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Mean Proportional Grade Level: Geometry 1 40-45 minute class period Materials: Strands Content Strands Geometry Strand G.G.45 Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about similar triangles G.G.46 Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about proportional relationships among the segments of the sides of the triangle, given one or more lines parallel to one side of a triangle and intersecting the other two sides of the triangle G.G.47 Investigate, justify, and apply theorems about mean proportionality: o the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle is the mean proportional between the two segments along the hypotenuse o the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle divides the hypotenuse so that either leg of the right triangle is the mean proportional between the hypotenuse and segment of the hypotenuse adjacent to that leg Process Strands Problem Solving G.PS.1 Use a variety of problem solving strategies to understand new mathematical content G.PS.2 Observe and explain patterns to formulate generalizations and conjectures G.PS.3 Use multiple representations to represent and explain problem situations (e.g., spatial, geometric, verbal, numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations) G.PS.4 Construct various types of reasoning, arguments, justifications and methods of proof for problems Reasoning and Proof G.RP.1 Recognize that mathematical ideas can be supported by a
variety of strategies G.RP.2 Recognize and verify, where appropriate, geometric relationships of perpendicularity, parallelism, congruence, and similarity, using algebraic strategies G.RP.5 Present correct mathematical arguments in a variety of forms analytic, incorrect G.RP.7 Construct a proof using a variety of methods (e.g., deductive, transformational) G.RP.8 Devise ways to verify results or use counterexamples to refute statements
Communication G.CM.1 Communicate verbally and in writing a correct, complete, coherent, and clear design (outline) and explanation for the steps used in solving a problem G.CM.2 Use mathematical representations to communicate with appropriate accuracy, including numerical tables, formulas, functions, equations, charts, graphs, and diagrams G.CM.3 Present organized mathematical ideas with the use of appropriate standard notations, including the use of symbols and other representations when sharing an idea in verbal and written form G.CM.5 Communicate logical arguments clearly, showing why a result makes sense and why the reasoning is valid G.CM.6 Support or reject arguments or questions raised by others about the correctness of mathematical work G.CM.7 Read and listen for logical understanding of mathematical thinking shared by other students G.CM.8 Reflect on strategies of others in relation to one’s own strategy G.CM.9 Formulate mathematical questions that elicit, extend, or challenge strategies, solutions, and/or conjectures of others G.CM.10 Use correct mathematical language in developing mathematical questions that elicit, extend, or challenge other students’ conjectures
G.CM.11 Understand and use appropriate language, representations, and terminology when describing objects, relationships, mathematical solutions, and geometric diagrams Representation G.R.1 Use physical objects, diagrams, charts, tables, graphs, symbols, equations, or objects created using technology as representations of mathematical concepts G.R.2 Recognize, compare, and use an array of representational forms G.R.3 Use representation as a tool for exploring and understanding mathematical ideas G.R.7 Use mathematics to show and understand social phenomena (e.g., determine if conclusions from another person’s argument have a logical foundation) G.R.8 Use mathematics to show and understand mathematical phenomena (e.g., use investigation, discovery, conjecture, reasoning, arguments, justification and proofs to validate that the two base angles of an isosceles triangle are congruent) Anticipatory Set Discussion Students will be asked to define the Pythagorean theorem. Does anyone else know any other ways of deriving the formula? Can someone please define the mean and what a proportion is? After working through these words and everyone's definitions, ask someone to please come to the board to draw a right triangle and the Pythagorean theorem. Learning Activity The lesson will then begin with definitions given to a, b, and c. We will then give a formal definition to the mean proportional which is, “The mean proportional of two positive numbers a and b is the positive number x such that . When solving for x, .” One thing to notice is that our x variable appears twice in our proportion, which is the mean, this will help us derive the Pythagorean theorem. Using the projector, draw figures to represent the mean and extremes. The first theorem to help us states that we can drop a perpendicular bisector from our triangle at point C which will intersect perpendicular on the segment AB which is our hypotenuse. This altitude is the mean proportional between two new segments created on the hypotenuse. Using the overhead
projector, draw a right triangle ABC and then drop a perpendicular bisector to create point D. From here we can see three separate triangles, are there any clues as to if these triangles are similar? How many of us have seen a two-column proof? Once assessed, do a quick reminder of where we take simple statements and give them reasons. With the information presented we can't prove that triangles ADC and CDB are similar so we must prove that the other triangles are similar first. Now go through the proof as to why the three triangles are true starting with triangles ACB and ADC. After proving those two similar, we must prove that triangles ACB and CDB are similar. Finally, we can show as to why triangles ADC and CDB are similar. Since these triangles (ACB and CDB) are similar, we can create proportions using the sides from the altitude rule which states, “The altitude to the hypotenuse of a right triangle is the mean proportional between the segments into which it divides the hypotenuse.” Because of this rule, we can create proportions using each section of the hypotenuse and the altitude. This is useful when we know the length of the altitude. The next theorem to prove is the leg rule which states, “Each leg of a right triangle is the mean proportional between the hypotenuse and the projection of the leg on the hypotenuse.” Proceed to draw a triangle on the projector with the respected points and segments (A, B, C, H, a, b, c, d, e. Reminder, d+e=c). We will then derive proportions from the triangles with cosine and sine for the respected triangles. Finally, we will work through the reasoning and trigonometry as to why these proportions are true i.e. a/c = e/a and b/c=d/b. In case there is no altitude readily available to us, we can use the leg rule. Did you forget about the Pythagorean theorem because here is the “a-ha” moment. Take our proportions and set the cosines equal to each other as well as the sines. The student will be asked to solve each proportion on their own until they solve each set. Next, students will be asked to add their two separate answers together remembering to substitute in values and remember to simplify. Thus leading us to a^2+b^2=c^2 which is the Pythagorean theorem. Remind students to ask questions along the way. Finally, round up the lesson before the students practice some exercises. Draw two triangles on the projector with some given lengths. Provide one triangle with an altitude where they will need to use the altitude rule and the other triangle only has one leg length which in turn makes them use the leg rule. Triangle one has an altitude of 9 cm., the longest segment on the hypotenuse is 18cm., and we want to find the final segment of the hypotenuse. The second triangle will have one segment of the hypotenuse as 10 cm., the other segment will be 5 cm., and the leg of the triangle will be x. Take any questions along the way. To finish off the lesson, hand one out to each student.
If there is time, allow students to work on the worksheet while taking observations from walking around. Remind the students that what they don't finish will be considered tonight's homework. If the students feel the need, they may work with the person next to them. Finally, remind the students that there will be a short quiz later on in the week covering the proofs and several examples. Provisions for Diversity Gearing Down For students who cannot see the overhead projector very well because of the dim lights, extra copies of my notes will be readily available for them. Also, students will know the times they can come see me or we can arrange a time for if they need additional help. Gearing Up Questions for Understanding Knowledge Construct two column proofs. What are the definitions of the mean and a proportion? Comprehension Write coherent two-column proofs with reasons. Application Reproduce the proofs for similar triangles. What is the value of the altitude with the given hypotenuse lengths? Analysis What are the relationships between the altitude rule and leg rule? How come we cannot prove triangles ACB and CDB similar right away? Synthesis Do we notice anything about these values (in terms of the leg rule) which seems familiar? Evaluation In what scenarios will you use the altitude and leg rules? Is it possible to recreate the pythagorean theorem with evidence if needed? Practice
Guided Students work on some of the exercises on the worksheet provided. Independent
Technology Integration Use of the overhead projector with volunteers to use it as well. Not only does the projector help with legibility, but it draws interest in rather than just using the blackboard. This should not be used every time or relied upon because then it becomes monotonous. Also, use of Pythagorean theorem manipulative on http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/category_g_4_t_3.html. Closure The Pythagorean theorem, like many other formulas, is derived from something rather than nothing. Plus, the mean proportional allows a deeper understanding of right triangles rather than substituting in numbers. Has anyone seen other proofs relating to the Pythagorean theorem? How many do you think are out there? If time allows, introduce the website if there is a way to show that there are other ways to derive the same formulas. Assessment Immediate While students are working on their worksheets, observations will be made from their work and responses. Also, if I feel they are not using the lesson presented that day, simply plugging in, it gives me an inclination as to if I didn't teach them the concept to my fullest potential. No true grading will be accounted for, especially towards their final grade, but simply a check plus, check, or check minus for how their understanding of the material in my eyes. Also, students coming to see me after class or so gives me reason to believe that this student doesn't understand but still wants to learn, perhaps because of my teaching or the lesson was too fast. Long Range The homework assigned will cover the concepts more than just exercises which will allow me to see if the students understand. Also, grades for homework will already be in the students' knowledge as well as how their quiz grades will factor in. Just like homework, quizzes will cover content over procedures.
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