ratio is also equal to the ratio of the speeds of light in one medium to another. Power of Lens The power of the lens is the reciprocal of the focal length measured in meter. its image forms on retina.. It is called emergent ray. This interval is called Persistence of Vision. 2. used for different purposes. • For Rear View: The convex mirror is used in automobiles. Refractive Index = sin<i/sin<r = Speed of light in first medium/Speed of light in second medium Refractive Index The ratio between the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of angle of refraction is known as . Accommodation The ability of the eye to change the focal length of its lens so as to form a clear image of an object on its retina is called is power of accommodation.. The ray passing through this point does not bend. 6. the impression of image persists in the eye for about 1/10 second. 5. Persistence of Vision When an object is seen by an eye. Physics. Optical Center The middle point of the lens is called optical center. Definitions 1." Laws of Refraction • The incident ray. • Telescope: The convex mirror is used. nose. Some of them are given below: • Shaving: A concave mirror is used to enlarge the image.

(Diagram) It has three types: • Double Convex Lens • Plano Convex Lens • Concavo Convex Lens . • <i = angle of incidence • <r = angle of refraction • <e = angle of emergence • <D = angle of deviation Total Internal Reflection (Diagram) If the value of angle of incidence is increased so much so that it becomes greater than tht of the critical angle then no more refraction occurs but on the other hand refracted ray again comes back in the denser medium. Refraction Through a Prism (Diagram) where. Lenses Definition A transparent and smooth glass or any refracting medium surrounded by two spherical surfaces is known as lens. Actually at that time. If we arrange a ray so that it falls perpendicular to the AB side then it will refract without bending and strike the side AC with angle 45. It is a converging lens. Types of Lenses There are two types of lenses: 1. Optical Fibers and other instruments. This phenomenon is called Total Internal Reflection. Refractive Index = sin <i/sin<r Snell's Law The refractive index between two particular mediums is equal to the ratio of speed of light in first medium and speed of light in second medium equal to the ratio between sin <i and sin <r. • The angle of incidence should be greater than the critical angle. It has three rectangular sides and two triangular sides. Conditions for Total Internal Reflection • The ray of light should travel from denser to rarer medium. Then it totally reflects to the side BC. It is used in Periscope. Convex Lens If the glass is thick at the center and thin at the edges then it is known as convex lens. Refractive Index = sin<i/sin<r = Speed of light in first medium/Speed of light in second medium Prism Definition "Prism is a transparent piece of glass. Total Reflecting Prism Total internal reflection is used in prism. the surface of denser medium acts as a plane mirror and the incident ray bends in the same medium.Refractive Index. In prism the angle between two opposite sides is 90 and other two angles are 45 each.

2. image is formed at center of curvature at the opposite side. the light is split up in seven colours.. Object at Infinity When object is placed at infinite distance from convex lens the rays coming from the object are parallel to each other and they meet after refraction at the focus. Object at 2F When object placed at center of curvature.2. Definitions 1.Chapter 15 NATURE OF LIGHT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. . Dispersion of Light When a beam of sunlight falls on a prism. Object Beyond 2F When object is placed at some distance from 2F then image is formed between the focus and center of curvature (2F). It is a diverging lens. This phenomenon is called Dispersion of Light. This is called dual nature of light. Details of Image • Formed at Focus • Real •Inverted • At opposite side • Highly diminished 2.. Details of Image • Between F and 2F • Opposite side of Lens • Real • Inverted • Small in size 3. Dual Nature of Light Light has dual nature. (Diagram) It has three types: • Double Concave Lens • Plano Concavo Lens • Convex Concave Lens Formation of Image by Convex Lens 1. it behaves not only as a particle (photon) but also as a wave. Concave Lens If the lens is thinner in the center and thicker at the edges then it is known as a concave lens. Details of Image • Real • Inverted • At 2F • Same in size • At the opposite side of the Lens Physics.

Huygen proposed this theory. • Medium is not necessary for propagation. When rain falls. Rainbow The rainbow is an arc of spectral colours formed across the sky during or after rainfall in the morning or when the sun is behind us. • When corpuscles strike the retina they make it sense light. Spectrum After the dispersion of light or any electromagnetic wave. raindrops behave like a prism and white light entering the raindrop splits up into seven colours on refraction. Photons (Quantum) Photons are tiny packets of energy. Microwaves are used in radars and ovens. These are appeared as Rainbow. According to this theory: • Light propagates in space in the form of waves. Wave Theory of Light In 1676. 4. Microwaves These radio waves have shorter wavelength between 1mm and 300 mm. • Speed of light is greatest in space or vacuum. a band of colours is formed. • The corpuscles travel with the velocity of light. Visible Waves . • Medium is necessary for the propagation of light. • It travels in space as well as a medium. • Velocity of light is greater in denser medium. • Light does not travel in a straight line but in sine wave form. • Velocity of light is greater in rarer medium. ==Newton's Corpuscular Theory of Light== This theory which was proposed by Newton is as follows: • Light is emitted from a luminous body in the form of tiny particles called corpuscles. which is known as a spectrum. Waves of Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio Waves It has a large range of wavelengths from a few millimeters to several meters. Infrared Waves It has a long range. Quantum Theory of Ligh According to this theory of Max Plank: • Light is emitted from a source discontinuously in the form of bundles of energy called Photons or Quantum. • It can travel in space as well as in a medium. How A Rainbow is Formed? As we know a prism disperses sunlight into a series of seven colours. Its mean wavelength is 10 micrometers.3. They behave as particles but actually they are not particles. Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic spectrum is a result obtained when electromagnetic radiation is resolved into its constituent wavelength.

Alternating Current Such a current that reverses its direction with a constant frequency from positive to negative and negative to positive direction is known as Alternating Current.Chapter 16 ELECTRICITY.. 4. 5.. Primary Cell A voltaic cell in which the chemical reaction that produces the e. Definitions 1. obtained by generators. Equivalent Resistance The relative resistance that has equal value to the combined value of a resistor of a circuit is called equivalent resistance. Conductors Those material objects that allow the charge to pass through them are called conductors. Ultraviolet Waves Their wavelength ranges from 380nm onwards.m. 9. Conventional Current An electric current considered to flow from points at positive terminal potential to points at negative potential. It has a positive sign. Physics. 6. Dielectric The medium or space (vacuum) between two charges is said to be dielectric. The chemical reaction in this case is reversible. Force of Repulsion When two charges repel each other the force is called force of repulsion. It has a negative sign. Direct Current Such a current that does not change its direction is known as direct current. 2. It is denoted by R(E). 14. Secondary Cell An electric cell that can be changed by passing an electric current through it is called Secondary Cell. Semi Conductors Those material objects that allow some charge to pass through them are called Semi-Conductors.It has a range of 400 nm to 700 nm. which is obtained from primary and secondary cell. It is denoted by AC. Insulators Those material objects that do not allow charge to pass through them are known as Insulators or non-conductors. It is denoted by DC. 8. Force of Attraction When two charges attract each other the force is called force of attraction. Free Electron Those electrons that are loosely bound by their atom and can move freely within the material are called free electrons. 12.s 10. 11. These are emitted by hotter start (about 25000 C). 13. Fused Plug .f is not reversible is known as Primary Cell. 7. 3.

This is called electrostatic induction. a separation of charge is induced between the ball and gold leaves. Electric Circuit A combination of electrical components that form a conducting path is called an electric circuit. (Diagram) Working If a charged object is brought close to the ball. Electrostatic Induction When a charged body brought close to another uncharged body then other body gains some chrge without any touch. The two leaves become charged and repel each other. 15. its unit is: V = Joules/Coulomb = J/C = Volt.It is a wired plug. The leaves are connected to a conductor to a metal ball or disk out side the case. then work done has been stored as potential difference. Potential Difference Definition "The difference in electrostatic potential between two points in an electrostatic field is called potential difference. ." Unit Since Potential Difference = Work Done/Charge V = W/q Therefore. Capacitor It is a device for string electric charge. In either case greater the amount of charge greater would be the diverging in lens. which has its own cartilage fuse. Therefore. 17. It is a system of two (or more) plates on which we can store electric charge. 16. If the ball is charged by touching the charged object the whole assembly of ball and leaves acquires the same charge. we say that "Potential difference is work done or energy stored per unit charge. Electrostatic Potential A charged body place in electrostatic field as an electrostatic potential as earth has its gravitational potential. Commercial Unit of Energy (kWh) 1 kWh is the energy produced by a resistor or conductor in 1 hour when it uses 1000 Watt power. It is used in a ring main circuit. Watt If 1 joule of electrical work is done in 1 second then the power is called 1 watt. Volt 1 volt potential difference is equal to one joule work done on 1 coulomb charge. Gold Leaf Electroscope An electroscope is a device that can be used for detection of charge." When a unit positive charge body moves against an electrical field from A to B. 'Construction It consists of a glass case that contains two turn leaves of gold (Au) which are capable to diverge. but are insulated from the case itself.

bring the same end of the magnet to the end S of the steel bra and rub it again. Single-Touch Method Take a hard steel bra and rub it with one end of a magnet in the direction from S to N. On reaching the end N of the steel bar. The steel bar becomes a magnet as long as current passes through them. Magnetic Field The space surrounding a magnet in which its magnetic effect is felt is called a magnetic field. Examples are wood. Ferromagnetic Substances A substance which behaves like a magnet in the presence of a strong magnetic field is called a ferromagnetic substance. 1.. 1. Non-Magnetic Substances Substances that are neither attracted nor repelled by a magnet are called non-magnetic substances.. a bar can be magnetized by putting it inside a solenoid and passing current through the solenoid. nickel and steel attract each other magnetically. They are called magnets and always point in a particular direction when suspended freely in the air.Parallel Plate Capacitor It is a simple capacitor with two parallel plates on which we store the electric charge. Repeat the process several times and the steel bar will be magnetized. Soft Ferromagnetic Substance The ferromagnetic substances which become magnets in the presence of a magnetic field and lose their magnetism when removed from the magnetic field are known as soft ferromagnetic substance. oil and mica. The polarity of the magnet is determined by the direction of the current. Methods of Making Magnets 1. 2.Chapter 17 MAGNETISM AND ELECTROMAGNETISM. The end S will have the same polarity as that of the rubbing pole of the magnet and the end N will have the polarity opposite to that of the rubbing pole.. In a similar way. wax paper. keeping the magnet in an inclined position. (Diagram) Construction A parallel plate capacitor has two metallic plates with their stands and a dielectric which is air or some insulator. Demagnetization There are three methods for demagnetizing magnets. 2. Hard Ferromagnetic Substances The ferromagnetic substances which retain their magnetism when removed from the magnetic field are known as hard ferromagnetic substances. E. glass and paper.. Example is soft iron. Physics. Example is steel. Connect the coil to a battery and pass strong current. Electrical Method Take a U-shape steel bar and wound it with an insulated copper wire making sure that the two core arms are wound in the opposite directions. wax.g. . Magnet Metals like iron.Hammering Magnets can be partially demagnetized by hammering them when they are pointing in the east or west direction. It is the region within which the magnet can exert its magnetic force.

The magnet will loose its magnetism. Electrical Method The most efficient method of demagnetizing a magnet is to use n alternating current. The direction of the fingers will give me direction of the magnetic lines of force. the circuit gets closed and the armature is attracted towards the electromagnet. (Diagram) Working When the push button switch is pressed. One end of the solenoid acts as the north pole and the other as the south pole. Magnetic Field of a Solenoid When an electric current is passed through a solenoid a magnetic field is produced which is very similar to that of a bar magnet. They are used to produce strong magnetic fields for high power motors and generators. put the magnet in the solenoid from one end and pull it out from the other. Due to this rapid reverse in the polarity.2. iron from mixture is separated. Such a magnet which can be energized by an electric current is called an electromagnet. With the help of electromagnets." Solenoid A coil of insulated copper wire in the form of a long cylinder is called a solenoid. 1. the magnetic field due to the current in the solenoid is multiplied by thousands. The electric circuit is completed by connecting the terminals to a batter and a switch. Magnetic Effect of Current When an electric current passes through a straight wire a magnetic field is created which consists of field lines in concentric in concentric circles with the wire at their center. Now. The magnetic field inside a solenoid is very strong because the lines of force are parallel and close to one another. Take a solenoid and place it in the east west direction. One end of the winding is connected to a terminal (T1). This results in . Right Hand Rule The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by the following rule: "Imagine the wire to be grasped in the right hand with the thumb pointing along the wire. Alternating current reverses its direction at a rate of 100 times per second and hence causes the magnetism of the material to reverse the polarity at the same rate." A rod is attached to the armature with its free end having a small hammer that can strike against the bell. Electromagnet If soft iron is inserted in the core of a solenoid. Pass an alternating current (about 12 V) through it. Applications of Electromagnets Industry They are used to transport heavy pieces of iron and steel safely from one place to another. which is mounted on a soft iron strip called "Armature. 3. a very light spring is attached to a contract adjusting screw which is joined to the second terminal (T2) by a wire. The spring also gets detatched from the screw. When the current is switched off. the magnet looses its magnetism. Electric Bell Construction An electric bell consists of an electromagnet. The other end is connected to a spring. the magnetic field disappears. The magnetic field outside the solenoid is very weak. Heating Magnets loose their magnetism when they are heated strongly. While the current is still flowing.

opening the circuit and the electromagnet gets demagnetized. the circuit gets closed and the magnet starts to work. then the thumb will point in the direction of the motion. sound energy is converted into electric current and is transported to the ear piece through the line. Telephone Receiver Introduction A telephone receiver is a device that converts electrical energy into sound energy. In this instrument. the magnetic field strength varies as the current changes. the bell rings. pointer moves on the scale and galvanometer is used to determine the magnitude and direction of current. Working When the message is transmitted from the other apparatus. A soft iron cylinder is fixed in the core of the coil to enhance the force of conductor. Construction A rectangular coil of wire is wound on a light frame with a pointer attached on the top. The diaphragm therefore vibrates and gives rise to sound of the same frequency as spoken at the other end. Working When current passes through the coil a couple of opposite forces are produced and causes the coil to rotate. Hence. The coil frame is pivoted between the jaws of a large horseshoe magnet. In this way. Ammeter Introduction A galvanometer having a low resistance in parallel is called as ammeter. Then. The magnetic force that pulls the diaphragm also varies accordingly. A diaphragm of magnetic alloy is positioned in front of the electromagnets. Principle of Galvanometer The principle of Galvanometer is based on the interaction of the magnetic field produced by a current forcing in a conductor and the magnetic field of permanent magnet. In the telephone receiver. This electric current varies in magnitude depending upon the frequency of the sound waves. if the fore finger points in the direction of the magnetic field and the second finger in the direction of the current. 2." Galvanometer Introduction A galvanometer is a sensitive and delicate device used to measure the magnitude and direction of small currents. The attraction disappears bringing back the spring to its original position. At both ends of the coil. It again attracts the armature and this process is repeated as long as the switch is turned on. These springs help in keeping the coil at zero potential and also provide the path for entry and exit to the current. the current passes through the electromagnet and energizes the magnet. hairsprings are attached. Fleming's Left Hand Rule "Place the fore finger and the second finger of the left hand at right angles. the armature vibrates and hammer attached to it strikes the gong. As a result. By the motion of the coil. electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy. The concave shape of the poles of the horseshoe magnet combined with the cylindrical shape of the core creates the radial field to ensure that the field lines are always perpendicular to the coil. Construction The ear piece consists of a permanent magnet in contrast with two electromagnets. It is used to measure . As soon as the spring touches the screw.

doped with a pentavalent element is called n-type semiconductor. This resistance acts as a shunt.. Voltmeter Introduction A galvanometer having high resistance in series is called a voltmeter. Working The potential difference across a resistance is directly proportional to the current passing through it. their utilization and controlling electron flow in electrical circuits designed for various purposes. The low resistance connected in parallel is called shunt. 2. a voltmeter is always connected in parallel to the circuit components. a low resistance in parallel is used with a galvanometer. which deals with the development of electron emitting devices. The value of resistor connected in series depends upon the range of the voltmeter. p-Type Substance A pure semiconductor with a valency of three doped with a trivalent element is called n-type semiconductor. This resistance by passes a great part of the current. Physics. 5.current. Definitions 1. Working When current is passed through a Galvanometer. Doping Mixing of any tetravalent element into a trivalent or pentavalent element so that its electrical conductivity increases is called dopping. 3. which is within the range of the galvanometer. It allows the current to flow in only one direction. 4. A small potential difference produces a full-scale deflection in a galvanometer. n-Type Substance A pure semiconductor with a valency of three.Chapter 18 ELECTRONICS. Most of the potential difference drops across the high resistance. Diode The common boundary of n-type and p-type regions in a semiconductor is called p-n junction diode. The range for the measurement of current in a galvanometer is very small. Electronics Electronics is a branch of Physics. Only a small amount of current passes through the galvanometer coil. Therefore.. therefore the deflection of the pointer is directly proportional to the potential difference. a high resistance is connected in series with the galvanometer. As the deflection of the pointer is directly proportional to the current. In order to measure the potential difference. its coil is deflected and pointer attached with the coil moves over a scale. 7. An ammeter is always placed in series with other circuit components through which current is to be measured. Forward Biased If the p-type material of a semi conductor diode is at a positive potential and the n-type material . It is used to measure potential difference. In order to measure high potential difference. Semi Conductor Substances whose electrical resistance lies between those of conductors and insulators are known as semi-conductors. 6.

It has a very low electrical resistance. Construction An electric telegraph consists of a battery that is connected to a buzzer through the tapping key. When someone speaks in the microphone at the radio station. The international Morse Code. 12. 10. 8. 11. An earphone or a speaker is connected to the receiver. 2. Reverse Biased If the p-type material of a semi-conductor diode is at a negative potential and the n-type material is at a positive potential then the diode is reverse biased. The circuit is completed by connecting the other terminal to the ground few feet below. npn Transistor The npn transistor has a thin piece of p-type substance sandwiched between two pieces of n-type semiconductors. Receiving: When the modulated carrier waves meet a receiving aerial. These waves are known as modulated carrier waves. which consists of a thin central layer of one type of semiconductor material sandwiched between two relatively thick pieces of the other type of semiconductor. sound waves are converted into electrical fluctuating current. There is only one wire between the buzzer and the tapping key. This current is converted into high frequency alternating current. Working 1. This AC is converted into DC with the help of a rectifier. they generate fluctuating alternating current in it.is at a negative potential then the diode is forward biased. which is allowed to pass in the transmitting antenna. which is a combination of dots and dashes is used to send and receive messages with the help of telegraph. Transmission: Information is sent out into the atmosphere from a transmitting station. Rectification The process of conversion of alternating current into direct current is known as rectification. pnp Transistor The pnp transistor has a thin piece of n-type substance sandwiched between two pieces of p-type semiconductors. Working When the tapping key is pressed. The earth being moist acts as a good conductor. The DC energizes the electromagnet of the . The transmitting antenna produces radio waves with fluctuating amplitude. Rectifier A rectifier is a device that converts Alternating current into Direct current. the receiver produces a buzzing sound. 9. Telegraph Introduction A telegraph is a device that is used to send and receive messages between two distant points. 13. The interval between two buzzing sounds can be controlled by the interval between pressing the tapping key. Radio Introduction A radio is a device for receiving and sending speech or music over large areas by electromagnetic signals. Transistor A transistor is a semiconductor. The central part is known as the base (b) and the pieces at either side are called the emitter (e) and the collector (c). It has a very high electrical resistance.

The beam of electrons from the electron gun in the camera tube is meant for scanning the back surface of the mosaic screen along the successive longitudinal lines in it. Receiver: The receiver has an electromagnet and a diaphragm made of magnetic alloy in front of it. haze and smoke. TV Camera Working For the purpose of TV Transmission. Working 1. a receiver and several indicating devices. Telephone Introduction A telephone is a device by which two persons at distant places can directly talk to each other through electric current carrying wires. the diaphragm vibrates due to the sound waves. The compressions and rarefactions of the sound waves cause the diaphragm to increase and decrease the pressure on carbon granules. Receiving: These rays after striking an object are reflected back and are received by the radar antenna. clouds. Construction A telephone system consists of a microphone and a receiver. 3. 2. the electromagnet receives fluctuating current. Processing: The indicating devices measure the time taken by the waves to return. Construction It consists of a transmitter. Special magnetic deflection system achieves this purpose. . Receiving: At the receiver. This results in the increment and decrement in the resistance offered by the granules and hence generates fluctuating current. It is used to detect and find out the distance of distant object with the help of radio waves. They calculate the wave velocity and finally the distance of the object. When light is stronger. TV Camera focuses on object to be televised. which generates a fluctuating magnetic field. 2. As soon as the beam hits on an area with high positive charge. Working 1. 2. This produces the sound of same frequency as that at the radio station. 1. The diaphragm in front of the electromagnet also vibrates with different amplitudes and generates sound of same frequency as spoken at the other end. Transmission: The transmitter generates very high frequency electromagnetic waves in the desired direction with the help of a concave antenna. The antenna feeds these rays in the indicating devices. few of the negative charges are repelled. Radar Introduction Radar stands for Radio Detection and Ranging. The mosaic screen is fixed in the camera and has the ability to emit electrons. more of the electrons are emitted. Transmission: When someone speaks in front of the microphone. Radar waves can penetrate fog. Microphone: The microphone consists of a diaphragm suspended in front of packing of carbon granules. If the positive charge is less.speaker and causes the diaphragm to vibrate. The convex lens of the TV Camera produces an image on the thin sensitive plate known as mosaic screen. more electrons are given out the material making positive at this location.

• It effects the photographic plate. Properties of Beta Particles • Beta particles are fast moving electrons. • It produces florescence with zinc sulphide solution. two or three types of radiation are deflected forming three separate images on the photographic plate. • Its velocity is equal to the velocity of light. • The velocity of alpha particles is 1/100th of the velocity of light.. Radioactivity The phenomenon of emission of radiation from Uranium and other substances is known as radioactivity. • They are neutral rays. The video signals that have been amplified are utilized to manufacture very high frequency. Experiment A small quantity of a radioactive element such as radium is placed in a cavity of a lead block in such a way that the radiation from radium can only come out through this cavity. Under the action of magnetic field. • Its penetration power is greater than alpha particles. Physics. This chamber is then placed between the poles of a powerful magnetic field. This frequency is received by a television antenna. Nuclear Fission The splitting of a nucleus into fragments with the emission of energy when bombarded by a . • Its velocity is slightly less than the velocity of light. Properties of Alpha Particles • Alpha particles are Helium nuclei. • Ionization power is greates. which reverses the process and gives us a clear animated picture on the screen. • Its penetration power is the greatest. • It produces florescence with Barium Platino Cyanide. Properties of Gamma Rays • Gamma rays are electromagnetic in nature. The substances that emit radiation are known as radioactive elements.After the collection of these electrons it is converted into voltage pulse known as video signal. • It effects the photographic plate.Chapter 19 NUCLEAR PHYSICS. properties and reaction of particles found in the nuclei of atoms. • Penetration power is the least. • The charge on alpha particles is positive. Nuclear Physics It is the branch of Physics that deals with the structure. The apparatus is placed in a vacuum light chamber which is evacuated by a powerful pump. • Ionization power is less than alpha particles.. • Ionization power is least. • It effects the photographic plate. A photographic plate is placed at some distance above the lead block so that the radiation from radium falls upon it. • It produces florescence with barium platino cyanide solution. • The charge on beta particles is negative.

This is called a Chain Reaction. heavy water is used as a moderator. Nuclear Fusion The process in which two lighter nuclei are brought together to form another heavy nucleus is called the Fusion Reaction. This is called fuel element.neutron is called a fission process. The neutrons released from fission move with high velocities. This heat is used to produce steam. The fast moving neutrons have to be slowed down before they cause further fission. When Deuterium and Tritium nuclei are brought together they form a Helium nucleus and release a large amount of energy and a neutron. which may cause too much fission. The process of slowing down neutrons is called moderation. Chain Reaction In a fission reaction. The heat produced is a nuclear reactor is carried away by the circulation of pressurized water or carbon dioxide gas inside the core of the reactor. These neutrons produce further fission in other nuclei and this process continues. . This steam can be used to run a power station for the generation of electricity. These neutrons collide with other uranium nuclei and cause fission in them emitting three more neutrons. When a chain reaction starts. it may produce large number of neutrons. Working of a Nuclear Reactor The fission material in a nuclear reactor is Uranium. each nucleus emits three neutrons. The rate of chain reaction is controlled by inserting control rods which are commonly made of Boron. Nuclear Reactor A system used to obtain a controlled amount of heat from nuclear fission is called a nuclear reactor.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.