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Agriculture is the production, processing, marketing, and use of foods, fibers and byproducts from plant crops and animals. Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human civilization, with the husbandry of domesticated animals and plants (i.e. crops) creating food surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated and stratified societies. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Agriculture is also observed in certain species of ant and termite Agriculture encompasses a wide variety of specialties and techniques, including ways to expand the lands suitable for plant raising, by digging water-channels and other forms of irrigation. Cultivation of crops on arable land and the pastoral herding of livestock on rangeland remain at the foundation of agriculture. In the past century there has been increasing concern to identify and quantify various forms of agriculture. In the developed world the range usually extends between sustainable agriculture
Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago, but have made great strides in the past century. The history of agriculture has played a major role in human history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socio-economic change. Division of labor in agricultural societies made commonplace specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures. So, too, are arts such as epic literature and monumental architecture, as well as codified legal systems. When farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in their society were freed to devote themselves to projects other than food acquisition. Historians and anthropologists have long argued that the development of agriculture made civilization possible.
mountain slopes. Farming is Pakistan's largest economic activity. most crops are grown in the Indus River plain in Punjab and Sindh. An additional 2 million hectares of land are under nonirrigated cropping. Government officials listed only 3 million hectares. and small-scale forestry and fishing. raw cotton. In FY 1993. and only 1 percent in Balochistan. The floods of September 1992 showed how vulnerable agriculture is to weather. contributed 25 percent of GDP and employed 48 percent of the labor force. or 60 percent. agricultural production dropped dramatically in FY 1993. largely in northern Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province. Nonirrigated . as forested in FY 1992. are important exports. Although there is agricultural activity in all areas of Pakistan. Land Use Pakistan's total land area is about 803. Agriculture accounts for about 23% of GDP and employs about 44% of the labor force. categorizes almost all of arid Balochistan as rangeland for foraging livestock. less than 10 percent in the North-West Frontier Province. Thus.940 square kilometers. however. the amount of cultivated land has increased by more than one-third. Since independence. estimates of grazing land vary widely--between 10 percent and 70 percent of the total area. Some authorities. the country is still far from realizing the large potential yield that the well-irrigated and fertile soil from the Indus irrigation system could produce. Around 70 percent of the cropped area was in Punjab. In the early 1990s. cotton cloth. largely in the north.9 million hectares were cultivated in FY 1992. are totally dependent on rainfall. Agricultural products. especially cotton yarn. About 48 million hectares. About 21. however. Considerable development and expansion of output has occurred since the early 1960s. more irrigation projects were needed to increase the area of cultivated land. The scant rainfall over most of the country makes about 80 percent of cropping dependent on irrigation. A broad interpretation. and rice.AGRICULTURE SECTOR IN PAKISTAN Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. agriculture. for example. is often classified as unusable for forestry or agriculture consists mostly of deserts. include part of this area as agricultural land on the basis that it would support some livestock activity even though it is poor rangeland. Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia. Fewer than 4 million hectares of land. About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. This expansion is largely the result of improvements in the irrigation system that makes water available to additional plots. such as plantings on floodplains as the water recedes. Substantial amounts of farmland have been lost to urbanization and water logging. but losses are more than compensated for by additions of new land. followed by perhaps 20 percent in Sindh. and urban settlements.
leading to prolonged disputes between India and Pakistan over the use of Indus waters. Beas. The urgent need in the 1960s and 1970s to increase crop production for domestic and export markets led to water flows well above designed capacities. averaging about one crop a year. creating stresses and risks . Pakistan received use of the waters of the Indus River and its western tributaries. to supply the largest area with minimum water needs. Most important for agriculture. At the same time. the treaty awarded India use of the waters of the main eastern tributaries in its territory--the Ravi. Partition placed portions of the Indus River and its tributaries under India's control. made larger water flows possible. which usually comes at critical growing periods. particularly during low water. headworks. the dam increases water availability. After the treaty was signed. the issue was resolved by the Indus Waters Treaty of 1960.000 kilometers. The Mangla Dam. Pakistan began an extensive and rapid irrigation construction program. and although the technology exists to boost production substantially. was established. In addition. The total length of the canal system exceeds 58. and administered by the World Bank. The dam. it is expensive to use and not always readily available Irrigation In the early 1990s.farming generally gives low yields. irrigation from the Indus River and its tributaries constituted the world's largest contiguous irrigation system. including the United States. Despite massive expansion in the irrigation system. the Jhelum and Chenab rivers.2 billion fund. partly financed by the Indus Basin Development Fund of US$800 million contributed by various nations. and distribution channels. completed in the 1970s. The dam also contributes to flood control. was completed in 1967. This system design has resulted in low yields and low cropping intensity in the Indus River plain. the government began installing public tube wells that usually discharge into upper levels of the system to add to the available water. there are an additional 1. Several immense link canals were built to transfer water from western rivers to eastern Punjab to replace flows in eastern tributaries that India began to divert in accordance with the terms of the treaty. whereas the climate and soils could reasonably permit an average of almost 1. The dam provided the first significant water storage for the Indus irrigation system. A second phase of irrigation expansion began in 1968. which is the world's largest earth-filled dam. when a US$1. The higher water flows in parts of the system considerably exceed design capacities. Completion of the Mangla and Tarbela reservoirs. capable of watering over 16 million hectares. also administered by the World Bank. additional construction was undertaken on barrages and canals. After a ten-year transitional period. on the Jhelum River. to regulation of flows for some of the link canals. The key to this phase was the Tarbela Dam on the Indus River.5 crops a year if a more sophisticated irrigation network were in place. reduced the destruction of periodic floods and in 1994 was a major hydroelectric generating source. and to achieve these objectives at low operating costs with limited technical staff.6 million kilometers of farm and field ditches. canals. as well as improvements in other parts of the system. and Sutlej rivers. The Indus irrigation system was designed to fit the availability of water in the rivers. After nine years of negotiations and technical studies. and to the country's energy supply. many problems remain. The system includes three major storage reservoirs and numerous barrages.
fruits (especially Oranges and Mangoes). Pakistan is a net food exporter. Partly because of its low cost. As a result. pulses and consumer . cotton.400 metric tons of wheat. cotton. fish. cotton.of breaches. Groups of farmers voluntarily manage the watercourses between main distribution channels and their fields. Nonetheless. Even greater amounts are probably lost because farmers use water whenever their turn comes even if the water application is detrimental to their crops. Charges for water use do not meet operational and maintenance costs. Part of the waste results from seepages in the delivery system. sugarcane. farmers have little understanding of the most productive applications of water during crop-growing cycles because of the lack of research and extension services. Pakistan exports rice.591. which together account for more than 75% of the value of total crop output.784 metric tons). Water management is based largely on objectives and operational procedures dating back many decades and is often inflexible and unresponsive to current needs for greater water use efficiency and high crop yields. and rice. Cropping Patterns and Production The most important crops are wheat. The irrigation system represents a significant engineering achievement and provides water to the fields that account for 90 percent of agricultural production. Government management of the system does not extend beyond the main distribution channels. many farmers. suffer because the supply of water is unreliable. Some experts believe that drastic changes are needed in government policies and the legal and institutional framework of water management if water use is to improve and that effective changes can result in very large gains in agricultural output. Good water management is not practiced by government officials. water is directed onto the fields of individual farmers whose water rights are based on long-established social and legal codes. particularly those with smallholdings and those toward the end of watercourses. water is often wasted by farmers. The exact amounts of water wasted have not been determined. wheat. serious problems in the design of the irrigation system prevent achieving the highest potential agricultural output. Moreover. In 2005. but studies suggest that losses are considerable and perhaps amount to one-half of the water entering the system. even though rates more than doubled in the 1970s and were again increased in the 1980s. who often assume that investments in physical aspects of the system will automatically yield higher crop production.585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24. Pakistan's largest food crop is wheat. and vegetables and imports vegetable oil. In effect.304. Nonetheless. The attitude among almost all farmers is that they should use water when available because it may not be available at the next scheduled turn. After passing through these channels. Pakistan produced 21. except in occasional years when its harvest is adversely affected by droughts. more than all of Africa (20.557. according to the FAO Pakistan has also cut the use of dangerous pesticides dramatically. the efficiency and effectiveness of water management relies on the way farmers use the system. improvements in the irrigation system have not raised yields and output as expected.
Yields increased substantially in the 1980s.184.foods. when its share of GDP was around 53%. partly as a result of the use of pesticides and the introduction in 1985 of a new high-yielding variety of seed. Much of the Pakistan's agriculture output is utilized by the country's growing processed-food industry. second-largest apricot and ghee market and third-largest cotton. including increased wheat and oilseed production. cotton was the most important commercial crop.3 million bales in FY 1993 because of the September 1992 floods and insect infestations. In the early and mid-1980s. cotton yields moved from well below the world average to above the world average. including fruits and vegetables. Nonetheless. play a central role in the government's economic reform package. are the main nongrain food crop in area and production. sorghum.868 million in 2005 thus registering over 55% growth since 2000 while minor crop yields were valued at Rs. but in the early 1990s more than 2 million tons of wheat were imported annually.504. In the early 1990s.7 million tons. Pakistan was self-sufficient in wheat. Corn. the area under wheat cultivation increased nearly 70 percent.7% but has since declined to about 4%.8 million bales. corn. including increased support prices for many agricultural commodities and expanded availability of agricultural credit.8 million hectares. Output fell sharply.4 million tons. the government introduced agriculture assistance policies. Output in FY 1993 reached 16. about 2. Rice yields also have increased sharply since the 1960s following the introduction of new varieties. real growth in the agricultural sector averaged 5. The economic importance of agriculture has declined since independence. Rice is the other major food grain. Wheat production is vulnerable to extreme weather. with 1 million tons exported. Production in FY 1992 was 12.4 million bales ten years earlier. up from 4. A number of other foods.1 million hectares were planted with rice. In the early 1990s. and barley. The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued major crop yields at Rs. the yield per hectare of around 1. are also grown. to 9. The value of processed retail food sales has grown 12 percent annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1 billion in 2000. although a minor crop. gradually increased in area and production after independence. partly at the expense of other minor food grains.1 million hectares in FY 1950 to 2. while yields increased 221 percent. called gram in Pakistan. Agricultural reforms. Other important food grains are millet. During the 1980s. From 1993 to 1997. however. wheat was planted on 7. Wheat is eaten most frequently in unleavened bread called chapati. Chickpeas. onion and milk market. The government increased procurement prices of basmati rice disproportionately to encourage exports and has allowed private traders into the rice export business alongside the public-sector Rice Export Corporation. The country is Asia's largest camel market. Wheat is by far the most important crop in Pakistan and is the staple food for the majority of the population.707 million in 2005 thus registering over 41% growth since 2000. and production amounted to 14. . although other grades also are exported. especially in nonirrigated areas. Between FY 1961 and FY 1990. most crops were grown for food. In FY 1992. Following the poor harvest of 1993. although supermarkets accounted for just over 10% of the outlets. and production amounted to 3.2 million tons. Pakistan has emphasized the production of rice in order to increase exports to the Middle East and therefore concentrates on the high-quality basmati variety.5 tons in FY 1991 was low compared with many other Asian countries. The area planted in cotton increased from 1.8 million hectares in FY 1993. In FY 1992.1 million hectares in FY 1981 and 2.
Except for some oil from cottonseeds.2 million skins and hides.000 hectares. 56. 8. It is also a major source of export earning. 24. . The leading daily newspaper Jang reports that the national herd consists of 24. most important.528 billion eggs.8 million camels. 0. In FY 1992 sugarcane was planted on 880. Soybeans and sunflower seeds appear to be suitable crops given the country's soil and climate.2 million cattle. government initiatives are being undertaken to modernize milk collection and to improve milk and milk product storage capacity. The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued this sector at Rs.472 million tons of milk (making Pakistan the 5th largest producer of milk in the world). By the 1980s. 26. 0. and.7 million tons. but production was still negligible in the early 1990s. LIVE STOCK According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan. The Food and Agriculture Organization reported in June 2006 that in Pakistan. the world's fifth largest milk producing country.470 million in 2005 thus registering over 70% growth since 2000. 1.3 million buffaloes.740 million tons of mutton. 21. These animals produce 29. sugarcane. which is more than the crop sector. Pakistan has enough fishery resources that remain to be fully developed. introduction and experimentation with oilseed cultivation was under way.758. rapeseed.5 thousand tons of hair and 51. FISHERY Fishery and fishing industry plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan. the country is dependent on imported vegetable oil. With a coastline of about 814 km.9 million sheep. amounting to nearly 11 per cent of Pakistan's GDP.2 thousand tons of wool. and production was 35. In addition to these there is a vibrant poultry sector in the country with more than 530 million birds produced annually.416 million tons of poultry meat. 40.[ the livestock sector contributes about half of the value added in the agriculture sector.Other cash crops include tobacco.7 million goats and 0.115 million tons of beef.
c) Farms less than subsistence level are 81 %. Some of the issues are as listed:a) Gaps in productivity are far too distinct skewing its tilt in favour of progressive farmers. fuelwood.5% of the total farms. -. e) Higher post harvest losses. -.5% to the GDP. surpluses as raw material for industry and exports. Strategies to improve the performance of agriculture sector of Pakistan To translate into projects designed to achieve self sufficiency. for reduction in poverty and for creating employment opportunities. e) System of research and development warrants revamping and closer focus for an effective linkage with the farm activity. .FORESTRY About only 4% of land in Pakistan is covered with forests. however.This sector is. b) Despite horizontal expansion in acreage the yield has reached a plateau. d) Costly inputs and low price of output affect their income.Agriculture is the mainstay of the country's economy with a contribution of 24. lumber. paper. The forest of Pakistan are a main source of food. medicine as well as used for purposes of wildlife conservation and ecotourism.latex. The number poor farmers is on the increase holding lest than 5 acres is 47. faced with some structural and deep seated problems warranting bold and critical interventions on many fronts. Cultural practices call for improvement and more proactive extension out reach.
A growth rate of 5% in the crop sector and 4. The share of formal channels lending the farm sector is through on the increase needs to be doubled over a period. import subsidy income diversification and export orientation. .6% in the livestock and fisheries sector is projected for 2004-05. f) Larger space for the private sector. The main focus to increase productivity of crop is on: a) Timely sowing with proper technique.Micro credit network needs rapid expansion. A beginning may be made. The prices of inputs have risen manifold. -.A system of inventory management would be placed both at the federal and the provincial levels to closely watch the supply line and quality of critical inputs for each cropping season. -. -. e) Market incentives and favorable prices. CREDIT: -. -. INPUTS IN GENERAL: -. water and credit etc. b) Quality seed and optimal plan pipeline level. This measure will provide more space to the farmers to acquire more loans on the basis of the same collateral.The share of Bank credit to be increased from Rs 65 billion to Rs 100 billion within two years. pesticides.Recovery of loan should not be pressed at the harvest time.Value of land as a collateral for loaning to be up-scaled by at-least 100% last time it was fixed at Rs 400 for produce index unit in 1989.Rate of interest for agriculture and micro financing should be gradually brought down.Input availability on time through a cost effective mechanism across the board with a special emphasis on the small farmer. higher productivity.Special focus to target subsistence and farmers moving less than 5 acres of land.FUTURE STRATEGY: Agricultural strategy is designed to focus on sustainable food security. -. This should cover seed. -. -.Major steps are needed in the credit regime.Raising productivity and profitability level in the farming sector. d) Effective pest management. c) Judicious and efficient use of inputs. -. fertilizer.
trickle and sprinkle irrigation.The research out fits to be restructured to give more financial and administrative space. Some useful interventions are already in place.Closer focus on research and development with a view to diversify varietal base. -. The seed renewable target where as is fix 20% for wheat and paddy 100% for cotton. impacting heavily on its production system. lining and revamping will help improve water use efficiency and reduce losses substantially. -. improving legal framework making.Quality control mechanism to be made more effective by upgrading laboratory facilities. -. quarantine regime more effective. The project is at a preparatory stage and requires full support. QUALITY CONTROL: -. -. produce disease resistant. improving linkages for adopting techniques of drip. Effective conservation strategies need to be put in place by improving efficiency of water usage. -. For the alleviation of poverty in dry areas.000 water courses. -. It is conceived over seven years at an estimated cost of over Rs 43 billion.These measures are not only in line with the WTO regime but will also encourage the process of value addition with regard to the agricultural produce. -.WATER REGIME: -. SEED: Certified seeds available in the country about 14% in wheat.There is a need to harness water resources outside the Indus System.Seed is the key determinant of production system.Execution of this project would require very close monitoring through latest managerial techniques and devices like the global positioning system and project management units. high quality certified seed. -.5 in paddy and 15% in maize. It is estimated to save 50% of 16MAF water available through this source. hill torrent water needs to be conserved. 60% in cotton 15. . The concept needs skill-full execution.Use of modern methods will be highly encouraged by lending extension support.Pakistan is passing through a water stress regime. This will also help grow livestock in the range land. diversions and building of small catchments areas and a distribution system can help irrigate up to two million hectares through the Rodh Kohis.Mega project of 86.
FERTILIZER: -.Prices of all other inputs like fertilizer.Pakistan's production of cereal crop is round 25 million tonnes with emphasis on wheat. -. The current production level is 35.Mechanization should be encouraged through an incentive on the import of farm machinery. INCENTIVES: -. The tractors generation needs a review with a view to encourage new investors.Pest scouting should be reinforced. Peshawar and Quetta to ensure quality control of exportable. -. seeds. -. -.The Provincial and District Governments should be vigilant against spurious and fake pesticides.Pakistan's tractors manufacturing capacity is within 35HP to 85HP. PESTICIDES: -. -. -.The prices of DAP needs rationalization as the farmers tend to avoid its use in view of very high price.Fully equipped analytical laboratory will be established / upgraded at Karachi. rice. Lahore.000 tractors per year which far below the requirements. pesticides.The urea capacity is 4. and to a certain degree on maize. CROP SECTOR: CEREAL: -.3 million tones which has reached the saturation point.These incentives will also work as fillip to improve yield and productivity levels.The GST on fertilizer needs to be withdrawn/reduced.There is a need for a very proactive pest management campaign with a view to educate the farmers. -. -. . FARM MECHANISATION: -. -. -.Import of small tractors below 35 HP with implements in CBU/CKD may be encouraged for the small farmers at low duty along-with high efficiency irrigation equipment's as sprinkler / drip / trickle system. farm machinery needs rationalization by bringing down / eliminating duties revisiting the sales tax with a view to give visible relief to the farming community.Tractor lease financing should be launched at the earliest at 20% to 25% up front payment.There is a need for expansion in manufacturing capacity of fertilizer.
-.4 million tonnes of wheat each year.The role of private sector will be fully encouraged.Cotton is the backbone of the agriculture system. -. -. -. It is a source of foreign exchange earning.Timely payment to growers.Cotton standards will be effectively enforced labs are being revamped for proper grading and making product competitive. critical interventions are required. -.Favorable support price as a stabilizing measure with favorable market environment will be ensured for a good return to the grower. -. -. . COTTON: -.Rice is another important food crop in which country is surplus by 2.5 million tones. -.-.Linking prices to recovery of sugarcane.Pest management at all levels during the season will be closely monitored with a contingent plan in hand. -.Bio-safety guidelines are under deliberations with a view to encourage biogenetic techniques in accordance with our ecology. Strict regime will be enforced to control and check the pre release of unapproved varieties in the market. -. Private sector to be fully encouraged to participate in this endeavor. From procurement of certified seed to the delineating process.For mechanical transportation to raise plant density from .06 million to . -.1 million.As the price of domestic sugar is higher than international price there is a need value addition. SUGARCANE: -.Plant breeder's right Act will also work as an incentive for the private sector to supplement the government¶s role in producing quality certified feed. generation of electricity by sugar mills. -. providing incentive for installation of slicing capacity for sugar beet processing.High growth rate of population creates additional demand of 0.Need for varietal development and adoption of hybrid technology. -. It is not a competitive product.We need to up-scale the yield and also to ensure standardized graded cotton for a ready access for export. at a level of 15 million acre feet.Sugarcane crop is a high water requirement delta crop.Special focus be made on setting up foundation seed cells in the country. -.
3% of the GDP. -.This sector requires per unit productivity increase through better feed. -. seed companies and the farmers.Deep sea fishing policy is in place. -. It consists of 9.Fish farming being promoted through aquaculture about 40.An important economic activity along the coast line with export from its products ranging around Rs 8 billion per annum.Strategy for the future hinges on technology transfer. improved marketing network and liberal credit line to the farmers. improve marketing. facilitating quality seed introducing new crops such as oil palm cultivation coastal areas of Sindh. great potential for harvesting. -. -. more efforts needed to promote value addition.There has been a headway in the domestic production in the production of sunflower.It is the largest import item (over $ 800 million of foreign exchange) after petroleum (meeting 71% requirement). -.Programmes of artificial insemination needs further expansion by introducing healthy progenies for producing healthy animals for meat and mutton. There is need to accelerate import substitution. Its growth can help alleviate poverty in an effective manner.Private sector has moved in the wheat trade through a liberal credit regime. proper disease control cover genetic up-gradation. strengthen linkages with the private sectors.000 hectares area is already under it. -.Need for assured credit line to promote this sub sector. developing linkages between the solvent industry.In this sector around 40% margin is appropriated by the middleman steps need to be taken to have efficient marketing system to stabilize the price and ensure good return to the farmers -. training in improved practices. Introducing contract farming. proper transportation. through on board handling.Focus is on quality fish catch. LIVESTOCK: -. -. -.Livestock sector has a very rich potential. -.There is a close focus on the production of sunflower and canola in Punjab and Sindh. FISHERIES: -. The role will be encouraged but speculative trading needs to be guarded against the role of the private sector. Balochistan and olive cultivation in NWFP and Pothohar. canola and rapeseed mustard.OIL SEED: -. .
Close nexus should developed between the research institutes and the expert farmer with a view to improve the quality of the product. -. -.Preserving the quality of fresh produce and processing the samples will ensure better incentive to the growers. -.Laboratories may be upgraded to meet for the necessary quarantine requirement. -. energy efficient mechanical set up for dehydration of fruits and vegetables is being developed. -.Special efforts will be. AGRICULTURAL EXPORT: -.National Data Base and information on crops is the need for the future.Post harvest losses range from 30% to 40% in fruits and vegetables.The R&D infrastructure will be strengthened in this regard with a focus on standardized harvesting and storage techniques. .Animal and plant quarantine facilities to be upgraded.Legal frameworks are being upgraded and improved to cater for the emergent needs. -. -.Private sector may be encouraged to put up vapour heat treatment plants to meet the international standards. grading and packing of fruits and vegetables POST HARVEST LOSSES: -. -. -. made in collaboration with the Provincial Governments for increasing area and productivity under export quality fruits and vegetables.Institutions including the Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. Pakistan Central Cotton Committee are to be revamped to tune them to the upcoming challenges.Liberal incentive to industries involved in vaccine.FRUITS AND VEGETABLES: -.Quality -standard for various produces need to be implemented faithfully.Cost effective.Formulation and storage technology for milk and milk products will be focused upon. This will be an area of close attention. -. -. -. -.A shift is to be made from wooden crates to corrugated carton.