Oracle Architecture

ORACLE Architecture
• • • • • Database Components Memory Structures Processes Oracle Instance Shared Server ( Multi –threaded Server)



Database overview
An oracle database consists of Physical Components
• • • Data file Control Files Redo log files

Logical components
• Tablespace , segments , extent , block. • Schema Objects

Database file
A database consists of a set of operating system files. Types of information is stored in an oracle database
• User Data
Actual Application Data

• System Data
Data that the database needs to manage itself

• Overhead Data
Indexes , Integrity etc.



Database file
An ORACLE database consists of one or more physical operating system files, called database files. These files contain all the database data. One or more physical files form a logical unit on database storage called a tablespace A database file can be associated with one and only one tablespace.

Control file
A database’s overall physical architecture is maintained by its control files. A control file contains information about all the files associated with an oracle database files -- Name of Physical database files -- Redo Log files -- Time stamp


A Redo log contains all the committed transaction that have occurred against the database . Redo logs are also called transaction logs. 4 . Control file is automatically modified by ORACLE.12/1/2010 Control File A control file is associated with a single database. a user cannot edit them They are used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations Redo Log file The Redo Log files are set of files external to the database that records changes made to the database during transactions.

Every database requires a minimum two Redo Logs Redo logs work in circular fashion A Log switch occurs when a log file is filled.12/1/2010 Redo Log File No activity in the database can take place without being recorded in Redo Logs The redo Logs are necessary to protect against data loss due to various kinds of failures. Redo Log file An online Redo log file is one to which transactions are written each time a transaction occurs. 5 .

Default mode -. Redo Log File NOARCHIVELOG Mode -.All transaction redo logs are kept -. 6 .12/1/2010 Redo Log File Database operates in two modes : --NOARCHIVELOG --ARCHIVELOG The mode determines whether the redo logs are overwritten or not before creating copy of filled redo log file.A copy of current log is made before a log switch occurs. This ensures the database protection against all types of failure.The transactions are overwritten each time a log switch occurs ARCHIVELOG Mode -.

Tablespace The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : SYSTEM SYSAUX TEMPORARY UNDO USER BIGFILE INDEX 7 .12/1/2010 Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespaces. A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical files.

An auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace -.Where all the information about the user is stored. BIGFILE : -.where ORACLE stores all its temporary tables. UNDO : -. SYSAUX -.Single data file can be upto 8EB. 8 .Consists of only one datafile -.Used by oracle components like Enterprise Manager Repository . USER : -.Used for rolling back transactions. -. log Miner etc.12/1/2010 Tablespace SYSTEM -. Tablespace TEMPORARY : -.where ORACLE stores all the information it needs to manage itself.the system tablespace always contain the data dictionary for the entire database objects.

The storage parameters of segment determines how a database object will obtain database space. An extent is an allocation of contigious database space .12/1/2010 Segments and Extents All data in a tablespace is stored in allocations of database space called segments A segment is a set of extents allocated for storage of database data. made up of logical (oracle) blocks Segments and Extents Types of segments can be : Data segments Index segments Undo segments Temporary segments Bootstrap segments 9 .

10 .Tables -.Indexes -. TEMPORARY : Used to store intermediate results of various operations BOOTSTRAP : Helps to initialize data dictionary cache when the database is opened by an instance Schema Objects A schema can have one or more logical database objects -. UNDO : where all undo information is stored.Views etc.12/1/2010 Segments and Extents DATA and INDEX which holds the actual data and the indexes.

Program code being executed -. Oracle Memory Structures The basic memory structures associated with ORACLE includes : -.12/1/2010 Oracle Memory Structures Oracle uses memory to store : -.The Program Global Areas (PGA) 11 .Information which is shared and communicated among ORACLE processes -.Caching information.Data needed during program execution -.The System Global Area (SGA) -.Information about connected session -.

12/1/2010 The System Global Area A group of shared memory structures that contains data and control information for one database instance Multiple users connected to the same instance share the data from instance’s SGA Also referred as Shared Global Area The System Global Area The information stored within an SGA is divided into several areas of memory : The database Buffer Cache The Redo log Buffer The Shared Pool Java Pool Streams pool 12 .

12/1/2010 Database Buffer Cache A portion of SGA that holds database information The buffers are shared by all ORACLE user processes concurrently connected to the instance. The Redo Log Buffer The redo log buffer in the SGA holds changes made to the database. Redo entries from the Redo Buffer are written to the online Redo Log Files 13 .

12/1/2010 The Shared Pool It consists of -. – Use Least Recently used (LRU) algorithm – Consist of two areas shared SQL are Shared PL/SQL area.Library Cache -.Data Dictionary Cache Shared pool Library Cache – stores information about the most recently used SQL and PL/SQL statements. 14 .

SQL work area.Private SQL area -.12/1/2010 Shared Pool The Data Dictionary Cache – Contains reference information about the database .Session memory -. 15 . its structure and its users – Contents of the data dictionary Names of all tables and views Names and data types of the columns in database tables. Privileges of all Oracle users. The Program Global Area Contains data and control information for single process Also referred as ‘Process Global Area’ PGA contains -.

SGA is allocated and one or more Oracle processes are started.Optional Processes User Processes 16 . An ORACLE Instance -.Mandatory Processes -. not all are always present.12/1/2010 Oracle Processes Every time a database is strated on a database server . Oracle Processes System Processes -.An Oracle instance may have number of background processes.The combination of SGA and the ORACLE processes is called an Oracle Database instance -.


Oracle System Processes
Database Writer (DBWn) Log Writer(LGWR) System Monitor(SMON) Process Monitor (PMON) Checkpoint (CKPT) Archiver (ARCH) Recoverer (RECO) Lock (LCKn) Server(Snn)

Database Writer

All the writing of buffers of a data files is performed by the database writer Process. DBWR also manages the buffer cache so that user processes can always find free buffers DBWR is responsible for buffer cache management
-- when a buffer in the buffer cache is modified , it is marked as ‘Dirty’. -- DBWR keeps buffer cache ‘Clean’ by writing ‘Dirty’ buffers on the Disk



Database writer
Database writer writes to database when -- Checkpoints occur -- Dirty buffers reach threshold -- There are no free buffers -- Time out occurs

Log Writers
The redo log buffer is written to a Redo log on disk by the log writer process(LGWR) LGWR is the only process that writes to the on line Redo log and reads the redo log buffers Log Writer writes to log files when
-- A transaction commits -- The redo log buffer is one third full -- More than 1MB of changes recorded in the Redo Log Buffers -- Before DBWn writes modified blocks in the database buffer Cache to the data files -- Every three seconds



System Monitor
The system Monitor Process performance instance recovery at instance start up. SMON is also responsible for cleaning up temporary segments It merges contiguous free extents in the data file

Process Monitor
Performs process recovery when a user process fails. PMON -- Rolls back the transaction -- Releases the locks -- Releases other resources used by failed process


12/1/2010 Checkpoint (CKPT) Signals DBWR at checkpoints Records information in control file . to identify the place in the online redo log file from where recovery is to begin. Updates all of the data files header and control file with checkpoint information. Managing Oracle Instance 20 .

Binary file -.Changes to parameter can be persistent across shutdown and startup -.To create spfile first .g.ora -. pfile must exit -.SHOW PARAMETERS [parameter_name] 21 .Default Location ORACLE_Home\Database Persistent server parameter file (SPFILE) -.ora -.Maintained by Oracle Server -.12/1/2010 Parameter File Static parameter file (PFILE) -.Text File -.Default location ORACLE_HOME\Database Changing parameter values Syntax : -ALTER SYSTEM SET parameter_name= value [SCOPE= MEMORY|SPFILE|BOTH] E.Default name in the format of initSID. .ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_tablespace=undo3 SCOPE=BOTH. To see parameters value .Default name in the format of spfileSID.

COMPATIBLE -.BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.STARTUP PFILE = ORACLE_HOME\database\init<sid>.12/1/2010 Parameters in Initialization Some common Parameters -.DB_CACHE_SIZE -.DB_NAME -. -.STARTUP [ FORCE ] [ RESTRICT ] [ PFILE=pfile_name] [ MOUNT | NOMOUNT] E.USER_DUMP_DEST Starting Up a Database SYNTAX -.SHARED_POOL_SIZE -.ora 22 .g.CONTROL_FILES -.STARTUP -.

SYNTAX: ALTER DATABASE <MOUNT | OPEN [READ WRITE | READ ONLY ]>.OPEN ALTER DATABASE command Used for moving database from NOMOUNT to MOUNT or MOUNT to OPEN stage. 23 .NOMOUNT -.MOUNT -.12/1/2010 Starting Up a Database Database can be started in three stages : -.

Diagnostic Files The files contains information about significant events.User trace files Location decided by USER_DUMP_DEST Size defined by MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE 24 .alert_SID.log Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.Background trace files Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -. Types of the files : -.12/1/2010 Shutting down the database SYNTAX SHUTDOWN [ NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL | IMMEDIATE | ABORT ] .

serial#’` .sid (session id) and Serial# (serial number) from v$SESSION view are used to uniquely identify a session Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance views 25 . -.12/1/2010 Terminating Session Syntax ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION `sid .

-. Stored in the SYSTEM tablespace Owned by the user SYS Maintained automatically by the Oracle server Oracle server modifies it when a DDL statement is executed Available as read only to users and DBA Data dictionary Contents Data dictionary views are static views. Provides information about -.12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Contains read only tables and views.Names of Oracle users -.Auditing information 26 .Logical and Physical database structure -.Definitions and space allocation of all objects such as table . synonyms etc.Privileges and roles granted to users -. views.Integrity constraint information -.

query the DICTIONARY view or its synonym DICT General Overview -.DBA_TAB_CONSTRAINTS 27 . DICT_COLUMNS Schema objects -.ALL Objects accessible by the current user --USER Objects owned by the current user Data Dictionary To get overview of the data dictionary views .DBA_TAB_COLUMNS -.DBA All objects in the database -.12/1/2010 Data dictionary view categories Distinguish and prefixed by their scope -.DBA_INDEXES -.DBA_TABLES -.DICTIONARY .

DBA_DATA_FILES Dynamic Performance Views These virtual table exists in memory only when the database is running Reflect real-time conditions of the database operation Points to actual sources of information in memory and the control file Also called as fixed views Owned by SYS and begin with V_$ Accessed through public synonyms starting with V$ Listed in V$FIXED_TABLE 28 .DBA_EXTENTS Database structure -.DBA_SEGMENTS -.12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Space allocation -.DBA_TABLESPACES -.

Data file information from the control file V$INSTANCE -.Summary information of the SGA V$SPPARAMETER -.Contents of the SPFILE V$TABLESPACE -.State of the current instance V$PARAMETER -.List parameters and values currently in effect V$SESSION -.Names of the control file V$DATABASE -.Session information Dynamic Performance Views V$SGA -.Database information from the control file V$DATAFILE -.Tablespace information from the control file V$VERSION -.Version numbers of core library components 29 .12/1/2010 Dynamic Performance Views V$CONTROLFILE -.

12/1/2010 Managing tablespace Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespace A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical database files 30 .

SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSAUX -.12/1/2010 Tablespace The original tablespace is named as SYSTEM The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : -.Should not contain user data 31 .Contains the system undo segments -.Contains the data Dictionary .Non.SYSTEM USER TEMP TOOLS Tablespace SYSTEM tablespace -. including stored programs -.Created with the database -.

temporary .Created to separate undo .SYSTEM tablespace -. application data and application index segments -.Created according to data backup requirements -.12/1/2010 Tablespace Non.Control the amount of space allocated to the user’s objects Tablespace Syntax CREATE TABLESPACE ts_name [ DATAFILE ‘file_name’ [ SIZE integer [ K|M ]] [ MINIMUM EXTENT integer [ K|M ]] [ LOGGING | NOLOGGING ] [ extent_management_clause ] [ extent_management_clause ] 32 .Created for flexibility in database administration -.

12/1/2010 Tablespace NOLOGGING -.g.Free extents are managed within the tablespace using bitmaps -. direct loads Space management Locally Managed -.Each bit corresponds to a block or group of blocks -.Default beginning with Oracle9i -.Prior to Oracle9i Release 2 .Affects only DML and DDL Commands . the system tablespace was not locally managed 33 . e.

The size of locally managed extents can be determined automatically by system -.dbf` SIZE 400M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 128K 34 .When space is allocated or deallocated .Tracks adjacent free space . so coalescing is not required -.Reduced contention on data dictionary tables -. undo not generated -.Avoids recursive space management operation Space management Syntax of extent_management_clause [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT [ DITIONARY | LOCAL [ AUTOALLOCATE | UNIFORM [ SIZE integer [ K | M] ] ] ] Example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.12/1/2010 Space management Advantages of locally managed tablespaces -.

Data dictionary is updated appropriately when extents are allocated or deallocated -.Each segment stored in the tablespace can have a different storage clause .12/1/2010 Space management extent_management_clause -.LOCAL Default clause specifies that the tablespace is locally managed using bitmaps With this clause DEFAULT storage_clause .Coalescing is required 35 . so more flexible than locally managed but much less efficient -. MINIMUM EXTENT or TEMPORARY clauses can not be specified -.AUTOALLOCATE Specified that the tablespace is SYSTEM managed Users can not specify an extent size Space management Dictionary managed -.Free extents are managed in the data dictionary -.

-.dbf` EXTENT MANAGEMENT DICTIONARY DEFAULT STORAGE ( INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M PCTINCREASE 0) Undo Tablespace Used to store undo segments Extents are locally managed EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL and DATAFILE clauses can only be specified Syntax : -. G.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘c:\oradata\undo.dbf’ SIZE 20M 36 .12/1/2010 Space management Dictionary Managed example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE ts_name [DATAFILE clause] [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT clause] E .

g segments used by implicit sorts caused by an ORDER BY clause -.Used to hold temporary objects e. use the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE statement Temporary Tablespace The extents once allocated can be only freed when the instance is shut down e.dbf` SIZE 30M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 2M. 37 .It is always with standard blocksize -.g CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1 TEMPFILE ` c:\oradata\temp1.To create a locally managed temporary tablespace .12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Temporary tablespace -.

g. ALTER DATABASE DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1. 38 .12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Points to remember about temporary data files in locally managed temporary tablespace • • • • • Non standard block sizes cannot be specified Temporary files are always set to NOLOGGING mode It cannot be made read only Temporary files are required for read only databases Media recovery does not recover tempfiles. Default Temporary Tablespace Default temporary tablespace is created to eliminate the use of System tablespace for storing temporary data Default temporary tablespace can be created • At the time of database creation • After database creation By creating temporary tablespace and setting it to Default temporay tablespace E.

12/1/2010 Default Temporary Tablespace When Default temporay tablespace is changed.all users assigned the Default temporay tablespace are assigned to new default To find Default temporary tablesapce for the database query DATABASE_PROPERTIES view Default Temporary Tablespace Restrictions on default temporary tablespace • Can not be dropped until new default is available • Cannot be taken offline 39 .

Tablespaces with active undo segments .System tablespace .12/1/2010 Taking Tablespace offline Syntax: ALTER TABLESPACE ts_name<ONLINE | OFFLINE [NORMAL|IMMEDIATE]>. Example : ALTER TABLESPACE user OFFLINE ALTER TABLESPACE user ONLINE Taking Tablespace offline Following tablespace cannot be taken offline .Default temporary tablespace 40 .

41 .dbf’ SIZE 10M.CREATE DATABASE . – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.dbf’ SIZE 4M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M MAXSIZE 100M – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.12/1/2010 Changing Size of Tablespace Size of the tablespace can be changed automatically by specifying AUTOEXTEND clause with .CREATE TABLESPACE .dbf’ RESIZE 5M.ALTER TABLESPACE….dbf’ AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M. ADD DATAFILE Changing Size of Tablespace Examples : – CREATE TABLESPACE user1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1. – ALTER TABLESPACE user2 ADD DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user3.

To drop files of tablespace use AND DATAFILES clause 42 .Tablespace can not be dropped if it Is a system tablespace Contain active segments . . Example .DROP TABLESPACE ts_name [INCLUDING CONTENTS[AND DATAFILES][CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]]. DROPPING TABLESPACES Guidelines .Tablespace that still contains data can be only dropped by specifying INCLUDING CONTENTS option.DROP TABLESPACE user1 INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES.12/1/2010 DROPPING TABLESPACES SYNTAX .

Transaction rollback Used to record old values of data that were changed by a transaction Restores these values if transaction is rolled back .DBA_TEMP_FILES .DBA_TABLESPACES .Transaction recovery Possible because changes made to the undo segment are also protected by the online redo log files.Read consistency Does not allow other transactions to see any uncommitted changes 43 .12/1/2010 TABLESPACE INFORMATION Tablespace Information . .V$DATAFILE Temp file information .V$TEMPFILE UNDO SEGMENT • Purpose of Undo segments .V$TABLESPACE Data file information -DBA_DATA_FILES .

SWITCHING UNDO TABLESPACE Multiple undo tablespace can exists. To switch between undo tablespaces dynamically . By creating undo tablespace later on .dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON.12/1/2010 CREATING UNDO SEGMENT By adding clause in the CREATE DATABSE . 44 .CREATE DATABASE trydb…… UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo1.dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON. however only one tablespace can be active at a time.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2.ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_TABLESPACE= undotbs2.

dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON RETENTION GUARANTEE. 45 .CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. CREATING UNDO SEGMENT Specifying Retention Guarantee .ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_RETENTION=600.12/1/2010 AUTOMATIC UNDO MANAGEMENT Undo tablespace may need to be increased to support long running queries that needs consistent reads UNDO_RETENTION parameter detarmines how long to retain undo data for consistent reads Can be modified dynamically .

12/1/2010 PRIVILAGES AND ROLES CONTROLLING USERS AND SECURITY Control over security . Roles 46 . Password Privileges .Oracle server provide tools by which the DBA can ensure security of the data .Use of User name.

Decide quota on each tablespaces . CREATING USER Consider following when creating User .Assign a default and temporary tablespaces -Decide privileges and roles 47 . a schema with the same name is created for that user.Identify table space .12/1/2010 DATABASE SCHEMA A schema is a named collection of database objects that are associated with particular user When a database user is created .


.12/1/2010 CREATING USER Points to remember .If default tablespace is not assigned then system tablespace is assigned as the default . 49 .g.If PASSWORD EXPIRE is specified then.ALTER USER Anil QUOTA 0 ON user1. user will be prompted to change his password at the first log in CHANGING USER QUOTA Syntax: ALTER USER user_name [DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name] [TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M|UNLIMITED>O N ts_name]. E.

g .ALTER USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY anil87.12/1/2010 CHANGING PASSWORD Syntax: .DROP USER user_name [CASCADE].ALTER USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY new_password.DROP USER Anil CASCADE. The CASCADE option drops all objects in the schema before dropping the user. . . DROPPING A USER Syntax: . E.e. 50 .g.

DBA_TS_QUOTAS PRIVILEGES Privileges .12/1/2010 USER INFORMATION Information about users can be obtained from the following views .are rights to execute particular SQL statement Need to grant privileges . 51 .Efficient system management Users are allowed to perform limited operations that they need.DBA_USERS .Data confidentiality Only relevant personnel have access to confidential data .

System privileges .g .Database backup These privileges are normally granted only to DBAs 52 . .12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES Categories of privileges . new users etc. tables etc.Object privileges SYSTEM PRIVILEGES System privileges allows users to perform particular actions in the database e.Removing users .Creating public synonyms. .


REVOKE CREATE TABLE FROM Anil.…. create table TO Anil.REVOKE <system_priv | role> FROM <user_name | role | PUBLIC>. Users with ADMIN OPTION for system privileges can revoke system privileges There are no cascading effect when system privilege is revoked.….12/1/2010 GRANT-SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Syntax : GRANT privilege1[.user_name2. E.g. GRANT create session . .] TO USER <[user_name1.g. 54 . E. privilege2. WITH ADMIN OPTION -Enables the grantee to further grant the privilege or role to other users or roles. REVOKING SYSTEM PRIVILEGE Syntax: .] |role| PUBLIC> [WITH ADMIN OPTION].

DELETE.INSERT.obj_priv2.REFERENCE SELECT .….ALTER SELECT.DELETE.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES Enables users to access and manipulate a specific object Each object has a particular set of grantable privileges . ALTER EXECUTE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Owner has all privilege on objects available in his schema Owner can give privileges on objects owned by him to other users or roles Syntax: GRANT <obj_priv1[(col_names)][.View .UPDATE.INDEX REFERENCES . 55 .] | ALL > ON object_name TO <user_name|role|PUBLIC>[WITH GRANT OPTION].INSERT.Table .Sequence .Sub-program SELECT.UPDATE.

- REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Revoke command is used to remove privileges assigned to different users Cascading effects can be observed when revoking a system privilege Syntax: REVOKE <[privilege1.]|role|PUBLIC>.]|ALL>ON object_name FROM <[user_name1. Example: -REVOKE select ON emp FROM Amit 56 .privilege2. GRANT update (job.….….deptno) ON emp TO miller.user_name2.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES WITH GRANT OPTION Allows grantee to grant objects privileges to other users or roles Not valid when granting an object privilege to a role Example : Grant select ON emp TO Amit WITH GRANT OPTION.

12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES INFORMATION DBA_SYS_PRIVS .Lists the grants made on the objects owned by the current user ROLE Role is a named group of related privileges that can be granted to users Role provides easy and controlled privilege management Role can consists of both system and object privileges It can granted to any database user or role 57 .Lists system privileges granted to users and roles DBA_TAB_PRIVS .Lists all grants on all objects in the database DBA_COL_PRIVS .Lists the privileges that are currently available to the user ALL_TAB_PRIVS_MADE .Lists column privileges SESSION_PRIVS .

functions. GRANT engineer TO Amol. e. PREDEFINED ROLE CONNECT . DBA All system privileges with ADMIN option SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE-Select privilege on data dictionary tables 58 . GRANT create session . Anamika WITH ADMIN OPTION. database link.view RESUORCE . create view. TO engineer.triggers. create table.sequence.packages.types.Privileges to connect to the database and create various objects as cluster .table.Privileges to create programmatic objects such as procedure.g CREATE ROLE engineer.synonym.12/1/2010 CREATE ROLE Syntax: CREATE ROLE role_name.

REVOKE engineer FROM scott. .GRANT engineer TO scott WITH ADMIN OPTION.[.g.…… TO <user|role|PUBLIC>[WITH ADMIN OPTION] E. Any user with ADMIN option for a role can revoke the role from any other database user or role.role2] FROM <user|role|PUBLIC>. Example: .12/1/2010 ASSIGNING ROLES Syntax: GRANT role1.role2. 59 . REVOKING ROLES Syntax: REVOKE role1.

Lists system privileges granted to users and roles 60 .DROP ROLE role.Lists the roles defined in the database DBA_ROLE_PRIVS .Removes it from database ADMIN OPTION or DROP ANY ROLE privileges are required Syntax: .Lists roles granted to the roles DBA_SYS_PRIVS .12/1/2010 REMOVING ROLE DROP ROLE command .Removes it from all users and roles it was granted . ROLE INFORMATION DBA_ROLES .Lists all the roles granted to users and roles ROLE_ROLE_PRIVS .