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B. P. Lathi
.
Signal Processing and Linear Systems
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
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Copyright © 2001 by Oxford University Press, me.
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ISBN 019
Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I Printed in the United States of America on acidfree paper
Chapter 1
1.11 For parts (a) and (b) E/ =
1
0020
271" ., • 1 sm  t dt = ?
1
2
".
1 dt  ~
1
2
.".
cos 2t dt = 11"+ 0 = 11"
1.12
E/ =
Eh
=
1 1
0 0
2 1
t dt =
2
3
1
31
t
10 = 3'
1
Ell
=
f
o
(t) dt
2
1
= :3 t 11 = 3
130
1
(t)
1
dt ""
3
1
t
31
10 = 3'
1
E/4
=
Ey =
Jo1(1)2dt+ JI2(1)2dt
=
1
0
l
(2t) dt
1
2
= :3 t
4
30
4 11 = :3
=2
E"·+v Therefore Ex±y
•
l,
J
(2) dt
2
= 4,
Exy
=
12
1
(2) dt = 4
.2
=
Ex
+ Ey•
Ex+v Similarly, we can show that Exy (c)
=
= 411" Therefore
1."./2
o
(2) dt
2
+
1371"/2
"./2
(0) dt
2
+
£2"
.3 ...2 /
(1)
2
dt
= 411"
EX±·!J
= Ex + Ey.
Therefore. 1.14
in general Excty
f.
Ex
+ E!J
(e) Pi.]
1 = 4'
f ..
2
j
.
.. J
(cf ttlt
==
64c /7
')
2
1
Sign change of a signal docs not affect its power. Multiplication by a factor c2. 1.15
of a signal by a constant c increases the power
The integrals of the crossproduct terms (when k ¥ r) are finite because the integrands are periodic signals (made up of sinusoids). These terms, when divided by T + 00, yield zero. The remaining terms (k= r) yield
1.16 (a) Power of a sinusoid of amplitude C is C2/2 [Eq. (1.5a)] regardless of its frequency (w ¥ 0) and phase. Therefore, in this case P = (10)2/2 = 50. (b) Power of a S11Ill of sinusoids is equal to the sum of the powers of the sinusoids [Eq. (1.5b)]. Therefore. in this case P = (c) (10
~ 2
+
(16)2 2
= 178.
+ 2 sin
3t) cos lOt
=
lOcos lOt
+ sin
l3t  sin 3t. Hence from Eq. (1.5b) P
=
(1~)2
+ ~+ ~ =
5].
(d) lOcos .'5tcos lOt
=
5(cos St
+ cos
15t. Hence from Eq. (1.5b) P
=
~
(e) 10sin 5tcos lOt = 5(sin 15t  sin 5t. Hence from Eq. (1.5b) P = + <_;)2 = 25. (f) ejot coswot = ~ [ej(o+wo)t + ej(owo)t]. Using the result in Prob. 1.15, we obtain P 1.31 f2(t)
¥
2
+T=
(5,2
25.
=
(1/4)
+ (1/4) =
1/2.
= f(t
 1) + h(t  1)
!J(t)
= f(t
 1) + h(t
+ 1) f4(t) = f(t 
0.5)
+ h(t + 0.5)
The signal f5(t) can be obtained by (i) delaying f(t) by 1 second (replace t with t  1, (ii) then timeexpanding by a factor 2 (replace t with t/2), (iii) then multiply with 1.5. Thus f5(t) = 1.5f(~ 1). 1.32 All the signals are shown in Fig. S1.32.
Fig. 81.32 1.33 All the signals are shown iII Fig. S1.33
~
2.
0
fCt)
4
t,+
Fig. 81.33
2
.44 Using the fact that f(x)b(x) (a) 0 (b) ~b(w) = f(O)b(x). Ef(t/a) = 1 00 00 [f(tla)]2 dt =a 1 00 00 f2(x) dt = o.2)] + (2t .(t2 .41.q().b)]2 dt = .T) dr = f(t) .T) at T b(T)f(t = 0 is f(t). 1 EaI(t) 1 00 00 = 1: f2(x) dx = Efla.u(t ..s J Fig.2) . we obtain (d) 0 (e) e3 (f) 5 (g) f(I) (h) _e2 ~ ~(i) i' .4)u(t _ 2) .4) 2 . S1.41 IS 7 (d) 1.(2t .2) . ._.T) dr Therefore f(t) = (e) 1 V sing similar arguments.2)] = 4(t + l)u(t + 1) .43 = 4(t + l)[u(t + 1) . Thus. .~j.a.u(t .1) (e) 2!j3b(w (e) ~b(t) (d) tb(t + 3) (f) kb(w) 1. 81.2t 6tu(t) + 3u(t) + (2t .~ .46 3 .H(t)] + (2t + 4)[u(t) = t [u(t) . we have .8)[u(t . (use L' H6pital's rule) 1.T) is located at T = t. h(t) h(t) 1. at T =t and f(T) (b) The impulse beT) is at T = 0 and f(t 1: 1: = t is f(t). an impulse bet .8)u(t Ef(atb) = 1 _". S1.tI(at 00 .41 1.!l(t .42 All the signals are shown in Fig.45 In these problems remember that impulse b(x) and so on. I a Fig. (a) The impulse is located at T is located at x = O.4)] = t2u(t) + 8)u(t .E] [af(t)]2 dt = a21: f2(t) dt = a2 e. Therefore f(T)b(t .
49 Letting at = x.1:.6(x . P1.. df /dt contains impulses 46(t + 4) and 26(t . S1. 2).46a. and is lover the interval (0.1) . . sketched in Fig..<. Over the interval 0 ::..he interval 0 ~ t = it k is k. Hence. 1 3 y(t)=11dx+j o 1 (I)dx+ r 6(x3)dx=I+(2)+1=0 13.•• t_.2) .42a 1.1) . the impulse (of strength unity) yields an additional term of unity. we show that this integral is . S1. (b)Using the procedure in part (a). Therefore ]00004>(t)6(at) dt 1 6(at) = ~4>(0) = ~ 1 ]00 4>(t)6(t) dt 00 Therefore = ~6(t) 1 4 . we have y(t) = l\dX+ jt(_I)dX=2_t At t = 3.. Thus. In addition.u(t . y(t) Over t.47 1. we find d2 f /dt2 for the signal in Fig.u(t .2).6(. we obtain I: 4>(t)6(t)dt = {oo <fJ(x)6(x)dx = I: <fJ(x)6(x)dx = 4>(0) This shows that I: we obtain (for a 4>(t)6(t) dt = I: 00 4>(t)6(t) dt = 4>(0) Therefore 6(t) = 6(t) 1. 1. 81.46b. the derivative is lover the interval (4. (b) Fig.6(x .3) _ . t t>3 (b) y(t) = it [1 .~4>(0).48 Changing the variable t to x.47 (a) Recall that the area under an impulse of strength 11. > 0) 4>(t)6(at) dt 1 Similarly for a 00 = 00 a 1100 4>( )6(x) dx ~ a = 1 4>(0) a < 0.u(t .. J ds: = tu(t) . The result L<.t ::.2) .3) + . The derivative is zero for t < 4 and t > 2.46 (a) Recall that the derivative of a function at the jump discontinuity is equal to au impulse of strength equal to the amount of discontinuity. shown in Fig. 0). we have 1 1 dx = t < 3.
Therefore the frequencies are 81.(t) = 0... Hence.and (")are linear.5[u(t) + u( I)] = 0.J3 0 .(t) + sill(wot)u(t.J.(t} = 0.1.11 Only (b) .sinwot ltCt)] foe t) = 0. 5 .3 ..T . the output is obtained sign of t in f(t).·.J'3 .5[sinwotll.72 (a) The system is f(t ..(t) = 0... . ie· .G[u(t) .2 = .tu( 1..51 (a) (b) (e) and (d) and (e) (f) f.fe(t) = 0..'i = 5eOt so that s = O. J.2) = yet .coswut1L(t)J.S[cosWutlL(t) + cos wot lI( t)] = O. 81.410 (a) f: ."'ot H( t)] = 0.)] = 0.. and fort) = o. if the input output is I(t . the (b) The system by changing the y(t + T).sin(wot)] = sinwot l..T).411 (a) 81. ".5[coswot . Thus.S[cos w"t u(t) + cos( wot)u( t)] = O.5[tu(t) + tu( t)] = 0.9. 81. when the input is f(t .411 1.3 ± j3 (c) Using the argument in (b).T) = f( it + TJ) = represents the original output advanced by T (not delayed by T).l'3 .2). ~3 . The input f(t) yields the output yet) = J( t). . 0 t 0 Fig.5[sin wot u( t} ."'ot }11. is timevarying.5[sinwot u(t) ..5 Sill wul.f(t) and then ( 9) 1. the output is f( =t .T). discussed ill Example 1..(t) = O... 6(t)c/:i(t) dt = ... 1. zoroxt at c This can be verified by using the procedure is timeinvariant because the input J(t) yields the output yet) = f(t .cos( wat)] == 0 Fig.5[e(~l+j3)1 + eOJ3)tj.cos(wot)u(t)] = O.'I)...S[coswutu(t) . f..5[coswut + cos] wot)] = cos'""ot and foCt) = 0. cos 3t = O..sine .u( il]· 5 fe(t) = 0.2 = ±j3 (b) e:3.~ .51 1.Scos wot fort) = o. which makes the system timeinvariant. j3 •• j( .5t.10.(t)8(t)i:'"" =0 I  f: ¢(t)6(t) dt ¢(t)b(t) dt = 4>(0) 1. Therefore. 0 .5[sinwot + sin(woO] = 0 and fo(t) = 0.51tl and fo(t) = 0.5[sinwut .5[tll(t) .'i[coswotu(t) . .61 If f(t} and yet) are the input and output. respectively. which All the remaining are nonlinear.5(sin wat u( t) + sin .t) J = 0.)] = 0. iJ(t) = .. we find the frequencies 8U = 2 ± j3 (d) s = 2 (e) s = 2 (f) .(. of an ideal integrator.
Thus. Thus the system is zeroinput nonlinear. (f) The system is timeinvariant.T7(t . The input J{t) yields the output yet) = J(a. (d) The system is timevarying. The current yet) has the same direction (shown by arrow) regardless of the polarity of Ve (because the input branch is a short).~]). If the input is delayed by T. the capacitor may be removed.5)e(t5) + 2] u(t . Hence the system is timevarying. the output is tJ{t . the output is obtained by replacing t in the input with a.T). (e) The system is timevarying.73 We construct the table below from the first three rows of data. It is clearly zerostate linear.5).T). 5. S1. To show that it is zeroinput nonlinear.75 From the hint it is clear that when Ve{O) = 0.[e(t5) + 2(t . l_ Figure 81.t). 1. But this output is not the same as the original output delayed by 1'. Hence the system is timevarying.t. The output is a constant. the output is also delayed by T. consider the circuit with f(t) = 0 (zeroinput). Because of the linearity property of the system. Now. we can multiply any row by a constant.5et (et + 1)u(t) + te:' + l)tt{t) + 2tet + 2)u(t) In our case. if J{t) is delayed by T. Also 1.5) = [e(t+5) + 2(t + 5)e(t+5) + 2] is u{t + 5) . ':=. which is not tJ{t) delayed by T. which is a scaled version of the input.t) delayed by Tf a (not 1'). the output. Hence the system is timeinvariant.{ t) T4 = ~(Tl + 1'2) 0 ~u(t) ~tL{t) u{t) u(t + l)etu(t) 1'5 = ~(7'1 1'6 T7 + 7'3) = (T4 + T5) = 2(7'6 + rr) (~et (1. which is the area under the delayed J(t). The input J{t) yields the output yet) = tJ{t). given by the area under J(t) over the interval itl ::. 75. We can also add (or subtract) any two rows.1:1 CO) X2(0) 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 yet) etu{t) et{3t 2u{t) (t + 2)u{t) t. Row T1 T2 1'3 J{t) 0 0 . if the input is J(t .74 If the input is kf{t). the input f(t) we have = + 5) . For the input J(t . which is J{a. the output is J{at . Thus.5) 1.e the jth row. From T7 and the superposition and timeinvariance property. The input J{t) yields the output yet).u(t .75 6 .T) = J{a[t . is another constant. which is the square of the second derivative of J{t). Hence the system is timevarying. Let Tj denot. yet) = 7'7{t + 5) .(c) The system is timevarying. and the circuit behaves as shown in Fig. the new output yet) Hence the homogeneity is satisfied.T) (f(t) delayed by T).
Hence. Hence. Hence.2]) represents an operation of signal compression by factor 3.77c).77b). Hence the output !J(t) satisfies the linearity conditions. (d) Not invertible because cosine is a multiple valued function. (c) Not invertible for even values of n. S1. Hence. The inverse system equation is y(t) = [J(t)]l/n.82 The currents ill the resistor.70. (d) y(t) = f(at).king the derivative of the output. 1. ytto) o Figure S1. 77d). The output y(t) is obtained by time compression of the input by factor a. Therefore 1. The output lI(t) is obtained by time inversion in the input.t).76 The solution is trivial. (b) The system yet) = f(~H .2). the output can start he fore the input (see Fig.\ \ 1. Thus. and cos1[f(t)] is not unique. and then time delay by 2 seconds. it is not realizable because it involves the operation of signal compression and signal advancing (which makes it noncausal). the output can start before the input (see Fig. and then timeexpanding by factor 3. we can realize a noncausal system. (c) y(t) = f(a. the system is not causal. Yet.77a).. S1. Hence. However. a > 1. the inverse system equation is y(t) = f( ~ + 2). respectively. The output y(t) is obtained by time expansion of the input by factor l/a.77 " .. Thus. if the input starts at t = O. if we can accept time delay.81 The loop equation for the circuit is 3Yl(t) Also + DYl(t) = f(t) or (D + 3)Yl(t) = f(t) (1) (2) Substitution of (2) in (1) yields (D D + 3) 1/2(t) = f(t) or (D + 3)Y2(t) = Df(t) DY2(t) f(t) Df(t) (1) and (2/ D)Y2(t). as far as the output y(t) is concerned. Although the system is invertible.·1H 1 Figure S1. Hence.78 (a) Invertible because the input can be obtained by ta. the inverse system equation is y(t) = df/dt. the input can be obtained from the output by first advancing the output by 2 seconds. because the sign information is lost. S1.6) = f(:3[t . S1. and the system is not causal. The nonlinear elements are irrelevant in computing the output y(f). (b) y(t) = f( t). a < 1.76  1.77 (a) y(t) = f(t . and the system is not causal. S1. However. the output yet) always starts after the input by 2 seconds (see Fig. the system is causal. the circuit is nonlinear because it contains nonlinear clements and the outputs associated with nonlinear elements Land C will not satisfy linearity conditions. The input is a current source. 1. the system is invertible for odd values of 11. the output starts before t = 0 (see Fig. the circuit behaves as shown in Fig. capacitor and inductor are 2Y2(t). Clearly. Hence. (D or +2+ 2 D ):I/2(t) = = (D2 Also + 2D + 2)//2(t) 7 .
qo(t)]6t or = A6h (1 ) But qo(t) Differentiation of (2) yields = = Rh(t) R A'[qi(t) .(2) Substituting of (2) in (1) yields D2 + 2D =D~ or (3) 1.(t) qo(t) (3) and substituting this ill (1) yields = D a +a qi(t) h(t) or .D + a a) qi(t) = A(D D+ a) qi(t) (4) (D + a)h(t) = ~q. 1( =A 1.83 +2 .(t) 8 ./Jj(t) = Df(t) [qi(t) . Rh(t) (D + ~) (D qo(t) = ~qt(t) or + a·)qo(t) = aq.qo(t)] (2) qo(t) and = .
(>. Therefore the characteristic roots are >'1 = 2 and >'2 = 3.+ 6.Chapter 2 2. The characteristic equation is >. + 2)2.\ + 4 = (>.j3) = O. + 2)(>' + 3).24 = 2 . The characteristic and yo(t) Setting t = C2('t = 0. Also >. Therefore and yo(t) Setting t = 0 and substituting = 2c1e2t .21 The characteristic polynomial is >. The characteristic equation is >.2 + :1>' + 6 = O.110(0) = 2.22 The characteristic polynomial is >..5>' + 6 = (>.c·t . The characteristic equation is >. Therefore and yo(t) Setting t = 2c1e2'  3c2e3t 1 in .2 + 9 = 0 or (>.2 + . The characteristic modes are e2t and te2t.2 + 4>. + 4 = O. The characteristic modes are e2' ami c:3t.(>.!Io(t) = 5e2t _ 3e3' 2.+ 1) = >. Therefore = O. and substituting initial conditions yields O=CCOSO} 6 = 3csinO Therefore ~ cc~sf}=O }~ csmO = 2 9 . 1io(0) = Cl = C2 =3 Therefore . Also . and substituting initial conditions yields Cl C2 = 2 =1 Therefore yo(t) 2. The characteristic modes are 1 and e ='."i>.\ 2 + .+ 1) roots are 0 and 1. The characteristic equation is >. The characteristic modes are ej3t and «!".2 + 4.2+ >.this equation yields 5 = 0. and substituting initial conditions . + j3)(>' characteristic roots are ±j3. Therefore yo(t) and = ccos(3t + 0) + 0) c=2 O=7r/2 lio(t) = 3csin(3t Setting t = 0. so that the characteristic roots are 2 and 2 (repeated twice). + 4. The The characteristic polynomial is >.2c2te2t + c2e2t initial conditions yields 3 = C1 4 = 2Cl + C2 } ~ Therefore yo(t) 2.2 + 9.23 = (3 + 2t)e2t The characteristic polynomial is >.2 + 4>.
Therefore and Jia(t) Yo(t) Setting t = 0.ted twice). Therefore ya(t) = f'e2t cos(3t + 0) and Setting t = 0.+ 13.ya(t) = 2 cos(3t .2+ 4>. and (' 3t. and substituting initial conditions 4 = C1 + C3} 3 = C2.+ 1)(>.j3)(>' + 2 + j:l) = O. The 2. C2(. +  7e2t + 3e31 modes are «:' and p31 .2c2e2t . + 1) O. The characteristic roots are 2 ± j3. + 13 = 0 or (>.. The characteristic characteristic roots are 0.2(>. we obtain C1 = :2 1 C2 =2 10 .') c3=1 + 2t . The characteristic equation is >.3rsinll Yo(t) ~ yields ccosll = 5 } csinO = 8.98 = 2rcosO Therefore = 10 0=rr/3 = lOe2tcos(3t i) equation is >.3c3e3t = C1 e t + 4c2e 21 + 9c3e 3t yields } ~ initial conditions 2=q+C2+C3 1=ct2C23c3 5 Therefore ci =6 = 3 C2 =7 C3 = C1 + 4C2 + 9C3 yo(t) 2..3ce2t sin(3t + 0) initial conditions } . 0 and 1 (0 is repea. The characteristic (>.26 The characteristic polynomial is >.2 + 5>' + 6). + 1) or >. The characteristic modes are cle(2+i3)t and c2e(2):l)'. + 1)(>' + 2)(>' + 3) = O.2' 2. li(O) = 1. and subst itut ing y(Ol = o. The characteristic roots are 1.2.2+ 4>. and substituting lio(t) = _2c(.27 The characteristic polynomial is (>.66 ~ c 5=ccosO lfi. 2 and 3.et equation is (>.2(>. and substituting = l'lPt . + 3 = 6et = (>.31 The characteristic Therefore equation is >.25 The characteristic polynomial is >.+ 1)(>.2t cos(3t + 0) .2 + 5>' + 6) = 0 or The characteristic modes are «:'.1'3 ci ==> c:! =5 =2 1=c3 Therefore Yo(t) =. Therefore and yo(t) yo(t) Setting t = C2= c3et yields 1'3e t = 0. The characteristic :tIn(t) lin(t) = qeI .3 + >. 1)(>' + 3) = O.2+ 4>.~) = 2 sin 3f :l.+ 2 . (.31  = C1"'" 3C2e3f Setting t = 0.
we obtain } 3C2 =~ ci 0=I'l+C2 1 = 2C1 Therefore aud [P(D)Yn(t)Jtl(t) Hence h(t) 2.(t) = cle2t Yn(t) = 2Cle2t e3t)u(t) + (.(t) In this case the initial condition is y. Yn(O) 0= ci 1 = 3et = 1. Therefore Yn(t) Setting t = + (:2t)e:1t [3{ct + C2t) + c2je3t = 0.lJn(t)]U(t) = [(D The characteristic equation is A2+ + S)Yn(t)JU(t) = [:Vn(t) + . and using Yn(O) 1. yeO) =  1. and substituting yeO) = 0..Therefore Yn (t) h(t) 2.T)dT] dt J(T) dT] get . Setting t = 0. and substituting 11n(O) = 1.33 The characteristic =1 C2 =1 = [tinCt) + i1in(t) bnb(t) + lly.T) dt = Aj l:g(t .34 The characteristic = yn(O) ee t = 1.41 Ac = = [P(D)Yn(t»)U(t) = [21in(t) + 91J.(t)Ju(t) = (e2t + e3t)u(t) = + [P(D)Yn(t)JU(t) 0 and = = bet) + (e2t + e3t)u(t) equation is A +1= y. we obtain c = = 1. and 1I..:l(O) and Yn(t)=et P(D)Yn(t) Hence h(t) 2... = hin(t) + Yn(t»)U(t) = 2etu(t) bet) = b"b(t) + [P(D)y.T)dt 11 = AjAg . we obtain } Cl == 0 + C2 ==> C2 = 1 and Hence h(t) 2.5Yn(t)JU(t) 5A + 6 = (A + 2)(A + 3) = O.2e3t .\ + 3)2 11n(t) = (el O..(t)ju(t) = (2 + 3t)e:1tu(t) = = 1: [1: 1: [1: 1: e(t) dt J(T)_q(t .3czc3t Setting t = 0..(t)Ju(t) = = + 2etu(t) equation is A2+ 6A + 9 = (.32 1{ = 2'(' t .(':It) = (2et  = [P(D).
42 with a = 1. f(at) * g(at) == 1~lc(at). c(t) = c(t). For Example 2.c.5 = AfAh For example 2.:).. Ah = 0.45 (i) at < O.r) dr for t = it dr = r[ = t for t ~ 0 =0 Therefore <0 u(t) . Using the time scaling property in Prob.t: == It = o bt _e __ [e(ba)t _ 1] ba = at _e _ _ .. indicating that c(t) is even.6..b u(t) * u(t) == it u(r)u(t . and Ay = 1 .42 f(at) * g(at) == I: 1 c(at) a f(ar)g[a(t 00 . 2. u(t) (ii) Because both functions are causal = tu(t) c at u... we note that 1 00 00 eat dt = ~ Use of this result yields Af = 1. Therefore u(t) 11(1) * e bt u(t) = at e (  e bt) a.8.15. Now. c(t) = c( t). Using a parallel argument. we can show that if both functions are odd.15= 0. indicating that c(t) is odd.x) dx == a~O 2. Let f(t)*g(t) == c(t). 2. the limits of integration become from 00 to 00. we have f(t)*g(t) = c(t). if f(t) and g(t) are both even functions of t.' _ a. which is equivalent to the.This property cab be readily verified from Examples 2.0.. Clearly c(t) = c( t).8.. But if one is odd and the other is even.b bt Because both functions are causal.(t) = e at (t) 1t 1L = e aT e a(tT) d r=e at it 0 dr o = t e at and (iii) Because both functions are causal t~O 12 .43 When a < 0. limits from 00 to 00 with a negative sign. Af = 2.and Ac= I { • 1 1 _(t+1)2dt+ 6 14 122 1 tdt+ 3 14 2 1 (t22t8)dt 6 = 4 9 + 1 + 9 = 3 = AfAg . 2. Hence. Ag = 1. then f(t) = f( t) and g( t) = g(t).7 and 2.r)] dr =~ 11 00 f(x)g(at .44 e at u (t) * e bt u (t) it  c aT e b(tT) d r _ e bt o _e __ ba bt e(ba)T it 0 e (ba)T d. their convolution is zero for t e 2.
1) with o 0.tu(t)*1L(t)= The range of integration is 0 :::.41 * u(t) = (it cos r dr) u(t) = sin t u(t) (a) yet) = h{t) * f(t) = etu(t) * u(t) = (1 ..t.t >0 so that u(r) = u(r .9 In this problem.3t .t)e2t . t * etu(t) .48 (a) yet) . = = 90° and>. 40 = 1. and * u(t) = (I t sin r dr) u(t) = (1 .cos(3t + 18.4°) t! () t () ut = 2. (3 = 3.3t) _ e_ e3t)u(t) e 2t ] = (e2t (c) = 2( [ e .t) = 1 and * u(t) = i o r dr = (2 2 t~O * u(t) = 12 "it u(t) * u(t) = (it sin r u(r)u(t .1 to find the desired convolution.2e3tju(t) 13 .e2tu(t) 1 _ e2t] 2 2 u () t * u(t) u(t) = (1.r) t . Therefore r tu(t) and tu(t) 2. = tan 1 [3] = 108.).2t) * etu(t) = 2e3tu(t) = [2(e.r)dr) u(t) . 3 () sin t tt t * e t tt () t = (cos 18.46 (i) sin tu(t) Because rand ltru(r)u(rt)dr >0 t and r .r :::. This yields 'I' A.n and .et)u(t) (b) yet) = h(t) * f(t) = etu(t) * etu(t) = tetu(t) (c) yet) = etu(t) * e2tu(t) = (e! _e2t)u(t) (d) yet) = sin3tu(t) * etu(t) Here we use pair 12 (Table 2.cos(3t + 18. we use Table 2. u(.4°)et 0.9486et .e2t)u(t) * u(t) = 2e3tu(t) * u(t) = 2(1 .) t sin t u(t) = u(t = 1. 1 vlO r.cos t)u{t) (ii) Similarly cos t u(t) 2.6 (b) (2e3t _ e2t)u(t) 1 + e .r are both nonnegative (when 0 S r :::.e2tu(t) t ~ * etu(t) u(t) (.e3t) [ 3 2 e 3t 3  .4°) v'1O = (2(.e 2t 3t) _te2t ] u(t) = [(2 .
1) is given by yet) property. 'I' I.1 + 9 + 56.31 + 56.56°)e t ~ cos(3t + 71.Yl(t . Therefore = _ 71.3) = e6e2Ct3)u(t . Ii. 6 [etu(t) * e2tu(t)] = e6(et _ e2t)u(t) {c) e2tu(t .555  0 ) ~S(3t .31 6.0 lind yet) =4 [COS(56.e2t)u(t) and yet) = F.F.1)..u(t .49 yet) = (1 .("tI) ..2(t3)] u(t . [et .31 [0..u(t .3) yet) = 6 e.2te2tu(t) '" u(t) 2t I_e.411.te 2t)] [( .et)u(t) . and>' = 1.2.. /3 = 3. A = o. Therefore = tan 1[3] = 2"" 5 . (2.8 = 0.1) because of timeinvariance J(t) =u(l) .316et . _ Fig.3n] Q 0 )] u(t) =~ (b) For yet) = 4e2t cos3tu(t) v 13 e 2t cos(3t u(t) * etu(t).2t)e.3). cos(3t + 71.410 (a) For yet) = 4e2t cos 3t u(t) * u(t).56°)] 0 )] u(t) =4 2. /3 = 3.[e (d) f(t) = u(t) .[1 .) 1_2t 2 2 ... 82. _.:l4)]: Ct3)u(t) . .."2e .. 4) = we use pair 12 with tan 1 [~3] = 2.56 0 )] u(t) yl0 !n [0.1) The response is shown in Fig. Now Y1(t). t~ . 8 = 0. Therefore the response y(t) to = Y1(t) .411 14 . = (1 .u(t) 2t '" u(t) = = e2tu(t) '" u(t) . the system response to u(t) is given by The system response to u( t . Now from the result in part (a) and the shift property of the convolution [Eq.1) ._.. .(t). 82.. (1 u(t) = te2tu(t) 2. .56° and yet) =4 = [ cos(71.56 u(t) = (et .e2t cos(3t .~e2t + 71.411 (a) yet) = etu(t) * e2tu(t) (b) e2Ct3)u(t) = e6c2tu.1) is Yl (t ..eCt1)]n(t . We use pair 12 with a = 2.
t S..~(l) '" e'u. sinrdr=lcost o S. t o Fig. S2.412 .*u(f)= t2 + 1 Figure S2. 82.( t) = e'll( = etu(t) 2.( t)l * ll(t) = t+ 1 00 00 1 21u(t .414 For t < 21f (see Fig. 82.I1t(i.413 shows t2~1 1t > t.)i * e'n(t) + :lr.r+dr r + < t and is 0 for r 1 .412 2.the area of one cycle is zero and J(t) * get) =0 t 2: 21T and t <0 j o Fig.413 ~l 1 Because n(t . 1 we need integrate only up to r = i.414) c(t)= !(t)*g(t)= 1 t .·tu(t) * et1t( t) =.II(t) o = :/)(1) _. 82.413 2.) n riA t e. 211' For t ~ 271'. tan 1 dr= T2 00 +1 rl t 00 =tan 1 11' t+2 and ret) (the result of the convolution) () Fig.414 15 ._2.r) = 1 for r I) + [et'll(t) + ('tu.
415 For 0 ::. Figure S2. 471"(Fig. S2.z1i sin r dr = 1 .2. t ::.cos t 0::.416 (a) c(t) = i(t) = c(t) = 1 = J4+t 5+1 r 1 5+t ABdr = AB 4+t ABdr = AB(2 = AB(t .271" < 0). 271" (see Fig.0. t ::.415a) f(t) For 2rr ::.t::. ~(t) ~'ig. t ::. 82.471" f(t) = O.t) dr AB(t for + 2) It I ~ 2 =0 (e) c(t) = c(t) = 1 2 2+t 1 dr 2+t dr = 3 t > 1 1+t = t+4 t .0498et =0 t::.t) A.415b) f(t)*g(t)= For t > 471"(also for t * get) = 1t _'.T dr = 1 .415c shows c(t).3) = 0. 3 16 .415 2. t ::.1 ~ t ~ 4 c(t) = 0 (d) S 4 ret) = = 1 1 3+t e.95et T t~0 0 ~ t ~ 3 3+t (.O c( t) (b) =0 t~2 t S 1 c(t) c(t) = t+t J3 AB c(t) 1 3+t 5 AB dr = = AB(2 .(. S2.e(3+t) = 1 .dr = ('t(l . 1 * get) 2" l'inrdr=cost1 211'::.Bdr + 1) or l::.
(..p. 17 .) 'I _.' I " ~H) tJ i1 II . I Fig. o t c( at) I t~. c!j D lh ') 2. r .:& ~ I . (~) o.... .. 82.l r' ~ I I I A r' I I I I I I I "I' I . . I I 15 A "'t"~ r' I I I I I CCi/f\ 't'~ I 0 I o L 0 i ~~ s"f. :2 iI ltt t..O o t o ...p~ (b) :.116 o 1.. s .s s A ~ ~ ..~O (_c) '"t~ 4I D 0 C4!..
dr = tan\t T +1 _ 1) + ~ 2.!.T) (by linearity) .0 rather than h(t) This problem is more conveniently solved by inverting fI(t) c(t) = t+l I t+l (Tt)dT=2 1 crt) = 1 o (T .T) dr = {too f(T) dr 00 (1) u(t . f(r)u(t = [f(t) .T)] .1') + yet . t. we have f(t) Therefore f(t) .T) ... yet) (by Timeinvariance) f(t . Hence [J(t) * u(tl] * h(t) * h(t)] * u(t) = yet) * u(t) 18 .t2) 2 for t = 2: 0 c (t) . t.t)dT crt) = 0 1 (1. where T ::.yet .f(t .d Te 1[2t 3 _ 1[ e 3T d r'3ee t e t3] t3] 1+t e 3T d T 1[ = '3 e t  e 2(t+3)] . lim .T)] ToT Therefore and the righthand side is yet).jO l+t f' T 2(tr) e d Te _ d _ Te 2t jO c(t) t) c( jt = 1t T ee 2(tT) 2t l+t e T 2(tT) eT d 2 = e 2t 1t 1t 2 l+t _ ea. Now the response to 100 f(T) dr is < T ::.f(t . 2 Indicating the inpnt and corresponding response graphically by an arrow.yet .[f(t) ToT The lefthand side is jet) . i: 1 (f) c(t) = I t·3 t e T d T=e (t3) e t crt) (g) =0 t ::.T) lim . jet) Next we recognize that .1 2: t 2: 2 crt) 2.417 =0 t::.!.T) This follows from the fact that intepratioll is performed over the range = 1.[y(t) .(e) crt) = t: 00 _2_1. yet) f(t) * u(t) = {trx. yet) .
't. (1).«: '.get . 82.get) = 1'0 1 lim T [J(t) .T)] = 1'U 1 lim T [ret) . 2.J~"" /(r) dr is r: y(r) dr .48) (using the sampling property [Eq. Therefore the response to input . . 82. Let the input to an ideal delay of T seconds be an everlasting exponential e.51 A2 + 7A + 12 = (.r(t . (2.n6r).But as shown in Eq. + 3)(A + 4) 19 . from Eq.49).67"0 '" f(n6r)6r = j= T1=cx) Z:: 41r~(x .r) is get .(tT) /e.421 For an ideal delay of T secs.7)2 = f(x) * _1_ 41r~X Fig. The electric field due to this 6E = f(n6r)6r 41r~(x . y(t) 2. Hence.24b)] H(s)= j oa o.T _<X?0(rT)e' a+». (2. the impulse response is hit) = Ii(t .r at point n6r charge at point x is has a charge f(n6r)6r (Fig.I(r)6r . we obtain * u(t) is foe y(r) dr.J j(n6r)g(t .T)] * g(t) = f(t) ' * 1'0 ~ lim T [get) .419 The system response to u(t) is get) and the response to step u(t .420).n6r)6r 2._~T We can also obtain the same result using Eq.nL::. H(s) = e.49).·t = e··1'. Hence.f(t .n6r)2 The total field due to the charge along the entire length is oc E(x) = lim . The input f(t) step components.n6r)2 00 fer) dr 41rf(X .>. according to Eq.(t) Successive applications of the above procedure yields 2./(n6r)6r and it can be expressed as [i(n6r)6r]1L(t 6y(t) The total response due to all components = [j(n6r)6r]g(t . The output is es(tT)..420 2. (1.T)] = (.r) is 00 yet) = lim ~TO '" neeco L.418 Using the hints.I(t) * . (2.r)..T). The step component at r has a height 6f which can be expressed as 6f The step component response 6y(t) is at n6r is made up of = 6/6r 6r = . Its has a height .420 An element of length 6.
\ + 3 .427 cos ().4K sin () yet) = 0.3K re 3t .\ + 25 = (.. The roots are 2 repeated twice.3 t cos(4t .The natural response is Yn(t) (a) For J(t) = u(t) = eOtu(t).52 .e4t t 20 ± j4 + 6.53 Characteristic polynomial is + 0) .p(t) = H(I) ~~:::~l i = 3t It Y () = K i e t + K 2e 4t + '6e .\ + 3 + j4) = fg characteristic roots are 3 Yn(t) = K e 3t cos( 4t For J(t) = u(t). we obtain Ki and yet) = i K2 =~ = = ie3t . It Y (t ) = . 20 . = K1e3t + K2e4t = y. and substituting O=KcosO+fg 2 = 3K and 2. y. } ==? K = 0. y.4K2e4t Setting t =0 and substituting initial conditions. y. and substituting initial conditions yields .4K2e4t and yet) 2.4K e 3t cos( 4t + 0) initial conditions yields } ==? K cos 0 KsinO = . and substituting initial conditions yields x.'6e Setting t = 0.3°) + fg 2 0 + 4). + 4 = ().427e3t ).~e4t +i t 20 (b) J(t) = etu(t). + 2)2.\2 = e3t .p(t) + 0) = H(O) so that yet) = Ke3tcos(4t + 0) + fs yet) = 3K e 3t cos( 4t Setting t = 0.j4)(.106.2 = .p(t) = H(O) = ~ yet) yet) i = = K1e3t 3KIe3t + K2e4t + i . =~ K2 =~ and Y (t) = 2"e 1 3t  se 2 4t + '6e t 1 t20 (c) J(t) = e2tll(t).p(t) = H(2) =0 yet) = KIe3t + K2e4t yet) = 3K1e3t Setting t = 0.4K 2e 4t .~~ 0=106.
54 .>. + 2).(t) = H(I)et y(t) y(t) 0 (Kl + K2t)e2t 2(Kl + K2t)e2t + K2e2t Setting t = 0. = x.>. y(t) y(t) Setting t = 0. Because t~O =~ ¥ (. and substituting initial conditions yields Ki K2= and y(t)=(~+¥t)e2t 2.55 the natural response Yn(t) = ~Yn(t) ~e2t + ~t + K2e4t t~0 is found in Prob.(. and substituting ~ {3 = ~ = = K.>.p(t) = j(t) + f(t) and Y<t>(t) = Bt.(a) For f(t) = e3tu(t).51: = K1e3t The input f(t) = e~t is a characteristic mode. 2.2 + 2. the characteristic Yn(t) roots are 0 and 2. Therefore Y<t>(t) = (3te 3t Also Y<t>(t) satisfies the system equation: (D2 + 7D + 12)Y<t>(t) = 21 (D + 2)f(t) .) = . Therefore y</>(t) = {3t In this case f(t) = u(t). y". + K2e2t + 2K2e2t +~ ~t initial conditions yields and y(t) 2. we obtain o + 2{3 = 0 + 1 Therefore y</>(t) = ~t. The input itself is a characteristic But !J</>(t) satisfied the system equation (D2 Substituting f(t) =u(t) + 2D)y.>. + K2e2t mode. y</>(t) = H( 3) y(t) y(t) = (Kl = = _2e3t + K2t)e2t _ 2e3t 2(Kl + K2t)e2t + K2e2t + 6e3t Setting t = 0.p(t) = (D + l)y(t) = Y<t>(t)+ 2y. and substituting initial conditions yields Kl = K2= and y(t) (b) f(t) = ¥ ¥ (¥ + ¥t)e2t = = = _ 2e3t t~O = etn(t).
\2 + 2.\ + 1)('\ + j3)2(. and the system is marginally stable.j3) The roots are ±j1. The system is marginally stable.te3t t~0 t~0 = (2 .t)e3t  2e41 2. (d) The integral of . The system is unstable. 1 ± j2 (repeated twice) are all in LHP.61 (a) A2 + 8A + 12 = (A + 2)(A + 6) Both roots are in LHP.2 + 9)2 = (. The system is marginally stable. Multiple roots on imaginary axis. (b) A(A2 + 3A + 2) = A(A + l)(A + 2) Roots are 0.set) is u(t). (d) (.6(3)e or + 7( :~. The system is unstable. (C)A2(A2 + 2) = A2(A + jV2)(A .\ + 1)p.5) Rooti< are 1.5i) and yet produces a bounded output for every bounded input. The system is asymptotically stable. The system is marginally stable.\ + 5)2 = (.8t + me (3 e31 =e + 12(3te ~ ~H 31 + 2e 3' 31 .\ + 1)('\ + j3)('\ . none in RHP. the system is an ideal integrator. the characteristic root is O.8=1 Therefore yet) = KIP3t + K2e4t 31  _ te3t :ti(t) Setting t = 0. (b) The root lies on the imaginary axis. (a) (X+ 1)(.\2 + 4)(. 2. ±j3.6'\ + 5) = (A + 1)('\ .or Y4>(t) Substituting f(t) + 7Y4>(t) + 12Y4>(t) = jet) + 2f(t) = 3e = e3t and Y<I>(t)= (3te3' 31 in this equation yields 31 (9(3t . (e) (A + 1)(>.64 Assume that a system exists that violates Eq. Multiple roots on imaginary axis.\ + 1)('\ + 1 . The system response to . Two (simple) roots on imaginary axis. Two roots in RHP.j2)2(. The system is asymptotically stable.\2 + 9) = (.\2 + 1)(. (a) Because u(t) = e01u(t). The response at t = h is Consider a bounded input f(t) such that at some instant t i f(t1 T)={1 if h( T) 1 if h(T) > 0 <0 In this case 22 .2e41 . 2.\ + 1)(.63 Jo 2.2 + 9) = (.1)('\ . One root on imaginary axis and none in RHP. 1 and 5.\ + 1 + j2)2 Roots 1. 1. None in RHP. oo (e) h(t)dt = 00 The system is BIBO unstable. Clearly.\ + j1)('\ .jl)('\ + j2)('\ . The system is unstable.j2)('\ + j3)(A .62 2. All roots are simple and on imaginary axis. ±j2 and ±j3.\ _ j3)2 Roots are 1 and ±j3 repeated twice. (2.set) is u(t). (b) (.\2 .jV2) Roots are 0 (repeated twice) and ±jV2. and substituting = 3Kle 4K2e4t + 3te3t _ e31 initial conditions yields and yet) = 2e31 .j3) Roots are 1. (d) (.
72 TIl h 15 kHz readily. = 11Th= l/T.1 ms The received pulse width = (0. Each pulse takes up 0.5 + 0.f. = Ii = 104 = 10 4 = 0. 2.6 ms.r) = Ih(r)! yetI) This violates the assumption.h(r)f(tl and . (2. = 104. = 104 pulses/sec.71 = 1 00 Ih(r)1 dr = 00 (a) The timeconstant (risetime) of the system is T" = 105. 23 . The channel cannot transmit million pulses/second. (b) The bandwidth of the channel is B = 1 = T" 10 Hz 5 The channel can transmit audio signal of bandwidth 2. The maximum pulse rate (to avoid interference between successive pulses) is 0.6 rns interval. (c) The pulse transmission rate is F.60) and (2.1) = 0.6 2.h = 105 pulses/sec.73 Using Eqs. The rate of pulse communication < .61)' (a) X 1 103 ~ 1667pulses/sec (b) The bandwidth F.
= fo1 dt = 1. t ::.5 (b) Thus.5 10 t sin 27rt dt = 1/7r (b) Thus. Because of this orthogonality.Chapter 3 3.5x(t).5 over (0::. and zero outside this = t' 10 f2(t) dt = ttl 10 t2 dt = 1/3 and = 10 [t  (1/7r) sin 27rt]2 dt = '3  27r2 1 + (1/7r) sin 27rt] is orthogonal to x(t) because 11 3.5f(t).14 (a) In this case Ex = = f:(1  = 1 1. and zero outside this 1. 1). Also E] and E.15 sin 27rt[t + (1/7r) sin 27rt] dt = 0 Note that E] = c2Ex + Ee. and the error e(t) = x(t) .5)(1) dt =0 Note that Ef = c2Ex+Ee. (a) In this case E. and C 1 =E f 11 0 x(t)f(t) dt =3 11 t 0 dt = 1.5t)2 dt = 1/4. (a) If x(t) and yet) are orthogonal. t ::. 3. 1).5f(t) interval. then we 24 . the lengthsquare of f [energy of f(t)] is equal to the sum of the square of the lengths of ex and e [sum of the energies of cx(t) and e(t)].0. and c = 1 Ex tIt 10 f(t)x(t) dt = 0. To explain these results in terms of vector concepts we observe from Fig.1 that the error vector e is orthogonal to the component ex.0.1 that the error vector e is orthogonal to the component ex.1. and the error e(t) = t . = f: f2(t) dt = f01 t2 dt = 1/3. and the error e(t) t interval. (the energy of the error) are E] The error [t = + (1/7r) E. x(t) ~ 1. the length of f [energy of f(t)] is equal to the sum of the square of the lengths of ex and e [sum of the energies of ex(t) and e(t)]. and C = Ex 111 0 f(t)x(t) dt = 111 1 0 tdt = 0. and zero outside this interval. t ::. f(t) ~ (I/7r)x(t). and E. f(t) ~ 0. Also Eo (the energy of the error) is Ee 3.5) is orthogonal to x(t) because 11 3. f01 sin2 27rt dt = 0.11 3.0.5 Thus.5t over (0 ::. To explain these results in terms of vector concepts we observe from Fig. Because of this orthogonality. (the energy of the error) are Also E] The error (t . 1).13 In this case Ef (t . 3. sin 27rt over (0 ::.T.12 Trivial.5.
sin 211"t) dt (0. then I: Ix(t) ± y(t)12 dt = I: Ix(t)12 dt + I: 2 lyCt)1 dt ± I: x(t)y·Ct) dt ± I: x·(t)y(t) dt = Ex + Ey ± (Exy + Eyx) 3.yet): dt x'(t)y(t) ly(t)1 dt 2 (3.25).5)(0.707sin 211"tdt] (0. and f6(3.707sin 211"tdt 11 0. (e) If z(t) = xCt) ± yet).f6). (f1. fs) are orthogonal.5. f6 = (0 x 3) + (2 + (1 + (2 x 0) =0 f1· f4 = (2 x 1) x 2) = 0 x 1) = 0 f2' fs = (1 x 2) 25 . (3.25) for each of the 4 cases..2).5 Signals x(t) and h(t) provide the maximum protection against noise.. the correlation coefficients for four cases are found as (1) . (3.5 In the same way we find Ell = Eh = Ef3 = Ef4 = 0. f4(1. Fig..5)(0. Ex = 11 sin2 211"tdt = 0. This energy is given by 1c112Ex + IC212Ey.5) a (0.. Let us first compute the energies of all the signals. We now find the energy of x(t) x(t)y'(t) dt  ly(t)12 dt  I: I: .2). the two integrals of the cross products xCt)y·(t) and x'Ct)y(t) are zero [see Eq.5) ° 0.31 f3 .j 1 [1°·5 0.21 We shall compute Cn using Eq.22)] the energy of x(t) Ix(t) .1).f4) and (f2.yet) if x(t) and yet) are orthogonal.y(t)12 dt = I: = I: I: + yet) dt is Ex Ix(t)12 2 + + Ix(t)1 dt I: I: + Ey.j = 1. f2(1.c2y(t) if x(t) and yet) are orthogonal.5) a = 1 (3) 1 11 0. (3.20)].O). fs(2. Thus the energy of :z:(t) + yet) is equal to that of x(t) .showed [see Eq. From the figure. Using Eq.414/71" 3. f3(0. (3.j 1 11 (sin 211"t) ( . We can verify this also analytically. 83.I). we can show that the energy of C1X(t) + c2y(t) is equal to that of CIX(t) .5)(0.5)(0. (b) Using similar argument.5) a =0 (2).2).j 1 11 sin 211"t sin 4rrt dt (0. .22) The last result follows from the fact that because of orthogonality.31 f1(2.707sin 211"tdt = 0 (4). we see that pairs (f3.
2.43 (a) To f: n=l ~sinnt Fourier series to represent = t for all t and the corresponding Because of even symmetry.41 shows 3. h(t)/6(t) /I(t)/4(t) h(t)/s(t) dt dt dt = = = i: t 2 1 I: I: [X2(t)][3x1(t)] dt =0 + 2X2(t)] dt = 0 [2X1(t) .42 Here To 4 rr2 Lcosnrrt (_I)n oo n2 n=l J (t) = 2rr. SS.X2(t)][Xl(t) [X1(t) f~ooxidt + 2X2(t)][2x1(t) = f~oox~(t)dt + X2(t)] dt = 0 In deriving 3.+ Fig. and 00 corresponding Fourier series representing J (t) over (1.42 We can show that the corresponding I: I: I: signal pairs are also orthogonal. t. so that Wo we used the fact that = 1 and f_::' X1(t)X2(t) dt = 0 = = 2rr/2 = rr. Therefore an = 2rr 217r 7rtcosntdt = 0. Wo = ~: = ~. so that = t2 for all t and the Wo = 2rr/2rr = 1. 1). 26 . all sine terms are zero.41 Here To these results. SS.. = 4.42 shows J(t) 3. b« = 2rr 217r 7rt sin nt dt = 2(_l)n+1 n J(t) = 2(_1)n+l Figure 83.A~iZ :L. let) where = co + Lancosnt n=l + bnsinnt rrStSrr 117r ao = 2rr 7r t dt = 0. J(t} over (_err. rr).41 Fig. and 00 let) where = ao + L n=l a'ncos nrrt + bn sin mrt ao = Therefore 2 111 1 t 2 dt = 3' 1 211 an = 2 cosnrrtdt = 22' 4(I)n rr n b« = ~ 11 1 t sin 2 nrrt dt =0 1 J(t)=+3 Figure 83.
. t) dt _ 12 4 . bn = 4111"/44 t 7r 0 7r .43c shows the plot of en and On.5 _ ~ (sint + ~ sin2t + ~. sm St 97r 27r 2 97r + . en to take negative values..2 sm 2t + 1. 27r. Wo = 1. Note that en = an for n = 0. of even symmetry. 3.5 + .. the remaining function has odd symmetry.t) 5 111"= ~ sin _11" 7rn (n7r) 5 (~t) dt =0 (integrand is an odd function of t) Figure S3.!. the Fourier series would contain dc and sine terms only.4. sm 4 t _ 7r 7r . 2 7r (St = .5 (the de component) is subtracted from J(t). 1. (d) To = 7r.43b = en.5 (by inspection) an=and 11211" t cosntdt=O. all thesine terms are zero... 7r 0 27r 11211" sinntdt t b« = tt 0 27r = _ 1 7rn J(t) = 0.) + ~) + ~ cos = 0 .i_2 cos 7r (2t _ ~) 2 + . Because en to take negative values. n7r T!7r 2 the Fourier series for J(t) is Here b« = 0.43a shows the plot of en.J(t) = ao + L:: an 00 COS C~7rt) cos C2 7r t) dt] = Sln n=l ao = 0 (by inspection) 1 an = ~ [1 Therefore. ao = 0 (by inspection)._ cos 7rn 2 2 7rn) I( t ) = 4. Figure S3.2 sm 6 t .. 7rT! ..!. J(t) = ao + L an cos nt + bn sin nt n=1 with ao = 0. 27 . cos (n. sm 2nt dt = 2 7rn (2.sin3t + ~ sin4t + . Hence... and we allow shows the plot of (e) To I: 00 (!!:. Figure S3. [cos (t (2t + ~) + ~ cos (3t + ~) + . = 1~7r Here bn = 0. . Wo = ~~= i. an = 0 (n > 0) because of odd symmetry. J The reason for vanishing of the cosines terms is that when 0... J(t) en = a·o + f:an n=1 cos (~t) + bnsin (~t) _!_ (~) 57r n sin 1 = 5" (by inspection) an = _2_ 111" cos 107r _11" sin i..t) dt = 5 (!!:. cos (4t _ ~) + _!_2 cos (6t + ~) + ..sm .43d shows the plot of en and On.. 2 Figure S3. and we allow (b) To = 107r.1. 2. Wo = 2 and I(t) = ~t. cos 7r + ~) + .
Wo = 27r/3.z (b") _ ' 1JJlj.+ . T')~. 5 /23'fS6 o.D.ut.Tr :3 300 . ao=!11tdt=! 306 a =n 211 2n7r tcostdt 30 3 2117r 3 3 27rn = [cos27r2n2 3 27rn. ~t •..~ Fig.. .cos] 27r2n2 3 3 3 t and and On = tan 1 ( 21fn 3 cos "3" 21fn cos 3 _ sin 3 1!ll 1!ll ) 1 + "3" sm "3 2"n' 2"n 28 .( oJ~ en f o l.. \ o . 1. 27rn + sm33 1] b Therefore Co = n 211 =.0 3 tsintdt= 3 27rn 27rn 27rn [sin.5 b . Is"~ I.43 (e) To = 3. 83..
Figure S3.5 + 6( tt 2 I 57r I 77r ) 7r2 cos "it .504 ( 2 I+I6n2 ) Therefore 29 .. 2 ). then J( t) = Co + L C« cos( nwot + f)n) = Co + LC n cos(nwot  f)n) Thus. 1+16n2 f) n = tan 1 tan14n) (b an n) = tan 14 n J(t)=0. Even symmetry.cos 3 cos J(t) = 0.47).504 e / cos 2nt dt = 0.. 3. (3.0 + L an cos 4nt + bn sin 4nt 00 n=l ao = 7r 21"/2 0 et dt = 0.(f) To = 6..44 (a) Here To = 7r.504~ c: vr n=l + I6n2 2 cos (2nt+ (b) This Fourier series is identical to that in Eq.. 0.0 + L 00 an cos 2nt + bn sin 2nt Thus n=l To compute the coefficients.504 ( 8n ) 1+ I6n2 Therefore Co = co = 0.9" cos 7rt + 25 cos"3t + 49 cos"3t + .5 (by inspection). = Va? + b? = 0. function has halfwave symmetry.:2 fO 1: 1r 1r e / dt t2 = 0. The reason is that if the dc (0.504 4 an=:.: and 1"/2 0 etcos4ntdt=0.. an= 6 41 0 3 f(t)cosdt n7r 3 6 2n7r] = 7r2n2 [n7r 3 . time inversion of a signal merely changes the sign of the phase f)n.504 ( I + ~6n2 ) t t 2 e 1 sin 2ntdt 2 • = 0. and Wo = ~: = 2.:I fO an = ~ b« =:.56a) with t replaced by =t: (c) If J(t) = Co+ L:Cncos(nwot+ f)n). wo = 7r/3. 3.5) is subtracted from f(t). Comparison of the above results in part (a) with those in Example 3. and wo = ~1r o = 4. 3.504.3 confirms this conclusion.0 = 0.43f shows the plot of Cn. c. bn = O.. Everything else remains unchanged.504(. (See Prob. Therefore J(t)= where 0. ao =:.504+0.. we shall use the interval 7r to 0 for integration. the resulting Observe that even harmonics vanish.45 (a) Here To = 7r/2. Therefore f(t) = 0.
= (b) (i) To y.66b) n=l A( 2t + 1) cos mrtdt 1 + "9 cos = "22 (cos mrt . 1l" + 2 sm . 2 . If we time compress (or time expand) a periodic signal by a factor a.4 (n". ] replaced by t + 0. by inspection ao an = 2 Therefore 411 0 =0 and from Eq.). its fundamental frequency increases by the same factor a (or decreases by the same factor a).2 3"t + 1 25 cos 5"t (b) This Fourier series is identical to that in Eq.. time scaling by a factor a merely scales the fundamental frequency by the same factor a.. This result applies equally well 3.5.2 n2.3 confirms this conclusion...' + b.' = 0. Also f(t) f(t) is an even function of t. (3.Co = ao = 0.46 (a) Here To = 2. f(t + T) = Co + L c. 3.504. This gives an= To 2 [iTO 12 f(t)cosnwotdt+ [iTO 12 f(t)cosnwotdt+ ] 2 = To lTO/2 lTO/2 0 0 f(X+ 11 20)cosnwo(x+ ] 11] 2 0 ) dx f(x)[cosnwox]dx 4 = To [iTO 12 f(t)cosnwotdt 0 In a similar way we can show that b. Comparison of the results in part (a) with those in Example 3.56a) with t replaced by 2t.63) with t (c) If f(t) = Co + n cos(nwot + On). Wo = ~. and Wo = ~: = 7r. 0 21To/2 0 iTO f(t)cosnwotdt To/2 Let x = t . Everything else remains unchanged.47 (a) For half wave symmetry f(t) and and an=y. (3. then LC 1 + 49 cos 7"t + . 1+16n2 On = tan14n (b) This Fourier series is identical to that in Eq. (3.2 =. Hence = . cos(n(awo)t + On) Thus. Half wave symmetry. (c) If f(t) = Co + Cn cos(nwot + On). cos[nwo(t + T) + On] = Co + L c. cos[nwot + (On + nwoT)] Thus.1) (n odd) (n odd) .1)1~ "n 4 = {O n~~2 n even n odd f(t) = 8A [cos "t . =f 21 o 0 0 (t ± ~O) f(t)cosnwotdt+ 0 TO f(t)cosnwotdt="T.. n" ) sm1 2 2 30 ( cos n" 2 n".4 n2.2 .. ao = 0 (by inspection). o 41TO/2 0 f(t) sin nwot dt = 8. then L f(at) = Co + L c.To/2 in the second integral. time shifting by T merely increases the phase of the nth harmonic by n""oT. Therefore = ao + L an cos mrt 00 where.504 (. Cn = Ja.
and still satisfy these conditions.1) 2 (. we must construct a pulse such that it is an even function of t./10  1) = n2 1.01 + 0. smnt d t (nodd) 0 =~[ 71" n ~t/lO (o. sm 2 n 71"2 (n7l") 2 (n odd) (ii) To = 271".48a. 2 001(0..1) ] 2 ("/10) _ 0.48b.. We selected the pulse width W = 2 seconds. and repeats every 71"econds as shown in Fig.lsinntncosnt)]" + 0. we find ao = ao + Lancos n=l (n271") t = 1/4.01) e . 2 t smtdt . Yet all of them converge to t over 0 to 1.15" .3.01) e (. mr 2 4 4 = 71"2 n2 (. Each value of W results in different series. or the present case F f(t) = L 00 bnsin2nt n=l 31 .01 and bn = 71" 0 21" (n2 2n e t/lO. Clearly. .Slnn7l" . The present choice yields 00 f(t) By inspection.5. = Wo 1.13" 3.5. ao =0 (by inspection).48 (a) Here. 83.l lO (O. we must construct a pulse with odd symmetry.Therefore an Similarly bn and = { _ ~ 4 4 =2 11 0 ~ (.!U!: + 1) 2 n n = = 1. we need only cosine terms and Wo = ~.cosn7l" 2 2 n7l") 2 = 4. and satisfy the other requirements. f(t) Half wave symmetry. Hence. s the pulse width can be anywhere from 1 to 71". we need only sine terms and wo = 2.11.1) n+. has a value t over the interval 0 ~ t ~ 1.lcosnt+nsinnt) 1 I 0 (n odd) (0.··· an . 83. and repeats every 4 seconds as shown in Fig.01 3. Because of symmetry an = ~ 11 bn =0 and tcos n 71" tdt 2 = n2~2 [cos (n271") + n 71" in (n271") s 2 1] (b) Here. Hence = L 00 ancosnt+ bnsin nt n=1. Hence. there are infinite number of Fourier series that will satisfy the given requirements. 21" =71" 0 e t/lO cosntdt t e= 2 [ 2 /00 7I"n+.1 .n2 + 0.l 2 [ e"/lO =2 00 7I"n+..!U!: . But it can be anywhere from 2 to 4.0465 107l"(n2 + 0. which has a value t over the interval 0 ~ t ~ 1.461n + 0.7. As in the case (a).9.
=4 0 0 tcosTtdt nrr = n211"2 cos n1l" tsmTtdt = n1l" n211"2 sm (n1l") . (n1r) T n1l". has a value t over the interval 0:::.48d. =4 211 211 . The pulse has an even and halfwave symmetry. we need both sine and cosine terms and wo = ~. an = 0 and b« = 1r 411 0 tsin2ntdt = 2 1rn 1 (sin2n .t :::.t:::. we must construct a pulse it is an even function of t. Because of halfwave symmetry = ~(cos 1I"n (see Prob. . S3.TCOS T 2[ 2 [. S3. This yields 32 . Hence.Because of odd symmetry. f(t) By inspection. n odd an = _!_ 211" [1"'/2 t 0 cos nt dt  Irr {'" (t . t :::. we need only sine terms with wo = 11"nd odd harmonics only.48c. ..47). As usual. This will cause even t to vanish.48 (d) Here. 3. S3. we must construct a pulse such that it has no symmetry of any kind..11") cosnt /2 n1l".2ncos2n} (c) Here.1. ao = O. S3. The pulse has an odd and halfwave symmetry. Hence.. This will cause even harmonics to vanish. " Fig. ao = 1/8 and = ao + Eancos n=l (n21r) t + bnsin (~rr) t an b. such that halfwave half cycle harmonics we need only cosine terms with Wo = 1 and odd harmonics only. repeats every 4 seconds and has halfwave 1 symmetry as shown in Fig. Observe that the first half cycle (from 0 to 2) and the second half cycle (from 2 to 4) are negatives of each other as required in halfwave symmetry. the pulse width can be have any value in the range 1 to 4. Because of even symmetry bn = O. Hence. + T8m (n1r) T (n1l")] T 1 ] . has a value t over the interval 0 :::. has a value t over the interval 0 :::. and repeats every 4 seconds as shown in Fig. This yields f(t) = ao + L ancosnt 00 n=l n odd By inspection.48e. we must construct a pulse such a that it is an odd function of t. Observe that the first half cycle (from 0 to 11") nd the second a (from 11"o 211")are negatives of each other as required in halfwave symmetry. 1. repeats every 211"econds and has s symmetry as shown in Fig.1) + ~ sin n rr n 2 (e) Here. .
. ao = O.ncosn) n odd 3. (t + 2) sm . 1407r 3" 2 tt = ao + L an cos 27rnt + bn sin 27rnt oo n=l (~. = 2411 tsinntdt 7r 0 = ~(sinn zrn . 3.48f. = t sin t dt 40 2 + 12 1 = O.1) ». nrr ""22 sin 2 n rr 71 odd (f) Here. Because of odd symmetry an 411 . an = 411 27r 0 t cos nt dt = 2 2 (cos n 7rn + n sin n . Because of halfwave symmetry nrr t dt 2 (see Prob. = 8. we need both sine and cosine terms with wo = 1 and odd harmonics only.49 a periodic? yes 1 27r b yes 1 27r c no d yes 7r 2 e no f g h yes 1 27r yes Wo period 3. we must construct a pulse such that it has halfwave symmetry. S3.410 J(t) yes yes 1 3 4 70 8".00 J() t = '" ~ n=l n odd b nsmTi .) 1 ao=l 1 1o J(t)dt= 11 0 tdt= 2 an = 211 t cos 27rntdt = 0 n 21 (ninteger) bn Hence =2 1 o t sin 27rnt dt 1 = 1 7rn Figure 83. By inspection. This yields J(t) = L 00 ancosnt+bnsinnt nodd n=l Because of halfwave symmetry (see Prob.o= 2.47).47).410 33 . Observe that the first half cycle from 0 to 7r) and the second half cycle (from 7r to 27r) are negatives of each other as required in halfwave symmetry. has a value t over the interval o :::: t ::::1. ao = O. ntt b. and repeats every 27r seconds as shown in Fig. Hence. nrr By inspection. but neither odd nor even symmetry. 3.
0052 1 "3  1 Co  2 C1  2 C3  2 2 = 768 = 0. = . . then From Eq.40) Ee(l) Ee(2) Ee(3) Ee(4) = = 2 Co = 1 12 = 0.2.!. and Eo = 1) 1 1 1 1 Ee(l) Ec(2) Ee(3) Ee(4) .L:= .03267 "3 . _ . + C7X7(t) SinceE = 1l l f(t)xo(t) 1 1Xn (t)dt=1 1 Co C1 C2 1 1 == = 0 1 dt = "2 = o f(t)X1(t)dt C5 1 1 ==0 4 1 C4 = C6 C3 = C7 = 1 1 o o f(t)X3(t) f(t)X7(t) 1 dt =  8 1 16 dt =  Hence f(t) Also ~ xo(t) 1 2 ... sin 2rrnt 2 rr 11 If Ee(N) is the energy of the error signal in the approximation using first N terms.014378 = coxo(t) + CIX1(t) + .!. (Sin 2 rr n=l 21Tt + .."4 4 1 1 2rr2 .) 2 3 1 1 1.!.001302 34 . + .0204 1 = 3" = Co  2 C1  2 C3 2 = 1 192 C7 = 0.X1(t) 1 4 .+ .411 = 1 o 1 1 3 t dt .= .f(t) = .X7(t) 1 16 If Ec(N) is the energy of the error signal in the approximation 1 3" 3" 1 1 1 f2(t) 1 dt = 1 3 and En = 1 using first N terms. then From Eq.!. 3.8rr2 = 0. (3.!.!..X3(t) 1 8 ... (3.02 271"2 8rr2 1 1 = .0833 2 C1 2 Co  = 48 = 0..= 4 3 4 1 1 1 2rr2 1 2 12 = "3 ."4 = = 0.40) (Note that En = 1/2 for n = 1. sin 61Tt + . __ f(t) 187r2 1_ = 0.. sin 41Tt + ..
tdt3   411'2n2 3 [j4!l " e (j2rrn  3 + 1).1I"n . + CjPJ(t) = C4 Co Cl =?  311 = 2 111 J(t) 1 dt = 0 = C6 = . 8m 1I"n (n1l') 5 (e) J(t) = Do + L: oc n=oo Dnejnt.. 3.1 l1r1r 1011' e j1J. nat 1I"n 2 [n] ~ 1 (b) To = 1011". Also and using Eq.e jnt 0 211" dt = _J_.wo = 23"..1] 35 . 11' Ij1r/4 1r/4  4 . (3.The Walsh Fourier series gives small error than the trigonometric number of terms in the approximation. t c j2ntd t = 11" 1I'n J( . Also Do Dn 1 211" = 1 1 0 (by inspection). e j(mr/2)t dt   j 1 3 1 c j(m:/2)t dt _ . 211'n . = "?t  0 tJ(t) dt =  3 2 C3 = 1 711 2 tJ(t) [.. by inspection Do = 0.!..5 (b) This is a scaled version (timeexpansion by factor 211") the signal of J (t) in pair a.2' Sill n1l') J.1.~ n>O n<O 1r 2" (d) To = J(t) 11". so that 1 IDnl = 2' 1I"n and LDn = {.WO = 2rr/101I' = 1/5 J(t) = L: oo Dnej'F.. where. d t 5 t = j ( .wo = 11"/2. where Dn 3 111 te 0 jh!J.412 Fourier series (in prob..51 (a): To = 4..40) Ee(l) = J J (t) dt  2 12 "3C1 = 2 2" = 3 0.5 t 2 3 1 3] dt = 8 7 Hence J(t) = t 3 + 7(5:3 3) 2 8 t 2 .410) for the same J(t) = copo(t) + CIPl(t) Also C2 + ..cos 2 (e) To = 3. 3. where Dn n=oo = . 3.t..5 Dn 1 =211" 121r .sin Ton 2 2 1I"n) . o W = oc 2 and Dn j2nt = 0 where Dn =  = L: n=oo Dne .t 2 + .2 sin . 211"11 5 = ...
. \ _+ .3 sin 3 1 and LD" = tan 1 (2"" 3 cos:r."a. = 1 6 [1 1 2 (t '""t + 2)eLT. 2 7rn 2cos 3 . 1 eLT dt ~] + 12 (t + 2)e. Fig. . 83.1 (f) To wo = 7r/3 Do = 0.LJ)n 0·2.!lI' W_' 3 qo • (f') J f f · IOi: k T .. 2"" ) .dt + 1 1 "".· 2". r :1 311 3 ~.." cos 3 + 3 sm:r.. '1>" I qrl (e) tV. 2 [ 2+ .51 Therefore IDnl = 4)n = 6. I.5 f(t) = 0.sm 3 2"" ...2"" 2". T . J>(\ I f .1 dt = 3 (n7r 7r2n2 cos ""3  cos 27rn) T 36 .5 +~ ~ 00 o.« ~3 D'.9 4tt 2n 2?  _7rn 47rn.
. 3 .} . From these spectra. we sketch the exponential Fourier spectra shown in Fig.52 3.2TT"I~' Fig. \ 27rT~ 1i/z. S3.3.53b. From these exponential spectra. We can express f(t) = 3 + 2 cos (2t  as f(t) i) + cos (3t (3t  = 3 + 2 cos (2t .]).) + e j(2t:!!.52 In compact trigonometric form. S3. By inspection of these spectra.)6 + 2CJ(3tt) + 2e j(3tlL) 3 +"4C j(5t~) 6 + "4C 1 j(5th) 3 f' ei"l 1 2 3 4 ~ W~ TTl".52b. we can now write the exponential Fourier series as f() t 1 1 1 = 3 + e j(2t. Therefore the bandwidth rad/s or }" Hz.lI.53a..53a.52a.~) is 3 (c) The lowest frequency in the spectrum is 0 and the highest frequency is 3. S3..) From this expression we sketch the trigonometric Fourier spectra as shown in Fig.54 (a) n=oc n=oo n=CX) n=oc 37 . S3. S3. 83.~) + cos %) + ~ cos (5t + i7r) %) + ~ cos ( 5t _ 2. we sketch the trigonometric spectra as shown in Fig. Ll)n ~4~ '3 T :..[ f " ~~ z • ~ w 1V2 . all terms are of cosine form and amplitudes are positive. (b) By inspection of the exponential spectra in Fig.53 (a) The exponential Fourier series can be expressed with coefficients in Polar form as Ia • From this expression the exponential Spectra are sketched as shown in Fig. 3. we can write the compact trigonometric Fourier series as J(t) = 3 + 4 cos (t  %) + 4V2 cos (3t .
Tt/2 c. n In cosmrt The power of J(t) is Pf =  2 1/ 1 1 t dt =  4 5 1 1 8~ 1 n4 n=l Moreover.+ 2" ~ 3 7rL.6a J(t) = .3 5 ~ 23 (b) J(t) = L: 00 n=OO D"ejnwot jet) = J(at) = L: 00 Dnejnwo(at) n=OO 3. For N = 0. from Parseval's theorem [Eq. Therefore N1 Px For N 1 = .. 3 ~ 11)" \ ~ :1 !2. 1 4 00 n=l (.198..82)J Pf = 2 ~C~ Co + L...198. n n=l 38 . .l>. Thus. Fig. N 3.". = "9 + 90 = 5" 1 8 1 (b) If the Nterm Fourier series is denoted by x(t)...!.55 (a) From Exercise E3.'\ rrtz 'TT14 ~ 2.sinn7rt L. . 7f72. 3 W~ 3 . 1~(4(_I)n)2 ~ n=l = "9 + 7r4 L.19323.+ 84 9 7r Ln=l 1 n4 = 0. Px = 0. l' E. P« 3.. . which is greater "than 0. 2"" 1 = "3 (1)2 + "2 L. = 0.6b J(t) = 00 2A(_lr+1 7r ~ .56 = (a) From Exercise E3.198 = 3. 83.. for N = 2. 9t'\ Tf'" . then The power Px is required to be 99%Pf = 0....~ 3 2.. (3. ..53 .19837. Px = 1.1111..Tr('2. It' L.
The power of f(t)
is Pf
=
2
111
1
(At)2 dt
A2 =3
Moreover, from Parseval's theorem [Eq. (3.82)]
(b) If the N term Fourier series is denoted by x( t), then
N
x(t)
= 2A(_1)n+1
7r
'"
L.J n
n=l
.!.sinmrt
The power P" is required to be 0.90;2
= 0.3A2.
1
Therefore
N
e. = 2 L
1
7r2
4A2 n2
= 0.3A
2
For N = 1, Pe = 0.2026A2; for N = 2, P« = 0.2533A2, 0.30222A2, which is greater than 0.3A2. Thus, N = 6. 3.57
for N = 5, P" = 0.29658A2,
for N = 6, Px =
The power of a rectified sine wave is the same as that of a ·sine wave, that is, 1/2. Thus P] = 0.5. Let the 2N + 1 term truncated Fourier series be denoted by jet). The power Pi is required to be 0.9975Pf = 0.49875. Using the Fourier series coefficients in Exercise E3.1D, we have
N N
Pi = L.J
n=N
'"
IDnl
2
4", = 7r2L.J
n=N
1 (1 _ 4n2)2
= 0.49875
Direct calculations using the above equation gives Pi = 4/7r2 = 0.4053 for N = 0 (only de), Pi = 0.49535 for N = 1 (3 terms), and Pi = 0.49895 for N = 2 (5 terms). Thus, a 5term Fourier series yields a signal whose power is 99.79% of the power of the rectified sine wave. The power of the error in the approximation of f(t) by jet) is only 0.21% of the signal power P] . 3.61 Period To = 7r, and wo
=
2, and jw
= (w2+3)+j2w'
. H(Jw)
and from Eq. (3.74)
D _ _Q.504 n  1 + j4n
Therefore,
yet)
=
L
00
DnH(jnwo)ejnwot
=
L
00
n=(X')
n.eeeoo
jl.08n ~~~~~e j2nt (1 + j4n)(w2 + 3 + j2w)
39
Chapter 4
4.11
F(w)
=
I:
f(t)ejwtdt
=
I:
00
f(t)coswtdt

j
I:
f(t)sinwtdt
If f(t) is an even function of t, f(t)sinwt is an odd function of t, and the second integral vanishes. Moreover, f(t) coswt is an even function of t, and the first integral is twice the integral over the interval 0 to 00. Thus when f(t) is even
F(w)
Similar argument shows that when f(t)
=
21
00
f(t)coswtdt
(1)
is odd
F(w) = 2j
If f(t)
1
00
f(t)sinwtdt
(2)
is also real (in addition to being even), the integral (1) is real. Moreover from (1)
F(w)
=
21
f(t)coswtdt
=
F(w)
Hence F(w) is real and even function of w. Similar arguments can be used to prove the rest of the properties. 4.12
f(t)
= 1 2w =
1 2w
1 [I:
00
00
F(w)eJW,
t
dw
= 1 2w
1
00
00
IF(w)leJ
IF(w)1 cos[wt
+ LF(w)] dw + j
1:
'LF(
We
)JW, t
dw
IF(w)1 sin[wt
+ LF(w)] dW]
Since IF(w)1 is an even function and LF(w) is an odd function of w, the integrand in the second integral is an odd function of w, and therefore vanishes. Moreover the integrand in the first integral is an even function of w, and therefore
f(t)
4.13 Because f(t)
=
w
11""
0
IF(w)1 cos[wt
+ LF(w)] dw
=
fo(t)
+ felt)
and ejwt
= cos
wt
+ j sin wt
Because fe(t) coswt and fo(t) sinwt are even functions and fo(t) coswt these integrals [properties in Eqs. (B.43), p. 38] reduce to
and fe(t) sinwt are odd functions of t,
F(w)
=
21=
fe(t)COS(,vldt
 2j
1
00
fo(t) sinwt dt
(1)
Also, from the results of Prob. 4.11, we have
FUe(t)}
=
21
00
fe(t)coswtdt
and
F{fo(t)}
= 2j
1
00
fo(t)sinwtdt
(2)
From Eqs. (1) and (2), the desired result follows.
40
4.14 (a) F(w) (b) F(w)= i 4.15 (a) F(w) (b) F(w) T
0
=
T i
0
eatejwt
dt
=
iT
0
e(jw+a)t
dt =
1  e(jw+a)T jw
+a
eatejwtdt=
iT
0
e(jwa)dt=
1  e(jwa)T
jw  a
=
1 io
4ejwt
dt
+
12
1
2ejwt
dt
=
4
2
e
jw
.
2 j2w e
)W
=
/
0
T
t _ 'wt e J dt TOT
=
17" t _ 'wt
e
J
dt
=
2
2
TW
[COSWT + WTSmWT
.
 1]
This result could also be derived by observing that J(t) 4.11 F(w) 4.16 (a) J(t)
=
is an even function.
Therefore from the result in Prob.
217" =T
0
tcoswtdt
=
2
TW
2 [COSWT + wTsinwT
 1]
1
27r
/WO
wo
jwt 2 'wt 1e .22 . W eJ dw =  . [w t  2)wt
27r () t)3
+ 2 IWO
wo
(W~t2  2) sin wot
+ 2wot
cos wot
7rt3
.. .2.

I
2

~(""") 2
~
:1·
Fig. S4.16b
(
.2
+
,
(b) The derivation can be simplified by observing that F(w) F1(W} and F2(w} as shown in Fig. S4.16. Therefore J(t}
can be expressed as a sum of two gate functions
= _!_
27r
/2
[F1(W}
+ F2(w}]ejwt
dw
= _!_
2
27r
{/2
.
t
ejwt dw
+
2
/1
ejwt dW}
=
sin 2t
+ sin
t
1
xt
4.17 (a) 1 /Tr/2 ejwt.
J(t} = 
27r Tr/2
cosweJw
dw
27r(1 _ t2} bt cos W
1 (7rt) = 7r(1  t2} cos 2' (b) J(t)
+ sin w}
.
Tr/2 Tr/2
=
1 /Tr/2 . 27r F(w)eJwtdw ",/2
=
1 27r [/Tr/2 F(w)coswtdw+j ",/2
/"'/2 7</2
F(w)sinwtdw
]
Because F(w) is even function, the second integral on the righthand first term is an even function. Therefore
side vanishes. Alsothe integrand of the
41
It!)
s 1" C!.
(
~)
re e t C;'T)
(f)
SiT
Fig. 84.21
1 f() t =11'
l~D
0
W  costw wo
d
1 w =1I'Wo
[COS tw
+ tw
t2
sin tW]
Wo 0
= ~[coswot
1I'Wot~
+ wotsinwot
 1] in part (a) is a gate function as t:" (
1~/3 ).
4.21 Figure 84.21 shows the plots of various functions.
origin and of width. 2 ..
~:r~ function
The function
centered
at the
in part (b )c~tlXPfessed
This is a triangle pulse centered
at the origin and of width 100/3. The function in part (e) is a gate function rect{~) delayed by 10. In other word!' it is a gate pulse centered at t = 10 and of width 8. The function in part (d) is a sine pulse centered at the origin and the first zero occurring at 1r5W= 11',that is at w = 5. The function in part (e) is a sine pulse sinc{~) delayed by 1011'.For the sine pulse sinc(~), the first zero occurs at ~ = 11',that is at w = 511'.Therefore the function is a sine pulse centered at w = 1011'and its zeros spaced at intervals of 511'as shown in the fig. 84.21e. The function in part (f) is a product of a gate pulse (centered at the origin) of width 1011'and a sine pulse (also centered at the origin) with zeros spaced at intervals of 511'.This results in the sine pulse truncated beyond the interval ±511' (It I ~ 511')as shown in Fig. f.
4.22
F{ w ) 
1
jw
1 e jwt dt _ e jwt .5 jw
[ j;")/2
5.5
15.5 _
4.5
 
_ e ~~
e
e
Jw/2]
_

e 
~~[]
jw 1 e j211'w
_
1e   [j4.5w jw 2' . w J Sill 2
 e j5.5W]
. =smc
(W) "2
e j5w
4.23
f(t) 1 211'
1
fWO
10+71"
1071"
jwt . jwt d w_ e e 211'(jw)
.
1
10
+71"
[j(lo+1rlt
e
j(107I"lt]
101r
=
4.24 (a)
f{t)
e '2 [2" J J 1I'W
j10t
Slll1l't ]
. = SIllC( 1I't) eJ lOt
=
1 211'
~
1
e jwto e j;,.)t dw = 1 211' jW(t_tollWO
Wo
fWO
~
e jw(ttol
d.w
:::;:e
(211')j(t
 to)
=
sinwo{tto) 1I'(t  to)
=
SIllC
wo. 11'
[' ») WO\t  to
(b) f(t)
= 2~
[l~o
je
jwt
dw
+
1
wO =je":"
dW]
_l_eJwtIO _ 211'1tejwtlWoo = 1  coswot 211't . wo 1I't
42
(c) f2(t) = = F(w) = _!_[ejW 2 w +jwejw 1] f(t ..> + . +~ 1 ]W F(..>  n ¢=. Therefore F3(W) = [F(w) + F1(w)]ej"..> 7rb(w} .> F(t) ~ 27r sin( wow) 2rrf(w) = 27r sin(wow) Setting wo = T yields 8(t + T) ..__. and 2[b(t) (b) cos wof .1) + h(t + 1) + F(w)eJ'" 2 cosw ] F4(W) = F(w)eJw = w2 1 [2  = 43 w2 4.L] 7rt .. (b) fl(t) = f(t) and Fl(W) Fig..__.32 Fig.. = ~(cosw w = [F(w) ._.? ._.wo)] F(w) Application of duality property 7r[b(t yields + wo) + b(t . fit) j7r[8(w + wo) . t. (d) /3(t) = f(t .8(t .> .> 2j sin Tw 4. 2rrf(w) 27ru(w) or ! [b(t) 2 Application of Eq...> 2 cos Tw wo)] (c) sin wot .._.1).__" fit) u(t) ¢=. ¢=.4.. <=? u(w) 7r[b(w + wo) + b(w .> 27rcos (wow) .31 (a) ..35) yields +~] [nt.8(w F(w) Application of duality property j7r[8(t yields + wo) .T) ¢=.wo)] F(t) ¢=.ion.· 2 J .) Application of duality property yields 7r1i(t) + 'v' F(t) ~ ]t ¢=.wo)] ¢=.hat is Ii(t) .. Sill 2 W "2 = sine" (W) "2 .1) + F(w)]ejw + wsinw Fig.fit) ¢=.___.....~] ¢=..= 27r cos (wow) 2rrf(w) Setting Wo = T yields 8(t + T) + b(t ¢=....> )7rt u(w) = 1 b(t)...> u(w) ! [8( t) 2 But b(t) is an even funct. (4.1) + fl(t ..8(t .
reet (t  T/2) T (f ) {=:} Tsinc (W2T) .)ejw/2 jw/2.rr)u(t .. The first step (timeexpansion by a factor 2) yields f G) {=:} 2F(2w) = 2~'2(eJ2W _j2(. S4.e jWT/2] = 2'T' smc (WT).b(w + 1)] + 1_lw2 and {=:} + 1)] + _12 1. sin t u(t) sin(t . sm w 2 sm wT 2 (wT)  2 (b) From Fig. = ~[eJW w· = ~2 [2wsin~] + w2 _[eJw + jwejw . (e) J4(t) = J(t .j2w .rr) {=:} Note that sin{t .. T/ JW 2 rect t±T/2) T( and {=:} F{) W = T' sine (WT) 2 [ejwT/2 .5 [we may interchange the sequence for steps (i) and (ii)].rr)u{t . (iii) and multiplying it by 1.e j2w 1) Second step of time delay of 2 sees. _t F4(W) = F(I.r ) is sin t u{t) delayed by rr.4. (f) fs(t) can be obtained in three steps: (i) timeexpanding f(t) by a factor 2 (ii) then delaying it by 2 seconds.1) .33 4.7 2 = j4 .5 yields . S4. yields t ..~) + h(t + ~).Fig. " '\ '\ o Fig.e j2w) The third step of multiplying the resulting signal by 1. .. _ jwcJW _ 1] = sine (~) Jw/2.1) .zr) {~[b(w 2) .b(w *[b(w .:2 e .33 (a) f( t) = rect rect t + T/2) ( T .w }ej7rW 44 . (WT) TSlilC 2 e ±.1e j2w = 2w2 1( 1 . .rr)u{t .j2we j2w) .2) f ( 2{=:} 1 (j2w 2".33b we verify that f(t) = sintu{t) + sin(t . and + F1(w)ejW/2 . Now.1] Fig.
34b is f(t f(t + 3) + f(t . (a) Here f(t) is a gate pulse as shown in Fig.34b.I5(W .3) <==* 4sinc(w)cos3w is a triangular pulse shown in Fig.%) 1.3).1) .8(w + 1)] + 1 1 w 2} e j1rw 2 / Also because f(x)b(x .eatu(t _ eaT ea(tT)u(t .ro). li(:. 1. The signal in Fig. ± 1)ej1rw/2 Therefore F() w (d) JW =+ 2 = 6(w ± l)e±j1r/2 j1rw/2 e 1 .3).w2 1 = ±j8(w ± 1) .. (c) From Fig. S4.w2 [jw+e j1rw/2] f(t) = eat[u(t) = catu(t) .1 (pair 19) f(t) = 6 G) <==* sinc 2 (~) Also T = 3.xo).r Therefore l5(w ± 1)(1 + ej1rW) = 0. f(t) = rect G) <==* 2 sinc(w) Also T = 3.Therefore F(w) Recall that f(x)l5(x .T)J = ent1L(t) .1) . Therefore f(t) F(w) = cos 1L(t) t + sin (t .. The signal in Fig.34.~) = cos t [u(t) u (t .T) F(w) = jw 1 +a  aT _e__ ejwT jw + a = [1 _e(a+jw)TJ jw + a 1 4.T) <==* F(w)ejwT + F(w)ejwT = 2F(w) coswT 'We can use this result to derive transforms of signals in Fig.xo) = f(xo)8(x ..%) u (t .u(t . S4.cos t u (t  %) = cos t.xo) = {2 7r J [15(W .%)] = cos t u(t) .w + ej1rW) and = f(xo){J(. P4. and (~) + 3) + f(t . + 1)] + _1_2}(1 1. P4. From the Table 4.34a.w = ~[b(w 2 1) + l5(w + I)J + ~ + {~[8(W 2J . S4.33c we verify that f(t) But sin] t . and + 3) + f(t .3) <==* 2 sinc2 cos 3w 45 .w · = 1 .34a is f(t f(t (b) Here f(t) + 3) + f(t . P4.34 From timeshifting property f(t Therefore f(t ± T) <==* F(w)e±jwT + T) + f(t .T) .
~ j.wo)] Timeshifting property states that f(t Therefore f(t and ± T) ¢::=} F(w)e±jwT + T) .rr~·'..j [f(t)ejWot + f(t)ejWot] = 2~ [F(w .~ \ FIW) I o IT ~) Fig.F(w)e jwT = 2jF(w)sinwT 2~ [f(t The signal in Fig.w~) + F(w . " (~) (. S4. F(/. 4. ) t~ Fig.J . P4. S4. ~ . .~= '0 .36 o .35 is f(t + T) f(t f(t) .34 Frequencyshifting property states that Therefore f(t) sinwot = .T)] ¢::=} F(w) sin Tw + 3)  . 46 .T) ¢::=} F(w)ejwT .f(t .3) ¢::=} 2j[2sinc(w) sin 3w] = 4j sinc(w) sin3w .35 (0.3) where = rect (~) ¢::=} 2sinc(w) Therefore f(t + 3)  f(t .f(t .I.
that is.. =~ (.") cos lOt. + SInC 2 [7r(W + 10)]} 2 e j2"..(2". b. The Fourier transform in this case is the same as that in part (a) multiplied byej27r"'. it follows that t = ~ ( 27r ) cos lOt {:=}"2 1O)]} spectrum in this case as The Fourier transform in this case is a real function and we need only the amplitude shown in Fig.. From time shifting property.\tu(t) At = ~sinc2(t) 7r cos4t u(t) {:=} .36b.38 (a) e If f(t) = e.\ and u(t) {:=} 7r6(w) + :Jw 1 * u(t).2.!:_) 27r Also from Table 4.10)] 2 . (W ~ 4) Therefore f(t) 4. we first multiplied the triangle pulse ~(2t1<) by cos lOt and then delayed the result by 27r. the signal in Fig. except that the basic pulse is rect (2~) instead of a triangle pulse ~(2~)' Now rect (2~) Using the same argument as for part (b).36 Fig.36a.. + reet F(w) = rect Also 2(W4) (W+4) 2 . This means the signal in Fig. the triangle pulse ~(2~) is first delayed by 27r and then the result is multiplied by cos lOt. Fig.41).SInC 2 [7r("" 2 10)] . Fig.v. " This interchange of operation is permissible here only because the sinusoid cos lOt executes integral number of cycles in the interval 27r. the amplitude spectrum in this case as shown in Fig. its Fourier transform is the same as in part (a) multiplied by ej". (b) The signal f(t) here is the same as the signal in Fig.". then 47 .1 (pair 19) ~(2t. Because of this both the expressions are equivalent since cos lO(t . Thus we have an amplitude spectrum [same as in part (a)] as well as a linear phase spectrum LF(w) = 27rw as shown in Fig. 1 JW . (a) delayed by 27r. (b) is expressed as ~(t.36b.37 (a) = 7r{sinc[7r(w + 10)] + sinc[7r(:. S4. S4. 4) + t:.) = cos lOt.36) multiplied cos lOt property [7r(W + 2 by cos lOt..10)]}ej2". (c) In this case the signal is identical to that in Fig.). S4.4.27r).". In this alternate procedure."2 + SInC (4. This multiplying factor represents a linear phase spectrum 27rw. Note: In the above solution. we obtain {:=} 27rsinc( 7rw) F(w) 4.1<) cos 10( t . 54. Therefore F()W 7r {. 2 ="2 SInC [7r(W . Also (W. (a) The signal f(t) in this case is a triangle pulse ~(2~) f(t) (Fig. (b) is expressed as ~(t.) f(t) {:=} tt sinc2( "2"') From the modulation 7r {. We could have interchanged the operation in this particular case.sinc(t) Therefore {:=} rect (~) f(t) (b) = ~sinc(t)cos4t 7r F(w) = t:.
1A JW 1 = eAltu(t) * eA2tu(t). w 2 48 . A 1 _ (7!'b(W) JW .A .!_ [_. (d) 1 and e Al t u ( =t ) <=> ::.. The Fourier transform Note that because A2 > 0.A + _.l)u(t) eAltu(t) If J(t) <=> .F(w) = (_.310 (a) F() W = 1 =:« iT 0 T e t e =:« t 0 2 = . the inverse transform of jW=\2is eA2tu(_t) of the latter does not exist because A2 > O. 1 JW . the width of F(w) * F(w) is twice the width of F(w). we obtain Because of the width property of the convolution.\ ) (7!'8(W) [ 1 + 2.:JW . 4.) JW ] because J(x)6(x) = J(0)6(x) = jw 7!'b(w) A + = ~6(w) A = + [~t+~] JW jw(jw .Al _ eA2t)u(_t) The remarks at the end of part (c) apply here also._)] JW Taking the inverse transform of this equation yields J(t) (b) = ~(eAt . Repeated application of this argument shows that the bandwidth of ret) is nB Hz (n times the bandwidth of f(t».:.39 From the frequency convolution property..Al If f(t) = eAl tu( t) * eA2tu( t). then Therefore Therefore J(t) = h[eAltu(t) A2 Al + eA2tu(_t)] and not _eA2tu(t).A) JW .[1  JW cos W T] = . 4.sin 2(WT) j4. then Therefore f(t) = __ I_(eAlt A2 .
2[1 .(jw 1 +2 + l)(jw + 2)  1 1 1 .. ]te at ~ dF dw 1 Jw+a d ( dw jw u () ~ t 1) + a = j .(b) f(t) = reet (t+T/2) T .i4 W sin2 (WT) 2 (c) dt = c5(t + T) .4'sm 2 (WT) 2 Therefore F(w) 4.cos WTj = .41 at ut ~ () 1 (. )2 JW +a H(w) =jw 1 +1 (a) F(w) =jw yew) _ .J'w+1 .jw+2 yet) = (et e2t)u(t) 49 . = 2] sine 2 = _ ejwT/2j wT slll2 . JW F()W = ejwT .reet (tT/2) =r: e ±jwT/2 reet (~) ~ ~ Tsine (W2T) T'sine (WT) '"2 ± T/2) reet (t Tand F(w) = Tsine (W2T) [ejwT/2 'T' (WT).2 2c5(t) + c5(t  T) The Fourier transform of this equation yields + e jwT = ."7""== (jw + a)2 and te 4.311 F(w) = j4 . ~sm 2 (wT) 2 = I: f(t)e jwt dt and ~~ = :!w I: f(t)e jwt dt Changing the order of differentiation and integration yields Therefore jtf(t) (b) e at ut() ~.
and Y(w) Therefore = JW 1 1  and H(w)=.('t)u(t) 4.43 shows FI(w).v = 1 1 1 1) t (jw + 1)(]w"':'_ t = jw 1/2 1/2 + 1 . the frequency convolution property yields Yew) = Y1(w) * Y2(W).3 jw+l 1[1 .43.. it follows that the bandwidth of 50 . 2(' 1 u(t) + 2(' 1 u(t) 1 = 7rb(w) + ~ JW = . _1_ JW + 1 = [7rli(W)+ 1 JW 1.J:.(w) Therefore . Now YI(W) = FI(W)HI(W) Y2(W) = F2(W)H2(W) The spectra Yl(W) and Y2(W) are also shown in Fig.2 JW  1. From the width property of convolution.(b) F(w)=Yew) 1 jw +1 = (]w + 1)2 1 yet) = teatu(t) (c) F(w) yew) = . Because yet) = Yl(t)Y2(t).. S4.] [becauseJ(x)8(x) 7r8(w) + jw(jw 1 + 1) 1 = J(O)8(x)] = 7r8(w) + ~ .43 Figure S4. = (jw2)(jw+l) 1 = .JW JW + 1 yet) = (1 .jw2 1] (b) F(w)=.1 Y () = t (d) F(w) Yew.jw . F2(W).42 (a) F(w) = _1_ jw + 1 and and H(w) 1 = . JW  1  2 1 (jwl)(jw2) 11 =jwl jw2 4. HI(W) and Hz(w).
4.44 4. Y(w) = P(w)H(w) ~ P(O)H(w) = 0. h(t) can be 4. Hence.52).5 x 1O6H(w) =:} y(t) = 0.Jrr f ! l~~(~ . 5 Fig. Hence. the bandwidth of Y(w) is 15 kHz. S4.lt<)) .45.5 x 1O6b(w) = Ab(w). and we may Y(w) = P(w)H(w) ~ P(w)H(O) = 103• 1O3p(w) =:} y(t) = 1O3p(t) Note that the de gain of the system is k = H(O) = Hence. respectively. S4. Hence.44 H(w) = 1O3sinc(2~) The two spectra are sketched in Fig..jIrr to ~ 4.44. It is clear that H(w) is much narrower than P(w). 84. and we may consider P(w) to be nearly constant of value P(O) = 106/2 over the entire band of H(w). 84. the output is nearly kP(t). It is clear that P(w) is much narrower than H(w).] }t. Fig. Because the bandwidths kHz.5 x 1O6h(t) y(t) Recall that h(t) is the unit impulse response of the system.. the output is equal to the system 3 10 0. (see Sec.00) and P(w) = 0.5sinc2(~} The two spectra are sketched in Fig. of Yl(W) and Y2(W) are 10 kHz.43 Y(w) is the sum of bandwidths of Yl(W) and Y2(W).46 Every signal can be expressed as a sum of even and odd components expressed as a sum of its even and odd components a h(t) = he(t) + ho(t) 51 . response to an input 0. Hence. 1.45 H(w) = 103 sine (2. consider H(w) to be nearly constant of value H(O) = 103 over the entire band of P(w}.
we make he(t) = ho(t) sgn (t) and ho(t) = he(t)sgn (t) (1) provided that h(t) has no impulse at the origin.. we get hH') Figure 84.= JW 7r 11 00 X(y) W 00 Y dy JX{w} or . we have proved in Prob. This result applies only if h(t) is causal. we obtain R(w) and = 1. 84.1) and timeshifting property. Hence the filter is unrealizable.. JX{w) 27r 2 * :.24. From these equations. 4.45 where hAt) = ~[h(t)lt(t) + h( t)u( t)l an important observation that and ho(t) = ~[h(t)u(t) .11 that the Fourier transform of a real and even signal is a real and even function of w. The graphical proof of this result may be seen in Fig.) (2) Applying the convolution property to Eq. Therefore.!. (1).51 Using pair 22 (Table 4.51 This is noncausal. = R{w) 1 27r 2 * :JW = : 1 J7r 1 00 00  R(y) Y dy W X{w) = . 1.I 3 )0 Fig.h( t)u( t)l. then he(t) ~ R(w) and ho(t) ~ jX(. and the Fourier transform of a real and odd signal is an imaginary odd function of w. Moreover.1°O tt 00 R{y) dy W Y 4. if F(w) = R(w) + jX(w). Also 1 00 00 IlnIH{w)11 dw w2 + 1 = 1 00 00 ~ w2 +1 dw = 00 52 .
. Consequently.2/2 53 dx = .0001l't) All the three systems are noncausal (and. to make this filter approximately realizable..2/2 d 00 e _ . Hence to = 3V2k is a reasonable choice to make the filter approximately realizable. realizable by allowing a time delay of 100 ILseconds in the system response.j2.> E I = = ~dx _!__I_jOO 211' 0'V2 00 e. h(O) = e4.20'''.53 Hence to = 4/a = 4 x 105 = 40J. This makes the filter approximately. 4. we may truncate it at t = 104. as 4. it looks shown in the adjacent figure.61 EI Letting ~ = I: = f2(t)dt = 211'10'2 I: e t2 /(72 dt =~ and consequently dt E "52dx 1 0' I . Table 4. which never decays. and then delay the resulting h(t) by 104. unrealizahle) because all the three impulse responses start before t = O.Ls is a reasonable choice The unit impulse response is the inverse Fourier transform of H(w). 4..Lsecond will make it realizable. we have (c)l (b)sinc2(10.52 The exponential delays to 1.5 = 0. delaying the h(t) by 1 J.:. 211'0'V2 = _I_ 20'''. Clearly.1) Letting O'W =~ and consequently du. the impulse response is a rectangular pulse starting at t = _106. The delay has to be infinite.2V211'0' . therefore.:. the impulse response is 1.211'0'2 V2 JOO _.j2. this system cannot be made realizable with a finite time delay. Choosing to = 3V2k. which extends all the way to 00. we get h(t) = e10'lttol The impulse response is noncausal. For (c). 4.1 and timeshifting property. this filter cannot be realized with any amount of delay. Since h(t) is a Gaussian function delayed by to. hltl to Figure S4.011 or 1. and the filter is unrealizable. h(t)= (a)0. For (a).24d). This will not change anything in the system behavior except the time delay of 1 ILsecond in the system response. the impulse response is a sine square pulse. Hence. because the sine square pulse decays rapidly (see Fig.5rect (2X~06) Hence. _ 1 x .52 H(w) = 2 X w2 + 10 1010 5 eJwto From pair 3.1% of its peak value.8% at 4 times constants. However. Also from pair 22 (Table 4.Hence the filter is noncausal and therefore unrealizable. For (b).
we may express it as an impulse function of area 4rrt::.63 4.F Next. then the output Y(w) = A(w)H(w). (4.T) == [Eq.23a)]. because j2(t) <==> A(w). 84. y(t) = 2Eft::.. Fig.46).F. (1. Because this filter band t::.)] . 0. Thus.1) yields t2 2a + a2 <==> 54 2 7I"e alwl .31)] to pair 3 (Table 4. This yields y(t) = 2A(0)t::.63 If f2(t) <==> A(w). 84.F]o(w) Here we used the property j(X)O(.F]o(w) and j(O)o(x) Y(w) ~ [4rrA(w)t::. H(w) ~ [4rrt::.F .64 Recall that Therefore Interchanging the roles of ft(t) and h(t) in the above development. where H(w) is the lowpass filter transfer function (Fig. we can show that 4.62 Consider a signal f(t) = sinc(kt) and F(w) = ~rect( ~) k 2k E] = J <Xl 00 sinc (kt)dt 2 1 = 2rr J"" c 2 oo ~2 [rect (.4. we have Hence. 2 dw rr = 2k2 J k k dw = k tt 4.65 Application of duality property [Eq.F]o(w) = [4rrA(0)t::.F.
OOOt] 1 [cos 11.366 Hz =* T·V = a a y 'POSBSC(t) = m(t) cos 10.000t = cos1000tcos]0. OOOt + '2 [cos 8000t + cos 12.tt tt tt t1 tt Fig._. 1t « .99Ef.OOOt + cos 14.01 2. LSB USB (ii) For met) = 2 cos 1000t + cos 2000t [2 cos 1000t + cos2000t] cos 10.2rr.71 J 55 T t.[cos 9000t + ~os 1:. OOOt = (t) '2 [cos 2000t + cos 4000t] 1 '2 [cos 6000t 1 cos 10.The sigrial energy is given by 1 E] = rr 1 00 0 aw 12rr!> I 2 dw = 4rr 1°C 0 2rr e ?aw dw = a The energy contained within the band (0 to W ) is E w..71 shows various spectra. then e2alV 4.4 tt If Ew = 0._. OOOt = 1 '2 [cos 8000t 1 + cos LSB 12.000t 1 = .000t = = cos 9000t + = [cos 9000t + '2 cos 8000t] + LSB USB (iii) For met) = cos 1000t cos 3000t 'POSBSC = met) cos 10.OOOtJ 2 ~ This information is summarized in a table below.3025 ra d/ s = 0. S4..[1 e 2aW] a 0. 1 [cos 12.. OOOt] USB = lcos8000t 2 + cos6000~ + . Figure 84.71 (i) For met) = cos IOOOt _ l W o ('2aw dw . OOOt + 1 '2 cos 12. OOOt] 'POSB_SC(t) = m(t) cos 10.. t t . OOOt] + + cos 14.OOOt 1 cos 11. 0000 2 .
84. cos wet 1 . 3.72 (a) The signal at point b is faCt) = met) cos ' <"""t = met) [~cOswet + ~ COS3wet] The term 1m(t) cos wet is the desired modulated signal. not the desired value wet. the output of the multiplier is yet) The bandpass output is = m(t)x(t) = met) [4 + . This is not true when n is even. We find the Fourier series for this signal as 1 2[ = 2' +. S4.000 8000 and 12. Hence. B (d) met) COS2wet = m~t) [1 + cos 2wet] = 2'm(t) + 2'm(t) 1 1 cos 2wet The signal at point b consists of the baseband signal ~m(t) and a modulated signal ~m(t) cos 2wet.000 11. Hence. y(t).000 6000 and 14.c: Wet1 + 5" cos 5wet + . ..8a with period To (instead of 211').c. whose center center frequency is We. )] Hence. which represents the modulated signal with carrier frequency 3wc with spectrum centered at ±3we as shown in Fig.. The remaining term tm(t) cos 3wct is the unwanted term. I lOc_ Fig. the system works for a carrier cos" wet only when n is odd. (b) Figure S4. but suppresses the unwanted term tm(t)cos3wet.case Baseband frequency 1000 1000 2000 2000 4000 DSB frequency 9000 and 11.000 12.000 I I I I I I I I 4.. cos wet = 2 met) 11' cos Wet 56 . at@ 3~ ~ 01: D I I .73 This signal is identical to that in Fig. Hence. (c) The minimum usable value of We is 211' in order to avoid spectral folding at de. which has a carrier frequency 2wet. (e) The reader may verify that the identity for cosnWet contains a term cos wet when n is odd..3' cos 3wet Hence.000 9000 and 11. Both the components will be suppressed by the filter.72 shows the spectra at points band c.000 14.] til UJ~ 3"'ai eft® (j)> 4. The bandpass filter centered at ±we allows to pass the desired term ~m(t)COswet..~ cos 3wct + ~ cos 5wct + .72 x(t) . this system works as desired with the output ~m(t) cos wet. this system will not do the desired job.000 8000 and 12..000 I i ii iii I I I I I LSB frequency 9000 9000 8000 8000 6000 I I I I USB frequency 11. km(t) (cos Wet . whose spectrum is centered at ±wc.000 12.72. the bandpass filter filter suppresses the signals met) and met) cos nWct for all n '# 1.
we suppress the LSB spectrum (between We and We) from the DSBSC spectrum.6 15 . Hence. we can express 'PLSB (t) = cos 900t and 'PUSB (t) = cos nOOt. 5 " .A . 84.4.75 (a) (b) (c) (d) This means that J. = ~[cos 1400t + 2 cos 1600t]. Figures S4. A A m 10 J.L= 1. we can express 'PLSB (t) 'PLSB(t) = = 2 cos 700t + cos 900t ~[cos400t + cos600t] 57 and 'PUSB (t) and 'Pl.. . to generate the SSB signals of the same relative magnitude. . This is a synchronous or coherent demodulation. to obtain the USB spectrum. This also avoids the nuisance of the fractions 1/2.. c.'£.. a. Similarly. but suppresses the second term. fb(t) = = [A 1 + met)] cos2 wet 1 2'[A + met)] + 2'[A + met)] cos 2wet The first term is a lowpass signal because its spectrum is centered at w = O. 4.75 shows various waveforms.16 To generate a DSBSC signal from met). the de term A is suppressed yielding the output met).L=oo=p=A A ~ A=20 ~A=lO ~A=5 ~A=O 00 represents the DSBSC case.15 4.L = mp 10 J. and yields the DSBSC spectrum M(w . whose spectrum is centered at ±2wc.74 faCt) = [A +m(t)Jcoswct.' t 'I o~~H+l++H1~W~:\tttitttfH . b. (b)From Fig. Hence the output of the lowpass filter is yet) = A + met) When this signal is passed through a de block. it is convenient to multiply met) with 2coswct.We) + M(w + We). This shows that the system can demodulate AM signal regardless of the value of A.L=20=_. we can express (c)From Fig. .0= =A A m 10 J. _ "'.L=05==. We suppress the USB spectrum (above We and below We) to obtain the LSB spectrum. The lowpass filter allows this term to pass. A mp 10 J.. However.=. Figure S4.'SB(t) = cos nOOt + 2 cos 1300t.76 a. .' . . band c show the three cases. Fig. we multiply met) with coswet. (a) From Fig.
t 11.S2 In this case Fe = 1 MHz..01 MHz over the cycle 3 (over the interval .76 J~ _ <g()Ot9 J~ ~oe t> 1~ qC'o 1. Over the next a seconds. This cycles repeats periodically with the period 4a seconds as shown in Fig. Over the last quarter cycle met) 0 again. (Fi)max = 106 + 104 = 1.104 0.2 X 105 = 9. the carrier frequency decreases linearly from 10.2 MHz.. Figure S4. ~F = For PM ~F = kpm~j27r = 507r x 8000j27r = 2 X 105 Hz. S4. 0007rj27r = 104 Hz. and the carrier frequency remains at 10 MHz. mp = 1 and m~ = 8000. ~~~t): 1t i c. The carrier frequency rises linearly from 0. to 1~3.81. the carrier frequency remains at 10. . (Fi)min = = = For PM Here.9 MHz.2 MHz over the (rising) quarter cycle. and 106 .S1 In this case Fe = 10 MHz.82a.') t. . For the next a seconds. For FM ~F kfmp/27r = 20.1 MHz to 9. S4.:.< t < 10.105 = 9.1 MHz over a quarter (rising) cycle of duration a seconds. (Fi)max = 107 + 2 X 105 = 10. Also Fe = 1 MHz.. Over the interval met) = 2000t.3 For convenience. Hence. Also Fe = 107. and (F.102.9 MHz. (Fi)max = 107 + 105 = 10.9 MHz to 10.)min = 107 .1 MHz. +.9 MHz. the carrier frequency remains at 9. we can express the message signal as 58 .c:r:!:.8 MHz. mp = 1 and m~ = 2000. We conclude that the frequency remains at 10.: 4J o . S4.81a. The carrier frequency (Fi)min = 10 increases linearly from 9.1. Then instantaneously. we shall use a direct approach.81 4. S4.81b shows met). and the carrier frequency remains at 10 MHz. where met) = SOOO.t.8 MHz.01 MHz.t t I fCC'!' 0.82.01 MHz over the next cycle. 10. and 7 .99 MHz to 1.1 nat: rlcli t3e'V u/_"" 7CC~"'" It. S4. Also Fe = 107.3).1 1 t l' tt tt Fig. the carrier frequency falls to 0.. Over the next quarter (the falling) cycle of duration a. For FM kfmpj27r = 27r x 105 j27r = 105 Hz.99 MHz and starts rising linearly to 10. t toe t I 'fCC fbca 1t £~ '\:. when met) = 1. The cycle repeats periodically with period 103 as shown in Fig.99 MHz. we select the origin for met) as shown in Fig. the carrier frequency remains at 9.1 MHz.' _JT t. Hence. This cycles repeats periodically with the period 4a seconds as shown in Fig.For the next a seconds.r r (1 ~ ( (1 '0 r '0021')' !{ v '' V \J U t Fig. met) = 0. because met) has jump discontinuities. S4.. Hence._"_ M [I. when met) = 1. and over the last quarter cycle. Hence. = = 4. where met) 8000.
4.000 + 1000) = 59 .(10)6t = cos [211"(1O)6t + + ~m(t)] ~2000t] cos [27l"(106 = cos [211"(10)6t + 100011"t] = + 500) t] At the discontinuity. and BFM = 2(t1F + B) = 2(20. there is a phase discontinuity of 11"adians as shown in Fig. the amount of jump is md 2.the phase discontinuity will be higher than 211" giving rise to ambiguity in demodulation.Fig.Therefore. But at the points of discontinuities. t1F = kpm~/211" = 18. S4. we must maintain kp < 11" ecause there r b is a discontinuity of the amount 2.00011" cos 200011"t t1F = We + 20. and BPM = 2(t1F + B) = 2(18. Also.(t) = 5 cos(wct Here. 1000 Hz. = t1F = kfmp/211" = 10. 42 kHz.83 + 1000) = 38. Here.85 t1w = 20011" and t1F = 100 Hz and 2(t1F + B) = 2(100 + 1000) = 'PE". For m( t) Therefore For FM: For PM: 4. Also the baseband signal bandwidth B = 200011"/211" 1 kHz. B = 200011"/211"= 1000 Hz.36. t1w = 20. Also.82b. Hence.2 kHz.84 'PE".00011" and = 20 kHz and BEM = 2( t1F + B) = 2(20. In this case.83 In this case kf = 100011"and kp = 1. 10001l"t + 20. the baseband Wi(t) signal bandwidth 20001l"t B = 200011"/211" = 2.00011"+ 20.031. 4.82 ~p". S4.00011" cos Therefore.06366 kHz. For kp > 11". the phase discontinuity is kpmd 11". the carrier frequency is constant throughout at 106 + 500 Hz. the baseband + 20 sin 10001l"t signal bandwidth Wi(t) + 10 sin20001l"t).(t) = cos [2r.1 sin 20001l"t).(t) = = met) = 200 sin lOOt . = We + 20011"cos BEM= Therefore.00011" = 40.000.00011" + 200.000 + 1000) = 42 kHz.000 + 1~ Hz. = 10 cos(wct + 0.00011" sin 200011"t = 2 cos lOOt + 18 cos 200011"t and mp = 20 and m~ = 36.
11 The bandwidths of !t(I) and h(t) are 100 kHz and 150 kHz. the width of the convoluted signal is the sum of the widths of the signals convolved.) 1. does not (c) sinc(1001!'t) + 3 sinc2(601!'t) ¢=> 0. we may use a practical lowpass filter with gradual 60 . (d) sinc(507l't) 0.13.h the two.310).005rect(4o"b. The Nyquist rate is 200 Hz (samples/sec) (b) The Nyquist rate is 200 Hz..003334 I Undersampling I I I Nyquist Rate Oversampling I comments I (4~. The spectrum of the product of two signals is 1/21!' times the convolution of their spectra.. 4. Therefore the Nyquist sampling rates for h(t) is 200 kHz and for h(t) is 300 kHz.) of the sum is the higher of The bandwidth of rect( 2o"b. From width property of the convolution..) I I The spectra of F(w) for the three cases are shown in Fig. Therefore. The Nyquist rate is 150 Hz. and from the width property of convolution the bandwidth of ft2(t) is twice the bandwidth of h(t) and that of h3(t) is three times the bandwidth of h(t) (se also Prob.006667 0.5 reet (40"b. The bandwidt. the repeating spectra do not overlap.) is 60 Hz. In the first case. 60 Hz. and 300 Hz (oversampling). Hence to recover F(w). the Nyquist rate is 200 Hz... we must sample the signal at a rate no less than 200 samples/second.) 0. the same as in (a).. that is.) is 50 Hz and that of 6( 24"b.005 0.).. Therefore the Nyquist rate for [: 2(t) is 400 kHz.) ¢=> ¢=> sinc(1007l't) The two signals have bandwidths 25 Hz and 50 Hz respectively. (a) 5. because multiplication of a signal by a constant change its bandwidth. which makes it impossible to identify F(w) from the corresponding F(w). In the last case the spectrum 'F(w) = 0 over the hand between 100 and 200 Hz.Chapter 5 5.• sampling interval T tF(w) 0. the bandwidth of sinc(507l't)sinc(1007l't) is 25 + .01 rect( 2o"b. Consequently. 200 Hz (Nyquist rate). We present this information in the following Table for three sampling rates: F s = 150 Hz (undersampling).02 rect( lo"b.)0 = 75 Hz. The Nyquist sampling rate is 120 Hz. respectively.13 The spectrum of J(t) sinc(2007l't) is F(w) 0. Hz. Also ft2(t) ¢=> 21" Fl(w) * Fl(W). that is. for h(t)!2(t) is 500 kHz..12 The bandwidth of this signal is 200 1!'rad/s or 100 Hz.01 rect(2o"b. In the second and the third case. Recall that the sampled signal spectrum consists of (l/T)F(w) = ~ rect(4~") repeating periodically with period equal to the sampling frequency F.75 reet (4o"bll') reet 0. = = sampling frequency 150 Hz 200 Hz 300 Hz F. The bandwidth of this signal is 100 Hz (20071' rad/s). Similarly the bandwidth of h(t)h(t) is the sum of the bandwidth of h(t) and h(t). and it is possible to recover F(w) from 'F(w) using a lowpass filter of bandwidth 100 Hz. S5. for h3(t) is 900 kHz.) + to 6( 24"b. 5. we cannot recover J(t) from the sampled signal because of overlapping cycles.
IH(w)1 =T ISinc( w.15a to be delayed by T sees. Hence the 85. vrr i t ttffl)) I wFigure S5. S5. S5. the output of the integrator is: h{t) = Jo [8{T) r .13.u(t .6(T . This pulse p(t) is applied to the input of the second identical filter. its output is a rectangular pulse p{t) =u(t) It(t .14a.13 cutoff between 100. Each sample generates a triangle of width 2T and centered at the sampling instant.15 t (a) Figure S5. (d) When the input to the first filter is 8{t). When sample generates a rectangular pulse at the output.T) shown in Fig.and 200 Hz.er of a sampled signal is applied at the inpnt. output spectra in the three cases are shown in Fig. S5. the output of the summer is 8(t) .each to the corresponding sample value. The output in the second case is /(t). 5. bandwidth 21l'IT rad/s or Hz. h{t). it also represents the amplitude response.) 2 Because H(w) is positive for all w.14 5. (c) A minimum of T sees delay is required to make h{t) causal (realizable). The resulting signal consists of straight line segments joining the sample tops. (t) Fig.14a.14b. Such a delay would cause the reconstructed signal in Fig. S5. The height of the triangle is equal to the sample value.6.15c. then as shown in Prob. (b) The transfer function of this circuit is: H{) W and = T· (WT) Slnc 2 e jwT/2 I Observe that the filter is a lowpass filt.T).14. S5. The corresponding amplitude response H (w) and the ideal amplitude response (lowpass) required for signal reconstruction is shown in Fig.5/{t). Fig.15b shows the impulse response h{ t) = . The impulse response of the circuit is a rectangular pulse.) The amplitude response of the filter is shown in Fig. (b) The transfer function of this circuit is: H(w) = F{h{t)} = F {~ (2~)} = Tsinc (W. 61 .T)] dr = u(t) . 5. The (a) When the input to this filter is 8(t).T) = rect (tT I ) The impulse response h{t) is shown in Fig. And.15a shows the signal reconstruction from its samples using the firstorder hold circuit.14c. This acts as the input to the integrator.8{t .11:.14 and in the third case is 1. S5.( 2i). S5. proportional output is a staircase approximation of the input as shown in Fig. S5.
.303.2T).2(t .T) + U(T .202.. which is aj plied to the integrator.101 + F(w + 5001T)] [F(w .2nu(t . T) shown in Fig.15 C b <.151 + 0. Hence. The Fourier series for PT{t) is given by PT(t) Use of Eqs.66) yields Co Co Consequently = Co + L c. (3.2U(T . The output h(t) of the integrator is the area under p(t) .2u(t . An ideal lowpass filter of unit gain (and bandwidth 100 Hz) will allow the first term 011 the he rightside of the above equation to pass fully and suppress all the other terms. C5 = 0""..2 F(w) + 0. Observe that the spectrum consists of F(w) repeating periodically at the interval of 5001T rad/s (250 Hz).005rect(4~1<)' The spectrum F(w) is shown in Fig. and F{w) can be recovered by using an ideallowpass filter of bandwidth 100 Hz.6 5.187 [F(w  In the present case F(w) = 0.T) + u(t . T o : Figure 85.2T) = ~ C .2..T)u(t .T) = u(t) .. there is no overlap between cycles.10007r) + F(w + 10001T)] [F(w .303 f(t) cos 10001Tt+ 0. = 0.2. cos nWst 00 n=l = C1 i.2T)] dr = tlt(t) . w. S5.p(t . = 0. F(w) =0. = 5001T.202 f(t) cos 15001Tt + .16 The signal f{t) = sinc{2001Tt) is sampled by a rectangular pulse sequence PT{t) whose period is 4 ms so that the fundamental frequency (which is also the sampling frequency) is 250 Hz.16. = 0.1Sb.374.093..2 f(t) 62 .T) + (t . S5.374f(t} cos 5001Tt + 0. \ 'b 7 Figure 85. that C3 is. () ..p(t . !(t) = f(t}pT(t} and = 0. = 0.2 f(t) + 0. as h(t) = I t [u{T) . C4 = 0.1. T t~ o c~ ) _+0.The output of the summer of the second filter is p(t) . 5001T} + 0. which. Hence. Cn = ':1<sin C2 (n51<) .T). Hence the output y(t) is y(t} = 0..15007r} + F(w + 15007r)] + .
the spectrum of the impulse train f(t)6T(t) is F(w . so that 16 binary digits are needed to encode each sample. and the output will be distorted. the filter will pick up the unwanted spectral components from the next cycle. If this signal is transmitted through a filter (Fig.17. so that 10 bits or binary pulses are needed to encode each sample.8 MHz. 30000 x 16 = 480000 bits/so 44100 x 16= 705600 bits/so Iwl > 27rB. when sampled by an impulse train. S.17b shows this spectrum consisting of the repeating spectrum F(w) multiplied by H(w) = 0. Therefore J(t) = J(t) * [2B'sinc(27rB't)j = 2B'J(t) *Sinc(27rB't) Because J(t) is timelimited.19 (a) The Nyquist rate is 2 x 4.•). 65536 = 216. The Nyquist rate is 30 kHz.8 X 106 X 10 = 108 X 106 or 108 Mbits/s. First.025sinc (to). Therefore from the timeconvolution property (4. 20000 = To 1 1 50118 T = 20 50 X X 10106 3 = 400 63 .) = F(w) for B' > B. Thus.ld). Moreover.1_ Figure 85. 5.025 sine (to). results in the sampled signal f(t)6T(t) (as shown in Fig.17 Because the spectrum 'F(w) has a zero value in the band from 100 to 150 Hz.nw . Now we pass this signal through an ideallowpass filter of bandwidth B Hz to obtain f(t).= = F.42) The bandwidth is 15 kHz.17a) whose impulse response is h(t) = pet) = rect(O~25)' then each impulse in the input will generate a pulse pet). But J(t) is equal to convolution of f(t) with sinc(27rB't) which is not timelimited.17a is + 2::=00 where H(w) = pew) = 0.17 The signal f(t).21 To =  s.110 Assume a signal f(t) that is simultaneously timelimited and bandlimited.18 (a) (b) (c) (d) 5. 85. the output of the filter in Fig. 5.~25)' Figure 85. we call use an ideal lowpass filter of bandwidth B Hz where 100 < B < 150. 5. (c) 10. 5. we pass the sampled signal through a filter with transfer function 1/ H(w). (b) 1024 = 210.2 x 9 = 10. It is impossible to obtain a timelimited signal from the convolution of a timelimited signal with a nontimelimited signal. each cycle is somewhat distorted.5 X 106 = 9 MHz. 1 = 1 = 20ms 50 B = 10000 T No Hence Fa ~ 2B = 20000 = . J(t) = 0 for It I > T. the Fourier transform ofrect(O. But if B > 150 Hz. 85.17a. To recover the signal f(t) from the flat top samples. 85.Tf. resulting in the desired sampled signal shown in Fig. Let F(w) = 0 for F(w)rect(4"WB. This will yield the signal sampled by impulse train. The actual sampling rate = 1. P5. Hence. we reverse the process in Fig.
and To = NoT = 512 x 50/is = l/To = 39. The signal f(t) repeats every 4 seconds with samples every 1/8 second.66a = 63. the same as in part (a).22. 0.he signal f(t).16.13 Hz. the first sample is (at k = 0) 1 x (1/8) = 1/8. The time constant of et is 1. that is No = 256. we choose To 8. + f(t) = t2 2 +1 Application of duality property to pair 3 (Table 4.997r 2 = tan1 W a '* W = 63. and T ~ 1/2B = 7r/100. we need zero padding over 15. 8' 1131537 0. 0. Since f(t) is of 10 rns duration. Thus.0625 /is This gives To = 20 ms. 0. 0.. neither of which is a power of 2.16. F(w) =jw 1 +1 (a) We take the folding frequency F.26 x 8 = 162. From the results in Example 4. Also T ~ 1/2B = 0. Hence. 3x2 1 6 Let us choose T = 1/8. 0.6ms.03125 and To = 8. Alternatively. (with a = 1) we have 0. 85. 0.66 red/sec.01. Hence. 0. resulting in 32 samples per second. 512 103 = 39. Value of To = 5 or 6 results in No 160 or 192.* w = 27rB = 100 This yields B = 50/7r. which happens to be 1 (at w = 0).. resulting in No = 32 X 8 = 256.25 = 4.:Fa Since No must be a power of 2. which is not a power of 2. This yields B = ~ = 10. Hence. 0. This results in the sampling rate = 20.26 Hz.03125. 64' 32' 64' 16' 64' 32' 64 The samples of f(t) 5. 1 To ~ 0. The 32 samples are (starting at k = 0) 17351311 64' 32' 64' 16' 64' 32' 64' 0. No = To/T = 32. Also T = 50/is. we choose No = 512. 0. 0. we choose the next higher value. which yields T = 0.08. Also To = 8 as explained in part (a). For To. Figure 85. we could also have used T __ 20 X = 25. There are also other possibilities = T 1 = 25600Hz of reducing T as well as increasing the frequency resolution. This yields No = 20. Let us round T to 0. a reasonable choice is 5 to 6 time constants or more. 0. 0. to be the frequency where IF(w)1 is 1% of its peak value. which is a power of 2. And F. = = (b) IF(w)1 = JW2+T:::: w2 + 1 w 1 1 w» 1 We take the folding frequency Fs to be the 99% energy frequency as explained in Example 4. 0.0625 Hz.6 ms. 0. IF(w)1 ~  1 w = 0. The samples are T f(kT) = (1/8)f(k/8). :Fo = 50 Hz.22 5. 1 1 T<==F.1) yields 64 . Therefore. 0. Also To = 4.23 and g(t) are shown in Fig.04936.22 For t.
25.99(27r) = 27r(1  e2W) ~ W = 2.25 .303 Hence. Also. B No = TofT = W/27r = = 7. T ~ 1/2B = l. This means we need to zeropad f(t) for 2 sees. Hence the width of the convolved signal is 1 + 2 = 3. S5. To = 10 as found in part (a)..99 x 27r.125 and To = 4. The samples of f(t) and g(t) are shown in Fig. This permits us to adjust To to 4. "'=i 2 To +1  = 2 100 = To = 10 This results in No = To/T = 10/0. which is a power of 2. resulting in No = 8 and T = l. 65 .25 The widths of f(t) and g(t) are 1 and 2 respectively. B = 4. 27rebecomes 0. lwl Also.125 .682 and To = 10.366.605/27r = O. Since T = 0. (b) The energy of this signal is = 14.Tl:~ Hz.. select No = 8 (a power of 2).99Ef = 0.27r(1 e 2W) = 0.22. we find that the peak value of IF(w)1 = 27relwl is 27r (occurring at w = 0). and T ~ 1/2B = 0. . .125 No= 3 =24 0.605.32.682. Hence. We choose No 16. We 0.01 x 27r (1% of the peak value) at w = In 100 = 4. 5.625 E f = 27r The energy within the band from w 2 1=(2 tt )2 e 2w 0 W dw = 27r = 0 to . No must be a power of 2. and g(t) for 1 sec. Hence. Thus. Choose No = 32. Also. Hence the final values are T = 0. frO) Choose To (the duration of f(t)) =2 and f(t) ~ 2 t2 i » 1 to be the instant where f(t) f(To) = 2 is 1% of frO).66.87r E w27r But Ew 21 W is given by e2wd 0 _ w. Hence.3 r Figure S5.t2 2 +1 <==:> 2 7re Iwl Following the approach of Prob.25 5. 0.366 Hz. This yields T = 0. making To = 3 for both signals.
1 [.11 (a) f(t) = u(t) .t dt 00 e (..t dt = ~ 1 st 11 0 s = .+1)t dt =828+1 66 .!.2)t 2 dt  2.1 0 00 00 21 e t e . e s = .1£(t .1J~ (8+1)2 provided that e(··+l)oo = 0 or Re (5 (c) + 1) > O.Chapter 6 6. The abscissa of convergence is 170= 00. (b) F(s) = 1 00 tetest dt = 1= te(··+l) dt = e(··+l)t (s + 1)2 [(s 1 + l)t . Hence the abscissa of convergence is Re (s) > 1 or 170> 1.[1 s esJ Note that the result is valid for all values of s: hence the region of convergence is the entire splane. jet) = tcoswotu(t) F(8) = 1 00 tcoswote··tdt [te(jwo s)t =~ = '2 {1°O + te (jwo+..1) F(s) = 1 o e·.)tj + jwo)2 dt} 1[1 (8 .jwo)2 + (8 1] Re (8) >0 (d) F(8) = = l°O(e2t _ 2et)estdt = 1 1 o 1 002t e e st dt e (..IJ .
and we get the second tern I only if Re (05) > 1.12 (a) F(s) (b) F(s) = fo"'sintestdt= = 1 o 1 testdt = _e (_st __ 50S .ions will be satisfied if Re (05) > 2 or 0"0 > 2.t 5 +1 (ssintcost)I'" 0 67 .a)t dt Re 1 00 e (. hence F(s) = (s+2)cosB5sinB 52 + 45 + 29 6.se "") Jo ~.t 1) 11 = 1 ~(1 es .e j(J 2 ( 5 + 2 .We get the first term only if Re s > 2. f(t) = cosh(at)tt(t) F(s) = ~ =~ [1 s 00 eatest dt + 1 5 00 eatest dt] [LX> e(·. Both condit.loo e(··+a)t > lal = (g) 82  f( t) = sinh( at )u( t) F( s) =~ [1 a a2 00 e (.2 [e '2t+j(5t+8) = 2e Hence F()5 1 j(J e (2j5)t + 1 j(J 2e 1 e (2+j5)t 1 = .a)t a2 dt+ Re .j5 ) +e 1 2 j(J ( 5 + 2 + j5 1 ) This is valid if Re (5) > 2 for both terms. Hence: 1 F(s)=52 (e) 2 05+1 for 0"0 > 2 provided that Re (05) (f) > O.+a)t dt] 82  s > lal (h) f(t) = c2t cos(5t + B)tt(t) + e 2tj(5t+8)] _1 .
.+1) 1 F(s)= .t = _e_(_st es _ 1) 11 0 __ s +1 + 8 l_.2 F8 ) =1++=1+( s+2 s3 J(t) = bet) (d) a.. + 4s + 13 3s+.25(1 + 2t + e2t)u(t) 1 1.4 J(t) (e) = 3.5 Here A = 3.5 + F(8) J(t) 5 12 ===> k = 1.5 + 8 82 8 = 1.25 = _ 1. = 2.2e3t s+2 83  0.(.25 + 2.2 3.+IJ 1 e I oo 1 _ . Therefore b 0.018e2t (s+1)2 . s('") 6.34°)u(t) F(s)= This is an improper fraction with b.5  cos(3t + 6.. b = v'13 ..13 (a) + (. a. + (3.2e2t)u(t) To find k set 8 = 1 on both sides to obtain and ~ = k + 2.. O=l+A Setting 8 A=l = 0 on both sides yields ~=1+~ F(s) ===> 1_+ B=3 = s+1 s+3 :s2.3) = b2 = 1. 82 28+5 = 2s+5 =_1_+_1_ + 58 + 6 (8 + 2)(s + 3) 8 + 2 s +3 J(t) = (e2t (b) + e3t)u(t) F(s) = = s2 3.. c = 13.25 +2 (e) F( ) 8 = (s+1)(s2+2s+2) This yields 28 + 1 = ===> s+l As + B + s2+2s+2 Multiply both sides by 8 and let 8 + 00. = 6 (s + 2)(s (s+1)2 .+:2~s+=2 68 .(e) F(8) = 11 o CS2 !e8t e dt + Joo 1 etc·.t dt =~ e 11 0 te:" dt + Joo 1 e(··+I)t dt .1 (1 e . B = 5.52 .
In the second fraction. A = 1, B = 3. a = 1. c = 2, b =
.J2='T
= 1.
(f) 8+2 2 k () F8 = 8(8+1)2=;+05+1(8+1)2 To compute k . multiply both sides hy
8
1
and let
8
>
\"X).
This yields
k = 2
0= 2 + k and F(8)
+0
==>
=; =
J(t) (g)
F( ) 1 8 = (s + 1)(8 + 2)4 Multiplying both sides by s and let s
+ 1  (8 + 1)2 [2  (2 + t)et]u(t)
8
221
=
1 kl k2 k3 1 S + 1 + 8 + 2 + (8 + 2)2 + (8 + 2)3  (s + 2)4 This yields
> 00.
o = 1+ k:
==>
k:
=
1
1 1 1 k2 k3 1 "'(s+1"')("s+2:):4 +1  s +2 + (8 + 2)2 + (8 + 2)3  ;(s+:::2)~4 = s Setting s
= 0 and
3 on both sides yields
==>
==>
Solving these two equations simultaneously 1 s+1 [et

4k2 k2
+ 2k3 = 6  k3 = 0
yields k2 = k3 1  (s+2)2
t2
3
=
1. Therefore 1 (8+2)3
F(s) J(t)
= =
1  s+2 (1 + t
(s
+ 2)4
1
+ 2" + ~ )e2tJu(t)
Comment: This problem could be tackled in many ways. We could have used Eq, (B.64b), or after determining first two coefficients by Heaviside method, we could have cleared fractions. Also instead of letting 8 = 0 and 3, we could have selected any other set of values. However, in this case these values appear most suitable for numerical work. (h)
F( )
Multiplying
8 = 8(8 + 2)2(82 + 48 + 5) = s+ 00
s
+1
(1/20)
k
(1/2)
82
A8
+ s + 2 + (8 + 2)2 +
+ 48 + 5
+B
both sides by 8 and let 8
yields
O=to+k+A
Setting 8
==>
k+A=to
=
1 and 1 yields
o = ..!.. + 20
4 = to + ~ + is + AtoB
k + 1+
2 A±B 2
==>
20k 20k
==>
+ 6A + 6B = 5  lOA + lOB = 9
B
=
Solving these three equations in k, A and B yields J.~ =
t, A = i and
i. Therefore
69
F(8)
= 1/20 _ _]{i_ 8 8 +2
On
+
(1/2)
(8
+ 2)2
+.!.(
5 82
+ 48 + 5
8
1
)
For the last fraction in parenthesis
the righthand side A = 1, B = 1, a = 2, (: = 5, b = y'54 = 1. =
r = J5±1+4 5~4
v10 + ~e2t
k cos(t
f(t) (i) F(.»
=
[io  i(1+
1)2( 83 2 8+
2t)cZt
+ 7Ui6°)]u(t)
A8+B
=(
8
28
+ 5)
= 
s
+1
(
8
1/4 + 1)2
+ :2".==5 s + 28 +
Multiply both sides by s and let s
+ 00
to obtain l=k+A
Setting s = 0 and 1 yields
o = k  i + il :h = ~  ft + A!B
==? ==?
20k 16k
+ 4B = 5 + 4A + 4B =
3
Solving these three equations in k, A and B yields k = ~, A = ~ and B = ~. F(8) _

3/4
8
+1
_
(8
1/4 + 1)2
+
.!.(
4
82
s  10 5, b
+ 28 + 5
)
For the last fraction in parenthesis, A
=
1, B
=
10, a
=
1, c
=
= .;s=r = 2.
Therefore f(t)
= [(~ = [i(3
tt)e  t)
t
+
5.:9 e
t
cos(2t
+ 70 )]u(t)
0 0
+ 1.3975cos(2t +
f(t)
70 )]etu(t)
6.21
(a)
and F(s)
= u(t)
 u(t  1)
= .e[u(t)]=
e
8
.e[u(t  1)]
8
1
_.•1
(b) f(t)
= e(t1')u(t
8+1
 r)
81'
_ 1 F( 8 ) e (e)
Therefore (d) f(t) Observe that e(t1')u(t  r) is etu(t) F() 8 =e
F(8) = e1'_I_ 8+1  r)
= etu(t
=
e1'
e(t1')u(t

r)
delayed by r . Therefore
'I' (
 1 ) e .'1' =
(
8+1
 1 ) e (8±1)1'
8+1
70
(e) f(t)
= tetu(t =  T) = (t  T .)e(t1")U(t
+ T)e(t1"+1")U(t
 T)
 .) 
«"
[(t 
+ Te(t1")U(t
T)]
Therefore F() s =e 1" [ ( 1 s+1
_ e(·,+l)1"
)2e
.,1"
+ () 8+1
T
e
"1"J
(f) f(t) Note that this is sinwot shifted by T; hence F( (g)
(s
[1 + T(S + 1)2
+ 1)]
= sinwo(t  T)U(t .)
)S
(
Wo 22
s +wo
) e 81"
f(t)
= sinwo(t  T)U(t) = [sinwotcoswo.
 coswotsinwoT]u(t)
F(s)
(h)
=
wOCOSWOT
82 +wa

ssinwoT
f(t)
Therefore
= sinwotu(t  T) = sin[wo(t= cosworsin[wo(t  r)Ju(t F(8)
=
T T)
+ r)Ju(t  r) + sinworcos[wo(t
(~)]
8
 r)Ju(t  T)
[coswor
(~)
8
+ Wo
+ sinwor
+ Wo
«:"
6.22
(a) f(t)
=
t[u(t)  u(t  1)] = tu(t)  (t  l)u(t  1)  u(t  1)
F()8
= 1 82
e 2
8
1
8
e
8
1_8
(b)
J(t)
= sin t u(t) + sin(t
F(s)
 1T) u{t  1T)
=
2
1
s
+1
(1 e1I'8} +
(e) J{t)
= t[u{t}  u{t = tu{t}  {t F(s)
=
 1)]
+ etu{t 
1)
l}u{t  I}  u{t  1)
+ e1e(tl)u(t
e8
 I}
Therefore
s2 (1  e
1
8
 se
s
)
+ e('s+I:}
6.23 (a)
F(s)
It is dear that J(t)
=
(2s
8 2
+ 5}e2., = + 5s + 6
F(s}e2•
= j(t  2}.
71
F(8)= f(t) f(t) (b)
28+5 =_ 28+5 82+.58+6 (8+2)(813) = (e2t + e3t)1l(t)
=
=_1_+_1_ 8+2 s+3  2)
j(t  2)
=
[e2(t2)
+ e3(t2)]u(t
where F (s) _
I S2
+ 28 + 2
=
S
{
+ 2s + 2
2
A=
1,
B = 0, a = 1, e = 2, b = 1 = rr/4
r = v'2, () = tanlei)
h(t)
v'2etcos(t+
%)
and
F2(5).  S2 Also
f2(t)=2etsint
f(t)
(e)
=
h(t  3)
+ h(t)
cos(t  3
= v'2c(t3)
+ ~)u(t
 3)
+ 2et
sint u(t)
F(s) =
= eFl(s)e'
where Fl(8)
(e)e' + =:3_~ s2  2s + 5 82  2s + 5 1 _. 3 =e e + ,;:....,. 2  28 + 5 S2  28 + 5 8
+ F2(S)
=
2
8 
~
8
+
2
and and
h(t) h(t)
=
2 et sin2tu(t)
t
1
F2(8) = Therefore
s2 _
~s
+2
= %e sin 2t u(t)
f(t)
= eh(t
 1)
+ h(t)
 1)
= ~e(t1) sin 2(t  l)tt(t (d)
2
+ ~et
sin 2t u(t)
F(8)=e"+e '+1=(e"+e28+1)[ ~+~+2
1 ~+~+2 + e2• + 1) [_1 s+l
] 1_]
= (e"
F(s) where
s+2
=
(e "
+ e28 + I)F(s)
and i(t)
F(s)
Moreover
=
_1 8+1
1_ 8+2
=
(et
_
e2t)u(t)
f(t)
l(t  1) + l(t  2) + jet) = [e(t1) _ e2(tl)jll(t _ 1)
=
+ [e(t2)
72
_ e2(t2)ju(t
_ 2)
+ (et
_ e2t)u(t)
s == 1 t 0 u(r)dr ~ 11 () ss 1 2" s Pair 4: Use successive integration of tu(t) Pair 5: From frequencyshifting (6.>.2) . 1 s and e u t) ~ .2To) + .s s2 + b2 .) )_ 73 .e2 s ...!.26 (a)(i) df dt = o(t) = = .33) to pair 8a cosbtu(t) ( S ~ yields b () cos t u t ~ s+a +a )2 + b2 + 6) = reat[cos 6 cos bt .To + c3 .(l 8 e2..33). =. i = i = 0 t o(r) dr ~ 1 (1) s.2~b2 Pair 8b: Same way as the pair 8a..u(t . e 4. F(s) (b) J(t) G(s)= 6. and so on.!. we have u(t) ~Pair 6: Because tu(t) ~ 1 2" s t3u(t).•To + .e and 1 F(s) = .4) e2s s _ e4• F( se 1 (2.25 Pair 2 u(t) Pair 3 tu(t) = u(t) . Pair 9a: Application of the frequencyshift e Pair 9b: Similar to the pair 9a..o(t . . Pair lOb is equivalent to pair lOa.•) = = o(t .2) sF(s) F(s) (ii) df dt sF(s) 1.o(t . .e2• !(l .2) F(s) 1..To) + J(t .) 8. S jb +. = F(s)[l + c··To + e2. s + Jb I) =.S _ 1 .6.t ( . 6.24 (a) get) = J(t) and + J(t . Pair 8a: cosbtu(t)=(e 2 I jbt +e jbt )u(t)~ 2 I(I .(1_C2S) s e 8.sin 6 sin btl Now use results in pairs 9a and 9b to obtain pair lOa. Pairs 10a and lOb: Recognize that reat cos (bt at property (6.\ Pair 7: Apply the same argument to t2u(t).
2) + 4Y(8) (82 + 48 + 4)Y(s) = = (8 + 1)_2_1 8+ .1) + 25Y(s) = (s + 2)25 50 = 25 +s s (s Yes) .2) 2... + 2 s+20 82 + 68 + 25 yet) = [2 + 5.5 '+e 2 S F(s) = 12(1 ...2) + 4Y(s) = (s + 1) s +1 (S2 + 4s + 4)Y(s) and Y = 2s + 10 2 6 + 2 + (s + 2)2 (s) = 2s + 10 s2 + 4s + 4 = 2s + 10 (s + 2)2 = S yet) = (2 (e) + 6t)e2tu(t) .3u(t .3) 1 3 sF () = .. te2t .__. The zeroinput response is zero.3e2" 6..32a is zerostate response.28 .s .31 (a) 8 + 2e3S) (S2 + 38 + 2)Y(s) yeS) (b) = = S(!) s 1 s2 + 3s + 2 _ = 1 s+ 1.e s .. aerostate ___.28 .836e3t eos(4t ..86°)]u(t) 6. . + 2u(t 3. 28+9+ 1 input acroaeatc aeroInput = 2 zeroinput 5 s + 2 + (8 + 2)2 + (8 + 2)2 ZCfo. 'The entire response found in Prob.(b) df  dt = u(t) .32 (a) All initial conditions are zero..(28 + 9) 1 or (82+48+4)Y(8) = i.99. ._. that is yzs(t) Yzi(t) (b) The Laplace transform = (et =0  e2t)u(t) of the differential equation is (82y(S) or .1) 4(sY(s) + or .e. terms . 1 yet) = (2 '" + 5t)e2t + 74 zeroinput. 6.state ...1) + 4(8Y(8) .1) + 6(sY(s) or 2 (S2 + 6s + 25)11(s) = s + 32 + 50 = s2 + 32s + 50 and Y s s (s) = s2+32s+50 S(82 + 68 + 25) = ..5.s+2 yet) = (et 2 e2t)u(t) 1 (s Yes) .
.9) = '. ms ~ input Y(.s(s2+3s+1) Y(s)2  . t cr .c .~) = 0 + l)Yl(05) + (2s + 1)1"2(s) = 0 5(S + 0.8aO)] eirost atc 6.382)(s s+l s+2 s(s2+3s+1) H() s 1 = = = = s2 s(s + 2. we obtain s+2 s+2 s(s + 1)(8 + 4) 1 8(8+1)(s+4) 1 Yt(s) = o5(s2 Y2(o5) and = s(s2 + 58 + 4) + 505 + 4) u: () = t Y2 () t = 1 = = 1/2 1/3 1/6 s.112.::2_5_8:+_.8 .618t)u(t) = 0..2Y2(S) = s 2Yl(5) + (205 + 4)Y2(S) = 0 (s Using Cramer's rule..3e 1 '4 :ie t 1 .1056 + 2.s + 4 1/4 _ S 1/3 + 1/12 8+15+4 (1 ( 1 1 2 . the inductor current Yl (0) = 4 and the capacitor voltage is 16 volts.724 s + 0.618) + s+2 0.154e3t cos(4t .'i+ 50 i.1.382)(s + 2.34 At t are (1.0.__. the loop equations 75 . respectively to the input J(t).i)] zeroinput .618 s + 3s + 1 5+1 and H2(s) = s 2 + 8 +1 Yl(t) Y2(t) 6.382t ..894 s + 0.50::::::S(82+605+25) ecrost ato =( yet) = [he3t cos(4t .(s + 1)Y2(.1) + 2.'SY(s) = 25 + 50 s +2.1056e2.382 1.52 s+7 2 )+(+ + 6s + 25 8 28+13 ) s2 + 68 + 25 + [2 + 5. thus = s2 + 5s + 4 + 2)Yl(5) 8+2 and (b) The Laplace transform of the equations are (s (s Application of Cramer's rule yields Y(s)s+1 1 .618) 1 s 2 s 0.33 (a) Laplace transform of the two equations yields + 3)Yl(S) .382 5+2 3 0.'~ 05+ 7 82+68+25 zeroInput + .(c) The Laplace transform of the equation is (S2y(S) or (s2+6s+25)Y(s)= 8+7 .0.724eO.618t)u(t) (2 .894eO.618 0.382t .'6eu4t) (t ) t + 1 TIe 4t) u () t If Hl(S) and H2(8) are the transfer functions relating Yl(t) H() 18 and Y2(t).1) + 6(sY(8) . After t = 0..276e2..s + 1 .0.276 5 + 2.
5) 20(s + 2) 8 =..+24 ..37 (a) (i) = s!3 and Y(8) _ yet) .(s .2te3t)u(t) (ii] F(s) = '!4 Y(s)= .If Laplace transform of the loop equations are Or (2s + 5)Y1(S) .)Y2(S) = 8 . yet) = s+5 = 3/2 __ 2_+~ (8+2)(s+3)(8+4) s+2 s+3 (s+4) ~e2t _ 2e3t + ~e4tu(t) 76 .+3 .+2 (c) d2 d d2f df __]f_ .(s + 3)(s2 + 58 + 6) 8 +5 8 (s + 2)(s + 3)2 = +5 S + 2 .89c1. 5y(t) = 5+ + 7.5) Y2(t) = 20v'2e1.s + 3 .3)2 3 3 2 = (3e2t _ 3e3t .5tcos(~ 6 .26.JL.5t cos(~ .+ 2f(t) dt2 dt dt2 dt F(s) 6.56°)Ju(t) Y2(S) = (s2 + 3s + 2.. 3.+ 16s+28 s2+3s+2.5 Y1(t) = [8+ 17.~)u(t) (c) ~ 3.(2s + 4)Y2(S) = 8 + 40 s 1 16 (209 + 4)Y1(S) + (2s + 4 + .5 () a 6.2.s s Cramer's rule yields y 1(S)= 4(6s2+13s+5) s(s2+3s+2.2+11.36 (a) d2y dy df dt2 + 3 dt + 8y(t) = dt + 5f(t) (b) 5.
(t) = e 20[!!e 2(t5) _ 2e 3(t5) + le 4(t5)]U(t . e 4 (t5) = 2 4 e 0e.39 F(s) = .38 (a) (D2 + 2D + 5)y(t) = (2D + 3)f(t) F(8) =~ Y(8 ) y(t) = 10(28 + 3) 8(82+28+5) [6 + 9. the unit step response is the integral of the unit impulse response h(t).2e3(t5) + ~e4(t5)]u(t (iv) The input here is equal to the input in (ii) multiplied by e20 because output is equal to the output in (ii) multiplied by e20.6°)]u(t) (b) f(t) = u(t .6°]}u(t 6.(iii) The input here is the input in (ii) delayed by 5 sees.130. = [3/2 8+ 2 __ 2_ 8+3 ..' V( ) 18= 28 + 3 e 5.310 (a) Let H(s) be the system transfer function. then = i(t).22et = ~+ 8 68 + 8 82+28+5 = cos(2t .3Jro t  cos [3t + tan1 G)]) u(t) 6.5) + ___!E__]e5. Therefore the (v) The input here is equal to the input in (iii) multiplied bye20 because e4tu(t .1 __ 8+ 1 O.~ 2 2 2 c. Therefore Y(8) = 8+5 e5.6 1 =+10 8 ( 68 + 8 )] e 5.I(s .5) and F(8) = ~e5.le.'~l) Y(s) = 1 (82 + 9)(8 + 1) 0_.'.22e(t5) cos[2(t . the output is y(r) dr . S ·T vi» a Fig.. J: J: 1.9 and y(t) = (o. (b) 6.1) 82 .5) .0e4 (t5)u(t .41 77 . (8 + 4) lI(t) = ~e2(t5) . 86.5) y(t) = to{6 + 9. 82 + 28 + 5 . (b) Using similar argument we show that for the input f(r) dr .5) .'(. Because u(t) is an integral of o(t). (8 + 2)(8 + 3)(8 + 4) F(8) =.5).!4e5. = Fl(S)H(s) = SF(8)H(s) = sY(s) This shows that Yl(t) = dy/dt. 8(82 + 28 + 5) [0.5) = Therefore . Y(s) Consider an input /1(t) = F(s)H(s) If the output is Yl(t) and its transform is Y1(s).130. Then Fl(S) Yl(S) = sF(s)..
41 j 6ij) Fig. The loop equations are or Cramer's rule yields 1 Y2(8) = (8 + 1)2(82 + 28 + 2) vo(t) 1 (8 + 1)2 sin t)u(t) 1 28 + 2 82 + = Y2(t) = (tet  !et 6.  5 [3 s + (2/3) 2] yet) 6.41 shows the transformed network. S6. Figure S6. that is yeO) = 5. the inductor current is 5A.42 Before the switch is opened.44 Figure 86.8(3s + 2)  3" .42 S 2 5 . 1 5 6. The current yes) is given by Y (s)  _ (10/8)+5 3s + 2 _ 5s+1O _ . S6.S J25 Yc0 5 2Fig.43 = (5 _1je2t/3)u(t) is Ls(l/Cs) Ls + (l/Cs) Ls LCa2 The impedance seen by the source J(t) Z(s) The current Y (8) is given by = +1 2 F(8) Lswo2 82 +wo2 Yes) = F(8) Z(8) = 2 8 L8wo2 + wo (a) .42b shows the transformed circuit for t ~ 0 with initial condition generator.
the steadystate values of currents Yl and Y2 is y!(O) = 2. 86.045et/6 cos( ~t circuit with mutually 20 [1 3/2 +1 ] .Fig. b = ~ r = .Y2(S) Yl(S) + (s + 2)Y2(S) (s Cramer's rule yields Yl(S) = 2s2 + lIs s(s+I)(s+3) =2 =1 + 6 s + 12 = ~_ 3/2 _ 1/2 s+1 s+1 s+3 s Y2 s = s2 + 405 6 + () s(s+I)(s+3) =~_ s 3/2 +~ s+3 Yl(t) = (4 . Figure S6. The loop equations are + 2)Yl(S).787et/6 cos( ~t .44 shows the transformed circuit for t 2 0 with initial condition generators.5) s 382 + 8 + 1 8 8(s2 + i:.168 = ~(1.31.45 6.~et Y2(t) 6.+ 682 + 1/38 + 1/3 = ~h(t) + [10 + 9.31.lJ2(0) = 1. The loop equations are coupled inductor replaced by their equivalents (8 + l)Yl(S) .44 At t = 0.46 shows the transformed Fig.5.1 O)u(t) Yl(t) The voltage v.(8) = (8 + !)Y(s) 8 = (8 1 2 + 1)( 208 + 10 ) = 20 (8 + 1)(8 + 0. B = 0.1°)u(t) . + ~) 88 2 v..14b).46 Figure 86.2°)]u(t) (see 6.~et + ~e3t)u(t) circuit with initial condition generators is = 0 is IDA. a = ~.(t) across the switch is V.~e3t)u(t) = (2 . 6.45 for t 2 O. .152. .(t) = 3' + 8. The transformed Here A = 1.jH = 1.28Y2(8) 2SY1(S) Cramer's rule yields + (405+ 1)Y2(8) = 8 =0 100 79 .45 The current in the 2H inductor at t shown in Figure S6. c = ~.l68)et/6cos(~t = 7.
The inductor current is zero. 86.2) 40 6. To determine the current Y(8).46 I/g 3 Fig.+:3 80 . the impedance seen across terminals ab: Zab(8) = 1+ 38 + 8 (_1_1_) 48 + 11 2+ ti1 .47 shows the transformed W (s) seen by the source is circuit with parallel form of initial condition generators. we determine Zab(8).48 6.48.47 Y2(S) = (s and + 0.47 Figure 86.2+4.716e2t cos(3t 1 + 29°)u(t) s b Fig. The admittance W() 8 The voltage across terminals a b is 13 = +8+ 8 4 2 8+ = ~48 + 13 8 Vab(S) Also = 1(8) W(8) = ~+3 .Fig. 86.+13 s 82 38 + 1 + 48 + 13 VO(8) and = '2Vab(8) = = 1 2(82 38 + 1 + 48 + 13) vo(t) 1.48 The capacitor voltage at t = 0 is 10 volts. 86. The transformed circuit with initial condition generators is shown for t > 0 in Fig. 86.
8tj1t(t) 'V (s) 1 t Fig. S6. we can show (see Fig. P6.49) Ks H(s) = . S6.61 + 2.S6.53) 1.410 6.h(s)j = s 2 0 81 .~ + ("3.'S. The op amp input voltage is Vx{s) ::: O.+ . The loop equations are h(s) 12(s) oS + (.16) from Fi.12(8)] = F(s) s 6 363 + (.gQ Also Y(.49b. 6.+8 43+11 ) 90(48 + 11) 382 + 2805 + 55 30(48 = 2 8 + 28 3'8 + 11) + :r 55 (8 30(48 + 11) + 2.)[h(s) .53 121.61 and y(t) = [121.8)(8 + 6.~ a + r ~) C"N\.s) = 2 .410 shows the transformed circuit.61e653t  1.+ l)[h(.49a circuit (with noninverting 1 1 + F(s) cs 1 op amp replaced by its equivalent as shown in Ka 1 \"o(s) = KVl(S) Therefore = KR Cs =  s+a a= RC H(s) =s+a Ka a= RC' K=1+Rb Ra Similarly for the circuit in Fig.49 shows the transformed Fig.49 Figure S6. S6.61e2.s) .410 Figure S6.1 Fig.8 =s + s + 6.49 6.
51 6.(8 + 1)(2s2 + 6s + 5) y(O+) y(oo) 2 2 = S2 + 8s + 12 s 68 +3s+10 S(2S2 + 6s + 5) = = '00 lim sY(s) lim 8Y(S) .212 5 = F(s) 2h +40012 Cramer's rule yields =0 h(s) Yes) = = 1596 F(s) 200Ia(s) 2 = F(s) 1596 400 = F(s) 3.~o =3 =2 = = '00 lim sY(s) =3 lim . 4h .Cramer's rule yields 1 (s _ 8(s+6) 1 )s2+8s+12F(S).2h = F(s) 2h Cramer's rule yields +6/2 =0 and Yes) Therefore H(s) (b) = 2/2(s) = 1 F(s) = i not i.0sY(s) =0 200 F(~) Y(s) + c'") Figure 86.411 (a) Y(s)= y(O+) y(oo) (b) Ys_ 6s + 3s + 10 ( ) .51 (a) The loop equations are 4h . [2(S) = s2 S(S + 88 + + 4) 12 The transfer function H(8) 6.99 1 82 .
61 shows the canonical. 86. 6. = = = 6. parallel realizations. al = 19. a'2 = 8.61 H8 () = 83 8 + 28 + 882 + 198 + 12 2 = (_8_) 8+ 1 (8 + 2) (_1_) 8+ 3 8+ 4 = 1/6 _ 3/2 + 8/3 8+ 1 8+ 3 8+ 4 Also with ao = 12.83 + 382 + 48 + 2 8+ 1 2 ( 8+2 ) 82 + 28 + 2  3_+ 8+ 1 605+6 82 + 28 + 2 83 . we apply J(t) = oCt) at the input. the output of HI(8) is hl(t). . b2 = 1.52 To determine the impulse response of either system. = 2. by definition. the output of H2(8) is h(t) hl(t) * h2(t)../&. and the output of the summer is h(t) hl(t) + h2(t).18c). the impulse response.) ':. This signal is applied to the input of H2(8) with impulse response h2(t). series and (a) H8_ ( )38(8+2) _ 38 +68 _ (~) (8 + 1)(82 + 28 + 2) . . if we apply J(t) oCt) at the input. For parallel connection (Fig. This is because the second ladder section causes a negligible load on the first.61 In this case H (8) is very close to 1/4. The Cascade rule applies only when the successive subsystems do not load the preceding subsystems.62 and H(8) bo = bl 3 2 b38 + b28 + bI8 + bo 83 + a282 + al8 + ao = 0. if we apply J(t) = oCt) at the input. 6. Fig. For series connection (Fig. 6.18b).. Hence. The output yet) is. the outputs of HI(8) and H2(8) are hr{t) and h2(t). 6. Figure 86.
..J . .... ~u... ..j . . ." ~ U. <Ii ~~0 . . iil .....!!.+ oil ...J < " ~~ ~&. . ...
9 '.."'III I· ~+ <:t I '. \1\ oJ Iu " ~ to (fJ .Il V\ MI! ~ u.... ") ~ i~ C'! biJ ri: . to (fJ ~ s::: CI! I "" 00 '"' >::. .'!} ~ u.
48+0.66 For the canonical form.6) 8+ 2 8+ 3 = . fa 8 + 2 + (8 + 2)2 + t ~ S +3 t Figure 86. cascade and parallel realizations.4 83 + 282 + 48 + 8 H(8) = (8 + 2)(82 + 4) = 2(82) 83 + 282 + 48 + 8 = (82) 8+ 2 and ( 2) 82 + 4 bo 1 8 = . S6.62a shows a canonical.48 + 0. the quadratic term must be realized directly.63 shows a canonical. bl For a canonical forms. therefore. b2 = 3. shows a canonical. S6. Note that the roots of s2 + 2s + 2 are complex. we have ao 8. a'l 4.4 28 . b2 = 3. a2 = 19.. and bo = 0. (b) 28 . ci = 118. cascade and parallel realizations. 6.62b shows a canonical. bl = 6.5(84 + 783 + 1682 + 128) 0. cascade and parallel realizations. Figure H8_ 28 + 3 ( ) . 6. we have ao = 2. cascade and parallel realizations.63 = = = = = 2.8 + 2 + 82 + 4 4. = 0. Figure 86. H (s) = 8(8+1)(8+2) (s + 5)(8 + 6)(8 + 8) and bo For a canonical form ao = 24. bz = 0. al = 4. b3 = 1.y{s) y(s) Fig.65 and S6. Figure 86.6 84 + 783 + 1682 + 128 = ( :. bl = 2. a2 = 3. b3 = 0.64 86 . a2 2.64 1)( 1 )( 8+ 2 1 )(0.
Therefore 10 H(s) =5+5 (ii) This is same as (i) followed by an amplifier of gain 1 as shown in Fig. 6. Therefore its transfer function is H(s) = = (B . = 1 Cf(s + a) 1 a=RfCf =R k_ 1 k = RCj' 1 a=RfCf H(s) = _ Zf(S) = __ Z(s) s+a Choose R = 10. cascade and parallel realizations.67c is the same of B .000 and C] = 105. (6. This yields k = 10 and a = 5. 6. S6.5 2  1+ .0.000.68b.67b is a feedback system with forward gain G(8) + a)2 + b2 = . P6.. P6.67 Application of eq. cascade and parallel realizations.69) to Fig.aA)Hl(s) BaA (s + a)2 + b2 A5+B (s+a)2+b2 + AH2(s) + ~':::'.68 These transfer functions are readily realized by using the arrangement and Z(s).5 ¥3 + s+ 1~ + (8 + ~1)2 Figure S6. 1 1 a=RfCf 1 b=RC Zf(5) Z(s) = = C( C(8 fs+a 1 ) + b) 87 .!:)2' Therefore H(). Fig.67a yields 1 (5 Figure P6.5+ 1 + s2 . R] = 20.8+ 2 + 8 . 6.65 shows a canonical. 6.!a and the loop gain (.:a 2 1 b (s+a)2 s+a (5+a)2+b2 The output in Fig. (iii) For the first stage in Fig.3 0.34b). S6.68c (see Exercise E6.aA times the output of Fig.68a in Fig.1 = ( s + 48 + 13 82 = . Rf + 1 c/.!!:L C/o.7 + 45 + 13 Figure S6.:. P6.65 53 5~ H(5) = (5 + 1)2(8 + 2)(5 + 3) _( 5 )( 5 +75 +178 +1705+6 4 3 2 5 )(  8+ 1 s )( 5+ 1 5+ 2 s +:3 1)_ .s + 1  4.67a and A times the output of Fig.6.95 s2 + 11.1 52 + 4s + 13 = 1 .66 shows a canonical.30 by a proper choice of Zf(5) Zf(s) Z(s) and = . (5 + a)2 + b2 A(5+a) 6.11. P6.9s + 1.". (i) In Fig.67b.66 H(8) = (8 83 + 1)(82 + 48 + 13) +1 S ) ( 82 83 ) + 5s2 + 178 + 13 0. S6.
= 2000. 86. This yields This is followed by an op amp of gain 1 as shown in Fig. we need a third stage of gain 1 to obtain the desired transfer functions.69. S6. we express H(s) as H(s) 8 = + 2 = 8+5 3 1.s+5 We realize H(s) as a parallel combination of Hl(S) = 1 and H2(S) = 3/(s + 5) as shown in Fig.and H(s)=_Z. Because the summer has a gain 1. The second stage serves as a summer for which the inputs are the input and output of the first stage.68c. Fig. For the other realization. R.69 88 .68 6. S6. S6.68c. Z(s) =_£(s+b) C. This yields H(8) = s+2 8+5 (a) Fig. 86.69 One realization is given in Fig.(s) Choose C = C] = 104. s +a R = 5000.
.75 89 .20..610 The transfer function here is identical to H(s) in Example 6. bl = 2. = t. In this case ao = 13. b1 = 5..T(s)l/s 3 ep = .T(s)] .20 with appropriate modifications.611 6. Because b2 is nonzero here.. 6.67 e.611 shows the development of the suitable realization. and b2 = 0).63 which yields tr = 0. and bo = 5. we have one more feed forward connection. we have ao = 10. T(s) = = lim [1 .20 with a minor difference. 6. Hence the op amp circuit in Fig.ri» (b) 100 Idl F ($) + (c) FFig.611 We follow the procedure in Example 6.5 = 2. al = 4. c i = 4.32c can be used for our purpose with appropriate changes in the element values. Figure S6. 0 2 =0 => er = = .5 Hence from Fig. 6. = 0.~O lim [1 . 6.39. S6.71 (a) T(s) = s 2 + s+ 9 3 9 => Wn = 3. The last summer input resistors now are l~ kG and l~ kG instead of 50 kG and 20 kG. and b2 = 1 (in Example 6. 2(wn =3 => <.<jO lim[l T(s)l/s2 = 00 (b) s + 4 3 s + 4 Wn 2.526. PO ::::: 7% and wntr ::::: 1 1. 2(wn = 3 => Also 1 ( = 0. and bo = 2. = __!_ = (wn 4/1.
•0 T(s)] =0 er = .I~ = s2 + as + K2 => a = 6. we cannot meet the settling time specification (t.0 . K2 = .608 Thus 052 2(wns + The steadystate + u. PO "'" 17% and wnt.Hence from Fig.•'.63 which yields tr = 0. Also t. and K«.67 e.128. Moreover.39. Hence. the parameters are K1 = 2. But.8 e .15. = 4 = (Wn 4/5 = 0.4 is value of the output is given to be 2.73 G(8) = K s(s K + 2) T(8)= 1+ ~ .. = 80 lim[sG(8)] = K2 Ka = sO lim [82G(8)] =0 Hence.608.72 T(s) = K1 [1~ . = lim[l.4 and a = 6.(. 6.39. The root locus is shown in Fig.05 er = . 3% and wntr "'" 2. Also 4 t . Hence. = 1. and K2 = 25. Jw . == 4/(wn == 4. 2(Wn = 10 (= 0. we could use parameters Kp.128.09 tp =:} ( = 0.T(05)] 80 = 0.:::.'10 lim [1 . s 2 + as + 1\2 KaK2 ' = K1 = 2 25. This being a unity feedback system.= Ka 1 00 90 .5 Hence from Fig.• = lim [1 .163.73. 6.• 0 T(s)]/s2 = 00 (c) T(05) = 052 + lOs + 100 95 W" = 10. the staedystate y ss = lim value of the output Thus.04 for ( = 0.(_+2) S2 + 2s + K K The characteristic roots are 1 ±j~. But. PO"". r.(2 IT 1r = "4 = Wn V 1 .3 which yields t .1' Figure S6.T(S)]/o52 80 = 00 6. We now find the steadystate errors. Observe that for the characteristic polynomial 82 + 28 + K. t .a) 1 => Wn PO=e'7I"/V1=(2 = 0.T(s)]/o5 = 00 cp = lim [1 . 1 2 K ep =.<. 86. "'" 1. (wn = 1 and w~ = K. V 1 .0 lim[l T(s)]/s = 0.75 ep = lim[l. K.'!IO 00 K.. the open loop transfer function of this unity feedback system is 6.73 The transfer function of the inner loop is 1/ (8 + 2).• =  (Wn = 4/1. es = 1 + Kp = 1 0 er = = tc.2 ~ =:} Wn = 5. regardless of the value of K. We have Kp == lim G(05) = .5 = 2.. ~ 1).
whereas our root locus is to the left of 5. both loci terminate at 00 (for K = 00) along asymptotes at angles k7r/(n . Hence. An easy solution would be to cancel the pole at 10 and place another pole at somewhere to the left of 16.t::(2 = 0. one locus will terminate at 5 (when K = 00). Hence.. The root locus is shown in Fig. The other three branches terminate at 00 (when K = 00) along asymptotes at angles k7r/(n .2 and t .27. There is only one open loop zero at 1.75 First. this segment from 0 to 10 of the real axis is a part of the root locus. Wn = .)11. There are no open loop zeros. Hence.. 6. one locus will terminate at 1 (when K = 00). Now s PO = e'''/.jK. From Fig. The other two branches terminate at 00 (when K = 00) along asymptotes at angles k1r/(n .1 + 1)/3 1.5. But.3 .67.06. Hence. requirement for any value of K. 5 and 7. the root locus must be to the left of 8. There is only one open loop zero at 1.m) = 7r/3 and 7r and . we can compute all the transient parameters as follows. except the segment from 1 to 4 is a part of the root locus. S 0. and K. Hence. we shall consider the steadstate errors.5.5 . there are two root loci starting at 0 and 3 (when K = 0).+20) + 20s + K The characteristic polynomial is 092 + 20s + K.40 on the root locus. Alternately. tt and 5pi/3. 5 and 7 (when K = 0).. The centroid of the asymptotes is G" = (0 . We superimpose this root locus on Fig. we must shift the locus to the left by using compensation. This shows that the plot emerges from real axis at K = 100. This can be readily obtained from a computer generated root locus. we cannot satisfy t./3. both the roots are always to the right of 5 for all K. one locus will terminate at 1 (when K = 00). Kp = 00 and K" = K/lO. In our case.3 and PO S 30%. 4 and 1 ± j (when K = 0).74a. we cannot satisfy ts condition for any value of K. The open loop poles are at 0 and 10./K . we draw the root locus for the system. We now superimpose Fig.7. 6.5a. because for i.34 . Moreover. the roots must be to the left of 8. the entire real axis in the LHP. and (wn = 10. and tr are within specifications. There is only one open loop zero at 5.. 3 and 5.504 . 4 and 1 ± j.We already observed that we cannot meet t. Hence. there are four root loci starting at 0. This yields K 2:: 333.16 91 (= 0. the segments 0 to 1 and 3 to 5 of the real axis are a part of the root locus. S6./333.3 . and the centroid of the corresponding root locus is at 10 8. Hence. We can satisfy e .· = 1/ K.40 and observe that all the specifications can be oversatisfied as long 8. and demarcate the region for PO S 16%. This is clearly a lead compensator with transfer function = = Gc(s) = s + 10 s +20 The new open loop transfer function is G(09) = K/s(s + 20). For these pole values.jK. but not both.74 (a) The open loop poles are at 0. shown in Fig. The closedloop transfer function is K T(s)= 1+ ~ K S2 . There is only one opeu loop zero at 1.34. Hence. In this case. or we can compute it as follow. Hence.5. We find that we can meet PO and t. Hence.10)/2 5. S 0. The centroid of theasymptotes is G" (0 . Thus. Hence. We also need e. Moreover. Moreover. = 0 and e.· S 0.5. Moreover. The root locus is shown in Fig. we conclude that we cannot meet both t .100.75b. To find the exact value. there are two root loci starting at 0 and 10 (when J( = 0). except the segment from 3 to 5 is a part of the root locus. . = K/20. The centroid of the asymptotes is G" = (0 . Let us select the new pole at 20. Moreover.06. 6. S6. Hence. Let us now verify the transient parameters. the entire real axis in the LHP. S6. as we saw.40..74c. to meet the t.67. = 1/(1 + Kp) = 0 and e. The root locus is shown in Fig. 6. 3.. t.40 that all the parameters PO. requirement. except two segments 0 to 3 and 5 to 7 are a part of the root locus. specification.m) = zr. = = 6. Also e. We can meet one or the other.m) = 7r/2 and 37r/2. The other branch terminate at 00 (when K = 00) along asymptote at angles k7r/(n .m) = 7r/2 and 37r/2. The other three branches terminate at 00 (when K = 00) along asymptotes at angles k7r/(n .<.jK( = 10 and ( = 1O/. S6. The characteristic roots [poles of T(s)] are 10 ± j. 3.•. we should choose K > 100.m) = 7r/3. one locus will terminate at 1 (when K = 00). This is a unity feedback system with G(s) = K/s(s + 10). it is clear from Fig. Hence.4 . (c) The open loop poles are at 0 3. but not t. 3 and 5 (when K = 0).1 . The roots are 10 ± j. there are four root loci starting at 0.5 + 1)/2 = 3. e s = 0 and er = 20/ K 0. The characteristic polynomial is s2 + 20s + K = 82 + 2(wns + w~..7 + 1)/3 = 4. Hence. Hence. S6. the entire real axis.74b.(. Thus. = 10/ K. The centroid of the asymptotes is G" (0 . K is large enough so that the roots are not on the real axis. The root locus is shown in Fig.100 = 10 ± jI5. we can satisfy both the steadystate specifications by choosing K 2:: 600. tr S 0. specifications. S6.<. there are three root loci starting at 0. Hence. (b) The open loop poles are at 0.74d. 6. To obtain t. S 0. The root locus is shown in Fig.. Kp = 00. S 0 . (d) The open loop poles are at O..
.. ~.. __ ~ _li_ .$~f?1~_"'~ . .... " .l .C3 ' lie ....i!J .: . o (j....11> : . ......... .. 7 :...... .. r  ...>.~ .....iK 4 .5':'" ..: . ..:.. . .':'If......  .....  .. ... ..   .. .......     .    ?~ rt!~~. .  ..H.......~ .:.. • . l I....ra_).....4......:...e ._ . r  . .  ... :.~ft7 . '.....:.7!i 92 .... .. J. (b)  :\ ~ ".... 4" ~h' :.'"'2: .B~ . ..1. '  t.....!l ~ .   .'.) Figure S6..l* 5 ~t7" ..:lP . : _j.
= => K = 393. And F'2(8) has a region a < O. (b) flit) = . 6.82 (a) a> and 1 1 1 s+l 1 and Hence: F(s)= Fl(S)+ F2(S) F2(S)= =s+ 1 s+l 93 u<1 + = 2 s21 l<a<l .67 will satisfy all the conditions.e : 1 + et .0508. Actually.1 > o} if Re s if Re > 8 1 < 0 Hence the region of convergence is 1 < a <0 (e) e _k12 e .34 < K ::.67 6. we meet all the specifications for K = 39:3.504VK = 10 e. Also e .!I Figure S6..• = 4/(w" = 0.. Also hit) = u(t). (a) Let hit) = [(t)ll(t) = etaU) and hit) = [(t)u(t) = 1L( t). Therefore. we meet all the transient specifications. Thus.67.81b (c) e t2 + 1 1 "I > O} as t as t > 00 if Re s 2: 0 if Re s ::. t .. and FI(s) converges for a> 1.1 .4. and F2(S) = ~ converges for a < O. 0 > 00 Hence the convergence occurs at a = 0 (jwaxis) (d) fit) 1 =. Hence there is no common region of convergence for F(s) = FI(S) + F2(S). any value of K in the range 3:33. For K = 393.Also VK ( = 0.. the strip of convergence is l<a<O =.j> O} as t .81 Moreover. as t 00 for any value of s for any value of s > 00 Hence the region of convergence is the entire splane..l 1+ e as t as t > 00 > 00 1 e .~)has a region of convergence a> 1. 393.• = 0 and 20/ K = 0. Then Fl(.tu(t).67.
1 (c) FI(S) Fz(s) Hence (d) f(t). = s(s + 1) for for (e) f(t) = etu(t) = {h(t) =1 t>0 t<0 h(t) Fl(s)=1 s F2(S) = et cr>O Fz'.83 = Fl(S) + F2(S) = ( O<cr<l (a) F(s) _ 2s + 5 .1 8 +1 1T>1 1 .3< o < 2 < 2 hence the first term =+s+2 s+3 1 1 The pole 2 lies to the right. S S 1 =S cr<O and hence: F(s) = +1 1 1 1 .1 = 1 s(s .1) (f) f(t) = coswotu(t) Fl(S) + etu(t) S = h(t) + h(t) = 22 s +wo a >0 and F2(S) = 1' s+ S 1 cr<l (s + w5) 1)( 2 2) S + wo F(s) 6.3<a . s) and hence: = s+ 1 F(s) 1 = s 1 +1 a < 1 = . and F2(S)= = . and the pole 3 lies to the left of the region of convergence. + F2(S) (s _ 1)(8 _ 2) for for t 1 = {:t Hence Fz(s) >0 t<0 FI(S) h(t) =u(t).= etu(t) F(s) = FI(S) = 1 1 1 8 IT> 1 and =8 +2 = IT < 2.  1 1 s.(8 + 2)(s + 3) .(b) f(t) Hence = e It I cos t = pt cos t tt(t) + pt cos t u( I) = h(t) 8+1 + 12(1) IT < 1 8+1 FI () = ( S )2 8+1 +1 and F( 2 8 r= (8 + 1)2 + 1 S. represents causal and the second term represents anticausal signal: 94 ..
_ 3) 1 1 2<0<3 =82+83 The pole at 2 lies to tl.·~ left and that at 3 lies to the right of the region of convergence.> 1 Both poles lie to the left of the region of convergence.< 2 1 =+8+1 Both poles lie to the right of the region of convergence.< 2 0.(b) F(s) = 285 (8 . and (d) F(s) = 28+3 (s + 1)(8 + 2) 1 8+2 0.6 1 1 2 8+::1"':1'7")(:8+:2:7) 81 + 8+2 ):"":(8 = 8+1 7"( (a) Re 8 > 1: All poles to the left of the region of convergence. 95 . Therefore f(t) (b) Re 8 = (et  et + 2e2t)u(t) < 2: All poles to the right of the region of convergence. whereas the pole 5 lies to the right: 6. hence (c) F( ) 28 + 3 8 =(8+1)(8+2) 1 =+8+1 1 8+2 0.28 .5) 1 85 1<0<5 1 =++8+1 The poles 1 and 3 lie to the left of the region of convergence. Therefore f(t) = (e""t + 2e2t)u(t) + etu( t) (d) 2 < Re s Therefore < 1: Poles 1 and 1 are to the right and pole 2 is to the left of the region of convergence. and hence: (e) F(8) = 38 2817 1 8+3 2 (8 + 1)(8 + 3)(8 .2)(8 . Therefore f(t) = (e (e) 1 < Re 8 t + et  2e 2t)U( t) < 1: Poles 1 and 2 to the left and pole 1 to the right of the region of convergence.> 1 0.84 282 .
ill 1 H(s) = . which are to the left of the strip of convergence.1)(5 .'1 ..5 1] <0'< 1 2 1 2 }(.s .0 .5 s Y(s) = H(s)F(s) =  +1 1 [1 + 0 .. and the pole 0 .0..5 <0'< 1 2 1 2 The poles 1 and 0..25) H(8) 1 = _1_ 8+1 0' > 1 1 Hence: Y(8) = H(8)F(8) = (8 + 1)(s +~~)(s 2 s + 0..).) s =+s ~ +1 + 0.~ ..).s 1 +1 0' > 1 And hence: F(s)=s + 0.6. Hence (b) 1 F(s) = 51 1 .1 s + 0.) s+1 s .25) . yield the causal signal.2""')(8 + 0 .'5)(8 + 0.0.2) 1 And H(s)= 8 +1 0' > 1 Hence: Y(s) Y(5) = H(s)F(5) = (5+1 )(s1 )(8= 1/6 5+1 1 2) +~ 51 _ 1/3 s2 1<0'<2 Hence (c) F (5) = 5 +0.5 + 0. 2 + .2 + ' ~. yields the anticausal signal.. which is to the right of the strip of convergence.5 3 (d) 96 .) ' .85 (a) f(t)=e2.25 _a =_3_+ s+ 1 + 0...52 1 1<0'<2 (s .) 2 ~ s .s 1 s .') Also 1 5 +=0=.0.~) = s +1 .
25) 4 __J_ S +1 + _.3.Fl(S) =82 F2('<) =1 1 8 1 <7>2 0' < 1 * and H(s) = 1 s +1 0' > 1 In this case.5 1 1 H(s) = s +1 0' > 1 Here also. Let Y(s) where: 1 = 1'1(S) + Y2(S) Y1(S) = = (8 + 1)(8 + 0.25 97 . each of Fds) and F2(S) have a region of convergence that is common to Hts].~. Thus: where 0'>2 = 3 8+1 1 + _L_ 82 1 0'>2 Observe that both the poles ( 1 and 2) are to the left of the region of convergence. This means we need not worry about the common region of convergence for Fl(S) and F2(S). However. we have no common region of convergence.. hence both terms are causal. Hence (e) f(t) = e4u(t) t + e"2u(t) = fr(t) + h(t) t where Fr(s) F2(S) = s + 0. there is no region of convergence that is common to Fl(S) and F2(S)._ S 4 + 0. and then adding these two components. of the strip of convergence. Hence the output can be computed by finding the system response to hit) and h(t) separately.1 2 1 1) '2 1 1<0'<1 1<0'<1 Hence the first term 8+181 The poles 1 and 1 are to the left and the right. yields causal signal and the second yields anticausal signal.25 1 =S + 0. and: Y2(8) = F2(8)H(8) = _ (8 + 1)(. for Fl(S) and F2(S) as in part d. respectively.
Y2 ( 8) = . but there is no region of convergence common to F2(S) and H(s)...5 and Hence (f) !I(t) = !ll(t) . Hence the output Yl(t) will be finite but Y2(t) will be 00.1/2(t) = 2etu(t) + . ) 5 2 8 1 l<o<Z l<o<Z + 2e2u(t) u(t) t 1 1 2 1 s + + 0 .::~. there is a common region of convergence for Fl(05) and H(s).1}2{t) = (~et + ~ei) = fI(t) + 2e~1L( t) f(t) = e3tu(t) F(s) + c2tu(_t) = Fl(S) + h(t) + F2(S) 1 =s+3 =05+2 =1 0 where Fl(S) F2(S) H(s) > < 3 2 1 0 8+1 0 > 1 In this case.:::(8 + 1)(8 + 0 . 98 .
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