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• • • • • Database Components Memory Structures Processes Oracle Instance Shared Server ( Multi –threaded Server)
An oracle database consists of Physical Components
• • • Data file Control Files Redo log files
• Tablespace , segments , extent , block. • Schema Objects
A database consists of a set of operating system files. Types of information is stored in an oracle database
• User Data
Actual Application Data
• System Data
Data that the database needs to manage itself
• Overhead Data
Indexes , Integrity etc.
An ORACLE database consists of one or more physical operating system files, called database files. These files contain all the database data. One or more physical files form a logical unit on database storage called a tablespace A database file can be associated with one and only one tablespace.
A database’s overall physical architecture is maintained by its control files. A control file contains information about all the files associated with an oracle database files -- Name of Physical database files -- Redo Log files -- Time stamp
A Redo log contains all the committed transaction that have occurred against the database . Redo logs are also called transaction logs. 4 .12/1/2010 Control File A control file is associated with a single database. Control file is automatically modified by ORACLE. a user cannot edit them They are used to maintain internal consistency and guide recovery operations Redo Log file The Redo Log files are set of files external to the database that records changes made to the database during transactions.
5 . Redo Log file An online Redo log file is one to which transactions are written each time a transaction occurs. Every database requires a minimum two Redo Logs Redo logs work in circular fashion A Log switch occurs when a log file is filled.12/1/2010 Redo Log File No activity in the database can take place without being recorded in Redo Logs The redo Logs are necessary to protect against data loss due to various kinds of failures.
12/1/2010 Redo Log File Database operates in two modes : --NOARCHIVELOG --ARCHIVELOG The mode determines whether the redo logs are overwritten or not before creating copy of filled redo log file.All transaction redo logs are kept -. Redo Log File NOARCHIVELOG Mode -. 6 .A copy of current log is made before a log switch occurs.Default mode -. This ensures the database protection against all types of failure.The transactions are overwritten each time a log switch occurs ARCHIVELOG Mode -.
A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical files. Tablespace The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : SYSTEM SYSAUX TEMPORARY UNDO USER BIGFILE INDEX 7 .12/1/2010 Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespaces.
Single data file can be upto 8EB.where ORACLE stores all the information it needs to manage itself.Used by oracle components like Enterprise Manager Repository . Tablespace TEMPORARY : -. UNDO : -.Consists of only one datafile -. USER : -.where ORACLE stores all its temporary tables. 8 .An auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace -.Where all the information about the user is stored. log Miner etc. BIGFILE : -. SYSAUX -.12/1/2010 Tablespace SYSTEM -. -.Used for rolling back transactions.the system tablespace always contain the data dictionary for the entire database objects.
12/1/2010 Segments and Extents All data in a tablespace is stored in allocations of database space called segments A segment is a set of extents allocated for storage of database data. made up of logical (oracle) blocks Segments and Extents Types of segments can be : Data segments Index segments Undo segments Temporary segments Bootstrap segments 9 . An extent is an allocation of contigious database space . The storage parameters of segment determines how a database object will obtain database space.
12/1/2010 Segments and Extents DATA and INDEX which holds the actual data and the indexes.Indexes -. 10 .Tables -.Views etc. TEMPORARY : Used to store intermediate results of various operations BOOTSTRAP : Helps to initialize data dictionary cache when the database is opened by an instance Schema Objects A schema can have one or more logical database objects -. UNDO : where all undo information is stored.
Oracle Memory Structures The basic memory structures associated with ORACLE includes : -.Data needed during program execution -.Program code being executed -.Information which is shared and communicated among ORACLE processes -.Caching information.12/1/2010 Oracle Memory Structures Oracle uses memory to store : -.The System Global Area (SGA) -.Information about connected session -.The Program Global Areas (PGA) 11 .
12/1/2010 The System Global Area A group of shared memory structures that contains data and control information for one database instance Multiple users connected to the same instance share the data from instance’s SGA Also referred as Shared Global Area The System Global Area The information stored within an SGA is divided into several areas of memory : The database Buffer Cache The Redo log Buffer The Shared Pool Java Pool Streams pool 12 .
12/1/2010 Database Buffer Cache A portion of SGA that holds database information The buffers are shared by all ORACLE user processes concurrently connected to the instance. The Redo Log Buffer The redo log buffer in the SGA holds changes made to the database. Redo entries from the Redo Buffer are written to the online Redo Log Files 13 .
– Use Least Recently used (LRU) algorithm – Consist of two areas shared SQL are Shared PL/SQL area.Library Cache -.Data Dictionary Cache Shared pool Library Cache – stores information about the most recently used SQL and PL/SQL statements. 14 .12/1/2010 The Shared Pool It consists of -.
its structure and its users – Contents of the data dictionary Names of all tables and views Names and data types of the columns in database tables. 15 .Private SQL area -. Privileges of all Oracle users. The Program Global Area Contains data and control information for single process Also referred as ‘Process Global Area’ PGA contains -.Session memory -.SQL work area.12/1/2010 Shared Pool The Data Dictionary Cache – Contains reference information about the database .
Mandatory Processes -.12/1/2010 Oracle Processes Every time a database is strated on a database server . An ORACLE Instance -. SGA is allocated and one or more Oracle processes are started. not all are always present.An Oracle instance may have number of background processes.Optional Processes User Processes 16 . Oracle Processes System Processes -.The combination of SGA and the ORACLE processes is called an Oracle Database instance -.
Oracle System Processes
Database Writer (DBWn) Log Writer(LGWR) System Monitor(SMON) Process Monitor (PMON) Checkpoint (CKPT) Archiver (ARCH) Recoverer (RECO) Lock (LCKn) Server(Snn)
All the writing of buffers of a data files is performed by the database writer Process. DBWR also manages the buffer cache so that user processes can always find free buffers DBWR is responsible for buffer cache management
-- when a buffer in the buffer cache is modified , it is marked as ‘Dirty’. -- DBWR keeps buffer cache ‘Clean’ by writing ‘Dirty’ buffers on the Disk
Database writer writes to database when -- Checkpoints occur -- Dirty buffers reach threshold -- There are no free buffers -- Time out occurs
The redo log buffer is written to a Redo log on disk by the log writer process(LGWR) LGWR is the only process that writes to the on line Redo log and reads the redo log buffers Log Writer writes to log files when
-- A transaction commits -- The redo log buffer is one third full -- More than 1MB of changes recorded in the Redo Log Buffers -- Before DBWn writes modified blocks in the database buffer Cache to the data files -- Every three seconds
The system Monitor Process performance instance recovery at instance start up. SMON is also responsible for cleaning up temporary segments It merges contiguous free extents in the data file
Performs process recovery when a user process fails. PMON -- Rolls back the transaction -- Releases the locks -- Releases other resources used by failed process
Updates all of the data files header and control file with checkpoint information.12/1/2010 Checkpoint (CKPT) Signals DBWR at checkpoints Records information in control file . Managing Oracle Instance 20 . to identify the place in the online redo log file from where recovery is to begin.
Binary file -.12/1/2010 Parameter File Static parameter file (PFILE) -.ora -.To create spfile first .Default location ORACLE_HOME\Database Changing parameter values Syntax : -ALTER SYSTEM SET parameter_name= value [SCOPE= MEMORY|SPFILE|BOTH] E.Maintained by Oracle Server -. .Changes to parameter can be persistent across shutdown and startup -.Text File -.g.Default name in the format of initSID.Default name in the format of spfileSID. pfile must exit -.ora -.Default Location ORACLE_Home\Database Persistent server parameter file (SPFILE) -.SHOW PARAMETERS [parameter_name] 21 . To see parameters value .ALTER SYSTEM SET undo_tablespace=undo3 SCOPE=BOTH.
12/1/2010 Parameters in Initialization Some common Parameters -. -.CONTROL_FILES -.BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.SHARED_POOL_SIZE -.STARTUP PFILE = ORACLE_HOME\database\init<sid>.g.ora 22 .DB_CACHE_SIZE -.USER_DUMP_DEST Starting Up a Database SYNTAX -.STARTUP [ FORCE ] [ RESTRICT ] [ PFILE=pfile_name] [ MOUNT | NOMOUNT] E.DB_NAME -.COMPATIBLE -.STARTUP -.
OPEN ALTER DATABASE command Used for moving database from NOMOUNT to MOUNT or MOUNT to OPEN stage. SYNTAX: ALTER DATABASE <MOUNT | OPEN [READ WRITE | READ ONLY ]>.MOUNT -.NOMOUNT -. 23 .12/1/2010 Starting Up a Database Database can be started in three stages : -.
log Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.Background trace files Location decided by BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST -.alert_SID. Diagnostic Files The files contains information about significant events.12/1/2010 Shutting down the database SYNTAX SHUTDOWN [ NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL | IMMEDIATE | ABORT ] .User trace files Location decided by USER_DUMP_DEST Size defined by MAX_DUMP_FILE_SIZE 24 . Types of the files : -.
12/1/2010 Terminating Session Syntax ALTER SYSTEM KILL SESSION `sid .sid (session id) and Serial# (serial number) from v$SESSION view are used to uniquely identify a session Data Dictionary and Dynamic Performance views 25 . serial#’` . -.
synonyms etc.Logical and Physical database structure -. -.Privileges and roles granted to users -. Provides information about -. Stored in the SYSTEM tablespace Owned by the user SYS Maintained automatically by the Oracle server Oracle server modifies it when a DDL statement is executed Available as read only to users and DBA Data dictionary Contents Data dictionary views are static views.Integrity constraint information -.Auditing information 26 .Names of Oracle users -.Definitions and space allocation of all objects such as table .12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Contains read only tables and views. views.
DBA_TAB_COLUMNS -.DICTIONARY .DBA_TAB_CONSTRAINTS 27 .DBA All objects in the database -.ALL Objects accessible by the current user --USER Objects owned by the current user Data Dictionary To get overview of the data dictionary views . query the DICTIONARY view or its synonym DICT General Overview -.12/1/2010 Data dictionary view categories Distinguish and prefixed by their scope -.DBA_TABLES -. DICT_COLUMNS Schema objects -.DBA_INDEXES -.
DBA_TABLESPACES -.DBA_DATA_FILES Dynamic Performance Views These virtual table exists in memory only when the database is running Reflect real-time conditions of the database operation Points to actual sources of information in memory and the control file Also called as fixed views Owned by SYS and begin with V_$ Accessed through public synonyms starting with V$ Listed in V$FIXED_TABLE 28 .12/1/2010 Data Dictionary Space allocation -.DBA_EXTENTS Database structure -.DBA_SEGMENTS -.
Database information from the control file V$DATAFILE -.List parameters and values currently in effect V$SESSION -.Names of the control file V$DATABASE -.Tablespace information from the control file V$VERSION -.Session information Dynamic Performance Views V$SGA -.Contents of the SPFILE V$TABLESPACE -.12/1/2010 Dynamic Performance Views V$CONTROLFILE -.State of the current instance V$PARAMETER -.Summary information of the SGA V$SPPARAMETER -.Version numbers of core library components 29 .Data file information from the control file V$INSTANCE -.
12/1/2010 Managing tablespace Tablespace A database is divided into logical divisions called tablespace A database may have one or more tablespaces Each logical tablespace corresponds to one or more physical database files 30 .
SYSTEM USER TEMP TOOLS Tablespace SYSTEM tablespace -. including stored programs -.Contains the data Dictionary .Created with the database -.Non.Should not contain user data 31 .SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSAUX -.12/1/2010 Tablespace The original tablespace is named as SYSTEM The typical tablespace present in an ORACLE database are : -.Contains the system undo segments -.
Created to separate undo . temporary .SYSTEM tablespace -.Created for flexibility in database administration -. application data and application index segments -.Created according to data backup requirements -.12/1/2010 Tablespace Non.Control the amount of space allocated to the user’s objects Tablespace Syntax CREATE TABLESPACE ts_name [ DATAFILE ‘file_name’ [ SIZE integer [ K|M ]] [ MINIMUM EXTENT integer [ K|M ]] [ LOGGING | NOLOGGING ] [ extent_management_clause ] [ extent_management_clause ] 32 .
direct loads Space management Locally Managed -.12/1/2010 Tablespace NOLOGGING -. the system tablespace was not locally managed 33 .Each bit corresponds to a block or group of blocks -.g.Affects only DML and DDL Commands . e.Prior to Oracle9i Release 2 .Free extents are managed within the tablespace using bitmaps -.Default beginning with Oracle9i -.
When space is allocated or deallocated .dbf` SIZE 400M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 128K 34 .The size of locally managed extents can be determined automatically by system -.Reduced contention on data dictionary tables -. so coalescing is not required -. undo not generated -.Tracks adjacent free space .12/1/2010 Space management Advantages of locally managed tablespaces -.Avoids recursive space management operation Space management Syntax of extent_management_clause [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT [ DITIONARY | LOCAL [ AUTOALLOCATE | UNIFORM [ SIZE integer [ K | M] ] ] ] Example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01.
AUTOALLOCATE Specified that the tablespace is SYSTEM managed Users can not specify an extent size Space management Dictionary managed -.Free extents are managed in the data dictionary -. MINIMUM EXTENT or TEMPORARY clauses can not be specified -.Each segment stored in the tablespace can have a different storage clause . so more flexible than locally managed but much less efficient -.Coalescing is required 35 .12/1/2010 Space management extent_management_clause -.Data dictionary is updated appropriately when extents are allocated or deallocated -.LOCAL Default clause specifies that the tablespace is locally managed using bitmaps With this clause DEFAULT storage_clause .
12/1/2010 Space management Dictionary Managed example CREATE TABLESPACE mydata DATAFILE `c:\oradata\mydata01. -.dbf` EXTENT MANAGEMENT DICTIONARY DEFAULT STORAGE ( INITIAL 1M NEXT 1M PCTINCREASE 0) Undo Tablespace Used to store undo segments Extents are locally managed EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL and DATAFILE clauses can only be specified Syntax : -.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE ts_name [DATAFILE clause] [ EXTENT MANAGEMENT clause] E .CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘c:\oradata\undo. G.dbf’ SIZE 20M 36 .
g segments used by implicit sorts caused by an ORDER BY clause -. 37 .12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Temporary tablespace -.To create a locally managed temporary tablespace .dbf` SIZE 30M EXTENT MANAGEMENT LOCAL UNIFORM SIZE 2M.Used to hold temporary objects e.g CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1 TEMPFILE ` c:\oradata\temp1.It is always with standard blocksize -. use the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE statement Temporary Tablespace The extents once allocated can be only freed when the instance is shut down e.
ALTER DATABASE DEFAULT TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp1.12/1/2010 Temporary Tablespace Points to remember about temporary data files in locally managed temporary tablespace • • • • • Non standard block sizes cannot be specified Temporary files are always set to NOLOGGING mode It cannot be made read only Temporary files are required for read only databases Media recovery does not recover tempfiles. Default Temporary Tablespace Default temporary tablespace is created to eliminate the use of System tablespace for storing temporary data Default temporary tablespace can be created • At the time of database creation • After database creation By creating temporary tablespace and setting it to Default temporay tablespace E.g. 38 .
12/1/2010 Default Temporary Tablespace When Default temporay tablespace is changed.all users assigned the Default temporay tablespace are assigned to new default To find Default temporary tablesapce for the database query DATABASE_PROPERTIES view Default Temporary Tablespace Restrictions on default temporary tablespace • Can not be dropped until new default is available • Cannot be taken offline 39 .
12/1/2010 Taking Tablespace offline Syntax: ALTER TABLESPACE ts_name<ONLINE | OFFLINE [NORMAL|IMMEDIATE]>.Tablespaces with active undo segments .System tablespace .Default temporary tablespace 40 . Example : ALTER TABLESPACE user OFFLINE ALTER TABLESPACE user ONLINE Taking Tablespace offline Following tablespace cannot be taken offline .
CREATE TABLESPACE .dbf’ SIZE 10M.CREATE DATABASE . – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.dbf’ RESIZE 5M. 41 .12/1/2010 Changing Size of Tablespace Size of the tablespace can be changed automatically by specifying AUTOEXTEND clause with .dbf’ SIZE 4M AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M MAXSIZE 100M – ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1. ADD DATAFILE Changing Size of Tablespace Examples : – CREATE TABLESPACE user1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user1.dbf’ AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 2M. – ALTER TABLESPACE user2 ADD DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\user3.ALTER TABLESPACE….
. DROPPING TABLESPACES Guidelines . Example .Tablespace that still contains data can be only dropped by specifying INCLUDING CONTENTS option.DROP TABLESPACE user1 INCLUDING CONTENTS AND DATAFILES.DROP TABLESPACE ts_name [INCLUDING CONTENTS[AND DATAFILES][CASCADE CONSTRAINTS]].To drop files of tablespace use AND DATAFILES clause 42 .Tablespace can not be dropped if it Is a system tablespace Contain active segments .12/1/2010 DROPPING TABLESPACES SYNTAX .
Transaction recovery Possible because changes made to the undo segment are also protected by the online redo log files.Transaction rollback Used to record old values of data that were changed by a transaction Restores these values if transaction is rolled back .12/1/2010 TABLESPACE INFORMATION Tablespace Information . .V$DATAFILE Temp file information .V$TEMPFILE UNDO SEGMENT • Purpose of Undo segments .V$TABLESPACE Data file information -DBA_DATA_FILES .DBA_TEMP_FILES .Read consistency Does not allow other transactions to see any uncommitted changes 43 .DBA_TABLESPACES .
SWITCHING UNDO TABLESPACE Multiple undo tablespace can exists.12/1/2010 CREATING UNDO SEGMENT By adding clause in the CREATE DATABSE .dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON.CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. however only one tablespace can be active at a time.ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_TABLESPACE= undotbs2. To switch between undo tablespaces dynamically . 44 . By creating undo tablespace later on .dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON.CREATE DATABASE trydb…… UNDO TABLESPACE undo1 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo1.
CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo2 DATAFILE ‘C:\oradata\undo2. 45 .ALTER SYSTEM SET UNDO_RETENTION=600. CREATING UNDO SEGMENT Specifying Retention Guarantee .12/1/2010 AUTOMATIC UNDO MANAGEMENT Undo tablespace may need to be increased to support long running queries that needs consistent reads UNDO_RETENTION parameter detarmines how long to retain undo data for consistent reads Can be modified dynamically .dbf’ SIZE 30M AUTOEXTEND ON RETENTION GUARANTEE.
Use of User name.Oracle server provide tools by which the DBA can ensure security of the data .12/1/2010 PRIVILAGES AND ROLES CONTROLLING USERS AND SECURITY Control over security . Password Privileges . Roles 46 .
Assign a default and temporary tablespaces -Decide privileges and roles 47 . a schema with the same name is created for that user.Decide quota on each tablespaces .12/1/2010 DATABASE SCHEMA A schema is a named collection of database objects that are associated with particular user When a database user is created . CREATING USER Consider following when creating User .Identify table space .
CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Example CREATE USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY xxyyzz DEFAULT TABLESPACE user1 TEMPORARY TABLESPACE temp QUOTA 10M ON user1 QUOTA 10M ON data PASSWORD EXPIRE ACCOUNT UNLOCK 48 .12/1/2010 CREATING USER DATA DICTIONARY AUTHENTICATION Syntax CREATE USER username IDENTIFIED BY <password>[DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name][TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M]| UNLIMITED > ON ts_name][PASSWORD EXPIRE][ACCOUNT<LOCK|UNLOCK>][PROFILE< profile_name|DEFAULT>].
E.If PASSWORD EXPIRE is specified then.g. 49 . . user will be prompted to change his password at the first log in CHANGING USER QUOTA Syntax: ALTER USER user_name [DEFAULT TABLESPACE ts_name] [TEMPORARY TABLESPACE ts_name][QUOTA<integer[K|M|UNLIMITED>O N ts_name].12/1/2010 CREATING USER Points to remember .If default tablespace is not assigned then system tablespace is assigned as the default .ALTER USER Anil QUOTA 0 ON user1.
.DROP USER user_name [CASCADE]. E. .g . DROPPING A USER Syntax: . The CASCADE option drops all objects in the schema before dropping the user. 50 .ALTER USER Anil IDENTIFIED BY anil87.e.ALTER USER user_name IDENTIFIED BY new_password.12/1/2010 CHANGING PASSWORD Syntax: .DROP USER Anil CASCADE.g.
are rights to execute particular SQL statement Need to grant privileges .DBA_TS_QUOTAS PRIVILEGES Privileges .12/1/2010 USER INFORMATION Information about users can be obtained from the following views .Data confidentiality Only relevant personnel have access to confidential data . 51 .Efficient system management Users are allowed to perform limited operations that they need.DBA_USERS .
.System privileges . new users etc.12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES Categories of privileges . tables etc.g .Removing users .Creating public synonyms.Database backup These privileges are normally granted only to DBAs 52 .Object privileges SYSTEM PRIVILEGES System privileges allows users to perform particular actions in the database e. .
To truncate table of another schema DROP ANY TABLE privilege is required.To connect database CREATE SESSION privilege is required .CREATE privilege include dropping these objects .12/1/2010 SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Category Index Privileges CREATE ANY INDEX ALTER ANY INDEX DROP ANY INDEX CREATE TABLE CREATE ANY TABLE ALTER ANY TABLE DROP ANY TABLE SELECT ANY TABLE UPDATE ANY TABLE DELETE ANY TABLE CREATE ANY SESSION ALTER SESSION RESTRICTED SESSION CREATE TABLESPACE ALTER TABLESPACE DROP TABLESPACE Table Session Tablespace SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Points to remember . 53 .
privilege2.g.12/1/2010 GRANT-SYSTEM PRIVILEGES Syntax : GRANT privilege1[. WITH ADMIN OPTION -Enables the grantee to further grant the privilege or role to other users or roles. .] |role| PUBLIC> [WITH ADMIN OPTION].g. Users with ADMIN OPTION for system privileges can revoke system privileges There are no cascading effect when system privilege is revoked.…. E. create table TO Anil. E.user_name2.] TO USER <[user_name1.REVOKE CREATE TABLE FROM Anil. GRANT create session . 54 .…. REVOKING SYSTEM PRIVILEGE Syntax: .REVOKE <system_priv | role> FROM <user_name | role | PUBLIC>.
INDEX REFERENCES .obj_priv2.ALTER SELECT. 55 .DELETE.INSERT. ALTER EXECUTE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Owner has all privilege on objects available in his schema Owner can give privileges on objects owned by him to other users or roles Syntax: GRANT <obj_priv1[(col_names)][.UPDATE.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES Enables users to access and manipulate a specific object Each object has a particular set of grantable privileges .INSERT.….] | ALL > ON object_name TO <user_name|role|PUBLIC>[WITH GRANT OPTION].DELETE.View .Sub-program SELECT.Sequence .UPDATE.Table .REFERENCE SELECT .
Example: -REVOKE select ON emp FROM Amit 56 .….….]|ALL>ON object_name FROM <[user_name1.privilege2.12/1/2010 OBJECT PRIVILEGES WITH GRANT OPTION Allows grantee to grant objects privileges to other users or roles Not valid when granting an object privilege to a role Example : Grant select ON emp TO Amit WITH GRANT OPTION.]|role|PUBLIC>.user_name2. GRANT update (job. - REVOKE OBJECT PRIVILEGES Revoke command is used to remove privileges assigned to different users Cascading effects can be observed when revoking a system privilege Syntax: REVOKE <[privilege1.deptno) ON emp TO miller.
Lists the privileges that are currently available to the user ALL_TAB_PRIVS_MADE .Lists column privileges SESSION_PRIVS .Lists system privileges granted to users and roles DBA_TAB_PRIVS .Lists all grants on all objects in the database DBA_COL_PRIVS .Lists the grants made on the objects owned by the current user ROLE Role is a named group of related privileges that can be granted to users Role provides easy and controlled privilege management Role can consists of both system and object privileges It can granted to any database user or role 57 .12/1/2010 PRIVILEGES INFORMATION DBA_SYS_PRIVS .
Privileges to create programmatic objects such as procedure. create table. TO engineer.12/1/2010 CREATE ROLE Syntax: CREATE ROLE role_name. Anamika WITH ADMIN OPTION. create view.sequence.packages. database link. functions. GRANT engineer TO Amol.types.g CREATE ROLE engineer. e.Privileges to connect to the database and create various objects as cluster .table.triggers.synonym. DBA All system privileges with ADMIN option SELECT_CATALOG_ROLE-Select privilege on data dictionary tables 58 . PREDEFINED ROLE CONNECT .view RESUORCE . GRANT create session .
REVOKING ROLES Syntax: REVOKE role1.role2] FROM <user|role|PUBLIC>.12/1/2010 ASSIGNING ROLES Syntax: GRANT role1. .g. Example: .GRANT engineer TO scott WITH ADMIN OPTION.[. 59 .…… TO <user|role|PUBLIC>[WITH ADMIN OPTION] E. Any user with ADMIN option for a role can revoke the role from any other database user or role.REVOKE engineer FROM scott.role2.
DROP ROLE role.Lists the roles defined in the database DBA_ROLE_PRIVS .Removes it from database ADMIN OPTION or DROP ANY ROLE privileges are required Syntax: .12/1/2010 REMOVING ROLE DROP ROLE command .Lists system privileges granted to users and roles 60 . ROLE INFORMATION DBA_ROLES .Removes it from all users and roles it was granted .Lists roles granted to the roles DBA_SYS_PRIVS .Lists all the roles granted to users and roles ROLE_ROLE_PRIVS .
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