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• • • • • Database Components Memory Structures Processes Oracle Instance Shared Server ( Multi –threaded Server)
An oracle database consists of Physical Components
• • • Data file Control Files Redo log files
• Tablespace , segments , extent , block. • Schema Objects
A database consists of a set of operating system files. Types of information is stored in an oracle database
• User Data
Actual Application Data
• System Data
Data that the database needs to manage itself
• Overhead Data
Indexes , Integrity etc.
An ORACLE database consists of one or more physical operating system files, called database files. These files contain all the database data. One or more physical files form a logical unit on database storage called a tablespace A database file can be associated with one and only one tablespace.
A database’s overall physical architecture is maintained by its control files. A control file contains information about all the files associated with an oracle database files -- Name of Physical database files -- Redo Log files -- Time stamp
12/1/2010 Control File A control file is associated with a single database. A Redo log contains all the committed transaction that have occurred against the database . Control file is automatically modified by ORACLE. 4 . a user cannot edit them They are used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations Redo Log file The Redo Log files are set of files external to the database that records changes made to the database during transactions. Redo logs are also called transaction logs.
Every database requires a minimum two Redo Logs Redo logs work in circular fashion A Log switch occurs when a log file is filled. 5 . Redo Log file An online Redo log file is one to which transactions are written each time a transaction occurs.12/1/2010 Redo Log File No activity in the database can take place without being recorded in Redo Logs The redo Logs are necessary to protect against data loss due to various kinds of failures.
Default mode -.The transactions are overwritten each time a log switch occurs ARCHIVELOG Mode -.All transaction redo logs are kept -. This ensures the database protection against all types of failure.A copy of current log is made before a log switch occurs. Redo Log File NOARCHIVELOG Mode -. 6 .12/1/2010 Redo Log File Database operates in two modes : --NOARCHIVELOG --ARCHIVELOG The mode determines whether the redo logs are overwritten or not before creating copy of filled redo log file.
12/1/2010 Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespaces. Tablespace The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : SYSTEM SYSAUX TEMPORARY UNDO USER BIGFILE INDEX 7 . A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical files.
UNDO : -. -. BIGFILE : -.Single data file can be upto 8EB.An auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace -.Used for rolling back transactions. log Miner etc.where ORACLE stores all the information it needs to manage itself.Used by oracle components like Enterprise Manager Repository . Tablespace TEMPORARY : -.Consists of only one datafile -. USER : -. 8 .Where all the information about the user is stored. SYSAUX -.where ORACLE stores all its temporary tables.12/1/2010 Tablespace SYSTEM -.the system tablespace always contain the data dictionary for the entire database objects.
made up of logical (oracle) blocks Segments and Extents Types of segments can be : Data segments Index segments Undo segments Temporary segments Bootstrap segments 9 .12/1/2010 Segments and Extents All data in a tablespace is stored in allocations of database space called segments A segment is a set of extents allocated for storage of database data. The storage parameters of segment determines how a database object will obtain database space. An extent is an allocation of contigious database space .
Tables -.Indexes -.12/1/2010 Segments and Extents DATA and INDEX which holds the actual data and the indexes.Views etc. TEMPORARY : Used to store intermediate results of various operations BOOTSTRAP : Helps to initialize data dictionary cache when the database is opened by an instance Schema Objects A schema can have one or more logical database objects -. 10 . UNDO : where all undo information is stored.
The System Global Area (SGA) -.Caching information. Oracle Memory Structures The basic memory structures associated with ORACLE includes : -.Information which is shared and communicated among ORACLE processes -.12/1/2010 Oracle Memory Structures Oracle uses memory to store : -.Data needed during program execution -.The Program Global Areas (PGA) 11 .Information about connected session -.Program code being executed -.
12/1/2010 The System Global Area A group of shared memory structures that contains data and control information for one database instance Multiple users connected to the same instance share the data from instance’s SGA Also referred as Shared Global Area The System Global Area The information stored within an SGA is divided into several areas of memory : The database Buffer Cache The Redo log Buffer The Shared Pool Java Pool Streams pool 12 .
12/1/2010 Database Buffer Cache A portion of SGA that holds database information The buffers are shared by all ORACLE user processes concurrently connected to the instance. Redo entries from the Redo Buffer are written to the online Redo Log Files 13 . The Redo Log Buffer The redo log buffer in the SGA holds changes made to the database.
12/1/2010 The Shared Pool It consists of -. – Use Least Recently used (LRU) algorithm – Consist of two areas shared SQL are Shared PL/SQL area. 14 .Library Cache -.Data Dictionary Cache Shared pool Library Cache – stores information about the most recently used SQL and PL/SQL statements.
Private SQL area -. The Program Global Area Contains data and control information for single process Also referred as ‘Process Global Area’ PGA contains -.12/1/2010 Shared Pool The Data Dictionary Cache – Contains reference information about the database .Session memory -. 15 .SQL work area. its structure and its users – Contents of the data dictionary Names of all tables and views Names and data types of the columns in database tables. Privileges of all Oracle users.
not all are always present.Mandatory Processes -. An ORACLE Instance -. Oracle Processes System Processes -.12/1/2010 Oracle Processes Every time a database is strated on a database server .An Oracle instance may have number of background processes.The combination of SGA and the ORACLE processes is called an Oracle Database instance -.Optional Processes User Processes 16 . SGA is allocated and one or more Oracle processes are started.
Oracle System Processes
Database Writer (DBWn) Log Writer(LGWR) System Monitor(SMON) Process Monitor (PMON) Checkpoint (CKPT) Archiver (ARCH) Recoverer (RECO) Lock (LCKn) Server(Snn)
All the writing of buffers of a data files is performed by the database writer Process. DBWR also manages the buffer cache so that user processes can always find free buffers DBWR is responsible for buffer cache management
-- when a buffer in the buffer cache is modified , it is marked as ‘Dirty’. -- DBWR keeps buffer cache ‘Clean’ by writing ‘Dirty’ buffers on the Disk
Database writer writes to database when -- Checkpoints occur -- Dirty buffers reach threshold -- There are no free buffers -- Time out occurs
The redo log buffer is written to a Redo log on disk by the log writer process(LGWR) LGWR is the only process that writes to the on line Redo log and reads the redo log buffers Log Writer writes to log files when
-- A transaction commits -- The redo log buffer is one third full -- More than 1MB of changes recorded in the Redo Log Buffers -- Before DBWn writes modified blocks in the database buffer Cache to the data files -- Every three seconds
The system Monitor Process performance instance recovery at instance start up. SMON is also responsible for cleaning up temporary segments It merges contiguous free extents in the data file
Performs process recovery when a user process fails. PMON -- Rolls back the transaction -- Releases the locks -- Releases other resources used by failed process
to identify the place in the online redo log file from where recovery is to begin. Managing Oracle Instance 20 .12/1/2010 Checkpoint (CKPT) Signals DBWR at checkpoints Records information in control file . Updates all of the data files header and control file with checkpoint information.
Maintained by Oracle Server -.To create spfile first .ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_tablespace=undo3 SCOPE=BOTH.12/1/2010 Parameter File Static parameter file (PFILE) -.Default name in the format of spfileSID.ora -.Default location ORACLE_HOME\Database Changing parameter values Syntax : -ALTER SYSTEM SET parameter_name= value [SCOPE= MEMORY|SPFILE|BOTH] E. .Binary file -.Text File -.Default name in the format of initSID. To see parameters value .Changes to parameter can be persistent across shutdown and startup -.g.ora -.Default Location ORACLE_Home\Database Persistent server parameter file (SPFILE) -. pfile must exit -.SHOW PARAMETERS [parameter_name] 21 .
CONTROL_FILES -.USER_DUMP_DEST Starting Up a Database SYNTAX -.STARTUP -.STARTUP [ FORCE ] [ RESTRICT ] [ PFILE=pfile_name] [ MOUNT | NOMOUNT] E.g.BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.ora 22 .DB_CACHE_SIZE -.DB_NAME -. -.STARTUP PFILE = ORACLE_HOME\database\init<sid>.COMPATIBLE -.SHARED_POOL_SIZE -.12/1/2010 Parameters in Initialization Some common Parameters -.
12/1/2010 Starting Up a Database Database can be started in three stages : -. 23 . SYNTAX: ALTER DATABASE <MOUNT | OPEN [READ WRITE | READ ONLY ]>.NOMOUNT -.MOUNT -.OPEN ALTER DATABASE command Used for moving database from NOMOUNT to MOUNT or MOUNT to OPEN stage.
alert_SID. Types of the files : -.log Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.12/1/2010 Shutting down the database SYNTAX SHUTDOWN [ NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL | IMMEDIATE | ABORT ] . Diagnostic Files The files contains information about significant events.Background trace files Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.User trace files Location decided by USER_DUMP_DEST Size defined by MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE 24 .
-.sid (session id) and Serial# (serial number) from v$SESSION view are used to uniquely identify a session Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance views 25 .12/1/2010 Terminating Session Syntax ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION `sid . serial#’` .
Logical and Physical database structure -.Names of Oracle users -. -.Definitions and space allocation of all objects such as table . Stored in the SYSTEM tablespace Owned by the user SYS Maintained automatically by the Oracle server Oracle server modifies it when a DDL statement is executed Available as read only to users and DBA Data dictionary Contents Data dictionary views are static views.Privileges and roles granted to users -.12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Contains read only tables and views.Integrity constraint information -. views.Auditing information 26 . Provides information about -. synonyms etc.
DICT_COLUMNS Schema objects -.DBA All objects in the database -.DICTIONARY .DBA_TAB_CONSTRAINTS 27 .ALL Objects accessible by the current user --USER Objects owned by the current user Data Dictionary To get overview of the data dictionary views .DBA_INDEXES -.DBA_TAB_COLUMNS -.12/1/2010 Data dictionary view categories Distinguish and prefixed by their scope -.DBA_TABLES -. query the DICTIONARY view or its synonym DICT General Overview -.
12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Space allocation -.DBA_DATA_FILES Dynamic Performance Views These virtual table exists in memory only when the database is running Reflect real-time conditions of the database operation Points to actual sources of information in memory and the control file Also called as fixed views Owned by SYS and begin with V_$ Accessed through public synonyms starting with V$ Listed in V$FIXED_TABLE 28 .DBA_TABLESPACES -.DBA_SEGMENTS -.DBA_EXTENTS Database structure -.
12/1/2010 Dynamic Performance Views V$CONTROLFILE -.Database information from the control file V$DATAFILE -.Tablespace information from the control file V$VERSION -.Summary information of the SGA V$SPPARAMETER -.Session information Dynamic Performance Views V$SGA -.Data file information from the control file V$INSTANCE -.Version numbers of core library components 29 .List parameters and values currently in effect V$SESSION -.State of the current instance V$PARAMETER -.Names of the control file V$DATABASE -.Contents of the SPFILE V$TABLESPACE -.
12/1/2010 Managing tablespace Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespace A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical database files 30 .
Non.12/1/2010 Tablespace The original tablespace is named as SYSTEM The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : -.Should not contain user data 31 . including stored programs -.Contains the system undo segments -.SYSTEM USER TEMP TOOLS Tablespace SYSTEM tablespace -.Contains the data Dictionary .Created with the database -.SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSAUX -.
temporary .12/1/2010 Tablespace Non. application data and application index segments -.SYSTEM tablespace -.Control the amount of space allocated to the user’s objects Tablespace Syntax CREATE TABLESPACE ts_name [ DATAFILE ‘file_name’ [ SIZE integer [ K|M ]] [ MINIMUM EXTENT integer [ K|M ]] [ LOGGING | NOLOGGING ] [ extent_management_clause ] [ extent_management_clause ] 32 .Created for flexibility in database administration -.Created to separate undo .Created according to data backup requirements -.
Each bit corresponds to a block or group of blocks -. direct loads Space management Locally Managed -.Default beginning with Oracle9i -.Affects only DML and DDL Commands .g.12/1/2010 Tablespace NOLOGGING -. e. the system tablespace was not locally managed 33 .Free extents are managed within the tablespace using bitmaps -.Prior to Oracle9i Release 2 .
so coalescing is not required -.Reduced contention on data dictionary tables -.Avoids recursive space management operation Space management Syntax of extent_management_clause [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT [ DITIONARY | LOCAL [ AUTOALLOCATE | UNIFORM [ SIZE integer [ K | M] ] ] ] Example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.When space is allocated or deallocated .The size of locally managed extents can be determined automatically by system -.Tracks adjacent free space .dbf` SIZE 400M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 128K 34 . undo not generated -.12/1/2010 Space management Advantages of locally managed tablespaces -.
MINIMUM EXTENT or TEMPORARY clauses can not be specified -.Each segment stored in the tablespace can have a different storage clause .Free extents are managed in the data dictionary -.Coalescing is required 35 .Data dictionary is updated appropriately when extents are allocated or deallocated -. so more flexible than locally managed but much less efficient -.LOCAL Default clause specifies that the tablespace is locally managed using bitmaps With this clause DEFAULT storage_clause .12/1/2010 Space management extent_management_clause -.AUTOALLOCATE Specified that the tablespace is SYSTEM managed Users can not specify an extent size Space management Dictionary managed -.
dbf’ SIZE 20M 36 . -.dbf` EXTENT MANAGEMENT DICTIONARY DEFAULT STORAGE ( INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M PCTINCREASE 0) Undo Tablespace Used to store undo segments Extents are locally managed EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL and DATAFILE clauses can only be specified Syntax : -.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘c:\oradata\undo. G.12/1/2010 Space management Dictionary Managed example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE ts_name [DATAFILE clause] [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT clause] E .
dbf` SIZE 30M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 2M. use the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE statement Temporary Tablespace The extents once allocated can be only freed when the instance is shut down e.g CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1 TEMPFILE ` c:\oradata\temp1. 37 .To create a locally managed temporary tablespace .It is always with standard blocksize -.g segments used by implicit sorts caused by an ORDER BY clause -.Used to hold temporary objects e.12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Temporary tablespace -.
g. ALTER DATABASE DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1.12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Points to remember about temporary data files in locally managed temporary tablespace • • • • • Non standard block sizes cannot be specified Temporary files are always set to NOLOGGING mode It cannot be made read only Temporary files are required for read only databases Media recovery does not recover tempfiles. Default Temporary Tablespace Default temporary tablespace is created to eliminate the use of System tablespace for storing temporary data Default temporary tablespace can be created • At the time of database creation • After database creation By creating temporary tablespace and setting it to Default temporay tablespace E. 38 .
12/1/2010 Default Temporary Tablespace When Default temporay tablespace is changed.all users assigned the Default temporay tablespace are assigned to new default To find Default temporary tablesapce for the database query DATABASE_PROPERTIES view Default Temporary Tablespace Restrictions on default temporary tablespace • Can not be dropped until new default is available • Cannot be taken offline 39 .
System tablespace .Tablespaces with active undo segments .Default temporary tablespace 40 . Example : ALTER TABLESPACE user OFFLINE ALTER TABLESPACE user ONLINE Taking Tablespace offline Following tablespace cannot be taken offline .12/1/2010 Taking Tablespace offline Syntax: ALTER TABLESPACE ts_name<ONLINE | OFFLINE [NORMAL|IMMEDIATE]>.
CREATE DATABASE .dbf’ AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M.dbf’ SIZE 10M. – ALTER TABLESPACE user2 ADD DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user3. ADD DATAFILE Changing Size of Tablespace Examples : – CREATE TABLESPACE user1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.ALTER TABLESPACE…. – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1. 41 .CREATE TABLESPACE .12/1/2010 Changing Size of Tablespace Size of the tablespace can be changed automatically by specifying AUTOEXTEND clause with .dbf’ SIZE 4M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M MAXSIZE 100M – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.dbf’ RESIZE 5M.
12/1/2010 DROPPING TABLESPACES SYNTAX .Tablespace that still contains data can be only dropped by specifying INCLUDING CONTENTS option.To drop files of tablespace use AND DATAFILES clause 42 .DROP TABLESPACE user1 INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES. Example . . DROPPING TABLESPACES Guidelines .DROP TABLESPACE ts_name [INCLUDING CONTENTS[AND DATAFILES][CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]].Tablespace can not be dropped if it Is a system tablespace Contain active segments .
12/1/2010 TABLESPACE INFORMATION Tablespace Information . .DBA_TABLESPACES .Read consistency Does not allow other transactions to see any uncommitted changes 43 .V$DATAFILE Temp file information .V$TABLESPACE Data file information -DBA_DATA_FILES .DBA_TEMP_FILES .Transaction recovery Possible because changes made to the undo segment are also protected by the online redo log files.V$TEMPFILE UNDO SEGMENT • Purpose of Undo segments .Transaction rollback Used to record old values of data that were changed by a transaction Restores these values if transaction is rolled back .
12/1/2010 CREATING UNDO SEGMENT By adding clause in the CREATE DATABSE . SWITCHING UNDO TABLESPACE Multiple undo tablespace can exists.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. To switch between undo tablespaces dynamically .ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_TABLESPACE= undotbs2.dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON.dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON.CREATE DATABASE trydb…… UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo1. By creating undo tablespace later on . however only one tablespace can be active at a time. 44 .
12/1/2010 AUTOMATIC UNDO MANAGEMENT Undo tablespace may need to be increased to support long running queries that needs consistent reads UNDO_RETENTION parameter detarmines how long to retain undo data for consistent reads Can be modified dynamically .ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_RETENTION=600.dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON RETENTION GUARANTEE.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. CREATING UNDO SEGMENT Specifying Retention Guarantee . 45 .
12/1/2010 PRIVILAGES AND ROLES CONTROLLING USERS AND SECURITY Control over security .Oracle server provide tools by which the DBA can ensure security of the data .Use of User name. Roles 46 . Password Privileges .
Identify table space .Decide quota on each tablespaces .Assign a default and temporary tablespaces -Decide privileges and roles 47 . a schema with the same name is created for that user.12/1/2010 DATABASE SCHEMA A schema is a named collection of database objects that are associated with particular user When a database user is created . CREATING USER Consider following when creating User .
CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Example CREATE USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY xxyyzz DEFAULT TABLESPACE user1 TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp QUOTA 10M ON user1 QUOTA 10M ON data PASSWORD EXPIRE ACCOUNT UNLOCK 48 .12/1/2010 CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Syntax CREATE USER username IDENTIFIED BY <password>[DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name][TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M]| UNLIMITED > ON ts_name][PASSWORD EXPIRE][ACCOUNT<LOCK|UNLOCK>][PROFILE< profile_name|DEFAULT>].
ALTER USER Anil QUOTA 0 ON user1.g. user will be prompted to change his password at the first log in CHANGING USER QUOTA Syntax: ALTER USER user_name [DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name] [TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M|UNLIMITED>O N ts_name]. 49 .If PASSWORD EXPIRE is specified then.12/1/2010 CREATING USER Points to remember .If default tablespace is not assigned then system tablespace is assigned as the default . . E.
DROP USER Anil CASCADE. .e. The CASCADE option drops all objects in the schema before dropping the user. E. DROPPING A USER Syntax: .ALTER USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY anil87.DROP USER user_name [CASCADE].g . . 50 .ALTER USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY new_password.g.12/1/2010 CHANGING PASSWORD Syntax: .
51 .Data confidentiality Only relevant personnel have access to confidential data .12/1/2010 USER INFORMATION Information about users can be obtained from the following views .DBA_USERS .Efficient system management Users are allowed to perform limited operations that they need.are rights to execute particular SQL statement Need to grant privileges .DBA_TS_QUOTAS PRIVILEGES Privileges .
Object privileges SYSTEM PRIVILEGES System privileges allows users to perform particular actions in the database e.Creating public synonyms. new users etc. .System privileges .g .12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES Categories of privileges . tables etc.Database backup These privileges are normally granted only to DBAs 52 .Removing users . .
53 .CREATE privilege include dropping these objects .To truncate table of another schema DROP ANY TABLE privilege is required.To connect database CREATE SESSION privilege is required .12/1/2010 SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Category Index Privileges CREATE ANY INDEX ALTER ANY INDEX DROP ANY INDEX CREATE TABLE CREATE ANY TABLE ALTER ANY TABLE DROP ANY TABLE SELECT ANY TABLE UPDATE ANY TABLE DELETE ANY TABLE CREATE ANY SESSION ALTER SESSION RESTRICTED SESSION CREATE TABLESPACE ALTER TABLESPACE DROP TABLESPACE Table Session Tablespace SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Points to remember .
REVOKING SYSTEM PRIVILEGE Syntax: .…. 54 . Users with ADMIN OPTION for system privileges can revoke system privileges There are no cascading effect when system privilege is revoked. WITH ADMIN OPTION -Enables the grantee to further grant the privilege or role to other users or roles. privilege2. create table TO Anil.12/1/2010 GRANT-SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Syntax : GRANT privilege1[.user_name2.REVOKE <system_priv | role> FROM <user_name | role | PUBLIC>. .REVOKE CREATE TABLE FROM Anil.g.] |role| PUBLIC> [WITH ADMIN OPTION]. E.] TO USER <[user_name1. E.g.…. GRANT create session .
12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES Enables users to access and manipulate a specific object Each object has a particular set of grantable privileges .INDEX REFERENCES . 55 .UPDATE.UPDATE.REFERENCE SELECT .….View .DELETE.INSERT.Table .DELETE.ALTER SELECT. ALTER EXECUTE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Owner has all privilege on objects available in his schema Owner can give privileges on objects owned by him to other users or roles Syntax: GRANT <obj_priv1[(col_names)][.Sequence .Sub-program SELECT.INSERT.obj_priv2.] | ALL > ON object_name TO <user_name|role|PUBLIC>[WITH GRANT OPTION].
user_name2.…. - REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Revoke command is used to remove privileges assigned to different users Cascading effects can be observed when revoking a system privilege Syntax: REVOKE <[privilege1. Example: -REVOKE select ON emp FROM Amit 56 . GRANT update (job.….privilege2.]|ALL>ON object_name FROM <[user_name1.deptno) ON emp TO miller.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES WITH GRANT OPTION Allows grantee to grant objects privileges to other users or roles Not valid when granting an object privilege to a role Example : Grant select ON emp TO Amit WITH GRANT OPTION.]|role|PUBLIC>.
Lists system privileges granted to users and roles DBA_TAB_PRIVS .Lists all grants on all objects in the database DBA_COL_PRIVS .Lists the privileges that are currently available to the user ALL_TAB_PRIVS_MADE .Lists column privileges SESSION_PRIVS .12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES INFORMATION DBA_SYS_PRIVS .Lists the grants made on the objects owned by the current user ROLE Role is a named group of related privileges that can be granted to users Role provides easy and controlled privilege management Role can consists of both system and object privileges It can granted to any database user or role 57 .
functions. create table.packages. GRANT create session . DBA All system privileges with ADMIN option SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE-Select privilege on data dictionary tables 58 .table. TO engineer.view RESUORCE . e.Privileges to create programmatic objects such as procedure. create view.triggers.12/1/2010 CREATE ROLE Syntax: CREATE ROLE role_name. PREDEFINED ROLE CONNECT .synonym. GRANT engineer TO Amol.g CREATE ROLE engineer.sequence.Privileges to connect to the database and create various objects as cluster . Anamika WITH ADMIN OPTION.types. database link.
59 .GRANT engineer TO scott WITH ADMIN OPTION. . REVOKING ROLES Syntax: REVOKE role1.…… TO <user|role|PUBLIC>[WITH ADMIN OPTION] E. Example: .12/1/2010 ASSIGNING ROLES Syntax: GRANT role1.role2] FROM <user|role|PUBLIC>.g. Any user with ADMIN option for a role can revoke the role from any other database user or role.[.REVOKE engineer FROM scott.role2.
12/1/2010 REMOVING ROLE DROP ROLE command .Lists all the roles granted to users and roles ROLE_ROLE_PRIVS . ROLE INFORMATION DBA_ROLES .Removes it from all users and roles it was granted .Lists the roles defined in the database DBA_ROLE_PRIVS .Lists roles granted to the roles DBA_SYS_PRIVS .Removes it from database ADMIN OPTION or DROP ANY ROLE privileges are required Syntax: .DROP ROLE role.Lists system privileges granted to users and roles 60 .
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