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Oracle Architecture

ORACLE Architecture
• • • • • Database Components Memory Structures Processes Oracle Instance Shared Server ( Multi –threaded Server)

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Database overview
An oracle database consists of Physical Components
• • • Data file Control Files Redo log files

Logical components
• Tablespace , segments , extent , block. • Schema Objects

Database file
A database consists of a set of operating system files. Types of information is stored in an oracle database
• User Data
Actual Application Data

• System Data
Data that the database needs to manage itself

• Overhead Data
Indexes , Integrity etc.

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Database file
An ORACLE database consists of one or more physical operating system files, called database files. These files contain all the database data. One or more physical files form a logical unit on database storage called a tablespace A database file can be associated with one and only one tablespace.

Control file
A database’s overall physical architecture is maintained by its control files. A control file contains information about all the files associated with an oracle database files -- Name of Physical database files -- Redo Log files -- Time stamp

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12/1/2010 Control File A control file is associated with a single database. Control file is automatically modified by ORACLE. Redo logs are also called transaction logs. A Redo log contains all the committed transaction that have occurred against the database . 4 . a user cannot edit them They are used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations Redo Log file The Redo Log files are set of files external to the database that records changes made to the database during transactions.

Redo Log file An online Redo log file is one to which transactions are written each time a transaction occurs. Every database requires a minimum two Redo Logs Redo logs work in circular fashion A Log switch occurs when a log file is filled.12/1/2010 Redo Log File No activity in the database can take place without being recorded in Redo Logs The redo Logs are necessary to protect against data loss due to various kinds of failures. 5 .

6 .A copy of current log is made before a log switch occurs. Redo Log File NOARCHIVELOG Mode -.The transactions are overwritten each time a log switch occurs ARCHIVELOG Mode -.Default mode -. This ensures the database protection against all types of failure.All transaction redo logs are kept -.12/1/2010 Redo Log File Database operates in two modes : --NOARCHIVELOG --ARCHIVELOG The mode determines whether the redo logs are overwritten or not before creating copy of filled redo log file.

A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical files.12/1/2010 Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespaces. Tablespace The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : SYSTEM SYSAUX TEMPORARY UNDO USER BIGFILE INDEX 7 .

Consists of only one datafile -. log Miner etc. Tablespace TEMPORARY : -.where ORACLE stores all the information it needs to manage itself. USER : -.the system tablespace always contain the data dictionary for the entire database objects.Single data file can be upto 8EB. UNDO : -.Used by oracle components like Enterprise Manager Repository . 8 .Where all the information about the user is stored. BIGFILE : -.where ORACLE stores all its temporary tables.Used for rolling back transactions.12/1/2010 Tablespace SYSTEM -.An auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace -. SYSAUX -. -.

The storage parameters of segment determines how a database object will obtain database space. made up of logical (oracle) blocks Segments and Extents Types of segments can be : Data segments Index segments Undo segments Temporary segments Bootstrap segments 9 . An extent is an allocation of contigious database space .12/1/2010 Segments and Extents All data in a tablespace is stored in allocations of database space called segments A segment is a set of extents allocated for storage of database data.

UNDO : where all undo information is stored.12/1/2010 Segments and Extents DATA and INDEX which holds the actual data and the indexes.Indexes -. TEMPORARY : Used to store intermediate results of various operations BOOTSTRAP : Helps to initialize data dictionary cache when the database is opened by an instance Schema Objects A schema can have one or more logical database objects -.Views etc.Tables -. 10 .

The System Global Area (SGA) -.Information about connected session -.Caching information.The Program Global Areas (PGA) 11 . Oracle Memory Structures The basic memory structures associated with ORACLE includes : -.Data needed during program execution -.12/1/2010 Oracle Memory Structures Oracle uses memory to store : -.Information which is shared and communicated among ORACLE processes -.Program code being executed -.

12/1/2010 The System Global Area A group of shared memory structures that contains data and control information for one database instance Multiple users connected to the same instance share the data from instance’s SGA Also referred as Shared Global Area The System Global Area The information stored within an SGA is divided into several areas of memory : The database Buffer Cache The Redo log Buffer The Shared Pool Java Pool Streams pool 12 .

Redo entries from the Redo Buffer are written to the online Redo Log Files 13 .12/1/2010 Database Buffer Cache A portion of SGA that holds database information The buffers are shared by all ORACLE user processes concurrently connected to the instance. The Redo Log Buffer The redo log buffer in the SGA holds changes made to the database.

Data Dictionary Cache Shared pool Library Cache – stores information about the most recently used SQL and PL/SQL statements.Library Cache -. – Use Least Recently used (LRU) algorithm – Consist of two areas shared SQL are Shared PL/SQL area. 14 .12/1/2010 The Shared Pool It consists of -.

Privileges of all Oracle users.12/1/2010 Shared Pool The Data Dictionary Cache – Contains reference information about the database .Session memory -. its structure and its users – Contents of the data dictionary Names of all tables and views Names and data types of the columns in database tables. The Program Global Area Contains data and control information for single process Also referred as ‘Process Global Area’ PGA contains -. 15 .Private SQL area -.SQL work area.

Mandatory Processes -. not all are always present.Optional Processes User Processes 16 .The combination of SGA and the ORACLE processes is called an Oracle Database instance -.12/1/2010 Oracle Processes Every time a database is strated on a database server . Oracle Processes System Processes -. SGA is allocated and one or more Oracle processes are started. An ORACLE Instance -.An Oracle instance may have number of background processes.

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Oracle System Processes
Database Writer (DBWn) Log Writer(LGWR) System Monitor(SMON) Process Monitor (PMON) Checkpoint (CKPT) Archiver (ARCH) Recoverer (RECO) Lock (LCKn) Server(Snn)

Database Writer

All the writing of buffers of a data files is performed by the database writer Process. DBWR also manages the buffer cache so that user processes can always find free buffers DBWR is responsible for buffer cache management
-- when a buffer in the buffer cache is modified , it is marked as ‘Dirty’. -- DBWR keeps buffer cache ‘Clean’ by writing ‘Dirty’ buffers on the Disk

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Database writer
Database writer writes to database when -- Checkpoints occur -- Dirty buffers reach threshold -- There are no free buffers -- Time out occurs

Log Writers
The redo log buffer is written to a Redo log on disk by the log writer process(LGWR) LGWR is the only process that writes to the on line Redo log and reads the redo log buffers Log Writer writes to log files when
-- A transaction commits -- The redo log buffer is one third full -- More than 1MB of changes recorded in the Redo Log Buffers -- Before DBWn writes modified blocks in the database buffer Cache to the data files -- Every three seconds

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System Monitor
The system Monitor Process performance instance recovery at instance start up. SMON is also responsible for cleaning up temporary segments It merges contiguous free extents in the data file

Process Monitor
Performs process recovery when a user process fails. PMON -- Rolls back the transaction -- Releases the locks -- Releases other resources used by failed process

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12/1/2010 Checkpoint (CKPT) Signals DBWR at checkpoints Records information in control file . to identify the place in the online redo log file from where recovery is to begin. Managing Oracle Instance 20 . Updates all of the data files header and control file with checkpoint information.

pfile must exit -.To create spfile first .Changes to parameter can be persistent across shutdown and startup -.ora -.Maintained by Oracle Server -.Binary file -. To see parameters value .g.Default location ORACLE_HOME\Database Changing parameter values Syntax : -ALTER SYSTEM SET parameter_name= value [SCOPE= MEMORY|SPFILE|BOTH] E.Default Location ORACLE_Home\Database Persistent server parameter file (SPFILE) -.ora -.Default name in the format of spfileSID.SHOW PARAMETERS [parameter_name] 21 .12/1/2010 Parameter File Static parameter file (PFILE) -. .Text File -.Default name in the format of initSID.ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_tablespace=undo3 SCOPE=BOTH.

DB_NAME -.USER_DUMP_DEST Starting Up a Database SYNTAX -.DB_CACHE_SIZE -.CONTROL_FILES -. -.STARTUP [ FORCE ] [ RESTRICT ] [ PFILE=pfile_name] [ MOUNT | NOMOUNT] E.ora 22 .COMPATIBLE -.BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.g.SHARED_POOL_SIZE -.STARTUP PFILE = ORACLE_HOME\database\init<sid>.12/1/2010 Parameters in Initialization Some common Parameters -.STARTUP -.

SYNTAX: ALTER DATABASE <MOUNT | OPEN [READ WRITE | READ ONLY ]>. 23 .12/1/2010 Starting Up a Database Database can be started in three stages : -.OPEN ALTER DATABASE command Used for moving database from NOMOUNT to MOUNT or MOUNT to OPEN stage.MOUNT -.NOMOUNT -.

User trace files Location decided by USER_DUMP_DEST Size defined by MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE 24 . Diagnostic Files The files contains information about significant events.12/1/2010 Shutting down the database SYNTAX SHUTDOWN [ NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL | IMMEDIATE | ABORT ] .log Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.alert_SID.Background trace files Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -. Types of the files : -.

sid (session id) and Serial# (serial number) from v$SESSION view are used to uniquely identify a session Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance views 25 . serial#’` .12/1/2010 Terminating Session Syntax ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION `sid . -.

Auditing information 26 .Logical and Physical database structure -.12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Contains read only tables and views. views.Integrity constraint information -.Privileges and roles granted to users -. Provides information about -. synonyms etc. -.Names of Oracle users -. Stored in the SYSTEM tablespace Owned by the user SYS Maintained automatically by the Oracle server Oracle server modifies it when a DDL statement is executed Available as read only to users and DBA Data dictionary Contents Data dictionary views are static views.Definitions and space allocation of all objects such as table .

query the DICTIONARY view or its synonym DICT General Overview -.DICTIONARY .DBA_TABLES -.DBA_TAB_CONSTRAINTS 27 .DBA_INDEXES -.DBA All objects in the database -.ALL Objects accessible by the current user --USER Objects owned by the current user Data Dictionary To get overview of the data dictionary views . DICT_COLUMNS Schema objects -.DBA_TAB_COLUMNS -.12/1/2010 Data dictionary view categories Distinguish and prefixed by their scope -.

DBA_DATA_FILES Dynamic Performance Views These virtual table exists in memory only when the database is running Reflect real-time conditions of the database operation Points to actual sources of information in memory and the control file Also called as fixed views Owned by SYS and begin with V_$ Accessed through public synonyms starting with V$ Listed in V$FIXED_TABLE 28 .DBA_SEGMENTS -.DBA_TABLESPACES -.12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Space allocation -.DBA_EXTENTS Database structure -.

Tablespace information from the control file V$VERSION -.Data file information from the control file V$INSTANCE -.12/1/2010 Dynamic Performance Views V$CONTROLFILE -.Version numbers of core library components 29 .Summary information of the SGA V$SPPARAMETER -.State of the current instance V$PARAMETER -.Database information from the control file V$DATAFILE -.Names of the control file V$DATABASE -.Contents of the SPFILE V$TABLESPACE -.Session information Dynamic Performance Views V$SGA -.List parameters and values currently in effect V$SESSION -.

12/1/2010 Managing tablespace Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespace A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical database files 30 .

12/1/2010 Tablespace The original tablespace is named as SYSTEM The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : -.Contains the system undo segments -.Should not contain user data 31 .SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSAUX -.Created with the database -.Non. including stored programs -.SYSTEM USER TEMP TOOLS Tablespace SYSTEM tablespace -.Contains the data Dictionary .

Created for flexibility in database administration -.SYSTEM tablespace -.Created to separate undo .Created according to data backup requirements -.Control the amount of space allocated to the user’s objects Tablespace Syntax CREATE TABLESPACE ts_name [ DATAFILE ‘file_name’ [ SIZE integer [ K|M ]] [ MINIMUM EXTENT integer [ K|M ]] [ LOGGING | NOLOGGING ] [ extent_management_clause ] [ extent_management_clause ] 32 . application data and application index segments -.12/1/2010 Tablespace Non. temporary .

12/1/2010 Tablespace NOLOGGING -.Affects only DML and DDL Commands .Free extents are managed within the tablespace using bitmaps -. e.Each bit corresponds to a block or group of blocks -.Default beginning with Oracle9i -.g. direct loads Space management Locally Managed -. the system tablespace was not locally managed 33 .Prior to Oracle9i Release 2 .

Avoids recursive space management operation Space management Syntax of extent_management_clause [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT [ DITIONARY | LOCAL [ AUTOALLOCATE | UNIFORM [ SIZE integer [ K | M] ] ] ] Example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.Reduced contention on data dictionary tables -.12/1/2010 Space management Advantages of locally managed tablespaces -.dbf` SIZE 400M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 128K 34 .When space is allocated or deallocated .The size of locally managed extents can be determined automatically by system -.Tracks adjacent free space . so coalescing is not required -. undo not generated -.

LOCAL Default clause specifies that the tablespace is locally managed using bitmaps With this clause DEFAULT storage_clause .12/1/2010 Space management extent_management_clause -.AUTOALLOCATE Specified that the tablespace is SYSTEM managed Users can not specify an extent size Space management Dictionary managed -.Coalescing is required 35 .Each segment stored in the tablespace can have a different storage clause . so more flexible than locally managed but much less efficient -. MINIMUM EXTENT or TEMPORARY clauses can not be specified -.Data dictionary is updated appropriately when extents are allocated or deallocated -.Free extents are managed in the data dictionary -.

CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE ts_name [DATAFILE clause] [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT clause] E .CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘c:\oradata\undo.dbf’ SIZE 20M 36 .12/1/2010 Space management Dictionary Managed example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.dbf` EXTENT MANAGEMENT DICTIONARY DEFAULT STORAGE ( INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M PCTINCREASE 0) Undo Tablespace Used to store undo segments Extents are locally managed EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL and DATAFILE clauses can only be specified Syntax : -. G. -.

use the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE statement Temporary Tablespace The extents once allocated can be only freed when the instance is shut down e. 37 .12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Temporary tablespace -.Used to hold temporary objects e.dbf` SIZE 30M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 2M.g CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1 TEMPFILE ` c:\oradata\temp1.g segments used by implicit sorts caused by an ORDER BY clause -.To create a locally managed temporary tablespace .It is always with standard blocksize -.

38 . ALTER DATABASE DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1.g. Default Temporary Tablespace Default temporary tablespace is created to eliminate the use of System tablespace for storing temporary data Default temporary tablespace can be created • At the time of database creation • After database creation By creating temporary tablespace and setting it to Default temporay tablespace E.12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Points to remember about temporary data files in locally managed temporary tablespace • • • • • Non standard block sizes cannot be specified Temporary files are always set to NOLOGGING mode It cannot be made read only Temporary files are required for read only databases Media recovery does not recover tempfiles.

12/1/2010 Default Temporary Tablespace When Default temporay tablespace is changed.all users assigned the Default temporay tablespace are assigned to new default To find Default temporary tablesapce for the database query DATABASE_PROPERTIES view Default Temporary Tablespace Restrictions on default temporary tablespace • Can not be dropped until new default is available • Cannot be taken offline 39 .

Example : ALTER TABLESPACE user OFFLINE ALTER TABLESPACE user ONLINE Taking Tablespace offline Following tablespace cannot be taken offline .System tablespace .12/1/2010 Taking Tablespace offline Syntax: ALTER TABLESPACE ts_name<ONLINE | OFFLINE [NORMAL|IMMEDIATE]>.Default temporary tablespace 40 .Tablespaces with active undo segments .

ADD DATAFILE Changing Size of Tablespace Examples : – CREATE TABLESPACE user1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.CREATE TABLESPACE .dbf’ SIZE 10M. – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1. – ALTER TABLESPACE user2 ADD DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user3.12/1/2010 Changing Size of Tablespace Size of the tablespace can be changed automatically by specifying AUTOEXTEND clause with .CREATE DATABASE .dbf’ SIZE 4M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M MAXSIZE 100M – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.dbf’ RESIZE 5M. 41 .dbf’ AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M.ALTER TABLESPACE….

.To drop files of tablespace use AND DATAFILES clause 42 . DROPPING TABLESPACES Guidelines .DROP TABLESPACE ts_name [INCLUDING CONTENTS[AND DATAFILES][CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]].DROP TABLESPACE user1 INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES.Tablespace that still contains data can be only dropped by specifying INCLUDING CONTENTS option.12/1/2010 DROPPING TABLESPACES SYNTAX . Example .Tablespace can not be dropped if it Is a system tablespace Contain active segments .

Read consistency Does not allow other transactions to see any uncommitted changes 43 .V$TABLESPACE Data file information -DBA_DATA_FILES .Transaction rollback Used to record old values of data that were changed by a transaction Restores these values if transaction is rolled back .V$DATAFILE Temp file information .DBA_TABLESPACES .V$TEMPFILE UNDO SEGMENT • Purpose of Undo segments . .12/1/2010 TABLESPACE INFORMATION Tablespace Information .DBA_TEMP_FILES .Transaction recovery Possible because changes made to the undo segment are also protected by the online redo log files.

dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON. however only one tablespace can be active at a time.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. By creating undo tablespace later on . SWITCHING UNDO TABLESPACE Multiple undo tablespace can exists. 44 .dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON.ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_TABLESPACE= undotbs2. To switch between undo tablespaces dynamically .CREATE DATABASE trydb…… UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo1.12/1/2010 CREATING UNDO SEGMENT By adding clause in the CREATE DATABSE .

dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON RETENTION GUARANTEE.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. CREATING UNDO SEGMENT Specifying Retention Guarantee .ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_RETENTION=600.12/1/2010 AUTOMATIC UNDO MANAGEMENT Undo tablespace may need to be increased to support long running queries that needs consistent reads UNDO_RETENTION parameter detarmines how long to retain undo data for consistent reads Can be modified dynamically . 45 .

Password Privileges .Oracle server provide tools by which the DBA can ensure security of the data .Use of User name. Roles 46 .12/1/2010 PRIVILAGES AND ROLES CONTROLLING USERS AND SECURITY Control over security .

CREATING USER Consider following when creating User .Identify table space .Decide quota on each tablespaces .Assign a default and temporary tablespaces -Decide privileges and roles 47 .12/1/2010 DATABASE SCHEMA A schema is a named collection of database objects that are associated with particular user When a database user is created . a schema with the same name is created for that user.

12/1/2010 CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Syntax CREATE USER username IDENTIFIED BY <password>[DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name][TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M]| UNLIMITED > ON ts_name][PASSWORD EXPIRE][ACCOUNT<LOCK|UNLOCK>][PROFILE< profile_name|DEFAULT>]. CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Example CREATE USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY xxyyzz DEFAULT TABLESPACE user1 TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp QUOTA 10M ON user1 QUOTA 10M ON data PASSWORD EXPIRE ACCOUNT UNLOCK 48 .

If PASSWORD EXPIRE is specified then.g.12/1/2010 CREATING USER Points to remember . E. . 49 .ALTER USER Anil QUOTA 0 ON user1.If default tablespace is not assigned then system tablespace is assigned as the default . user will be prompted to change his password at the first log in CHANGING USER QUOTA Syntax: ALTER USER user_name [DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name] [TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M|UNLIMITED>O N ts_name].

DROPPING A USER Syntax: .DROP USER Anil CASCADE. .ALTER USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY new_password.g . .e. 50 . E.12/1/2010 CHANGING PASSWORD Syntax: .ALTER USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY anil87.g. The CASCADE option drops all objects in the schema before dropping the user.DROP USER user_name [CASCADE].

are rights to execute particular SQL statement Need to grant privileges .Data confidentiality Only relevant personnel have access to confidential data .Efficient system management Users are allowed to perform limited operations that they need.DBA_USERS .12/1/2010 USER INFORMATION Information about users can be obtained from the following views .DBA_TS_QUOTAS PRIVILEGES Privileges . 51 .

. new users etc. tables etc.12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES Categories of privileges .g .System privileges .Creating public synonyms.Database backup These privileges are normally granted only to DBAs 52 .Object privileges SYSTEM PRIVILEGES System privileges allows users to perform particular actions in the database e.Removing users . .

CREATE privilege include dropping these objects . 53 .12/1/2010 SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Category Index Privileges CREATE ANY INDEX ALTER ANY INDEX DROP ANY INDEX CREATE TABLE CREATE ANY TABLE ALTER ANY TABLE DROP ANY TABLE SELECT ANY TABLE UPDATE ANY TABLE DELETE ANY TABLE CREATE ANY SESSION ALTER SESSION RESTRICTED SESSION CREATE TABLESPACE ALTER TABLESPACE DROP TABLESPACE Table Session Tablespace SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Points to remember .To connect database CREATE SESSION privilege is required .To truncate table of another schema DROP ANY TABLE privilege is required.

create table TO Anil.…. GRANT create session .g. WITH ADMIN OPTION -Enables the grantee to further grant the privilege or role to other users or roles.g.] |role| PUBLIC> [WITH ADMIN OPTION].12/1/2010 GRANT-SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Syntax : GRANT privilege1[.…. privilege2. E. . REVOKING SYSTEM PRIVILEGE Syntax: .REVOKE CREATE TABLE FROM Anil.user_name2. 54 . E.] TO USER <[user_name1.REVOKE <system_priv | role> FROM <user_name | role | PUBLIC>. Users with ADMIN OPTION for system privileges can revoke system privileges There are no cascading effect when system privilege is revoked.

ALTER SELECT.UPDATE.INDEX REFERENCES .DELETE.] | ALL > ON object_name TO <user_name|role|PUBLIC>[WITH GRANT OPTION].DELETE.…. 55 .Table .UPDATE.INSERT.INSERT.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES Enables users to access and manipulate a specific object Each object has a particular set of grantable privileges .Sub-program SELECT.View .REFERENCE SELECT .Sequence .obj_priv2. ALTER EXECUTE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Owner has all privilege on objects available in his schema Owner can give privileges on objects owned by him to other users or roles Syntax: GRANT <obj_priv1[(col_names)][.

]|role|PUBLIC>.]|ALL>ON object_name FROM <[user_name1.….deptno) ON emp TO miller. GRANT update (job. Example: -REVOKE select ON emp FROM Amit 56 .user_name2.….privilege2.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES WITH GRANT OPTION Allows grantee to grant objects privileges to other users or roles Not valid when granting an object privilege to a role Example : Grant select ON emp TO Amit WITH GRANT OPTION. - REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Revoke command is used to remove privileges assigned to different users Cascading effects can be observed when revoking a system privilege Syntax: REVOKE <[privilege1.

Lists all grants on all objects in the database DBA_COL_PRIVS .Lists system privileges granted to users and roles DBA_TAB_PRIVS .Lists column privileges SESSION_PRIVS .Lists the grants made on the objects owned by the current user ROLE Role is a named group of related privileges that can be granted to users Role provides easy and controlled privilege management Role can consists of both system and object privileges It can granted to any database user or role 57 .12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES INFORMATION DBA_SYS_PRIVS .Lists the privileges that are currently available to the user ALL_TAB_PRIVS_MADE .

view RESUORCE . create table. PREDEFINED ROLE CONNECT .types.Privileges to connect to the database and create various objects as cluster . functions. TO engineer.table. GRANT create session . database link.Privileges to create programmatic objects such as procedure. GRANT engineer TO Amol.packages.sequence. DBA All system privileges with ADMIN option SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE-Select privilege on data dictionary tables 58 .g CREATE ROLE engineer.12/1/2010 CREATE ROLE Syntax: CREATE ROLE role_name.triggers. create view. Anamika WITH ADMIN OPTION. e.synonym.

.role2] FROM <user|role|PUBLIC>.…… TO <user|role|PUBLIC>[WITH ADMIN OPTION] E. Example: .REVOKE engineer FROM scott.12/1/2010 ASSIGNING ROLES Syntax: GRANT role1. 59 . Any user with ADMIN option for a role can revoke the role from any other database user or role.[.role2.g.GRANT engineer TO scott WITH ADMIN OPTION. REVOKING ROLES Syntax: REVOKE role1.

Lists roles granted to the roles DBA_SYS_PRIVS .Lists system privileges granted to users and roles 60 .Removes it from database ADMIN OPTION or DROP ANY ROLE privileges are required Syntax: .DROP ROLE role.Lists the roles defined in the database DBA_ROLE_PRIVS . ROLE INFORMATION DBA_ROLES .Removes it from all users and roles it was granted .Lists all the roles granted to users and roles ROLE_ROLE_PRIVS .12/1/2010 REMOVING ROLE DROP ROLE command .