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Oracle Architecture

ORACLE Architecture
• • • • • Database Components Memory Structures Processes Oracle Instance Shared Server ( Multi –threaded Server)

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Database overview
An oracle database consists of Physical Components
• • • Data file Control Files Redo log files

Logical components
• Tablespace , segments , extent , block. • Schema Objects

Database file
A database consists of a set of operating system files. Types of information is stored in an oracle database
• User Data
Actual Application Data

• System Data
Data that the database needs to manage itself

• Overhead Data
Indexes , Integrity etc.

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Database file
An ORACLE database consists of one or more physical operating system files, called database files. These files contain all the database data. One or more physical files form a logical unit on database storage called a tablespace A database file can be associated with one and only one tablespace.

Control file
A database’s overall physical architecture is maintained by its control files. A control file contains information about all the files associated with an oracle database files -- Name of Physical database files -- Redo Log files -- Time stamp

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Control file is automatically modified by ORACLE. A Redo log contains all the committed transaction that have occurred against the database . a user cannot edit them They are used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations Redo Log file The Redo Log files are set of files external to the database that records changes made to the database during transactions. Redo logs are also called transaction logs.12/1/2010 Control File A control file is associated with a single database. 4 .

5 . Every database requires a minimum two Redo Logs Redo logs work in circular fashion A Log switch occurs when a log file is filled. Redo Log file An online Redo log file is one to which transactions are written each time a transaction occurs.12/1/2010 Redo Log File No activity in the database can take place without being recorded in Redo Logs The redo Logs are necessary to protect against data loss due to various kinds of failures.

The transactions are overwritten each time a log switch occurs ARCHIVELOG Mode -. 6 .A copy of current log is made before a log switch occurs. This ensures the database protection against all types of failure.All transaction redo logs are kept -.Default mode -.12/1/2010 Redo Log File Database operates in two modes : --NOARCHIVELOG --ARCHIVELOG The mode determines whether the redo logs are overwritten or not before creating copy of filled redo log file. Redo Log File NOARCHIVELOG Mode -.

Tablespace The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : SYSTEM SYSAUX TEMPORARY UNDO USER BIGFILE INDEX 7 . A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical files.12/1/2010 Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespaces.

the system tablespace always contain the data dictionary for the entire database objects. Tablespace TEMPORARY : -.Single data file can be upto 8EB. SYSAUX -.An auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace -. USER : -.Where all the information about the user is stored. log Miner etc.Consists of only one datafile -. BIGFILE : -.Used for rolling back transactions.where ORACLE stores all the information it needs to manage itself.12/1/2010 Tablespace SYSTEM -. 8 . -. UNDO : -.Used by oracle components like Enterprise Manager Repository .where ORACLE stores all its temporary tables.

made up of logical (oracle) blocks Segments and Extents Types of segments can be : Data segments Index segments Undo segments Temporary segments Bootstrap segments 9 . The storage parameters of segment determines how a database object will obtain database space.12/1/2010 Segments and Extents All data in a tablespace is stored in allocations of database space called segments A segment is a set of extents allocated for storage of database data. An extent is an allocation of contigious database space .

TEMPORARY : Used to store intermediate results of various operations BOOTSTRAP : Helps to initialize data dictionary cache when the database is opened by an instance Schema Objects A schema can have one or more logical database objects -. 10 .Views etc.Indexes -.12/1/2010 Segments and Extents DATA and INDEX which holds the actual data and the indexes.Tables -. UNDO : where all undo information is stored.

Information which is shared and communicated among ORACLE processes -.12/1/2010 Oracle Memory Structures Oracle uses memory to store : -.Data needed during program execution -. Oracle Memory Structures The basic memory structures associated with ORACLE includes : -.The System Global Area (SGA) -.Caching information.The Program Global Areas (PGA) 11 .Program code being executed -.Information about connected session -.

12/1/2010 The System Global Area A group of shared memory structures that contains data and control information for one database instance Multiple users connected to the same instance share the data from instance’s SGA Also referred as Shared Global Area The System Global Area The information stored within an SGA is divided into several areas of memory : The database Buffer Cache The Redo log Buffer The Shared Pool Java Pool Streams pool 12 .

12/1/2010 Database Buffer Cache A portion of SGA that holds database information The buffers are shared by all ORACLE user processes concurrently connected to the instance. Redo entries from the Redo Buffer are written to the online Redo Log Files 13 . The Redo Log Buffer The redo log buffer in the SGA holds changes made to the database.

12/1/2010 The Shared Pool It consists of -.Library Cache -. 14 .Data Dictionary Cache Shared pool Library Cache – stores information about the most recently used SQL and PL/SQL statements. – Use Least Recently used (LRU) algorithm – Consist of two areas shared SQL are Shared PL/SQL area.

15 . The Program Global Area Contains data and control information for single process Also referred as ‘Process Global Area’ PGA contains -.SQL work area.12/1/2010 Shared Pool The Data Dictionary Cache – Contains reference information about the database .Session memory -. Privileges of all Oracle users.Private SQL area -. its structure and its users – Contents of the data dictionary Names of all tables and views Names and data types of the columns in database tables.

The combination of SGA and the ORACLE processes is called an Oracle Database instance -.An Oracle instance may have number of background processes. Oracle Processes System Processes -. not all are always present.12/1/2010 Oracle Processes Every time a database is strated on a database server .Mandatory Processes -. An ORACLE Instance -.Optional Processes User Processes 16 . SGA is allocated and one or more Oracle processes are started.

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Oracle System Processes
Database Writer (DBWn) Log Writer(LGWR) System Monitor(SMON) Process Monitor (PMON) Checkpoint (CKPT) Archiver (ARCH) Recoverer (RECO) Lock (LCKn) Server(Snn)

Database Writer

All the writing of buffers of a data files is performed by the database writer Process. DBWR also manages the buffer cache so that user processes can always find free buffers DBWR is responsible for buffer cache management
-- when a buffer in the buffer cache is modified , it is marked as ‘Dirty’. -- DBWR keeps buffer cache ‘Clean’ by writing ‘Dirty’ buffers on the Disk

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Database writer
Database writer writes to database when -- Checkpoints occur -- Dirty buffers reach threshold -- There are no free buffers -- Time out occurs

Log Writers
The redo log buffer is written to a Redo log on disk by the log writer process(LGWR) LGWR is the only process that writes to the on line Redo log and reads the redo log buffers Log Writer writes to log files when
-- A transaction commits -- The redo log buffer is one third full -- More than 1MB of changes recorded in the Redo Log Buffers -- Before DBWn writes modified blocks in the database buffer Cache to the data files -- Every three seconds

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System Monitor
The system Monitor Process performance instance recovery at instance start up. SMON is also responsible for cleaning up temporary segments It merges contiguous free extents in the data file

Process Monitor
Performs process recovery when a user process fails. PMON -- Rolls back the transaction -- Releases the locks -- Releases other resources used by failed process

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Managing Oracle Instance 20 .12/1/2010 Checkpoint (CKPT) Signals DBWR at checkpoints Records information in control file . Updates all of the data files header and control file with checkpoint information. to identify the place in the online redo log file from where recovery is to begin.

Text File -. To see parameters value .Default name in the format of spfileSID.ora -.g.ora -.ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_tablespace=undo3 SCOPE=BOTH.Default Location ORACLE_Home\Database Persistent server parameter file (SPFILE) -.Binary file -. pfile must exit -.Default name in the format of initSID.Default location ORACLE_HOME\Database Changing parameter values Syntax : -ALTER SYSTEM SET parameter_name= value [SCOPE= MEMORY|SPFILE|BOTH] E.Changes to parameter can be persistent across shutdown and startup -.Maintained by Oracle Server -.SHOW PARAMETERS [parameter_name] 21 . .12/1/2010 Parameter File Static parameter file (PFILE) -.To create spfile first .

g.STARTUP -.BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.STARTUP [ FORCE ] [ RESTRICT ] [ PFILE=pfile_name] [ MOUNT | NOMOUNT] E.DB_CACHE_SIZE -.STARTUP PFILE = ORACLE_HOME\database\init<sid>.COMPATIBLE -.CONTROL_FILES -.SHARED_POOL_SIZE -.12/1/2010 Parameters in Initialization Some common Parameters -.ora 22 . -.USER_DUMP_DEST Starting Up a Database SYNTAX -.DB_NAME -.

23 .12/1/2010 Starting Up a Database Database can be started in three stages : -.OPEN ALTER DATABASE command Used for moving database from NOMOUNT to MOUNT or MOUNT to OPEN stage.NOMOUNT -.MOUNT -. SYNTAX: ALTER DATABASE <MOUNT | OPEN [READ WRITE | READ ONLY ]>.

log Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.User trace files Location decided by USER_DUMP_DEST Size defined by MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE 24 .Background trace files Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.12/1/2010 Shutting down the database SYNTAX SHUTDOWN [ NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL | IMMEDIATE | ABORT ] .alert_SID. Diagnostic Files The files contains information about significant events. Types of the files : -.

sid (session id) and Serial# (serial number) from v$SESSION view are used to uniquely identify a session Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance views 25 . -. serial#’` .12/1/2010 Terminating Session Syntax ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION `sid .

-.Names of Oracle users -. Provides information about -.Logical and Physical database structure -. Stored in the SYSTEM tablespace Owned by the user SYS Maintained automatically by the Oracle server Oracle server modifies it when a DDL statement is executed Available as read only to users and DBA Data dictionary Contents Data dictionary views are static views.Privileges and roles granted to users -.Definitions and space allocation of all objects such as table .12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Contains read only tables and views. synonyms etc.Integrity constraint information -. views.Auditing information 26 .

DBA_TAB_COLUMNS -. DICT_COLUMNS Schema objects -.12/1/2010 Data dictionary view categories Distinguish and prefixed by their scope -.DBA All objects in the database -.ALL Objects accessible by the current user --USER Objects owned by the current user Data Dictionary To get overview of the data dictionary views .DICTIONARY .DBA_TABLES -.DBA_INDEXES -. query the DICTIONARY view or its synonym DICT General Overview -.DBA_TAB_CONSTRAINTS 27 .

DBA_DATA_FILES Dynamic Performance Views These virtual table exists in memory only when the database is running Reflect real-time conditions of the database operation Points to actual sources of information in memory and the control file Also called as fixed views Owned by SYS and begin with V_$ Accessed through public synonyms starting with V$ Listed in V$FIXED_TABLE 28 .12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Space allocation -.DBA_TABLESPACES -.DBA_EXTENTS Database structure -.DBA_SEGMENTS -.

Summary information of the SGA V$SPPARAMETER -.Version numbers of core library components 29 .12/1/2010 Dynamic Performance Views V$CONTROLFILE -.Data file information from the control file V$INSTANCE -.Database information from the control file V$DATAFILE -.List parameters and values currently in effect V$SESSION -.Names of the control file V$DATABASE -.State of the current instance V$PARAMETER -.Tablespace information from the control file V$VERSION -.Contents of the SPFILE V$TABLESPACE -.Session information Dynamic Performance Views V$SGA -.

12/1/2010 Managing tablespace Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespace A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical database files 30 .

12/1/2010 Tablespace The original tablespace is named as SYSTEM The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : -.Non.Contains the data Dictionary .Should not contain user data 31 .SYSTEM USER TEMP TOOLS Tablespace SYSTEM tablespace -.Created with the database -.SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSAUX -.Contains the system undo segments -. including stored programs -.

12/1/2010 Tablespace Non. temporary . application data and application index segments -.Created according to data backup requirements -.Control the amount of space allocated to the user’s objects Tablespace Syntax CREATE TABLESPACE ts_name [ DATAFILE ‘file_name’ [ SIZE integer [ K|M ]] [ MINIMUM EXTENT integer [ K|M ]] [ LOGGING | NOLOGGING ] [ extent_management_clause ] [ extent_management_clause ] 32 .SYSTEM tablespace -.Created to separate undo .Created for flexibility in database administration -.

Affects only DML and DDL Commands .Free extents are managed within the tablespace using bitmaps -. e. direct loads Space management Locally Managed -. the system tablespace was not locally managed 33 .Prior to Oracle9i Release 2 .Default beginning with Oracle9i -.12/1/2010 Tablespace NOLOGGING -.g.Each bit corresponds to a block or group of blocks -.

When space is allocated or deallocated .Tracks adjacent free space .The size of locally managed extents can be determined automatically by system -. undo not generated -. so coalescing is not required -.dbf` SIZE 400M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 128K 34 .12/1/2010 Space management Advantages of locally managed tablespaces -.Avoids recursive space management operation Space management Syntax of extent_management_clause [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT [ DITIONARY | LOCAL [ AUTOALLOCATE | UNIFORM [ SIZE integer [ K | M] ] ] ] Example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.Reduced contention on data dictionary tables -.

12/1/2010 Space management extent_management_clause -.Free extents are managed in the data dictionary -.AUTOALLOCATE Specified that the tablespace is SYSTEM managed Users can not specify an extent size Space management Dictionary managed -.Data dictionary is updated appropriately when extents are allocated or deallocated -.LOCAL Default clause specifies that the tablespace is locally managed using bitmaps With this clause DEFAULT storage_clause .Each segment stored in the tablespace can have a different storage clause . so more flexible than locally managed but much less efficient -. MINIMUM EXTENT or TEMPORARY clauses can not be specified -.Coalescing is required 35 .

12/1/2010 Space management Dictionary Managed example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.dbf’ SIZE 20M 36 .CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE ts_name [DATAFILE clause] [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT clause] E . -.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘c:\oradata\undo. G.dbf` EXTENT MANAGEMENT DICTIONARY DEFAULT STORAGE ( INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M PCTINCREASE 0) Undo Tablespace Used to store undo segments Extents are locally managed EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL and DATAFILE clauses can only be specified Syntax : -.

It is always with standard blocksize -.g CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1 TEMPFILE ` c:\oradata\temp1.dbf` SIZE 30M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 2M.To create a locally managed temporary tablespace . use the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE statement Temporary Tablespace The extents once allocated can be only freed when the instance is shut down e. 37 .g segments used by implicit sorts caused by an ORDER BY clause -.12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Temporary tablespace -.Used to hold temporary objects e.

Default Temporary Tablespace Default temporary tablespace is created to eliminate the use of System tablespace for storing temporary data Default temporary tablespace can be created • At the time of database creation • After database creation By creating temporary tablespace and setting it to Default temporay tablespace E.12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Points to remember about temporary data files in locally managed temporary tablespace • • • • • Non standard block sizes cannot be specified Temporary files are always set to NOLOGGING mode It cannot be made read only Temporary files are required for read only databases Media recovery does not recover tempfiles.g. 38 . ALTER DATABASE DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1.

12/1/2010 Default Temporary Tablespace When Default temporay tablespace is changed.all users assigned the Default temporay tablespace are assigned to new default To find Default temporary tablesapce for the database query DATABASE_PROPERTIES view Default Temporary Tablespace Restrictions on default temporary tablespace • Can not be dropped until new default is available • Cannot be taken offline 39 .

Default temporary tablespace 40 .12/1/2010 Taking Tablespace offline Syntax: ALTER TABLESPACE ts_name<ONLINE | OFFLINE [NORMAL|IMMEDIATE]>. Example : ALTER TABLESPACE user OFFLINE ALTER TABLESPACE user ONLINE Taking Tablespace offline Following tablespace cannot be taken offline .Tablespaces with active undo segments .System tablespace .

dbf’ AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M. – ALTER TABLESPACE user2 ADD DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user3.dbf’ RESIZE 5M.ALTER TABLESPACE….12/1/2010 Changing Size of Tablespace Size of the tablespace can be changed automatically by specifying AUTOEXTEND clause with .CREATE TABLESPACE . ADD DATAFILE Changing Size of Tablespace Examples : – CREATE TABLESPACE user1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.CREATE DATABASE .dbf’ SIZE 4M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M MAXSIZE 100M – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1. – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1. 41 .dbf’ SIZE 10M.

DROPPING TABLESPACES Guidelines .Tablespace that still contains data can be only dropped by specifying INCLUDING CONTENTS option. Example . .DROP TABLESPACE user1 INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES.Tablespace can not be dropped if it Is a system tablespace Contain active segments .12/1/2010 DROPPING TABLESPACES SYNTAX .To drop files of tablespace use AND DATAFILES clause 42 .DROP TABLESPACE ts_name [INCLUDING CONTENTS[AND DATAFILES][CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]].

12/1/2010 TABLESPACE INFORMATION Tablespace Information .Transaction recovery Possible because changes made to the undo segment are also protected by the online redo log files.Read consistency Does not allow other transactions to see any uncommitted changes 43 .DBA_TEMP_FILES .Transaction rollback Used to record old values of data that were changed by a transaction Restores these values if transaction is rolled back .V$DATAFILE Temp file information . .V$TEMPFILE UNDO SEGMENT • Purpose of Undo segments .V$TABLESPACE Data file information -DBA_DATA_FILES .DBA_TABLESPACES .

CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. To switch between undo tablespaces dynamically . By creating undo tablespace later on . 44 .12/1/2010 CREATING UNDO SEGMENT By adding clause in the CREATE DATABSE .dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON.ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_TABLESPACE= undotbs2.CREATE DATABASE trydb…… UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo1.dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON. SWITCHING UNDO TABLESPACE Multiple undo tablespace can exists. however only one tablespace can be active at a time.

CREATING UNDO SEGMENT Specifying Retention Guarantee . 45 .12/1/2010 AUTOMATIC UNDO MANAGEMENT Undo tablespace may need to be increased to support long running queries that needs consistent reads UNDO_RETENTION parameter detarmines how long to retain undo data for consistent reads Can be modified dynamically .ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_RETENTION=600.dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON RETENTION GUARANTEE.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2.

Use of User name.12/1/2010 PRIVILAGES AND ROLES CONTROLLING USERS AND SECURITY Control over security .Oracle server provide tools by which the DBA can ensure security of the data . Password Privileges . Roles 46 .

CREATING USER Consider following when creating User . a schema with the same name is created for that user.Identify table space .12/1/2010 DATABASE SCHEMA A schema is a named collection of database objects that are associated with particular user When a database user is created .Decide quota on each tablespaces .Assign a default and temporary tablespaces -Decide privileges and roles 47 .

12/1/2010 CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Syntax CREATE USER username IDENTIFIED BY <password>[DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name][TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M]| UNLIMITED > ON ts_name][PASSWORD EXPIRE][ACCOUNT<LOCK|UNLOCK>][PROFILE< profile_name|DEFAULT>]. CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Example CREATE USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY xxyyzz DEFAULT TABLESPACE user1 TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp QUOTA 10M ON user1 QUOTA 10M ON data PASSWORD EXPIRE ACCOUNT UNLOCK 48 .

E. 49 .If default tablespace is not assigned then system tablespace is assigned as the default . user will be prompted to change his password at the first log in CHANGING USER QUOTA Syntax: ALTER USER user_name [DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name] [TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M|UNLIMITED>O N ts_name].ALTER USER Anil QUOTA 0 ON user1. .12/1/2010 CREATING USER Points to remember .g.If PASSWORD EXPIRE is specified then.

50 .ALTER USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY new_password. DROPPING A USER Syntax: .e.g. . . The CASCADE option drops all objects in the schema before dropping the user.12/1/2010 CHANGING PASSWORD Syntax: .g . E.DROP USER user_name [CASCADE].ALTER USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY anil87.DROP USER Anil CASCADE.

are rights to execute particular SQL statement Need to grant privileges .Efficient system management Users are allowed to perform limited operations that they need.DBA_TS_QUOTAS PRIVILEGES Privileges .Data confidentiality Only relevant personnel have access to confidential data .12/1/2010 USER INFORMATION Information about users can be obtained from the following views . 51 .DBA_USERS .

Database backup These privileges are normally granted only to DBAs 52 .Removing users .Creating public synonyms. .12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES Categories of privileges . .System privileges .Object privileges SYSTEM PRIVILEGES System privileges allows users to perform particular actions in the database e. new users etc. tables etc.g .

CREATE privilege include dropping these objects .To truncate table of another schema DROP ANY TABLE privilege is required. 53 .To connect database CREATE SESSION privilege is required .12/1/2010 SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Category Index Privileges CREATE ANY INDEX ALTER ANY INDEX DROP ANY INDEX CREATE TABLE CREATE ANY TABLE ALTER ANY TABLE DROP ANY TABLE SELECT ANY TABLE UPDATE ANY TABLE DELETE ANY TABLE CREATE ANY SESSION ALTER SESSION RESTRICTED SESSION CREATE TABLESPACE ALTER TABLESPACE DROP TABLESPACE Table Session Tablespace SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Points to remember .

54 . E. E.g.REVOKE CREATE TABLE FROM Anil. create table TO Anil.] |role| PUBLIC> [WITH ADMIN OPTION].….] TO USER <[user_name1. GRANT create session . WITH ADMIN OPTION -Enables the grantee to further grant the privilege or role to other users or roles.…. REVOKING SYSTEM PRIVILEGE Syntax: .user_name2.12/1/2010 GRANT-SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Syntax : GRANT privilege1[. privilege2. Users with ADMIN OPTION for system privileges can revoke system privileges There are no cascading effect when system privilege is revoked.REVOKE <system_priv | role> FROM <user_name | role | PUBLIC>.g. .

Sub-program SELECT.….] | ALL > ON object_name TO <user_name|role|PUBLIC>[WITH GRANT OPTION].Table . 55 .Sequence .DELETE.REFERENCE SELECT . ALTER EXECUTE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Owner has all privilege on objects available in his schema Owner can give privileges on objects owned by him to other users or roles Syntax: GRANT <obj_priv1[(col_names)][.DELETE.obj_priv2.UPDATE.INSERT.INSERT.View .INDEX REFERENCES .UPDATE.ALTER SELECT.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES Enables users to access and manipulate a specific object Each object has a particular set of grantable privileges .

Example: -REVOKE select ON emp FROM Amit 56 .user_name2.….]|role|PUBLIC>. - REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Revoke command is used to remove privileges assigned to different users Cascading effects can be observed when revoking a system privilege Syntax: REVOKE <[privilege1.privilege2.deptno) ON emp TO miller.….]|ALL>ON object_name FROM <[user_name1. GRANT update (job.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES WITH GRANT OPTION Allows grantee to grant objects privileges to other users or roles Not valid when granting an object privilege to a role Example : Grant select ON emp TO Amit WITH GRANT OPTION.

Lists system privileges granted to users and roles DBA_TAB_PRIVS .Lists column privileges SESSION_PRIVS .Lists all grants on all objects in the database DBA_COL_PRIVS .Lists the grants made on the objects owned by the current user ROLE Role is a named group of related privileges that can be granted to users Role provides easy and controlled privilege management Role can consists of both system and object privileges It can granted to any database user or role 57 .12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES INFORMATION DBA_SYS_PRIVS .Lists the privileges that are currently available to the user ALL_TAB_PRIVS_MADE .

types.12/1/2010 CREATE ROLE Syntax: CREATE ROLE role_name.table. Anamika WITH ADMIN OPTION.Privileges to connect to the database and create various objects as cluster .view RESUORCE . create table. DBA All system privileges with ADMIN option SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE-Select privilege on data dictionary tables 58 .triggers.Privileges to create programmatic objects such as procedure. GRANT engineer TO Amol.g CREATE ROLE engineer.packages. create view. e.synonym. PREDEFINED ROLE CONNECT . functions.sequence. GRANT create session . TO engineer. database link.

Example: .REVOKE engineer FROM scott.role2.g.GRANT engineer TO scott WITH ADMIN OPTION.role2] FROM <user|role|PUBLIC>. .[.12/1/2010 ASSIGNING ROLES Syntax: GRANT role1. REVOKING ROLES Syntax: REVOKE role1. 59 .…… TO <user|role|PUBLIC>[WITH ADMIN OPTION] E. Any user with ADMIN option for a role can revoke the role from any other database user or role.

DROP ROLE role.Lists all the roles granted to users and roles ROLE_ROLE_PRIVS .Removes it from database ADMIN OPTION or DROP ANY ROLE privileges are required Syntax: .Lists the roles defined in the database DBA_ROLE_PRIVS .Lists roles granted to the roles DBA_SYS_PRIVS . ROLE INFORMATION DBA_ROLES .Removes it from all users and roles it was granted .12/1/2010 REMOVING ROLE DROP ROLE command .Lists system privileges granted to users and roles 60 .

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